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Sample records for acid composition analyses

  1. Fatty acid composition analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao

    2003-04-01

    Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty acid content and composition have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1ω9) and oleic (18:1ω9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic acid (18:1ω11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.

  2. Genetic analyses and quantitative trait loci detection, using a partial genome scan, for intramuscular fatty acid composition in Scottish Blackface sheep.

    PubMed

    Karamichou, E; Richardson, R I; Nute, G R; Gibson, K P; Bishop, S C

    2006-12-01

    Genetic parameters for LM fatty acid composition were estimated in Scottish Blackface sheep, previously divergently selected for carcass lean content (LEAN and FAT lines). Furthermore, QTL were identified for the same fatty acids. Fatty acid phenotypic measurements were made on 350 male lambs, at approximately 8 mo of age, and 300 of these lambs were genotyped across candidate regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 14, 18, 20, and 21. Fatty acid composition measurements included in total 17 fatty acids of 3 categories: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Total i.m. fat content was estimated as the sum of the fatty acids. The FAT line had a greater i.m. fat content and more oleic acid, but less linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) than did the LEAN line. Saturated fatty acids were moderately heritable, ranging from 0.19 to 0.29, and total SFA were highly heritable (0.90). Monounsaturated fatty acids were moderately to highly heritable, with cis-vaccenic acid (18:1 n-7) being the most heritable (0.67), and total MUFA were highly heritable (0.73). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were also moderately to highly heritable; arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) and CLA were the most heritable, with values of 0.60 and 0.48, respectively. The total PUFA were moderately heritable (0.40). The QTL analyses were performed using regression interval mapping techniques. In total, 21 chromosome-wide QTL were detected in 6 out of 8 chromosomal regions. The chromosome-wide, significant QTL affected 3 SFA, 5 MUFA, and 13 PUFA. The most significant result was a QTL affecting linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) on chromosome 2. This QTL segregated in 2 of the 9 families and explained 37.6% of the phenotypic variance. Also, 10 significant QTL were identified on chromosome 21, where 8 out of 10 QTL were segregating in the same families and detected at the same position. The results of this study demonstrate that altering carcass fatness will simultaneously change i.m. fat

  3. Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

  4. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  5. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  6. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Analyses of moisture in polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A suitable method for the direct measurement of moisture concentrations after humidity/thermal exposure on state of the art epoxy and polyimide resins and their graphite and glass fiber reinforcements was investigated. Methods for the determination of moisture concentration profiles, moisture diffusion modeling and moisture induced chemical changes were examined. Carefully fabricated, precharacterized epoxy and polyimide neat resins and their AS graphite and S glass reinforced composites were exposed to humid conditions using heavy water (D20), at ambient and elevated temperatures. These specimens were fixtured to theoretically limit the D20 permeation to a unidirectional penetration axis. The analytical techniques evaluated were: (1) laser pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry; (2) solids probe mass spectrometry; (3) laser pyrolysis conventional infrared spectroscopy; and (4) infrared imaging thermovision. The most reproducible and sensitive technique was solids probe mass spectrometry. The fabricated exposed specimens were analyzed for D20 profiling after humidity/thermal conditioning at three exposure time durations.

  8. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  9. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  10. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  12. Fatty acid analyses may provide insight into the progression of starvation among squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-10-01

    Fasting-induced changes in fatty acid composition have been reported to occur within the body lipids of several types of animals; however, little is known about the changes in fatty acid profiles exhibited by reptiles subjected to prolonged fasting. This study characterizes the fatty acid profiles of six reptile species subjected to sublethal periods of fasting lasting 0, 56, 112, and 168 days. Analyses of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) conducted on the total body lipids of rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta), pythons (Python regius), boas (Boa constrictor), true vipers (Bitis gabonica), and monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) revealed that all of the species exhibited similar characteristic changes in their fatty acid profiles during starvation stress. According to ANOVAs, the four most effective indicators of the onset of starvation were significant increases in the [1] fatty acid unsaturation index as well as ratios of [2] linoleic to palmitoleic acid, [3] oleic to palmitic, and [4] arachidonic to total fatty acid concentrations. The results of this study suggest that FAME analyses might be useful for identifying nutritional stress and/or starvation among squamate reptiles; however, forthcoming studies will be required to validate the generality of these responses. I also review the potential limitations of this approach, and suggest experiments that will be important for future applications of FAME analyses. Ultimately, it is hoped that FAME analyses can be used in conjunction with current practices as an additional tool to characterize the prevalence of starvation experienced by free-living reptiles.

  13. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  14. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    PubMed

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  15. Gait asymmetry: composite scores for mechanical analyses of sprint running.

    PubMed

    Exell, T A; Gittoes, M J R; Irwin, G; Kerwin, D G

    2012-04-01

    Gait asymmetry analyses are beneficial from clinical, coaching and technology perspectives. Quantifying overall athlete asymmetry would be useful in allowing comparisons between participants, or between asymmetry and other factors, such as sprint running performance. The aim of this study was to develop composite kinematic and kinetic asymmetry scores to quantify athlete asymmetry during maximal speed sprint running. Eight male sprint trained athletes (age 22±5 years, mass 74.0±8.7 kg and stature 1.79±0.07 m) participated in this study. Synchronised sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected via a CODA motion analysis system, synchronised to two Kistler force plates. Bilateral, lower limb data were collected during the maximal velocity phase of sprint running (velocity=9.05±0.37 ms(-1)). Kinematic and kinetic composite asymmetry scores were developed using the previously established symmetry angle for discrete variables associated with successful sprint performance and comparisons of continuous joint power data. Unlike previous studies quantifying gait asymmetry, the scores incorporated intra-limb variability by excluding variables from the composite scores that did not display significantly larger (p<0.05) asymmetry than intra-limb variability. The variables that contributed to the composite scores and the magnitude of asymmetry observed for each measure varied on an individual participant basis. The new composite scores indicated the inter-participant differences that exist in asymmetry during sprint running and may serve to allow comparisons between overall athlete asymmetry with other important factors such as performance.

  16. Strength and dynamic characteristics analyses of wound composite axial impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jifeng; Olortegui-Yume, Jorge; Müller, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    A low cost, light weight, high performance composite material turbomachinery impeller with a uniquely designed blade patterns is analyzed. Such impellers can economically enable refrigeration plants to use water as a refrigerant (R718). A strength and dynamic characteristics analyses procedure is developed to assess the maximum stresses and natural frequencies of these wound composite axial impellers under operating loading conditions. Numerical simulation using FEM for two-dimensional and three-dimensional impellers was investigated. A commercially available software ANSYS is used for the finite element calculations. Analysis is done for different blade geometries and then suggestions are made for optimum design parameters. In order to avoid operating at resonance, which can make impellers suffer a significant reduction in the design life, the designer must calculate the natural frequency and modal shape of the impeller to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The results show that using composite Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix enables the impeller to run at high tip speed and withstand the stresses, no critical speed will be matched during start-up and shut-down, and that mass imbalances of the impeller shall not pose a critical problem.

  17. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W. Jr.; Cochran, H.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In the safe handling and processing of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), it is often desirable to calculate vapor composition and pressure from known liquid composition and temperature. Furthermore, the ability to use analyses of equilibrium vapor-phase samples to calculate liquid-phase compositions would be economically advantageous to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its international safeguards program and to uranium enrichment operators. The latter technique is projected to save the IAEA on the order of $1500 or more per sample. Either type of calculation could be performed with a multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) model if this model were shown to apply to UF{sub 6} and its common impurities. This report is concerned with the distribution of four potential impurities in UF{sub 6} between liquid and vapor phases. The impurities are carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride, chloryl fluoride, and Freon-114 (CClF{sub 2}CClF{sub 2}). There are no binary equilibrium data on the first three of these impurities; hence, the VLE calculations are based entirely on the thermodynamic properties of the pure components. There are two sets of binary equilibrium data for the system Freon-114-UF{sub 6} that are analyzed in terms of the model of Prausnitz et al. Calculations based on these data are compared with those based solely on the thermodynamic properties of pure Freon-114 and pure UF{sub 6}. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Imperfection Insensitivity Analyses of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Farrokh, Babak; Stanford, Bret K.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Two advanced composite tow-steered shells, one with tow overlaps and another without overlaps, were previously designed, fabricated and tested in end compression, both without cutouts, and with small and large cutouts. In each case, good agreement was observed between experimental buckling loads and supporting linear bifurcation buckling analyses. However, previous buckling tests and analyses have shown historically poor correlation, perhaps due to the presence of geometric imperfections that serve as failure initiators. For the tow-steered shells, their circumferential variation in axial stiffness may have suppressed this sensitivity to imperfections, leading to the agreement noted between tests and analyses. To investigate this further, a numerical investigation was performed in this study using geometric imperfections measured from both shells. Finite element models of both shells were analyzed first without, and then, with measured imperfections that were then, superposed in different orientations around the shell longitudinal axis. Small variations in both the axial prebuckling stiffness and global buckling load were observed for the range of imperfections studied here, which suggests that the tow steering, and resulting circumferentially varying axial stiffness, may result in the test-analysis correlation observed for these shells.

  19. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  20. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish. PMID:25732591

  1. Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, J; Cockburn, F; Patrick, W A; Jamieson, E C; Logan, R W

    1992-10-01

    It has not been established whether nutrition in early infancy affects subsequent neurodevelopment and function. If there is an effect, it seems probable that the essential fatty acids and their metabolites, the major constituents of brain structure, will be the most susceptible to dietary influence. We determined the phospholipid fatty-acid composition of cerebral cortex grey matter obtained from 20 term and 2 preterm infants who had died of "cot deaths" and related results to the milk diet the infants had received. Tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. The mean weight percentage of docosahexaenoic acid was significantly greater (p less than 0.02) in 5 breast-milk-fed infants (9.7%) than in 5 age-comparable formula-milk-fed infants (7.6%). In these formula-fed babies, the overall percentage of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was maintained by increased incorporation of the major n-6 series fatty acids. In 1 formula-fed preterm infant, in whom the lowest concentration of cortical docosahexaenoic acid was found, the compensatory effect was only partial with both n-9 series eicosatrienoic acid or Mead acid and docosatrienoic acid also detected in the phospholipid. Supplementation of formula milks for term infants with docosahexaenoic acid and those for preterm infants with both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid could prove beneficial to subsequent neurodevelopment.

  2. Molecular analyses of an acidic transthyretin Asn 90 variant.

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, M J; Almeida, M R; Alves, I L; Moreira, P; Gawinowicz, M; Costa, P P; Rauh, S; Banhzoff, A; Altland, K

    1991-01-01

    A mutation in transthyretin (TTR Asn 90) has been identified in the Portuguese and German populations. This variant has a lower pI and was found by screening analyses in 2/4,000 German subjects and in 4/1,200 Portuguese by using either double one-dimensional (D1-D) electrophoresis with isoelectric focusing (IEF) or hybrid isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradient (HIEF) as the final separation step. The Portuguese population sample was from the area where TTR Met 30-associated familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) prevails, and it was divided into (a) a group of 500 individuals belonging to FAP kindreds and (b) a group of 700 collected at random. HIEF showed two particular situations: (1) one case, from an FAP kindred, was simultaneously carrier of the Met 30 substitution and the acidic variant, and (2) one individual, from the randomly selected Portuguese sample, had only the acidic monomer. Comparative peptide mapping, by HPLC, of the acidic variant carriers and of normal TTR showed the presence of an abnormal tryptic peptide, not present in the normal TTR digests, with an asparagine-for-histidine substitution at position 90 explained by a single base change of adenine for cytosine in the histidine codon. This was confirmed at the DNA level by RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified material after digestion with SphI and BsmI. In all carriers of the Asn 90 substitution, no indicators were found for an association with traits characteristic for FAP. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1850190

  3. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  4. Comparative fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Chun; Lu, Bao-Ren; Tseng, C. K.

    1995-12-01

    Fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species from Qingdao and Shidao, Shandong Province was investigated. 16:0 (palmitic acid) was the major saturated fatty acid. C18 and C20 were the main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid predominated among polyenoic acids in all the algal species examined, except for Sargassum sp. which had low concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid.

  5. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  6. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  7. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  8. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  9. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1992-01-01

    The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plans of three random response research topics are discussed, namely acoustics-structure interactions using boundary/finite element methods, nonlinear vibrations of beams and composite plates under harmonic and random excitations, and numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading.

  10. Fatty acid composition of water buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Gandemer, G; Goutefongea, R; Kowale, B N

    1986-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids of Longissimus dorsi (LD), Psoas major (PM), Biceps femoris (BF), Semitendinosus (ST) muscles and liver of water buffalo male calves was determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The content of total lipids in the LD muscle was found to be maximum, followed by PM, BF and ST in decreasing order (1·03, 0·99, 0·66 and 0·55g/100g of fresh muscle). Liver contained 2·65 g of total lipids per 100 g of fresh tissue. Following the anatomical location, intramuscular lipids contained 44-55% of saturated fatty acids, of which the major components were stearic and palmitic acids. Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (31-40%) composed mainly oleic acid (90%). The PUFA contents in PM, LD, ST and BF were, respectively, 11%, 12%, 13% and 16%. The predominant PUFA were linoleic (66%) and arachidonic (25%). The significance of difference of PUFA content between muscles is discussed. Liver contained 48%, 27% and 22% saturated, monosaturated and PUFA, respectively. The PUFA in liver were linoleic (36%), C20 (47%) and C22 (9%).

  11. Amino acid analyses of R and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; McLain, Hannah; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Davidson, Jemma; Miller, Kelly E.; Andronikov, Alexander V.; Lauretta, Dante; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous delivery of amino acids and other organic molecules to planetary surfaces may have played an important role in the origins of life on Earth and other solar system bodies. Previous studies have revealed the presence of indigenous amino acids in a wide range of carbon-rich meteorites, with the abundances and structural distributions differing significantly depending on parent body mineralogy and alteration conditions. Here we report on the amino acid abundances of seven type 3-6 CK chondrites and two Rumuruti (R) chondrites. Amino acid measurements were made on hot water extracts from these meteorites by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the nine meteorites analyzed, four were depleted in amino acids, and one had experienced significant amino acid contamination by terrestrial biology. The remaining four, comprised of two R and two CK chondrites, contained low levels of amino acids that were predominantly the straight chain, amino-terminal (n-ω-amino) acids β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid. This amino acid distribution is similar to what we reported previously for thermally altered ureilites and CV and CO chondrites, and these n-ω-amino acids appear to be indigenous to the meteorites and not the result of terrestrial contamination. The amino acids may have been formed by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, although this hypothesis needs further testing.

  12. Compression Response Of Notched Composite Stiffened Panels: Analyses And Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; McGowan, David M.; Baker, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental and analytical evaluation of the compressive response of two notched composite stiffened panels representative of primary composite wing structure is presented. A three-dimensional full-field image correlation technique is used to measure the three displacement components over global and local areas of the test panels. Full-field displacement results obtained using the image correlation technique are presented and compared to experimental results and analytical results obtained using nonlinear finite element analysis. Both global and global-local image correlation results are presented and discussed.

  13. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the semiannual research progress, accomplishments, and future plans performed under the NASA Langley Research Center Grant No. NAG-1-1358. The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plates on four sonic fatigue research topics are described. The sonic fatigue design and passive control of random response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites presented in section 4, which is suited especially for HSCT, is a new initiative.

  14. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women.

  15. Factorial Analyses of Photopolymerizable Thermoresponsive Composite Hydrogels for Protein Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Abhimanyu; Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Aswath, Pranesh; Nguyen, Kytai T.

    2008-01-01

    A smart protein delivery system for wound healing applications was developed using composite nanoparticle hydrogels that can release protein in a temperature-responsive manner. This system can also be formed in situ in the presence of ultraviolet light and Irgacure 2959 photoinitiator. The system consists of temperature sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) (PNIPAM-AAm) nanoparticles embedded in a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) matrix. A factorial analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of PEGDA concentration (10% and 15% w/v) and PEGDA molecular weight (3.4 kDa and 8 kDa), as well as PNIPAM-AAm nanoparticle concentration (2% and 4% w/v) and temperature (23°C and 40°C) on the protein release profiles and swelling ratios of the hydrogels. Results indicate PNIPAM-AAm nanoparticle concentration and temperature were the most important factors affecting the protein release during the burst release phase. Additionally, PEGDA molecular weight was the most important factor affecting the protein release in the plateau region. It was also an important factor that controlled the hydrogel swelling ratio. A dual layered hydrogel was further developed to produce a protein delivery system with a better sustained release. These findings have improved our understanding of the composite hydrogel systems and will help in tailoring future systems with desired release profiles. PMID:19231314

  16. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  17. GLC analysis of Indian rapeseed-mustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Agnihotri, A

    2000-12-01

    Rapeseed-mustard is one of the most economically important oilseed crops in India. Speciality oils having high amounts of a specific fatty acid are of immense importance for both nutritional and industrial purposes. Oil high in oleic acid has demand in commercial food-service applications due to a long shelf-life and cholesterol-reducing properties. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; however, less than 3% linolenic acid is preferred for oil stability. High erucic acid content is beneficial for the polymer industry, whereas low erucic acid is recommended for food purposes. Therefore, it is important to undertake systematic characterization of the available gene pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes. In the present study the Indian rapeseed-mustard germplasm and some newly developed low-erucic-acid strains were analysed by GLC to study the fatty acid composition in these lines. The GLC analysis revealed that the rapeseed-mustard varieties being commonly grown in India are characterized by high erucic acid content (30-51%) in the oil with low levels of oleic acid (13-23%). However, from among the recently developed low-erucic-acid strains, several lines were identified with comparatively high oleic acid (60-70%), moderate to high linoleic acid (13-40%) and low linolenic acid (< 10%) contents. Work is in progress at TERI (New Delhi, India) to utilize these lines for development of strains with particular fatty acid compositions for specific purposes.

  18. Discrimination of prey species of juvenile swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758) using signature fatty acid analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jock W.; Guest, Michaela A.; Lansdell, Matt; Phleger, Charles F.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2010-07-01

    Signature lipid and fatty acid analysis were used to discriminate the diet of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, orbital fork length: 60-203 cm) from waters off eastern Australia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of a range of known prey (squid, myctophids, and other fishes) of swordfish, taken from stomach samples and from net tows, was compared with that of the white muscle tissue (WMT) of swordfish from the same region. Swordfish muscle was lipid rich (average 24-42% dry weight), as was the skeleton (28-41%). The robustness of the approach was also tested by comparison against a key squid prey species that was collected and stored using different protocols: (i) fresh frozen, (ii) fresh frozen, then thawed, and (iii) stomach content collection. The FA profiles were generally similar, with the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and palmitic acid (16:0) in particular showing no significant difference. Major fatty acids in swordfish WMT were 18:1ω9c, 16:0, 22:6ω3, and 18:0. Multidimensional scaling showed that the swordfish WMT grouped closely with small fish prey including myctophids, and not with squid. Squid contained markedly higher 22:6ω3 than swordfish. Individual prey species of the myctophidae could also be separated by the same technique. These results were supported by traditional stomach content analyses (SCA) that showed fish were the dominant prey for small swordfish sampled from southern waters whereas squid were the main prey in more northern waters, matching the FA patterns we found for the two regions. We propose that where general diet patterns are established, signature FA analysis has good potential to compliment or in some cases, replace temporal and spatial monitoring of trophic pathways for swordfish and other marine species.

  19. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  20. Characterization of sources for southern African aerosols through fatty acid and trajectory analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billmark, Kaycie A.; Swap, Robert J.; Macko, Stephen A.

    2003-07-01

    Biogeochemical cycles in southern Africa are affected by emissions from extensive biomass burning. Emitted trace gases and aerosols frequently accumulate and recirculate in the well-defined synoptic pattern that persists for long time periods over southern Africa. The role of organic aerosols during atmospheric transport and the influence of neighboring air masses on biogeochemical dynamics in this nutrient-limited region are insufficiently studied. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) was conducted in part to investigate the impacts of this large-scale transport and deposition of increasingly anthropogenic emissions on southern African biogeochemical cycling. This study explores the understanding of regional atmospheric transport through the identification of chemical biomarkers to describe aerosols collected during the SAFARI 2000 dry season research campaign. Total suspended particulate aerosol samples were collected diurnally for a period of two weeks in Mongu, Zambia. Mongu is bordered by the Zambezi River on the west and the Miombo woodland savanna in all other directions. It also lies on the northern extent of the Kalahari Desert. This region is characterized by high biomass burning emissions of river floodplain grasses and woodland savanna during the dry season. Fatty acids were extracted from the collected aerosols and analyzed using gas chromatography. The resultant fatty acid compositions were examined for temporal patterns and trends. Furthermore, these results were compared to both synoptic meteorological patterns over the region, as well as to modeled air parcel trajectories, to gain insight into changes in aerosol composition resulting from changes in atmospheric transports from regions of different vegetation. The results of these analyses confirm that abundances of fatty acids are dependent on local and synoptic meteorology and can thus be used as an additional geochemical tracer to better describe aerosol sources and

  1. Adaptive amino acid composition in collagens of parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2015-04-01

    Amino acid composition was analyzed in the glycine-rich repeat region of 306 collagens belonging to three major families of collagens from both parasitic and free-living nematodes. The collagens of parasitic species showed a tendency toward decreased usage of the hydrophilic residues A, D, and Q and increased usage of the hydrophobic resides I, L, and M; and this trend was seen in parasitic species of both the order Rhabdita and the order Spirurida. The amino acid composition of collagens of parasitic Rhabdita thus tended to resemble those of Spirurida more than that of free-living Rhabdita, suggesting an association between amino acid composition and a parasitic lifestyle. Computer predictions suggested that the more hydrophobic amino acid composition was associated with a reduction of the propensity towards B-cell epitope formation, suggesting that evasion of host immune responses may be a major selective factor responsible for the parasite-specific trend in collagen amino acid composition.

  2. Sequential multiple analyses of atmospheric nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Hato, Yuki; Mori, Kotaro; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Namihira, Takao

    2007-03-15

    Sequential injection analysis (SIA) was applied to multi-gas monitoring for atmospheric analysis. HONO, NO(2) or NO was collected in an individual diffusion scrubber in which the channel array was filled with either HCl or triethanolamine solution. All analytes were collected in the form of nitrite ions in the scrubber, and were transferred via a 12-port selection valve into a 2.5-ml syringe. The reagent, 3-amino-1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (C-acid) solution was subsequently introduced into the syringe, and inter-mixed with the nitrite sample, whereafter the mixed solution was transferred to a heated reactor and held for 3min at 100 degrees C. After that, the sample/reagent solution was returned to the syringe and alkalinized. Then, the final solution was analyzed using a homemade fluorescence detector. Atmospheric HONO, NO(2) and NO were successfully monitored 3 or 4times/h. The limits of detection were 0.22, 0.28 and 0.35ppbv for HONO, NO(2) and NO, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that SIA is a good tool for multi-gas atmospheric analysis. These nitrogen-oxygen compounds are interconvertible, and the simultaneous measurement of these gases is important. Especially, HONO is a source of OH radicals which contribute greatly to atmospheric pollution, and indeed atmospheric chemistry. This method allows the three gases to be measured using one system. The NO(2) and NO data obtained by SIA was compared with those obtained using chemiluminescence instrument. SIA has been successfully applied to atmospheric measurements. Interestingly, it was observed that HONO levels rose toward the end of periods of rain.

  3. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  4. Organic Analysis in the Miller Range 090657 CR2 Chondrite: Part 2 Amino Acid Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Cao, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Messenger, S.; Clemett, S. J.; Aponte, J. C.; Elsila, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of organic material, ranging from soluble discrete molecules to insoluble, unstructured kerogen-like components, as well as structured nano-globules of macromolecular carbon. The relationship between the soluble organic molecules, macromolecular organic material, and host minerals are poorly understood. Due to the differences in extractability of soluble and insoluble organic materials, the analysis methods for each differ and are often performed independently. The combination of soluble and insoluble analyses, when performed concurrently, can provide a wider understanding of spatial distribution, and elemental, structural and isotopic composition of organic material in primitive meteorites. Using macroscale extraction and analysis techniques in combination with in situ microscale observation, we have been studying both insoluble and soluble organic material in the primitive CR2 chondrite Miller Range (MIL) 090657. In accompanying abstracts (Cao et al. and Messenger et al.) we discuss insoluble organic material in the samples. By performing the consortium studies, we aim to improve our understanding of the relationship between the meteorite minerals and the soluble and insoluble organic phases and to delineate which species formed within the meteorite and those that formed in nebular or presolar environments. In this abstract, we present the results of amino acid analyses of MIL 090657 by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Amino acids are of interest because they are essential to life on Earth, and because they are present in sufficient structural, enantiomeric and isotopic diversity to allow insights into early solar system chemical processes. Furthermore, these are among the most isotopically anomalous species, yet at least some fraction are thought to have formed by aqueously-mediated processes during parent body alteration.

  5. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant.

  6. Quality assessment of Iberian pigs through backfat ultrasound characterization and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Niñoles, L; Clemente, G; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2007-05-01

    Five batches of Iberian pig backfat of different breeds and with differing feeding regimes were analysed as to their fatty acid composition and textural, thermal and ultrasonic properties. The feeding regime affected the backfat composition more than the breed of the animals. The higher the oleic acid content in the feeding regime, the higher the monounsaturated fatty acid content in the samples. Ultrasonic velocities ranged from 1609 to 1631m/s. A change in the slope of the velocity versus temperature curve was found at 6°C, coincident with a change in the melting rate found in the differential scanning calorimetry. Discriminant analysis using ultrasonic measurements allowed 94.7% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches considered, while the use of the fatty acids composition correctly classified 86.2% of the samples. Therefore, ultrasonic techniques could be useful in the characterization and classification of backfat samples from Iberian pigs.

  7. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with semen quality. In addition, the composition of fatty acids of spermatozoa has been shown to be important for their function. The aim of the study was to examine the association between BMI and the composition of spermatozoa fatty acids in men spanning a broad BMI range. We also analysed the relation between fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and semen characteristics, and the relationship between serum fatty acids and spermatozoa fatty acids. One hundred forty-four men with unknown fertility status were recruited from the general population, from couples with identified female infertility and from morbid obesity centres. Standard semen analysis (WHO) and sperm DNA integrity (DFI) analysis were performed. Fatty acid compositions were assessed by gas chromatography. When adjusted for possible confounders, BMI was negatively associated with levels of sperm docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p < 0.001) and palmitic acid (p < 0.001). The amount of sperm DHA correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.482), sperm concentration (r = 0.469), sperm vitality (r = 0.354), progressive sperm motility (r = 0.431) and normal sperm morphology (r = 0.265). A negative association was seen between DHA levels and DNA fragmentation index (r = -0.247). Levels of spermatozoa palmitic acid correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.227), while levels of linoleic acid correlated negatively (r = -0.254). When adjusted for possible confounders, only the levels of arachidonic acid showed positive correlation between spermatozoa and serum phospholipids (r = 0.262). Changes in the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa could be one of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between BMI and semen quality. The relationship between fatty acids of spermatozoa and serum phospholipids was minor, which indicates that BMI affects fatty acid composition of spermatozoa through regulation of fatty acid

  8. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2010-07-14

    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p < 0.001) between rape, flax, and poppy oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p < 0.01). The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of rape oil differed between cultivars (p < 0.05). Major differences in the individual delta(13)C(FA) values were found. A plant-specific carbon isotope fractionation occurs during the biosynthesis of the fatty acids and particularly during desaturation of C(18) acids in rape and flax. Bulk oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  9. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  10. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  11. [Study on ionic composition of rainwater at Guangzhou and the primary factors of rainwater acidity].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-feng; Song, Zhi-guang; Xu, Tao

    2006-10-01

    All rainwater samples were collected during the period Oct. 2003 to Sep. 2004 and analysed in terms of pH values, major cation, anion composition and soluble organic carbon (DOC). The measurement of pH values shows that 85% of these rain events were acid rain. The ionic composition analysis indicates that NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+ and Ca2+ are dominant ions in the rainwater. DOC approximately consisted of 24.0% of total chemical components. Although SO4(2-) remains the dominant acidic ion in term of concentration, NO3- has become very important to the acidity of rainwater and as well as the organic acids. Furthermore, dust sourced Ca2+ appears to play significant role in neutralizing the acidity in rainwater.

  12. Advances in Food Composition Tables of Japan--Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Available Carbohydrate Tables.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The new revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2015) will be published in 2015. The aim of the present paper is to share information on issues we have encountered during the revision. New analytical data on amino acid composition will be provided for approximately 230 foods, fatty acid composition for approximately 140 foods, and available carbohydrate (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) composition for approximately 340 foods. These data will be published separately as three supplements to the STFCJ 2015: amino acid tables, fatty acid tables, and available carbohydrate tables. Available carbohydrate tables will also provide polyol (sorbitol and mannitol) and organic acid (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, etc.) data. In the supplements, amino acid content will be adjusted for protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by a nitrogen to protein conversion factor, and fatty acid content adjusted for extractable lipid content, as in previous revisions. Available carbohydrate content, however, will be adjusted for water content. Values of protein content calculated as the sum of amino acid residues , lipid content expressed as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids , and available carbohydrate content will appear in the main tables of the STFCJ 2015. Protein, fat and available carbohydrate contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of FAO were applied instead of the acceptable methods. Online publication of Japanese and English versions of these tables, reference materials, and a retrievable food composition database is planned. PMID:26598876

  13. Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Karpova, I.V.; Titova, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of freshly produced acid tars and pond tars, gives an analysis of the acid part of the tars, and obtains data on the change in composition of the acid tar in the course of storage--data that are needed in developing methods for utilizing the tar. The acid-pond tars consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons with a very low content of acids, whereas the freshly produced acid tars consist mainly of sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids, and carboxylic acids. In the course of storage, hardening of acid tars in the volume proceeds through reactions of polymerization, condensation, and oxidation of the surface layer that is in contact with air.

  14. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  15. Effect of the fatty acid composition of acclimated oenological Lactobacillus plantarum on the resistance to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L; Tymczyszyn, E E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes due to acclimation to ethanol on the fatty acid composition of three oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains and their effect on the resistance to ethanol and malic acid consumption (MAC). Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 133, UNQLp 65.3 and UNQLp 155 were acclimated in the presence of 6 or 10% v/v ethanol, for 48 h at 28°C. Lipids were extracted to obtain fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy. The influence of change in fatty acid composition on the viability and MAC in synthetic wine was analysed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient. Acclimated strains showed a significant change in the fatty composition with regard to the nonacclimated strains. Adaptation to ethanol led to a decrease in the unsaturated/saturated ratio, mainly resulting from an increase in the contribution of short-length fatty acid C12:0 and a decrease of C18:1. The content of C12:0 was related to a higher viability after inoculation of synthetic wine. The MAC increased at higher contents in saturated fatty acid, but its efficiency was strain dependent.

  16. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  17. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  18. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-01-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and γ-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

  19. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions.

  20. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Multiscale stress and damage initiation analyses of graphite fiber/polyimide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnowski, Przemyslaw

    This work focuses on multi-scale stress and damage initiation analyses of unidirectional and woven graphite/polyimide composites subjected to mechanical, thermal and aging loads. The macro, meso and micro scales representing respectively a specimen, woven fabric and fiber/matrix levels were investigated using both analytical and numerical methods. The Eshelby/Mori-Tanaka and finite element models based on the concept of a unit-cell were utilized to model visco-elastic and elasto-plastic effects in the unidirectional and woven systems both at room and elevated temperatures. To determine the properties of graphite fibers the analyses were performed from macro to micro scale, whereas in order to predict the composites response a reversed micro to macro approach was employed. Both mechanical and resonance testing results were used as input macro data for the fiber properties analysis. It was shown that using the proposed technique the elastic and thermal properties of T650, M40J and M60J graphite fibers can be determined from the macro data for the unidirectional and woven composites. Next, based on the fiber and neat resin data, the effective macro behavior of the T650/PMR-15 unidirectional and woven composites was predicted as a function of temperature. The predictions were subsequently compared with the available experimental results. The computations of the meso and micro stresses in the woven systems were conducted and the most critical combination of in-plane mechanical loads was determined. The analyses also revealed the difference between the micro stress states in the composite subjected to the Iosipescu and +/-45° shear tests. Finally, the long term relaxation modulus for PMR-15 resin was measured and simulation of aging at 315° in nitrogen was performed for the woven 8HS T650/PMR-15 composite.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  4. Fatty-Acid Composition of Seeds and Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Sixteen Sapindaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Diogenes J Gusmão; Barbosa, Mariana O; Silva, Rejane M; da Silva, Suzene I; de Oliveira, Antonio Fernando M

    2015-08-01

    Circumscriptions for the Sapindaceae family and its infrafamilial relationships have been widely discussed. Certain groups are highly morphologically similar; thus, it is difficult to identify certain taxa. DNA Analyses have also indicated complex phylogenetic relationships, and it is difficult to relate such analyses to morphological data. Given the above concerns, this study aimed to investigate the fatty-acid profiles of the seed oils of 16 Sapindaceae species belonging to five tribes and to evaluate their potential chemotaxonomic significance. In total, eleven fatty acids were identified, and eicosenoic acid predominated in nine species. Multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) of the fatty-acid profiles of the seed oils allowed to separate them in two major clusters. The first cluster, characterized by oils with high eicosenoic acid levels, included all species belonging to the Paullinieae tribe (Cardiospermum, Paullinia, and Serjania species). In the second main cluster, the chemical similarity of the oils was lower, and the species belonged to different tribes. Nevertheless, the tree investigated Allophylus species (Thouinieae tribe) constituted a separate subcluster. Thus, the results showed that the fatty-acid composition of the seed oils of Sapindaceae species provide chemotaxonomic support for the separation of the Paullinieae tribe from the other tribes studied. PMID:26265579

  5. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  6. Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Yarandi, Shadi S.; Zhao, Vivian M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Recent findings Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Summary Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:21076291

  7. Influence of fatty acid composition on chemical changes in blends of sunflower oils during thermoxidation and frying.

    PubMed

    Marmesat, Susana; Morales, Arturo; Velasco, Joaquín; Carmen Dobarganes, M

    2012-12-15

    The influence of fatty acid composition on formation of new compounds at frying temperatures has been studied in seven samples of sunflower oils widely differing in their fatty acid composition. Thermal oxidation assays as well as frying experiments were carried out and samples were evaluated by measuring the new compounds formed, i.e. polymers, polar compounds and their distribution by molecular weight, and polar fatty acids and their distribution by molecular weight. The levels of all the new compounds analysed strongly depended on the degree of oil unsaturation; the two least unsaturated oils with low content of linoleic acid and high content of palmitic acid behaved exceptionally well. When considering polar compounds or polar fatty acids, the polymers/oxidised monomers ratio increased significantly as the level of degradation increased. The new compounds formed are practically identical when analysed in the used frying oils or in the lipids extracted from the counterpart fried potatoes, independently of the level of degradation. PMID:22980810

  8. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Davison, F D; Mackenzie, D W; Owen, R J

    1980-06-01

    DNA was extracted and purified from 55 dermatophyte isolates representing 34 species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. The base compositions of the chromosomal DNA were determined by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and were found to be in the narrow range of 48.7 to 50.3 mol % G + C. A satellite DNA component assumed to be of mitochondrial origin was present in most strains, with a G + C content ranging from 14.7 to 30.8 mol % G + C. Heterogeneity in microscopic and colonial characteristics was not reflected in differences in the mean G + C content of the chromosomal DNAs. Strains varied in the G + C contents of satelite DNA, but these did not correlate with traditional species concepts.

  9. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C.; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI≥40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r≥0.95,P<0.001 for FFM, FM and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P<0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P<0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P<0.001), and 37% and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P<0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P<0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P<0.05 for all). Conclusions Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. PMID:24170704

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp) of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata) was sequenced. All protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from the same strand. Flustra shares long intergenic sequences with the cheilostomate ectoproct Bugula, which might be a synapomorphy of these taxa. Further synapomorphies might be the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA L(UUR), the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA S(UCN) and the unique anticodon sequence GAG of the tRNA L(CUN). The gene order of the mitochondrial genome of Flustra differs strongly from that of the other known ectoprocts. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial nucleotide and amino acid data sets show that the lophophorate lineages are more closely related to trochozoan phyla than to deuterostomes or ecdysozoans confirming the Lophotrochozoa hypothesis. Furthermore, they support the monophyly of Cheilostomata and Ectoprocta. However, the relationships of the lophophorate lineages within Lophotrochozoa differ strongly depending on the data set and the used method. Different approaches for reducing heterogeneity in nucleotide and amino acid data sets and saturation did not result in a more robust resolution of lophotrochozoan relationships. Conclusion The contradictory and usually weakly supported phylogenetic

  11. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method.

  12. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  13. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable. PMID:24803696

  14. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD).

  15. Translating plasma and whole blood fatty acid compositional data into the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Stark, Ken D; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Metherel, Adam H; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specific blood levels of eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, wt% of total) in erythrocytes or "the omega-3 index" have been recommended for cardio-protection, but fatty acids are often measured in different blood fractions. The ability to estimate the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from the fatty acid composition of other blood fractions would enable clinical assessments of omega-3 status when erythrocyte fractions are not available and increase the ability to compare blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids across clinical studies. The fatty acid composition of baseline plasma, erythrocytes and whole blood samples from participants (n=1104) in a prospective, multicenter study examining acute coronary syndrome were determined. The ability to predict the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from other blood fractions were examined using bivariate and multiple linear regression modelling. Concordance analysis was also used to compare the actual erythrocytes EPA+DHA values to values estimated from other blood fractions. EPA+DHA in erythrocytes was significantly (p<0.001) correlated EPA+DHA in plasma (r(2)=0.54) and whole blood (r(2)=0.79). Using multiple linear regression to predict EPA+DHA in erythrocytes resulted in stronger coefficients of determination in both plasma (R(2)=0.70) and whole blood (R(2)=0.84). Concordance analyses indicated agreement between actual and estimated EPA+DHA in erythrocytes, although estimating from plasma fatty acids appears to require translation by categorization rather than by translation as continuous data. This study shows that the fatty acid composition of different blood fractions can be used to estimate erythrocyte EPA+DHA in a population with acute coronary syndrome.

  16. Nitrogen-Deprivation Elevates Lipid Levels in Symbiodinium spp. by Lipid Droplet Accumulation: Morphological and Compositional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  17. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  18. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  19. Surface analyses of composites exposed to the space environment on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, Joseph J.; Uht, Joseph C.; Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted a series of surface analyses on carbon fiber/polyarylacetylene matrix composites that were exposed to the space environment on the LDEF satellite. None of the composites were catastrophically damaged by nearly six years of exposure to the space environment. Composites on the leading edge exhibited about 5 mils of surface erosion, but trailing edge panels exhibited no physical appearance changes due to exposure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show that the erosion morphology on the leading edge samples was dominated by crevasses parallel to the fibers with triangular cross sections 10 to 100 microns in depth. The edges of the crevasses were well defined and penetrated through both matrix and fiber. The data suggest that the carbon fibers are playing a significant role in crevasse initiation and/or enlargement, and in the overall erosion rate of the composite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results showed the presence of silicone and hydrocarbon contamination from in-flight sources. The role of contamination in crevasse initiation and enlargement is unknown at this time. These LDEF results demonstrate that the prediction of long term atomic oxygen erosion morphology for composite materials from erosion data obtained on short Space Shuttle missions is difficult. A better understanding of other factors such as thermal cycling and UV exposure which may influence erosion is necessary to improve the accuracy of the predictions.

  20. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  1. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  2. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  3. VOC composition of current motor vehicle fuels and vapors, and collinearity analyses for receptor modeling

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of motor vehicle fuels can alter the magnitude and composition of evaporative and exhaust emissions occurring throughout the fuel cycle. Information regarding the volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of motor fuels other than gasoline is scarce, especially for bioethanol and bio-diesel blends. This study examines the liquid and vapor (headspace) composition of four contemporary and commercially available fuels: gasoline (<10% ethanol), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and B20 (20% soy-biodiesel and 80% ULSD). The composition of gasoline and E85 in both neat fuel and headspace vapor was dominated by aromatics and n-heptane. Despite its low gasoline content, E85 vapor contained higher concentrations of several VOCs than those in gasoline vapor, likely due to adjustments in its formulation. Temperature changes produced greater changes in the partial pressures of 17 VOCs in E85 than in gasoline, and large shifts in the VOC composition. B20 and ULSD were dominated by C9 to C16 n-alkanes and low levels of the aromatics, and the two fuels had similar headspace vapor composition and concentrations. While the headspace composition predicted using vapor–liquid equilibrium theory was closely correlated to measurements, E85 vapor concentrations were underpredicted. Based on variance decomposition analyses, gasoline and diesel fuels and their vapors VOC were distinct, but B20 and ULSD fuels and vapors were highly collinear. These results can be used to estimate fuel related emissions and exposures, particularly in receptor models that apportion emission sources, and the collinearity analysis suggests that gasoline- and diesel-related emissions can be distinguished. PMID:22154341

  4. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  5. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ~2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ~3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ~3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP~4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  6. Global Trophic Position Comparison of Two Dominant Mesopelagic Fish Families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) Using Amino Acid Nitrogen Isotopic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ∼2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ∼3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ∼3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP∼4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure. PMID:23209656

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  8. Analyses of Arabidopsis ecotypes reveal metabolic diversity to convert D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gördes, Dirk; Koch, Grit; Thurow, Kerstin; Kolukisaoglu, Uner

    2013-01-01

    For a long time D-enantiomers of proteinogenic L-amino acids were assumed to be physiologically irrelevant for plants. But there is growing evidence that D-amino acids (D-AAs) also fulfil important physiological functions in these organisms. However, the knowledge about the metabolic fate of D-AAs in plants is still scarce and more information about it is needed. To close this gap we established an optimized protocol for the processing and analysis of D- and L-AAs from large numbers of Arabidopsis lines. This included the application of 18 different D-AAs to seedlings, the extraction of free amino acids from the samples and the determination of 16 L-AAs and their corresponding D-enantiomers. To validate our approach we searched for genetic accessions with aberrant amino acid metabolism. Therefore we applied D-AAs on 17 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed their free amino acid contents. These analyses confirmed the suitability of the system for the analysis of large sets of plant samples with enhanced velocity and improved accuracy. Furthermore, the resulting data led to the definition of standard amino acid profiles in response to D-AAs of Arabidopsis seedlings. Within these analyses the ecotype Landsberg erecta was found with aberrant metabolic patterns like drastically reduced capabilities to convert different D-AAs to D-alanine and D-glutamate. The presented experimental setup and results of this study offer starting points to dissect the metabolic pathway of D-AAs in plants.

  9. Method of preparing and using and composition for acidizing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-08-21

    A composition and method of acidizing or fracturing a subterranean formation comprises contacting the formation with a composition comprising an acid, urea, and a selected gelling agent. The urea is present in an amount sufficient to extend the viscous stability of the gelled acid composition in comparison to the acid and gelling agent alone.

  10. The Effect of Scale Dependent Discretization on the Progressive Failure of Composite Materials Using Multiscale Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    A multiscale modeling methodology, which incorporates a statistical distribution of fiber strengths into coupled micromechanics/ finite element analyses, is applied to unidirectional polymer matrix composites (PMCs) to analyze the effect of mesh discretization both at the micro- and macroscales on the predicted ultimate tensile (UTS) strength and failure behavior. The NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver were used to analyze the progressive failure of a PMC tensile specimen that initiates at the repeating unit cell (RUC) level. Three different finite element mesh densities were employed and each coupled with an appropriate RUC. Multiple simulations were performed in order to assess the effect of a statistical distribution of fiber strengths on the bulk composite failure and predicted strength. The coupled effects of both the micro- and macroscale discretizations were found to have a noticeable effect on the predicted UTS and computational efficiency of the simulations.

  11. Damage Model and Progressive Failure Analyses for Filament Wound Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Leite; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei

    2013-10-01

    Recent improvements in manufacturing processes and materials properties associated with excellent mechanical characteristics and low weight have made composite materials very attractive for application on civil aircraft structures. However, even new designs are still very conservative, because the composite failure phenomenon is very complex. Several failure criteria and theories have been developed to describe the damage process and how it evolves, but the solution of the problem is still open. Moreover, modern filament winding techniques have been used to produce a wide variety of structural shapes not only cylindrical parts, but also “flat” laminates. Therefore, this work presents the development of a damage model and its application to simulate the progressive failure of flat composite laminates made using a filament winding process. The damage model was implemented as a UMAT (User Material Subroutine), in ABAQUSTM Finite Element (FE) framework. Progressive failure analyses were carried out using FE simulation in order to simulate the failure of flat filament wound composite structures under different loading conditions. In addition, experimental tests were performed in order to identify parameters related to the material model, as well as to evaluate both the potential and the limitations of the model. The difference between numerical and the average experimental results in a four point bending set-up is only 1.6 % at maximum load amplitude. Another important issue is that the model parameters are not so complicated to be identified. This characteristic makes this model very attractive to be applied in an industrial environment.

  12. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  13. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  14. Isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra; Yuen, George U.

    1992-01-01

    The monocarboxylic acids and hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite (CM2) were isolated for isotropic analysis. The nonvolatile hydrocarbons were analyzed as crude methanol and benzene-methanol extracts and also after separation by silica gel chromatography into predominantly aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbon fractions. The volatile hydrocarbons were obtained after progressive decomposition of the meteorite matrix by freeze-thaw, hot water, and acid treatment. Molecular analyses of the aromatic hydrocarbons showed them to comprise a complex suite of compounds in which pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene were the most abundant components, a result similar to earlier analyses. The polar hydrocarbons also comprise a very complex mixture in which aromatic ketones, nitrogen, and sulfur heterocycles were identified. The monocarboxylic acids, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbons, and the indigenous volatile hydrocarbons were found to be D-rich. The deuterium enrichment observed in these compounds is suggestive. In two separate analyses, the delta-D values of the nonvolatile hydrocarbons were observed to increase in the following order: aliphatic-aromatic-polar. This finding is consistent with an early solar system or parent body conversion of aromatic to aliphatic compounds as well as the suggestion of pyrolytic formation of aromatic from aliphatic compounds.

  15. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of amino acid and nucleotide composition in eukaryotic genomes, comparing genes and pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Echols, Nathaniel; Harrison, Paul; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Bertone, Paul; Zhang, Zhaolei; Gerstein, Mark

    2002-06-01

    Based on searches for disabled homologs to known proteins, we have identified a large population of pseudogenes in four sequenced eukaryotic genomes-the worm, yeast, fly and human (chromosomes 21 and 22 only). Each of our nearly 2500 pseudogenes is characterized by one or more disablements mid-domain, such as premature stops and frameshifts. Here, we perform a comprehensive survey of the amino acid and nucleotide composition of these pseudogenes in comparison to that of functional genes and intergenic DNA. We show that pseudogenes invariably have an amino acid composition intermediate between genes and translated intergenic DNA. Although the degree of intermediacy varies among the four organisms, in all cases, it is most evident for amino acid types that differ most in occurrence between genes and intergenic regions. The same intermediacy also applies to codon frequencies, especially in the worm and human. Moreover, the intermediate composition of pseudogenes applies even though the composition of the genes in the four organisms is markedly different, showing a strong correlation with the overall A/T content of the genomic sequence. Pseudogenes can be divided into 'ancient' and 'modern' subsets, based on the level of sequence identity with their closest matching homolog (within the same genome). Modern pseudogenes usually have a much closer sequence composition to genes than ancient pseudogenes. Collectively, our results indicate that the composition of pseudogenes that are under no selective constraints progressively drifts from that of coding DNA towards non-coding DNA. Therefore, we propose that the degree to which pseudogenes approach a random sequence composition may be useful in dating different sets of pseudogenes, as well as to assess the rate at which intergenic DNA accumulates mutations. Our compositional analyses with the interactive viewer are available over the web at http://genecensus.org/pseudogene.

  17. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  18. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  19. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A

    1967-11-01

    A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.

  20. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  1. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents.

    PubMed

    Pehowich, D J; Gomes, A V; Barnes, J A

    2000-06-01

    The link between excessive consumption of dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease (CHD) is now well established. Because of its high content of saturated fatty acids, the consumption of foods containing coconut oil may therefore be a risk factor for CHD. While the fatty acid composition of coconut oil is well established, relatively little is known about the other constituents of coconut: the milk, water, cream and meat fractions. In this study, we show that while the water fraction is low in lipid content, the milk contains about 24% of the fat content of oil and the cream and meat fractions about 34%. The other coconut constituents contain significant amounts of medium-chain triglycerides that are formed from fatty acids of chain length 8:0 to 14:0. It is these fatty acids, primarily 14:0, that are thought to be atherogenic. On the other hand, medium-chain triglycerides may be advantageous under some circumstances in that they are absorbed intact and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes. As a result, medium-chain triglycerides provide a ready source of energy and may be useful in baby foods or in diet therapy. Nevertheless, the possible negative effects of the saturated fatty acids and the absence of the essential fatty acid linolenic acid from all coconut constituents suggest that the coconut milk, oil and cream should not be used on a regular basis in adults. PMID:10948851

  2. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents.

    PubMed

    Pehowich, D J; Gomes, A V; Barnes, J A

    2000-06-01

    The link between excessive consumption of dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease (CHD) is now well established. Because of its high content of saturated fatty acids, the consumption of foods containing coconut oil may therefore be a risk factor for CHD. While the fatty acid composition of coconut oil is well established, relatively little is known about the other constituents of coconut: the milk, water, cream and meat fractions. In this study, we show that while the water fraction is low in lipid content, the milk contains about 24% of the fat content of oil and the cream and meat fractions about 34%. The other coconut constituents contain significant amounts of medium-chain triglycerides that are formed from fatty acids of chain length 8:0 to 14:0. It is these fatty acids, primarily 14:0, that are thought to be atherogenic. On the other hand, medium-chain triglycerides may be advantageous under some circumstances in that they are absorbed intact and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes. As a result, medium-chain triglycerides provide a ready source of energy and may be useful in baby foods or in diet therapy. Nevertheless, the possible negative effects of the saturated fatty acids and the absence of the essential fatty acid linolenic acid from all coconut constituents suggest that the coconut milk, oil and cream should not be used on a regular basis in adults.

  3. Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péron, Sandrine; Moreira, Manuel; Colin, Aurélia; Arbaret, Laurent; Putlitz, Benita; Kurz, Mark D.

    2016-09-01

    The origin of volatiles on Earth is still a matter of debate. Noble gases are an efficient geochemical tool to constrain Earth formation processes due to their inertness. Several studies have focused on the neon isotopic composition of the lower mantle because the 20Ne/22Ne ratio is thought to reflect that of Earth's primordial components. Two models to explain the origin of light noble gases on Earth have been proposed: either solar wind implantation onto the Earth's solid precursors or dissolution into the mantle of a primordial atmosphere captured from solar nebula gas. In order to test these two models, we analyzed the noble gas compositions (helium, neon and argon) of two submarine oceanic island basalt glasses from Fernandina volcano (Galápagos archipelago), which have among the most primitive/unradiogenic terrestrial helium and neon isotopic compositions. Several sample pieces are studied both by step-crushing and by laser ablation analyses of single vesicles. Results of step-crushing are consistent with those of laser ablation analyses, but the latter results provide new insights into the origin of atmospheric contamination. The single-vesicle laser-ablation measurements overlap with the step crushing results, but have systematically higher 40Ar/36Ar, and 3He/36Ar, suggesting less atmospheric contamination using this method. The single vesicle data therefore suggest that atmospheric contamination is introduced by exposure to the modern atmosphere, after sample collection. 3He/4He values are about 23 times the atmospheric ratio (R/Ra) for the two Fernandina (Galápagos) samples, in agreement with previous studies. We obtain 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar isotopic ratios as high as 12.91 and 9400, respectively, for the mantle source of the Galápagos hotspot. The new data show that step-crushing and laser ablation analyses are complementary methods that should be used together to derive the noble gas ratios in uncontaminated samples. The results of neon

  4. Determination of antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids, and fatty acid composition of rapeseed varieties.

    PubMed

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Trokowski, Konrad; Karlovits, György; Szłyk, Edward

    2010-07-14

    Three different analytical methods: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were used for determination of antioxidant capacity of seven rapeseed varieties. Antioxidant capacity and levels of the total phenolic content, individual phenolic acids, fatty acid composition, and the selected physicochemical properties of the studied rapeseed cultivars were determined. Mean ORAC values for methanolic extracts of rapeseeds (4092-12989 mmol of Trolox/100 g) were significantly higher than FRAP and DPPH values (6218-7641 and 6238-7645 mumol of Trolox/100 g, respectively). Although FRAP and DPPH results were lower than ORAC values for all studied rapeseed varieties, there are linear and significant correlations between these three analytical methods (correlation coefficients ranged between 0.9124 and 0.9930, p < 0.005). Also, total phenolic compounds in rapeseeds correlated with antioxidant capacity (correlation coefficients ranged between 0.8708 and 0.9516, p < 0.01). Total phenolic acids determined by HPLC varied from 20.3 mg to 40.7 mg per 100 g of rapeseed flour, and the main phenolic acid is sinapic acid (17.4-36.4 mg/100 g). Fatty acid composition (SAFA = 7.2-8.6%, MUFA = 58.5-68.0%, PUFA = 24.7-33.9%) and the absence of trans-fatty acids indicate that the studied rapeseed varieties can be a source of unsaturated fatty acids and have a positive impact on human health.

  5. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  6. Effects of simple acid leaching of crushed and powdered geological materials on high-precision Pb isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Erin; Stracke, Andreas; Scherer, Erik E.

    2015-07-01

    We present new results of simple acid leaching experiments on the Pb isotope composition of USGS standard reference material powders and on ocean island basalt whole rock splits and powders. Rock samples were leached with cold 6 N HCl in an ultrasonic bath, then on a hot plate, and washed with ultrapure H2O before sample digestion in HF-HNO3 and chromatographic purification of Pb. Lead isotope analyses were measured by Tl-doped MC-ICPMS. Intrasession and intersession analytical reproducibilities of repeated analyses of both synthetic Pb solutions and Pb from single digests of chemically processed natural samples were generally better than 100 ppm (2 SD). The comparison of leached and unleached samples shows that leaching consistently removes variable amounts of contaminants that differ in Pb isotopic composition for different starting materials. For repeated digests of a single sample, analyses of leached samples reproduce better than those of unleached ones, confirming that leaching effectively removes most of the heterogeneously distributed extraneous Pb. Nevertheless, the external reproducibility of leached samples is still up to an order of magnitude worse than that of Pb solution standards (˜100 ppm). More complex leaching methods employed by earlier studies yield Pb isotope ratios within error of those produced by our method and at similar levels of reproducibility, demonstrating that our simple leaching method is as effective as more complex leaching techniques. Therefore, any Pb isotope heterogeneity among multiple leached digests of samples in excess of the external reproducibility is attributed to inherent isotopic heterogeneity of the sample. The external precision of ˜100 ppm (2 SD) achieved for Pb isotope ratio determination by Tl-doped MC-ICPMS is thus sufficient for most rocks. The full advantage of the most precise Pb isotope analytical methods is only realized in cases where the natural isotopic heterogeneity among samples in a studied suite is

  7. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF PROTEUS AND PROVIDENCE ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Falkow, Stanley; Ryman, I. R.; Washington, O.

    1962-01-01

    Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria. PMID:13891463

  8. Development and application of new nucleic acid-based technologies for microbial community analyses in foods.

    PubMed

    Rudi, Knut; Nogva, Hege K; Moen, Birgitte; Nissen, Hilde; Bredholt, Sylvia; Møretrø, Trond; Naterstad, Kristine; Holck, Askild

    2002-09-15

    Several challenges still persist in the analysis of microorganisms in foods, particularly in studies of complex communities. Nucleic acid-based methods are promising tools in addressing new questions concerning microbial communities. We have developed several new methods in the field of nucleic acid-based microbial community analyses. These methods cover both sample preparation and detection approaches. The sample preparation method involves simplified DNA purification using paramagnetic beads. As an extension of this method, the same paramagnetic beads are used for both cell separation and DNA purification. This enables full automation. The separate detection of viable and dead bacteria is a major issue in nucleic acid-based diagnostics. We have applied a living/dead dye that binds covalently to DNA and inhibits the PCR from dead cells. In addition, a DNA array-based detection assay has been developed. The assay combines the specificity obtained by enzymatic labeling of DNA probes with the possibility of detecting several targets simultaneously by DNA array hybridization. In combination with 16S rDNA amplification, this is a promising tool for community analyses. Also, we have developed a novel approach for multiplex quantitative PCR. The multiplex PCR has been combined with our DNA array-based detection method. Finally, we are now in the process of adapting a system for monitoring microbial growth and death in real-time through the tagging of bacteria with green fluorescent protein (GFP) combined with fluorescence detection using a high-resolution confocal laser scanner.

  9. Stress and reliability analyses of multilayered composite cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    The coupling resulting from the mutual influence of material thermal and mechanical parameters is examined in the thermal stress analysis of a multilayered isotropic composite cylinder subjected to sudden axisymmetric external and internal temperature. The method of complex frequency response functions together with the Fourier transform technique is utilized. Because the coupling parameters for some composite materials, such as carbon-carbon, are very small, the effect of coupling is neglected in the orthotropic thermal stress analysis. The stress distributions in multilayered orthotropic cylinders subjected to sudden axisymmetric temperature loading combined with dynamic pressure as well as asymmetric temperature loading are also obtained. The method of Fourier series together with the Laplace transform is utilized in solving the heat conduction equation and thermal stress analysis. For brittle materials, like carbon-carbon composites, the strength variability is represented by two or three parameter Weibull distributions. The 'weakest link' principle which takes into account both the carbon-carbon composite cylinders. The complex frequency response analysis is performed on a multilayered orthotropic cylinder under asymmetrical thermal load. Both deterministic and random thermal stress and reliability analyses can be based on the results of this frequency response analysis. The stress and displacement distributions and reliability of rocket motors under static or dynamic line loads are analyzed by an elasticity approach. Rocket motors are modeled as long hollow multilayered cylinders with an air core, a thick isotropic propellant inner layer and a thin orthotropic kevlar-epoxy case. The case is treated as a single orthotropic layer or a ten layered orthotropic structure. Five material properties and the load are treated as random variable with normal distributions when the reliability of the rocket motor is analyzed by the first-order, second-moment method (FOSM).

  10. Stress and reliability analyses of multilayered composite cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.

    1992-01-01

    The coupling resulting from the mutual influence of material thermal and mechanical parameters is examined in the thermal stress analysis of a multilayered isotropic composite cylinder subjected to sudden axisymmetric external and internal temperature. The method of complex frequency response functions together with the Fourier transform technique is utilized. Because the coupling parameters for some composite materials, such as carbon-carbon, are very small, the effect of coupling is neglected in the orthotropic thermal stress analysis. The stress distributions in multilayered orthotropic cylinders subjected to sudden axisymmetric temperature loading combined with dynamic pressure as well as asymmetric temperature loading are also obtained. The method of Fourier series together with the Laplace transform is utilized in solving the heat conduction equation and thermal stress analysis. For brittle materials, like carbon-carbon composites, the strength variability is represented by two or three parameter Weibull distributions. The 'weakest link' principle which takes into account both the carbon-carbon composite cylinders. The complex frequency response analysis is performed on a multilayered orthotropic cylinder under asymmetrical thermal load. Both deterministic and random thermal stress and reliability analyses can be based on the results of this frequency response analysis. The stress and displacement distributions and reliability of rocket motors under static or dynamic line loads are analyzed by an elasticity approach. Rocket motors are modeled as long hollow multilayered cylinders with an air core, a thick isotropic propellant inner layer and a thin orthotropic kevlar-epoxy case. The case is treated as a single orthotropic layer or a ten layered orthotropic structure. Five material properties and the load are treated as random variable with normal distributions when the reliability of the rocket motor is analyzed by the first-order, second-moment method (FOSM).

  11. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  13. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A. )

    1990-09-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for (14C)triolein, (14C)cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans.

  14. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

  15. Survey of SSC12 Regions Affecting Fatty Acid Composition of Intramuscular Fat Using High-Density SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, María; Alves, Estefânia; Corominas, Jordi; Folch, Josep María; Casellas, Joaquim; Noguera, Jose Luis; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of back fat (BF) and intramuscular fat (IMF). In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of IMF in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60-cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait). This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of BF, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase ∝ gene (ACACA). Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for palmitic content. PMID

  16. Isotopic analyses of nitrogenous compounds from the Murchison meteorite: ammonia, amines, amino acids, and polar hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, S.; Feng, X.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The combined volatile bases (ammonia, aliphatic amines, and possibly other bases), ammonia, amino acids, and polar hydrocarbons were prepared from the Murchison meteorite for isotopic analyses. The volatile bases were obtained by cryogenic transfer after acid-hydrolysis of a hot-water extract and analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. The aliphatic amines present in this preparation comprise a mixture that includes both primary and secondary isomers through C5 at a total concentration of > or = 100 nmoles g-1. As commonly observed for meteoritic organic compounds, almost all isomers through C5 are present, and the concentrations within homologous series decrease with increasing chain length. Ammonia was chromatographically separated from the other volatile bases and found at a concentration of 1.1-1.3 micromoles g-1 meteorite. The ammonia analyzed includes contributions from ammonium salts and the hydrolysis of extractable organic compounds, e.g., carboxamides. Stable isotope analyses showed the volatile bases to be substantially enriched in the heavier isotopes, relative to comparable terrestrial compounds delta D < or = +1221%; delta 13C = +22%; delta 15N = +93%). Ammonia, per se, was found to have a somewhat lower delta 15N value (+69%) than the total volatile bases; consequently, a higher delta 15N (>93%) can be inferred for the other bases, which include the amines. Solvent-extractable polar hydrocarbons obtained separately were found to be enriched in 15N (delta 15N = +104%). Total amino acids, prepared from a hydrolyzed hot-water extract by cation exchange chromatography, gave a delta 15N of +94%, a value in good agreement with that obtained previously. Nitrogen isotopic data are also given for amino acid fractions separated chromatographically. The delta 15N values of the Murchison soluble organic compounds analyzed to date fall within a rather narrow range (delta 15N = +94 +/- 8%), an observation

  17. A new look at numerical analyses of free-edge stresses in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Whitcomb, J. D.; Goree, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The edge stress problem for a + or - 45 deg graphite/epoxy laminate was examined. The reliability of the displacement formulated finite element method in analyzing the edge stress problem was investigated. Analyses of two well known elasticity problems, one involving a stress discontinuity and one a singularity, showed that the finite element analysis yields accurate stress distributions everywhere except in two elements closest to the stress discontinuity of singularity. Stress distributions for a + or - 45 deg laminate showed the same behavior near the singularity found in the well known problems with exact solutions. The displacement formulated finite element method appears to be a highly accurate technique for calculating interlaminar stress in composite laminates. The disagreement among the numerical methods was attributed to the unsymmetric stress tensor at the singularity.

  18. Compositional and micro-scratch analyses of laser induced colored surface of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, Erhan; Cerkezoglu, Ecem

    2016-09-01

    Laser marking of metallic surface is a very important application for industry. It is revealed that controlled oxide layer generation above the treated surface leads to colored appearance of metals with interference effect. The oxide layer control is provided with laser and process parameters. In this study, different colors of the Grade 2 titanium samples have been obtained by varying the laser scanning speed. Chromaticity coordinates of the different color surface have been calculated from the reflectance spectrum of the samples. Compositional analyses have been performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. To examine the mechanical properties of the surface, micro-scratch test has been applied to all the colored surfaces. Although delamination has been observed between two laser scanning speed as 950 mm/s and 450 mm/s, it can be said that the adhesion between the titanium substrate and the oxide coating is good.

  19. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  20. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Bernhoft, Aksel; Wold, Jens P; Hetland, Harald; Christophersen, Olav A; Sogn, Trine

    2007-01-01

    Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form) per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle). The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5), DPA (22:5) and DHA (22:6), thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form) may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle. PMID:17967172

  1. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  2. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses.

    PubMed

    Bong, Yeon-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Lee, A-Reum; Jang, Chang-Soon; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Chung, Gong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2012-12-15

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage.

  3. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion.

  4. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  5. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijie; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Silva, Ana Marta; Coombs, Graham H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts. PMID:26368322

  6. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Westrop, Gareth D; Williams, Roderick A M; Wang, Lijie; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Silva, Ana Marta; Coombs, Graham H

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts.

  7. Composition of Humic Acids of the Lake Baikal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakova, O.; Chimitdorzhieva, G.; Andreeva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances are the final stage of the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter in the biosphere. Its natural compounds are found not only in soil, peat, coal, and sediments of basins. Chemical composition and properties of humic substances are determined by the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore the study of the unique Lake Baikal sediments can provide information about their genesis, as well as the processes of organic matter transformation. For this purpose, preparations of humic acids (HA) were isolated by alkaline extraction method. The composition of HA was investigated by the elemental analyzer CHNS/O PerkinElmer Series II. Various located sediments of the Lake Baikal were the objects of the study: 1 - Chivyrkuisky Bay, 2 - Kotovo Bay, 3 - Selenga river delta near Dubinino village, 4 - Selenga river delta near Murzino village. Data on the elemental composition of HA in terms of ash-free portion show that the carbon content (CC) is of 50-53% with a maximum value in a sample 3, and minimum - in a sample 2. Such values are characteristic also for the soils with low biochemical activity. The hydrogen content is of 4,2-5,3%, a maximum value is in a sample 1. Data recalculation to the atomic percentages identified following regularities. The CC of HA is of 35-39 at. %. Hydrogen content is of 37-43 at. %. According to the content of these elements investigated substances are clearly divided into two groups: HA of the sediments of the Lake Baikal and river Selenga delta. The magnitude of the atomic ratio H/C can be seen varying degrees of condensation of the molecules of humic acids. The high atomic ratio H/C in HA of the former group indicates the predominance of aliphatic structures in the molecules. Humic acids of the later group are characterized by a low value H/C (<1), suggesting a large proportion of aromatic components in HA composition. In sediments of the Selenga river delta there is an addition of organic matter of terrigenous

  8. Dietary sandalwood seed oil modifies fatty acid composition of mouse adipose tissue, brain, and liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Longmore, R B

    1997-09-01

    Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) seed oil, which occurs to about 50% of the weight of the seed kernels, contains 30-35% of total fatty acids (FA) as ximenynic acid (XMYA). This study was designed to obtain basic information on changes in tissue FA composition and on the metabolic fate of XMYA in mice fed a sandalwood seed oil (SWSO)-enriched diet. Female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each receiving different semisynthetic diets containing 5.2% (w/w) fat (standard laboratory diet), 15% canola oil, or 15% SWSO for 8 wk. The effects of SWSO as a dietary fat on the FA composition of adipose tissue, brain, and liver lipids were determined by analyses of FA methyl ester derivatives of extracted total lipid. The FA compositions of the liver and adipose tissue were markedly altered by the dietary fats, and mice fed on a SWSO-enriched diet were found to contain XMYA but only in low concentration (0.3-3%) in these tissues; XMYA was not detected in brain. Oleic acid was suggested to be a principal XMYA biotransformation product. The results were interpreted to suggest that the metabolism of XMYA may involve both biohydrogenation and oxidation reactions. PMID:9307938

  9. Nucleic acids from long-term preserved FFPE tissues are suitable for downstream analyses.

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Natalie; Grünwald, Barbara; Azimzadeh, Omid; Englert, Sonja; Höfler, Heinz; Tapio, Soile; Aubele, Michaela

    2012-02-01

    Tissues used for clinical diagnostics are mostly formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) which provides many advantages. However, the quality of the obtained nucleic acids (NA) is reduced and this turns out to be a challenge for further molecular analyses. Although the spectrum of analyses of NA extracted from FFPE tissue has increased, the standard operating procedures for NA isolation from old tissue blocks still need to be improved. Here, we compared the efficiency of different NA extraction methods, using FFPE tissues of variable age and origin, with respect to downstream analyses. Our study showed that the phenol-chloroform isoamyl alcohol (PCI) and the commercial Qiagen protocol yielded samples with highest purity. The PCI protocol delivered the longest amplicons even from samples from the 1970s. We developed a short (1 h) tissue lysis procedure that turned out to be highly time- and cost-effective when DNA quality was tested using single and multiplex PCR. Compared to a 1-day lysis-protocol, the amplicons were only 100 bp shorter. In addition, single-copy genes used in daily routine were successfully amplified from long-term stored FFPE samples following 1-h tissue-lysis. The RNA integrity numbers (RIN) determined on RNA isolated from FFPE tissues indicated degraded RNA; however, all RINs were above the generally agreed threshold of 1.4. We showed that, depending on the purpose of the analysis, NA retrieved from FFPE tissues older than 40 years may be successfully used for molecular analysis.

  10. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  11. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  12. Thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and bagasse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCB) composite by adding isosorbide diesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthai, Suthaphat; Magaraphan, Rathanawan

    2015-05-01

    An isosorbide diesters is one of isororbide types used as a plasticizer. The influence of this plasticizer on thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid and bagasse carboxymethyl cellulose (PLA/CMCB) composites was studied. PLA was blended with CMCB at 1%wt using various contents of isosorbide diesters (5, 10, 15 and 20%wt of PLA). The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses indicated that the increment of isosorbide diesters concentration resulted in decreasing glass transition, melting and decomposition temperatures, as well as the reduction of storage modulus of PLA/CMCB composites. Moreover, the elongation of PLA/CMCB composites was significantly improved with increasing plasticizer content.

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  14. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  15. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  16. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  17. Predicting G-protein-coupled receptors families using different physiochemical properties and pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zia-Ur; Mirza, Muhammad Tayyeb; Khan, Asifullah; Xhaard, Henri

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) initiate signaling pathways via trimetric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. GPCRs are classified based on their ligand-binding properties and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Nonetheless, these later analyses are in most case dependent on multiple sequence alignments, themselves dependent on human intervention and expertise. Alignment-free classifications of GPCR sequences, in addition to being unbiased, present many applications uncovering hidden physicochemical parameters shared among specific groups of receptors, to being used in automated workflows for large-scale molecular modeling applications. Current alignment-free classification methods, however, do not reach a full accuracy. This chapter discusses how GPCRs amino acid sequences can be classified using pseudo amino acid composition and multiscale energy representation of different physiochemical properties of amino acids. A hybrid feature extraction strategy is shown to be suitable to represent GPCRs and to be able to exploit GPCR amino acid sequence discrimination capability in spatial as well as transform domain. Classification strategies such as support vector machine and probabilistic neural network are then discussed in regards to GPCRs classification. The work of GPCR-Hybrid web predictor is also discussed.

  18. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  19. Tying Biological Activity to Changes in Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition via Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Collins, D. B.; Axson, J. L.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In remote marine environments, sea spray aerosols (SSA) often represent the greatest aerosol burden, thus having significant impacts on direct radiative interactions and cloud processes. Previous studies have shown that SSA is a complex mixture of inorganic salts and an array of dissolved and particulate organic components. Enrichment of SSA organic content is often correlated to seawater chlorophyll concentrations, a measure of oceanic biological activity. As the physical and chemical properties of aerosols control their radiative effects, recent studies conducted by the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment have endeavored to further elucidate the ties between marine biological activity and primary SSA chemical composition using highly time resolved single particle analyses. A series of experiments performed in the recently developed Marine Aerosol Reference Tank evaluated the effect of changing marine microbial populations on SSA chemical composition, which was monitored via an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a variety of offline spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Each experiment was initiated using unfiltered and untreated seawater, thus maintaining a high level of biogeochemical complexity. This study is the first of its kind to capture daily changes in the primary SSA mixing state over the growth and death of a natural phytoplankton bloom. Increases in organic aerosol types (0.4-3 μm), internally and externally mixed with sea salt, could not be correlated to chlorophyll concentrations. Maximum production of these populations occurred two to four days after the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence peaked in intensity. This work is in contrast to the current paradigm of correlating SSA organic content to seawater chlorophyll concentration.

  20. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources. PMID:18268376

  1. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources.

  2. Sulphured Polyacrylonitrile Composite Analysed by in operando UV-Visible Spectroscopy and 4-electrode Swagelok Cell.

    PubMed

    Dominko, Robert; Patel, Manu U M; Bele, Marjan; Pejovnik, Stane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite (PAN/S) cathodes were compared with the commonly used carbon/S-based composite material. The difference in the working mechanism of these composites was examined. Analytical investigations were performed on both kinds of cathode electrode composites by using two reliable analytical techniques, in-situ UV-Visible spectroscopy and a four-electrode Swagelok cell. This study differentiates the working mechanisms of PAN/S composites from conventional elemental sulphur/carbon composite and also sheds light on factors that could be responsible for capacity fading in the case of PAN/S composites. PMID:27640383

  3. Demersal fishes from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea: A diet study based on fatty acid patterns and gut content analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Flores, Hauke; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    The gut contents and fatty acid composition of 49 fish belonging to five Antarctic demersal families (Nototheniidae, Macrouridae, Channichtyidae, Bathydraconidae and Artedidraconidae) sampled at two stations at the Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea (600 and 2150 m) were analysed in order to identify their main food resource by linking trophic biomarkers with the dietary items found in the fish guts. Main food items of most fish analysed were amphipod crustaceans (e.g. in 63% of Trematomus bernachii guts) and polychaetes (e.g. in 80% of Bathydraco sp. guts), but other food items including fish, other crustaceans and gastropods were also ingested. The most prominent fatty acids found were 20:5( n-3), 16:0, 22:6( n-3) and 18:1( n-9). The results of gut content and fatty acid analyses indicate that all fish except the Channichthyidae share similar food resources irrespective of their depth distribution, i.e. benthic amphipods and polychaetes. A difference of the dietary spectrum can be observed with ontogenetic phases rather than between species, as high values of typical calanoid copepod marker fatty acids as 22:1( n-11) indicate that younger (smaller) specimens include more zooplankton in their diet.

  4. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trophic position of deep-sea fish—Assessment through fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowasser, G.; McAllen, R.; Pierce, G. J.; Collins, M. A.; Moffat, C. F.; Priede, I. G.; Pond, D. W.

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the trophic ecology of two of the dominant families of deep-sea fish (Macrouridae and Moridae) fatty acid and stable isotope analyses were applied to liver and muscle samples of five abundant species from the NE Atlantic. In conjunction with stomach content data these methods made it possible to identify differences in feeding strategies between the five study species as well as variation in feeding in relation to increasing depth and body size. Biomarkers identified strong similarities between Coryphaenoides armatus and Antimora rostrata though differences were found associating C. armatus more with the benthic food web whereas A. rostrata showed stronger links to the pelagic food web. While Lepidion eques was classified as a species linking benthic and benthopelagic food webs, both fatty acid and stable isotope data suggested that Coryphaenoides guentheri fed on an exclusively benthic diet . Coryphaenoides rupestris on the other hand were largely dependent on a copepod-based food web. Ontogenetic changes in feeding were found for both A. rostrata and C. armatus with the indication of a switch from active predation to scavenging occurring with increasing body size. Biomarkers also reflected the seasonal influx from the photic zone though changes were species-specific and probably reflected the variation in prey availability and abundance in response to these inputs. Our findings have thus demonstrated that the combined use of these biomarkers can elucidate trophic specialisations in situations where conventional methods alone previously provided insufficient data.

  6. Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

    2007-05-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.

  7. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses suggest reef manta rays feed on demersal zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Lydie I E; Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Marshall, Andrea D; Jaine, Fabrice R A; Bennett, Michael B; Townsend, Kathy A; Weeks, Scarla J; Nichols, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa). Stable isotope δ(15)N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ(13)C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs.

  8. Stable Isotope and Signature Fatty Acid Analyses Suggest Reef Manta Rays Feed on Demersal Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa). Stable isotope δ15N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ13C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs. PMID:24167562

  9. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity.

  10. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species. PMID:22005403

  11. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species.

  12. Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-11-01

    Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

  13. Biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites in engineering by detailed analyses of biological concept generators.

    PubMed

    Masselter, T; Hesse, L; Böhm, H; Gruhl, A; Schwager, H; Leupold, J; Gude, M; Milwich, M; Neinhuis, C; Speck, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites based on the detailed analysis of biological concept generators. The methods include analyses of the functional morphology and biomechanics of arborescent monocotyledons and columnar cacti as well as measurements and modelling of mechanical properties of biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. The key results show evidence of notch stress reduction by optimised stem-branch-attachment morphology in monocotyledons and columnar cacti. It could be shown that some of these highly interesting properties can be transferred into biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. PMID:27603330

  14. Compositional diversity of the lunar North Pole: Preliminary analyses of Galileo SSI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Belton, M.; Head, James W.; Greeley, R.; Mcewen, A.; Fischer, E. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Klaasen, K.; Plutchak, J.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft passed through the Earth-Moon system for its final gravity assist to Jupiter. The SSI camera obtained several 6-color mosaics of the lunar north polar region and the sunlit nearside and eastern limb at approximately 1.3 km/pixel. Initial analyses have concentrated on the north polar areas to assess the composition of the crust in that region. Representative 6-color calibration SSI spectra (typically 5 x 5 pixels) are shown. Photometric corrections have not yet been applied, and all spectra are scaled to unity at 0.56 microns. The data were first calibrated relative to MS2, a standard are in Mare Serenitatis (18.7 deg N, 21.5 deg E), and the top four plots of highlands, highland craters, maria, and mare craters are displayed relative to MS2. SSI spectra of areas measured with telescopic data (mare MT1/MS2 and mare crater MSA/MS2) agree well with previous data, confirming that the calibration procedures and SSI data are spectrally accurate. The bottom three plots of craters/sun have been calibrated to reflectance using previously obtained telescopic spectra of Apollo 16/MS2 (shown with Highlands/MS2) and laboratory spectra of mature Apollo 16 soil (shown for reference with the Highland Craters/Sun). Although some variations in these spectra mimic previously observed spectra of lunar terrains, several characteristics are unusual. Familiar and unfamiliar properties are observed in these northern latitudes and both types merit further investigation in their geologic context.

  15. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  16. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  17. Supramolecular structure of 5-aminosalycilic acid/halloysite composites.

    PubMed

    Viseras, Maria-Teresa; Aguzzi, Carola; Cerezo, Pilar; Cultrone, Giuseppe; Viseras, Cesar

    2009-05-01

    This paper assesses the supramolecular structure of nanocomposites prepared by including the anti-inflammatory drug 5-aminosalycilic acid in halloysite nanotubes. Halloysite tubes have sub-micron individual lengths with outer diameters ∼0.1 µm, as observed by FESEM. The mercury intrusion plots showed bimodal profiles with pore dimensions ∼10 and 0.06 µm. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric results revealed changes in the hydration form of the clay after the interaction. The groups associated to the interaction were studied by FTIR. The location of the drug in the composites was determined after uranium staining of its amino groups by X-EDS microanalysis coupled with HREM. The drug was located both inside and on the surface of the halloysite nanotubes. These results confirm the occurrence of two concomitant interaction mechanisms: rapid adsorption of 5-ASA at the external halloysite surface followed by slow adsorption of the drug inside the tubes.

  18. Fatty acid composition of membrane bilayers: importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Else, Paul L; Atkins, Taleitha A; Hulbert, A J

    2012-05-01

    In one of the most extensive analyses to date we show that the balance of diet n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is the most important determinant of membrane composition in the rat under 'normal' conditions. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) for 8weeks. Diets differed only in fatty acid (FA) profiles, with saturate (SFA) content ranging 8-88% of total FAs, monounsaturate (MUFA) 6-65%, total PUFA 4-81%, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70%. Diet PUFA included only essential FAs 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA is defined as the PUFA balance (n-3 PUFA as % of total PUFA) and ranged 1-86% in the diets. FA composition was measured for brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids, as well as adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides. The conformer-regulator model was used (slope=1 indicates membrane composition completely conforming to diet). Extensive changes in diet SFA, MUFA and PUFA had minimal effect on membranes (average slopes 0.01, 0.07, 0.07 respectively), but considerable influence on adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides (average slopes 0.27, 0.53, 0.47 respectively). Diet balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA had a biphasic influence on membrane composition. When n-3 PUFA<10% of total PUFA, membrane composition completely conformed to diet (average slope 0.95), while diet PUFA balance>10% had little influence (average slope 0.19). The modern human diet has an average PUFA balance ~10% and this will likely have significant health implications.

  19. Adansonian Analysis and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1965-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 89:454–461. 1965.—A total of 33 strains of Serratia marcescens were subjected to Adansonian analysis for which more than 200 coded features for each of the organisms were included. In addition, the base composition [expressed as moles per cent guanine + cytosine (G + C)] of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prepared from each of the strains was determined. Except for four strains which were intermediate between Serratia and the Hafnia and Aerobacter group C of Edwards and Ewing, the S. marcescens species group proved to be extremely homogeneous, and the different strains showed high affinities for each other (mean similarity, ¯S = 77%). The G + C ratio of the DNA from the Serratia strains ranged from 56.2 to 58.4% G + C. Many species names have been listed for the genus, but only a single clustering of the strains was obtained at the species level, for which the species name S. marcescens was retained. S. kiliensis, S. indica, S. plymuthica, and S. marinorubra could not be distinguished from S. marcescens; it was concluded, therefore, that there is only a single species in the genus. The variety designation kiliensis does not appear to be valid, since no subspecies clustering of strains with negative Voges-Proskauer reactions could be detected. The characteristics of the species are listed, and a description of S. marcescens is presented. PMID:14255714

  20. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics. PMID:27083372

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites.

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  3. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid. PMID:27407188

  4. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  5. Composition of transgenic soybean seeds with higher γ-linolenic acid content is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengyun; Kang, Linzhi; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Song, Jingshen; Zhao, Yinhua

    2012-03-01

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) has been used as a general nutraceutical for pharmacologic applications, particularly in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema. Four transgenic soybean lines that produce GLA at high yields (4.21% of total fatty acids, up to 1002-fold) were generated through the stable insertion of the Delta-6-fatty acid desaturase gene isolated from Borago officinalis into the genome of a conventional soybean cultivar. As part of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops, the transgenic soybean seeds were compared with their parental soybean seeds (nontransgenic) by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring the fatty acids, proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, TDF, and ash contents), amino acids, lectins, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The present results showed that the specific transgenic cultivar studied was similar to the conventional control.

  6. Composition of transgenic soybean seeds with higher γ-linolenic acid content is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengyun; Kang, Linzhi; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Song, Jingshen; Zhao, Yinhua

    2012-03-01

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) has been used as a general nutraceutical for pharmacologic applications, particularly in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema. Four transgenic soybean lines that produce GLA at high yields (4.21% of total fatty acids, up to 1002-fold) were generated through the stable insertion of the Delta-6-fatty acid desaturase gene isolated from Borago officinalis into the genome of a conventional soybean cultivar. As part of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops, the transgenic soybean seeds were compared with their parental soybean seeds (nontransgenic) by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring the fatty acids, proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, TDF, and ash contents), amino acids, lectins, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The present results showed that the specific transgenic cultivar studied was similar to the conventional control. PMID:22324875

  7. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    PubMed

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem.

  8. Folic acid alone or multivitamin containing folic acid intake during pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia through meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang-Min; Yun, Yeo-Ul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the effect of folic acid and multivitamin use during pregnancy on the risk of developing of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Methods Two reviewers independently determined all prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, large population based cohort study, retrospective secondary analysis, and double blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial published using PubMed Medline database, KERIS (Korea Education and Research Information Service), Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials comparing before conception throughout pregnancy intake oral multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone. Meta-analyses were estimated with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random effect analysis according to heterogeneity of studies. Results Data from six effect sizes from six studies involving 201,661 patients were enrolled. These meta-analyses showed multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone was not significantly effective in reducing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia incidence (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.03) than the placebo. And the difference of effective sizes of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension according to two dependent variables, multivitamin and folic acid were not significant, respectively (point estimate, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.96). Conclusion These meta-analyses demonstrate multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone was not significantly effective in reducing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia incidence. PMID:27004201

  9. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  10. Compound-specific carbon isotope analyses of individual long-chain alkanes and alkanoic acids in Harmattan aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The higher molecular weight n-alkane, n-alkanol and n-alkanoic acid series from higher plant wax are ubiquitous components of aerosol particles in remote areas. The carbon isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids have been determined in samples of Harmattan aerosol and composited vegetation wax from Nigeria. The data confirm the terrestrial origin of these compounds and support the distinction among the vegetation sources of C 4 plants (savannah) from C 3 and CAM plants (wet climate, mixed vegetation). The superimposed petroleum components from vehicular emissions in urban areas could not be differentiated from C 3 vegetation by compound-specific isotope analysis.

  11. Morphology and Composition of Structured, Phase-Separated Behenic Acid-Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid Monolayer Films.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jeveria; Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; He, Anqiang; Paige, Matthew F

    2016-05-31

    The phase separation of immiscible surfactants in mixed monolayer films provides an approach to physically manipulate important properties of thin films, including surface morphology, microscale composition, and mechanical properties. In this work, we predict, based upon existing miscibility studies and their thermodynamic underpinnings described in the literature, the miscibility and film morphology of mixed monolayers comprised of behenic acid (C21H43COOH) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (C13F27COOH) in various molar ratios. Predictions are tested using a combination of experimental surface characterization methods for probing miscibility and film morphology at the solid/air and air/water interfaces. Film components were immiscible and phase-separated into chemically well-defined domains under a variety of experimental conditions, with monolayer morphology consistent with initial predictions. The extensibility of these basic predictions to other systems is discussed in the context of using these works for different perfluorinated surfactant molecules. PMID:27163482

  12. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  13. Application of gold compositional analyses to mineral exploration in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, J.C.; Campbell, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Native gold is a mineral composed of Au, Ag and Cu in solid solution and it usually contains one or more trace metals as lattice impurities, as mineral inclusions, in grain boundaries or in surface coatings. Alloy proportions of Au, Ag and Cu, together with certain other elements, can be thought of as constituting a gold "signature". Gold is associated with a great variety of ore deposits and has characteristic signatures for each of several types of ore deposits. Signatures for gold derived from igneous-metamorphic, hypothermal, mesothermal and epithermal deposits reflect conditions of ore formation by their content of Ag, Cu and characteristic associated elements. At higher temperatures of ore formation, gold has low Ag and high Cu content, and Bi and Pb are the most abundant trace elements. But at lower temperatures of ore formation, Ag is high, Cu is low, and Pb is the most abundant trace element. The same trend in gold signatures is observable in gold mining districts, such as Central City, Colorado, where zoning as shown by mineral assemblages indicates ore deposition at progressively lower temperatures as the distance from a central high-temperature zone increases. The signatures of gold may be useful in searching for porphyry Cu deposits. Signatures from Butte (Montana), Mineral Park (Arizona) and Cala Abajo (Puerto Rico), on the basis of limited sampling, are similar and distinctive. They are characterized by a similar assemblage of trace elements and are relatively high in both Ag and Cu. Another application of gold compositional data is in tracing placer gold to its bedrock source. For example, the Ag content of placer gold in the Tarryall district of Colorado differed from that of nearly all of the bedrock sources of gold found by early prospectors. However, one lightly prospected area peripheral to the Tertiary quartz monzonite stock at Montgomery Gulch contains gold with a Ag content similar to that of the placer gold. This area is the most likely

  14. Conception, analyse et caracterisation des proprietes mecaniques de ressorts composites a renfort tresse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebdi, Oussama

    High performance composites reinforced by woven or braided fabrics have several different applications in various fields such as in the aerospace, automobile and marine industry. This research project was carried out at the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal in collaboration with an industrial sponsor, the company Composites Atlantic Ltd. Composite springs often represent an interesting alternative, given the reduction in weight that they allow with equal mechanical performance compared to metallic springs. Their good resistance to fatigue and corrosion bring additional benefits in several industrial applications. Moreover, the use of the composites increases safety by avoiding the risks of brutal rupture because of the low propagation velocity of cracks in this type of material. Lastly, in electrotechnics, another significant advantage comes into play because of the electrical insulation capability of composite springs. Few research results can be found on composite springs in the scientific literature. The first part of this thesis studies the problems connected with the design of composite springs. The results are promising, because it was confirmed that composite springs can be devised with the same mechanical performance in term of stiffness as metallic ones. Two solutions were found to replace the metallic springs of the suspension of a four wheel drive: the first spring was in carbon-epoxy, and the second one in glass-epoxy. In the second part, software was developed in order to devise a new approach to predict the mechanical properties of woven or braided composites. This work shows how an inverse method based on plate laminate theory allows creating, from experimental results on braided composites, a virtual basic ply that includes the effect of fiber architecture (undulation and braiding angle). Using this model, the properties of the composite can be predicted for any braid angle. The comparison with the experimental results shows a good correlation with

  15. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  16. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  17. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  18. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of an unidirectional, 9 vol percent tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanfeliz, Jose G.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling via elastic-plastic finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects that the residual stresses and the degree of matrix work hardening (i.e., cold-worked, annealed) have upon the behavior of a 9 vol percent, unidirectional W/Cu composite, undergoing tensile loading. The inclusion of the residual stress-containing state as well as the simulated matrix material conditions proved to be significant since the Cu matrix material exhibited plastic deformation, which affected the subsequent tensile response of the composite system. The stresses generated during cooldown to room temperature from the manufacturing temperature were more of a factor on the annealed-matrix composite, since they induced the softened matrix to plastically flow. This event limited the total load-carrying capacity of this matrix-dominated, ductile-ductile type material system. Plastic deformation of the hardened-matrix composite during the thermal cooldown stage was not considerable, therefore, the composite was able to sustain a higher stress before showing any appreciable matrix plasticity. The predicted room temperature, stress-strain response, and deformation stages under both material conditions represented upper and lower bounds characteristic of the composite's tensile behavior. The initial deformation stage for the hardened material condition showed negligible matrix plastic deformation while for the annealed state, its initial deformation stage showed extensive matrix plasticity. Both material conditions exhibited a final deformation stage where the fiber and matrix were straining plastically. The predicted stress-strain results were compared to the experimental, room temperature, tensile stress-strain curve generated from this particular composite system. The analyses indicated that the actual thermal-mechanical state of the composite's Cu matrix, represented by the experimental data, followed the annealed material condition.

  19. Influence of fatty acid profile of total parenteral nutrition emulsions on the fatty acid composition of different tissues of piglets.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, E; Sánchez, M; Hyde, M J; Laws, J; Clarke, L; Herrera, E

    2008-08-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) studies in human babies of very-low-birth-weight suggest that the lipid emulsions currently available are not optimum for neonatal nutrition. Since fatty acid metabolism in human and pigs is very similar, the present study examines how lipid emulsions used in clinical TPN (i.e. ClinOleic, Intralipid, Lipofundin or Omegaven), with different fatty acid compositions, administered to neonatal piglets for 7 days, influenced their tissue fatty acid composition as compared to those enterally fed with a sow milk replacer. A positive linear relationship was found between the proportion of all individual fatty acids in the lipid emulsions or in the milk replacer versus those in plasma, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, heart, pancreas, stomach or intestine total lipids or in brain phospholipids, the latter showing the lowest correlation coefficient. With the exception of brain, the proportion of either oleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid in the individual tissues was correlated with those present in the corresponding lipid emulsion or milk replacer, whereas the proportion of linoleic acid correlated significantly with all the tissues studied. With the exception of brain phospholipids, both eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the tissues of piglets receiving Omegaven than in all other groups. In conclusion, with the exception of the brain, fatty acid composition of plasma and different tissues in piglets are strongly influenced by the fatty acid profile of TPN emulsions. Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids are, however, much less influenced by dietary composition, indicating an active and efficient metabolism that ensures its appropriate composition at this key stage of development.

  20. Identification of a Herbal Powder by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Barcoding and Structural Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Bhavisha P.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Authentic identification of plants is essential for exploiting their medicinal properties as well as to stop the adulteration and malpractices with the trade of the same. Objective: To identify a herbal powder obtained from a herbalist in the local vicinity of Rajkot, Gujarat, using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding and molecular tools. Materials and Methods: The DNA was extracted from a herbal powder and selected Cassia species, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the rbcL barcode locus. Thereafter the sequences were subjected to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis, followed by the protein three-dimension structure determination of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder and Cassia species namely Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Cassia javanica (sequences obtained in the present study), Cassia Roxburghii, and Cassia abbreviata (sequences retrieved from Genbank). Further, the multiple and pairwise structural alignment were carried out in order to identify the herbal powder. Results: The nucleotide sequences obtained from the selected species of Cassia were submitted to Genbank (Accession No. JX141397, JX141405, JX141420). The NCBI BLAST analysis of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder showed an equal sequence similarity (with reference to different parameters like E value, maximum identity, total score, query coverage) to C. javanica and C. roxburghii. In order to solve the ambiguities of the BLAST result, a protein structural approach was implemented. The protein homology models obtained in the present study were submitted to the protein model database (PM0079748-PM0079753). The pairwise structural alignment of the herbal powder (as template) and C. javanica and C. roxburghii (as targets individually) revealed a close similarity of the herbal powder with C. javanica. Conclusion: A strategy as used here, incorporating the integrated use of DNA

  1. Fatty acid composition of Yersinia ruckeri isolates from aquaculture ponds in northwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yidan; Ryll, Martin; Walker, Charles; Jung, Arne; Runge, Martin; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri is one of the most important diseases in salmonid aquaculture. Outbreaks of ERM were controlled by vaccines directed against motile strains of the bacterium, until recently nonmotile vaccine-resistant strains evolved and caused severe outbreaks. Non-motile isolates were found widespread in aquaculture populations in north-western Germany. In the present study, 82 Y. ruckeri isolates were isolated from trout hatcheries in North Rhine Westfalia, Lower Saxony and Hessen and only 20% of them were motile. In order to further characterise the Y. ruckeri isolates from fish aquaculture populations in north-western Germany, the fatty acid compositions of 82 Y. ruckeri field isolates from this area and of the Y. ruckeri reference strain DSM 18506 were analysed by gas chromatography. All Y. ruckeri isolates exhibited 15 major fatty acids, including 12:0, 13:0, 13.957 (equivalent chain length, ECL unknown), 14:0, 14.502 (ECL unknown), 15:0, 16:1omega5c, 16:0, 17:1omega8c, 17:0 CYCLO, 17:0, 16:1 2OH, 18:1omega9c, 18:1omega7c and 18:0. From a dendrogram, all isolates were close to one another, clustering together; while slight differences were detected among the isolates and the reference strain DSM 18506. Compared to their epidemiological and biochemical characteristics, there was no relationship found between the fatty acid profiles, API 20E profiles, motility and geographic distribution. Our results show that the fatty acid composition of Y. ruckeri isolates from north-western Germany is highly homogenous.

  2. Amino acid analyses of type 3 chondrites Colony, Ornans, Chainpur, and Bishunpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H.-S.; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.

    2012-09-01

    The CO3s Colony and Ornans and LL3s Chainpur and Bishunpur were analyzed for the first time for amino acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Type 3 chondrites have relatively unaltered metamorphic and petrological histories. Chainpur was the most amino acid rich of the four type 3 chondrites with a total amino acid abundance of 3330 parts per billion (ppb). The other type 3 chondrites had total amino acid abundances that ranged from 660 to 1110 ppb. A D/L ratio of <0.7 for all proteic amino acids suggests at least some amino acid terrestrial contamination. However, a small fraction of indigenous extraterrestrial amino acids cannot be excluded because of the presence of the nonprotein amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), and unusually high relative abundances (to glycine) of β-alanine and γ-ABA. The comparisons between the free and total amino acid contents of the samples also indicate a low free/total amino acid ratio (ranging from about 1:4 in CO chondrites to about 1:50 in Chainpur), which indicate that amino acids are present mainly in the bound form and were made detectable after acid hydrolysis.

  3. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  4. Wheat gluten amino acid composition analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ine; Lamberts, Lieve; Celus, Inge; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-07-17

    A simple accurate method for determining amino acid composition of wheat gluten proteins and their gliadin and glutenin fractions using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection is described. In contrast to most conventional methods, the analysis requires neither pre- or post-column derivatization, nor oxidation of the sample. It consists of hydrolysis (6.0M hydrochloric acid solution at 110 degrees C for 24h), evaporation of hydrolyzates (110 degrees C), and chromatographic separation of the liberated amino acids. Correction factors (f) accounted for incomplete cleavage of peptide bonds involving Val (f=1.07) and Ile (f=1.13) after hydrolysis for 24h and for Ser (f=1.32) losses during evaporation. Gradient conditions including an extra eluent (0.1M acetic acid solution) allowed multiple sequential sample analyses without risk of Glu contamination on the anion-exchange column. While gluten amino acid compositions by the present method were mostly comparable to those obtained by a conventional method involving oxidation, acid hydrolysis and post-column ninhydrin derivatization, the latter method underestimated Tyr, Val and Ile levels. Results for the other amino acids obtained by the different methods were linearly correlated (r>0.99, slope=1.03).

  5. Metabolic analyses elucidate non-trivial gene targets for amplifying dihydroartemisinic acid production in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Ashish; Conway, Matthew F.; Johnnie, Joseph; Qureshi, Tabish M.; Lige, Bao; Derrick, Anne M.; Agbo, Eddy C.; Sriram, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables metabolic engineering of industrial microbes to synthesize value-added molecules. In this, a major challenge is the efficient redirection of carbon to the desired metabolic pathways. Pinpointing strategies toward this goal requires an in-depth investigation of the metabolic landscape of the organism, particularly primary metabolism, to identify precursor and cofactor availability for the target compound. The potent antimalarial therapeutic artemisinin and its precursors are promising candidate molecules for production in microbial hosts. Recent advances have demonstrated the production of artemisinin precursors in engineered yeast strains as an alternative to extraction from plants. We report the application of in silico and in vivo metabolic pathway analyses to identify metabolic engineering targets to improve the yield of the direct artemisinin precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHA) in yeast. First, in silico extreme pathway (ExPa) analysis identified NADPH-malic enzyme and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) as mechanisms to meet NADPH demand for DHA synthesis. Next, we compared key DHA-synthesizing ExPas to the metabolic flux distributions obtained from in vivo 13C metabolic flux analysis of a DHA-synthesizing strain. This comparison revealed that knocking out ethanol synthesis and overexpressing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP (gene YNL241C) or the NADPH-malic enzyme ME2 (YKL029C) are vital steps toward overproducing DHA. Finally, we employed in silico flux balance analysis and minimization of metabolic adjustment on a yeast genome-scale model to identify gene knockouts for improving DHA yields. The best strategy involved knockout of an oxaloacetate transporter (YKL120W) and an aspartate aminotransferase (YKL106W), and was predicted to improve DHA yields by 70-fold. Collectively, our work elucidates multiple non-trivial metabolic engineering strategies for improving DHA yield in yeast. PMID:23898325

  6. Metabolic analyses elucidate non-trivial gene targets for amplifying dihydroartemisinic acid production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ashish; Conway, Matthew F; Johnnie, Joseph; Qureshi, Tabish M; Lige, Bao; Derrick, Anne M; Agbo, Eddy C; Sriram, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables metabolic engineering of industrial microbes to synthesize value-added molecules. In this, a major challenge is the efficient redirection of carbon to the desired metabolic pathways. Pinpointing strategies toward this goal requires an in-depth investigation of the metabolic landscape of the organism, particularly primary metabolism, to identify precursor and cofactor availability for the target compound. The potent antimalarial therapeutic artemisinin and its precursors are promising candidate molecules for production in microbial hosts. Recent advances have demonstrated the production of artemisinin precursors in engineered yeast strains as an alternative to extraction from plants. We report the application of in silico and in vivo metabolic pathway analyses to identify metabolic engineering targets to improve the yield of the direct artemisinin precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHA) in yeast. First, in silico extreme pathway (ExPa) analysis identified NADPH-malic enzyme and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) as mechanisms to meet NADPH demand for DHA synthesis. Next, we compared key DHA-synthesizing ExPas to the metabolic flux distributions obtained from in vivo (13)C metabolic flux analysis of a DHA-synthesizing strain. This comparison revealed that knocking out ethanol synthesis and overexpressing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP (gene YNL241C) or the NADPH-malic enzyme ME2 (YKL029C) are vital steps toward overproducing DHA. Finally, we employed in silico flux balance analysis and minimization of metabolic adjustment on a yeast genome-scale model to identify gene knockouts for improving DHA yields. The best strategy involved knockout of an oxaloacetate transporter (YKL120W) and an aspartate aminotransferase (YKL106W), and was predicted to improve DHA yields by 70-fold. Collectively, our work elucidates multiple non-trivial metabolic engineering strategies for improving DHA yield in yeast.

  7. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  8. Amino acid nitrogen isotopic composition patterns in lacustrine sedimenting matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Dörte; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2013-11-01

    Amino acids (AAs) comprise a large fraction of organic nitrogen (N) in plankton and sedimenting matter. Aquatic studies of organic N compounds in general and of AAs in particular, mostly concentrate on marine environments. In order to study the cycling and fate of organic N and AAs in lakes, we measured the N isotopic composition (δ15N) of bulk organic matter (OM) and of single hydrolysable AAs in sediment trap and sediment samples from two Swiss lakes with contrasting trophic state: Lake Brienz, an oligotrophic lake with an oxic water column, and Lake Zug a eutrophic, meromictic lake. We also measured the N isotopic composition of water column nitrate, the likely inorganic N source during biosynthesis in both lakes. The δ15N-AA patterns found for the sediment trap material were consistent with published δ15N-AA data for marine plankton. The AA composition and primary δ15N-AA signatures are preserved until burial in the sediments. During early sedimentary diagenesis, the δ15N values of single AAs appear to increase, exceeding those of the bulk OM. This increase in δ15N-AA is paralleled by a decreased contribution of AAs to the total OM pool with progressed degradation, suggesting preferential AA degradation associated with a significant N isotope fractionation. Indicators for trophic level based on δ15N-AAs were determined, for the first time in lacustrine systems. In our samples, the trophic AAs were generally enriched in 15N compared to source AAs and higher trophic δ15N-AA values in Lake Zug were consistent with a higher trophic level of the bulk biomass compared to Lake Brienz. Especially the difference between average trophic δ15N-AAs and average source δ15N-AAs was sensitive to the trophic states of the two lakes. A proxy for total heterotrophic AA re-synthesis (ΣV), which is strongly associated with heterotrophic microbial reworking of the OM, was calculated based on δ15N values of trophic AAs. Higher ΣV in Lake Brienz indicate enhanced

  9. Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

  10. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Robinson, Mark S.; Coombs, Cassandra

    2000-02-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  11. Lipid content and fatty acid composition in foods commonly consumed by nursing Congolese women: incidences on their essential fatty acid intakes and breast milk fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Mbemba, F; Gallon, G; Picq, C

    1998-09-01

    The fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of nearly 40 foods, currently consumed by 102 nursing Congolese mothers living in Brazzaville, were determined to assess their impact on mothers' essential fatty acid (EFA) intakes and breast milk FA. Data on mothers' milk FA and dietary habits which allowed food selection were recently published (Rocquelin et al., 1998). Most foods were locally produced. Food samples were collected at local markets, bleached if necessary to avoid microbial degradation, and stored at +4 degrees C or -20 degrees C. They were lyophilized upon their arrival in the laboratory before lipid analyses. FA composition of food lipids was determined by capillary gas chromatography. Staple diets included low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods (processed cassava roots, wheat bread) and high-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) foods: soybean oil (high in 18 : 2 n-6 and alpha-18 : 3 n-3), bushbutter (dacryodes edulis), peanuts, avocado (high in fat and 18 : 2 n-6), freshwater and salt-water fish (high in LC n-3 and/or n-6 PUFA), and leafy green vegetables (low in fat but very high in alpha-18 : 3 n-3). Their frequent consumption by nursing mothers provided enough EFA to meet requirements due to lactation. It also explains why mothers' breast milk was rich in C8-C14 saturated FA (26% of total FA) and in n-6, n-3 PUFA (respectively 15.0% and 2.4% of total FA) highly profitable for breastfed infants' development. From this point of view, dietary habits of Congolese mothers have to be sustained for they are more adequate than most Western-type diets.

  12. Standard deviations of composition measurements in atom probe analyses. Part I conventional 1D atom probe.

    PubMed

    Danoix, F; Grancher, G; Bostel, A; Blavette, D

    2007-09-01

    Atom probe is a very powerful instrument to measure concentrations on a sub nanometric scale [M.K. Miller, G.D.W. Smith, Atom Probe Microanalysis, Principles and Applications to Materials Problems, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1989]. Atom probe is therefore a unique tool to study and characterise finely decomposed metallic materials. Composition profiles or 3D mapping can be realised by gathering elemental composition measurements. As the detector efficiency is generally not equal to 1, the measured compositions are only estimates of actual values. The variance of the estimates depends on which information is to be estimated. It can be calculated when the detection process is known. These two papers are devoted to give complete analytical derivation and expressions of the variance on composition measurements in several situations encountered when using atom probe. In the first paper, we will concentrate on the analytical derivation of the variance when estimation of compositions obtained from a conventional one dimension (1D) atom probe is considered. In particular, the existing expressions, and the basic hypotheses on which they rely, will be reconsidered, and complete analytical demonstrations established. In the second companion paper, the case of 3D atom probe will be treated, highlighting how the knowledge of the 3D position of detected ions modifies the analytical derivation of the variance of local composition data.

  13. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes.

  14. Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Mann, Neil; Pirotta, Yvonne; O'Connell, Stella; Li, Duo; Kelly, Fiona; Sinclair, Andy

    2006-07-01

    High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health.

  15. Selection of acid compositions in well construction in difficult geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. V.; Kamartdinov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Within the scope of the current work we have presented an approach towards selecting and substantiation of acid composition in accordance with petrophysical characteristics of formations for acid treatment of bottom-hole formation zones. Article presents the results of lab tests of selected acid compositions, in conditions, which model thermobaric conditions of a payzone, combined with an evaluation of hydraulic permeability change, and this, in its turn, should allow us to evaluate the quality of impact of the acid composition recipe on the reservoir formation.

  16. Trophic importance of diatoms in an intertidal Zostera noltii seagrass bed: Evidence from stable isotope and fatty acid analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Benoit; Richard, Pierre; Galois, Robert; Radenac, Gilles; Pfléger, Camille; Guillou, Gaël; Mornet, Françoise; Blanchard, Gérard F.

    2011-03-01

    A current predominant paradigm emphasizes the role of epiphytic algae for invertebrates in most seagrass food webs. However, in some intertidal Zostera noltii beds, epiphyte biomass is very low compared to microphytobenthos and seagrass biomasses. We assessed the role of microphytobenthos in a temperate intertidal Z. noltii bed by combining stable isotope and fatty acid (FA) analyses on primary producers, composite sources — suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and sediment surface organic matter (SSOM) — and the main macrofaunal consumers. Z. noltii showed high δ 13C (-9.9‰) and high 18:2( n-6) and 18:3( n-3) contents. Microphytobenthos was slightly more 13C-depleted (-15.4‰) and had high levels of diatom markers: 14:0, 16:1( n-7)c, 20:5( n-3). Low mean δ 13C (-22.0‰) and large amounts of diatom and bacteria (18:1( n-7)c) markers indicated that SPOM was mainly composed of a mixture of fresh and decayed pelagic diatoms. Higher mean δ 13C (-17.9‰) and high amounts of diatom FAs were found in SSOM, showing that microphytobenthic diatoms dominate. Very low percentages of 18:2( n-6) and 18:3( n-3) in consumers indicated a low contribution of Z. noltii material to their diets. Grazers, deposit and suspension-deposit feeders had δ 13C close to microphytobenthos and high levels of diatom FAs, confirming that microphytobenthos represented the main part of their diet. Lower δ 13C and higher amounts of flagellate FAs - 22:6( n-3) and 16:4( n-3) - in suspension feeders indicated that their diet resulted from a mixture of SPOM and microphytobenthos. These results demonstrate that invertebrates do not consume high amounts of seagrass and highlight the main role of benthic diatoms in this intertidal seagrass bed.

  17. Ontogenetic trends in aspartic acid racemization and amino acid composition within modern and fossil shells of the bivalve Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Weidman, Christopher R.

    2001-06-01

    Ontogenetic trends (umbo to growth edge of shell) in aspartic acid (Asp) racemization and amino acid composition and their evolution over time are examined in serial samples of annual growth bands from a time-series of three live-collected and two fossil (ca. 500 and 1000 y BP) shells of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica. The rate of Asp racemization is shown to be higher in the umbonal portion of the shells (laid down when the clams are young) but constant from a biological age of 10 to 20 y to more than 100 y. Corresponding changes are also seen in amino acid composition and concentration: with increasing biological age of the clam: total amino acid concentration increases substantially, the acidic amino acids Asp, glutamic acid, and alanine decrease in relative concentration (mole-percent) and more basic amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine increase in relative concentration. These ontogenetic trends are generally retained in the fossil shells. These trends may reflect changing protein composition related to changes in growth rate. Clams grow considerably faster in their youth than when they are older, as indicated by changes in the annual growth increments. Production of more acidic proteins, which play a role in crystal growth, may be favored during the phase of faster growth, whereas more structural proteins, perhaps enhancing structural strength of the shell, may be favored during later growth. These ontogenetic differences in protein composition affect the observed rates of racemization of the protein pool. Some weak diagenetic trends in amino acid composition and abundance may be represented in the time series of shells. These results emphasize the importance of standardization of the location from which samples are taken from shells for dating by amino acid racemization analysis.

  18. Further Developments of BEM for Micro and Macromechanical Analyses of Composites: Boundary Element Software Technology-Composite User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Henry, D. P.; Hopkins, D. A.; Goldberg, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    BEST-CMS (Boundary Element Solution Technology - Composite Modeling System) is an advanced engineering system for the micro-analysis of fiber composite structures. BEST-CMS is based upon the boundary element program BEST3D which was developed for NASA by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft and the State University of New York at Buffalo under contract NAS3-23697. BEST-CMS presently has the capabilities for elastostatic analysis, steady-state and transient heat transfer analysis, steady-state and transient concurrent thermoelastic analysis and elastoplastic and creep analysis. The fibers are assumed to be perfectly bonded to the composite matrix, or in the case of static or steady-state analysis, the fibers may be assumed to have spring connections, thermal resistance, and/or frictional sliding between the fibers and the composite matrix. The primary objective of this User's Manual is to provide an overview of all BEST-CMS capabilities, along with detailed descriptions of the input data requirements. A brief review of the theoretical background is presented for each analysis category. Then, Chapter 3 discusses the key aspects of the numerical implementation, while Chapter 4 provides a tutorial for the beginning BEST-CMS user. The heart of the manual, however, is in Chapter 5, where a complete description of all data input items is provided. Within this chapter, the individual entries are grouped on a functional basis for a more coherent presentation. Chapter 6 includes sample problems and should be of considerable assistance to the novice. Chapter 7 includes capsules of a number of fiber-composite analysis problems that have been solved using BEST-CMS. This chapter is primarily descriptive in nature and is intended merely to illustrate the level of analysis that is possible within the present BEST-CMS system. Chapter 8 contains a detailed description of the BEST-CMS Neutral File which is helpful in writing an interface between BEST- CMS and any graphic post-processor program

  19. Lipid fatty acid profile analyses in liver and serum in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianli; Tong, Yudong; Shankar, Kartik; Baumgardner, January N; Kang, Jie; Badeaux, Jamie; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2011-01-26

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of lipids and exhibit important biological functions. The analyses of FAs are routinely carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after multistep sample preparation. In this study, several key experimental factors were carefully examined, validated, and optimized to analyze free fatty acid (FFA) and FA profiles of triglycerides and phospholipids in serum or tissue samples. These factors included (1) methylation/transesterification reagents, (2) validation of internal standards, and (3) final step concentration of FA methyl esters. This new method was utilized to analyze FFAs and the FA profiles of triglycerides and phospholipids in the serum and liver from a recently established rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this model, rats were fed a 220 kcal kg (-3/4) day (-1) diet containing either 5 or 70% corn oil for 21 days using total enteral nutrition. FA compositions of the serum and liver were found to shift from a pattern dominated by saturated and monounsaturated FAs (C16:0/18:1) to one dominated by polyunsaturated C18:2 derived from dietary linoleic acid. Alteration of FA composition in liver after overfeeding of high polyunsaturated fat diets may contribute to the progression of pathological changes from steatosis to inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis observed in NASH. PMID:21162572

  20. The bile acid composition of crane gallbladder bile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    1. 1. The biliary bile acids of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Florida sandhill crane (G. canadensis pratensis) have been examined. 2. 2. Cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDOCA) and lithocholic acid were found in bile from both species of these North American cranes. 3. 3. CDOCA and CA were the primary bile acids in both species, together constituting 70% or more of the bile acids by weight. 4. 4. The primary bile acids of cranes appear to be the same as those that have been identified in other avian species.

  1. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  2. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  3. Global and Local Stress Analyses of McDonnell Douglas Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains results of structural analyses performed in support of the NASA structural testing of an all-composite stitched/RFI (resin film infusion) wing stub box. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company designed and fabricated the wing stub box. The analyses used a global/local approach. The global model contains the entire test article. It includes the all-composite stub box, a metallic load-transition box and a metallic wing-tip extension box. The two metallic boxes are connected to the inboard and outboard ends of the composite wing stub box, respectively. The load-transition box was attached to a steel and concrete vertical reaction structure and a load was applied at the tip of the extension box to bend the wing stub box upward. The local model contains an upper cover region surrounding three stringer runouts. In that region, a large nonlinear deformation was identified by the global analyses. A more detailed mesh was used for the local model to obtain more accurate analysis results near stringer runouts. Numerous analysis results such as deformed shapes, displacements at selected locations, and strains at critical locations are included in this report.

  4. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations.

    PubMed

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-07-14

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  5. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  6. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    PubMed Central

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  7. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations.

    PubMed

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  8. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption.

  9. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  10. High-tip-speed fiber composite compressor blades - Vibration and strength analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lynch, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described which couples composite mechanics computer codes with NASTRAN. This procedure was used to perform a detailed analysis of a high-tip-speed fiber composite compressor fan blade. The results indicate that the various vibration modes of this blade are highly coupled. Mechanical load ply stresses are well below the corresponding room temperature strengths. Lamination residual stresses are likely to cause transply cracks and interply delamination. Transply cracks and relaxation of root fixity decrease the vibrational frequencies whereas centrifugal stiffening increases them. Comparisons of results for various parameters are presented in tabular and graphical form.

  11. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaddis, L.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Coombs, C.

    2000-01-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  12. Thermal Conductivity of SiC/Si Composites – Porting PNNL EMTA Code for Fusion Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep

    2013-04-19

    An existing modeling method, the EMTA (Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach) modeling approach [1], is applied to the study of SiC/SiC 2D woven composites for fusion reactor applications for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, with excellent results. We compare EMTA model results to existing thermal conductivity data for these materials and suggest that in the future this approach can be beneficial by providing us with tools to further optimize these composite materials for fusion energy applications since the EMTA method and code can address both thermal and mechanical properties with the same framework.

  13. Results of compositional and microstructural analyses of solidified ingots. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banan, Mohsen

    1991-01-01

    The results of compositional and microstructural analysis of solidified ingots are discussed. In the vibration section, the microstructural and compositional analysis of ingots solidified with and without vibration, the vibration induced dynamic acceleration measurements, and the macroscopic growth rate measurements using an interface demarcation technique are discussed. The Current induced Perturbation section includes the results of solidification of an ingot with alternating current pulses, the current interface demarcation in an alloy of In0.2Ga0.8SB, and in situ temperature measurements in the charges of GaSb and In0.2Ga0.8Sb during the passage of electric current.

  14. Fatty acid composition of birds and game hunted by the Eastern James Bay Cree people of Québec

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Francoise; Johnson-Down, Louise; Berthiaume, Line; Greffard, Karine; Julien, Pierre; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. Objective To determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional game and bird meats hunted in the Eastern James Bay area. Design Harvested traditional game and birds were analysed for FA composition. A total of 52 samples from six wildlife species were collected in the areas of Chisasibi, Waswanipi and Mistissini, of which 35 were from birds (white partridge and Canada goose) and 17 were from land animals (beaver, moose, caribou and black bear). Results Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was the most common n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in all samples except for the black bear flesh, in which it was docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3). In white partridge, beaver and caribou flesh, PUFAs (mainly n-6) were the most common category of fats while in goose, moose and black bear flesh, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) predominated. In all species, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were the second most important FAs. It would appear that in the land animals and birds that were analysed, the SFA content was lower and the PUFA content was higher than store-bought meats giving them a more heart-healthy profile. Conclusions These results showed that the FA composition of game species consumed by the James Bay Cree population is consistent with a beneficial diet and that traditional foods should continue to be promoted among the Cree people to provide better physical health as well as social and spiritual benefits. PMID:27495903

  15. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  16. Gender Differences in Rat Erythrocyte and Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition: Role of Ovarian Hormones and Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The two-fold higher prevalence rate of major depression in females may involve vulnerability to omega-3 fatty acid deficiency secondary to a dysregulation in ovarian hormones. However, the role of ovarian hormones in the regulation of brain omega-3 fatty acid composition has not been directly evaluated. Here we determined erythrocyte and regional brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in intact male and female rats, and in chronically ovariectomized (OVX) rats with or without cyclic estradiol treatment (2 μg/4 d). All groups were maintained on diets with or without the DHA precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We report that both male (−21%) and OVX (−19%) rats on ALA+ diet exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte DHA composition relative to female controls. Females on ALA+ diet exhibited lower DHA composition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) relative males (−5%). OVX rats on ALA+ diet exhibited significantly lower DHA composition in the hippocampus (−6%), but not in the PFC, hypothalamus, or midbrain. Lower erythrocyte and hippocampus DHA composition in OVX rats was not prevented by estrogen replacement. All groups maintained on ALA− diet exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte and regional brain DHA composition relative to groups on ALA+ diet, and these reductions were greater in males but not in OVX rats. These preclinical data corroborate clinical evidence for gender differences in peripheral DHA composition (female>male), demonstrate gender differences in PFC DHA composition (male>female), and support a link between ovarian hormones and erythrocyte and region-specific brain DHA composition. PMID:19046819

  17. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  18. Comparative evaluation of essential fatty acid composition of mothers' milk of some urban and suburban regions of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers.

  19. Detailed composition analyses of diverse oat genotype kernels grown in different environments in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional composition of oat kernels from 18 genotypes grown in 6 environments in North Dakota (USA) was analyzed by chemical means. Of the macro-nutrients, mean starch concentration was 56.5%, protein was 18.1%, oil was 7.9%, neutral detergent fiber (insoluble fiber) was 6.0%, beta-glucan (solubl...

  20. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on

  1. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  2. Behaviour study of thick laminated composites: Experimentation and finite element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchaine, Francois

    In today's industries, it is common practice to utilize composite materials in very large and thick structures like bridge decks, high pressure vessels, wind turbine blades and aircraft parts to mention a few. Composite materials are highly favoured due to their physical characteristics: low weight, low cost, adaptable mechanical properties, high specific strength and stiffness. The use of composite materials for large structures has however raised several concerns in the prediction of the behaviour of thick laminated composite parts. A lack of knowledge and experience in the use of composite materials during the design, sizing and manufacturing of thick composite parts can lead to catastrophic events. In this thesis, it was supposed that the elastic material properties may vary with the laminate thickness. In order to measure the influence of the thickness on nine orthotropic elastic material properties (E1, E2, E3, nu12, nu 13, nu23, G12, G13 and G23), three categories of thickness have been defined using a comparison between the classical lamination theory (CLT), different beam theories and a numerical 3D solid finite element analysis (FEA) model. The defined categories are: thin laminates for thicknesses below 6 mm (0.236"), moderately thick laminates for thicknesses up to 16 mm (0.630") and thick laminates for thicknesses above 16 mm (0.630"). For three different thicknesses (thin -- 1.5 mm, moderately thick -- 10 mm and thick -- 20 mm), the influence of the thickness on the orthotropic elastic material properties of unidirectional (UD) fibreglass/epoxy laminates has been measured. A torsion test on rectangular bar is also proposed to measure the influence of the thickness on G13 and G23. The nine elastic material properties, in function of the thickness, have been used in CLT and 3D solid FEA model in order to predict the axial Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates. Experimental results have also been obtained for

  3. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-06-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  4. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  5. Interconnection between the protein solubility and amino acid and dipeptide compositions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaohui; Li, Nana; Chen, Dinyan; Wang, Zengzhen

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining soluble proteins in sufficient concentrations helps increase the overall success rate in various experimental studies. Protein solubility is an individual trait ultimately determined by its primary protein sequence. Exploring the interconnection between the protein solubility and the compositions of protein sequence is instrumental for setting priorities on targets in large scale proteomics projects. In this paper, amino acid composition (20 dimensions) and the dipeptide composition (400 dimensions) were extracted to form the total candidate feature pool (420 dimensions), and each feature was selected into the feature vectors one by one, which were sorted by the absolute value of the correlation coefficient. Finally, we evaluated and recorded the 420 results of Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the prediction engine. According to the results of SVM, the first 208 features were chosen from the 420 dimensions, which were considered as the efficient ones. By analyzing the composition of the former 208 features, we found that the protein solubility was significantly influenced by the occurrence frequencies of the acidic amino acids, basic amino acids, non-polar hydrophobic amino acids and the two polar neutral amino acids(C, Q) in the protein sequences. Additionally, we detected that the dipeptides composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E) and basic amino acids (K, R and H), especially the dipeptide composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E), had strong interconnection with the protein solubility.

  6. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.

  7. Characterization of different Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and characterization of different subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa are often dependent upon genotyping. However, complementary methods to detect and characterize different X. fastidiosa strains based on phenotype are needed to confirm conclusions. Characterization of the composition of fat...

  8. Thermal analyses of solvent-exposed poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.B.; Brown, C.R.; Carlson, R.S.; Trainer, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a thermally stable, semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic resin which is used as a wire coating and as a fiberglass filled molding compound in Mound applications. Considerable characterization of its thermal, chemical, and crystalline structural properties has been done. The present study was undertaken, in order to determine the effect of solvents which could be encountered in normal processing of PEEK composites into Mound components on PEEK's physical, chemical and thermal properties.

  9. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  10. Standard deviations of composition measurements in atom probe analyses-Part II: 3D atom probe.

    PubMed

    Danoix, F; Grancher, G; Bostel, A; Blavette, D

    2007-09-01

    In a companion paper [F. Danoix, G. Grancher, A. Bostel, D. Blavette, Surf. Interface Anal. this issue (previous paper).], the derivation of variances of the estimates of measured composition, and the underlying hypotheses, have been revisited in the the case of conventional one dimensional (1D) atom probes. In this second paper, we will concentrate on the analytical derivation of the variance when the estimate of composition is obtained from a 3D atom probe. As will be discussed, when the position information is available, compositions can be derived either from constant number of atoms, or from constant volume, blocks. The analytical treatment in the first case is identical to the one developed for conventional 1D instruments, and will not be discussed further in this paper. Conversely, in the second case, the analytical treatment is different, as well as the formula of the variance. In particular, it will be shown that the detection efficiency plays an important role in the determination of the variance.

  11. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  12. Effect of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on the composition of fatty acid associated with phospholipids in alveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Noguchi, T.; Kikuno, M.; Kubota, K.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo exposure of rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 12 h caused changes in fatty acids composition of alveolar lavage phospholipids. Among the fatty acid species, the relative ratio of palmitic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid increased significantly. While the relative ratio of stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased significantly. Both the increase in the incorporation of palmitic acid in phosphatidylcholine which would be released into the alveoli and the increase in the release of phosphatidylcholine into the alveoli may account for the changes in the fatty acid composition of the present findings.

  13. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  14. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  15. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  16. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  17. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  18. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC LIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 16 MOLAR AND 8 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  19. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 1 MOLARAND 3 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-23

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  20. Bayesian statistical approaches to compositional analyses of transgenic crops 2. Application and validation of informative prior distributions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jay M; Breeze, Matthew L; Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G

    2013-03-01

    Bayesian approaches to evaluation of crop composition data allow simpler interpretations than traditional statistical significance tests. An important advantage of Bayesian approaches is that they allow formal incorporation of previously generated data through prior distributions in the analysis steps. This manuscript describes key steps to ensure meaningful and transparent selection and application of informative prior distributions. These include (i) review of previous data in the scientific literature to form the prior distributions, (ii) proper statistical model specification and documentation, (iii) graphical analyses to evaluate the fit of the statistical model to new study data, and (iv) sensitivity analyses to evaluate the robustness of results to the choice of prior distribution. The validity of the prior distribution for any crop component is critical to acceptance of Bayesian approaches to compositional analyses and would be essential for studies conducted in a regulatory setting. Selection and validation of prior distributions for three soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein) and two oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) are illustrated in a comparative assessment of data obtained on GM and non-GM soybean seed harvested from replicated field sites at multiple locations in the US during the 2009 growing season. PMID:23261475

  1. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tangherlini, M.; Dell’Anno, A.; Zeigler Allen, L.; Riccioni, G.; Corinaldesi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:27329207

  2. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Tangherlini, M; Dell'Anno, A; Zeigler Allen, L; Riccioni, G; Corinaldesi, C

    2016-01-01

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:27329207

  3. Bayesian statistical approaches to compositional analyses of transgenic crops 2. Application and validation of informative prior distributions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jay M; Breeze, Matthew L; Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G

    2013-03-01

    Bayesian approaches to evaluation of crop composition data allow simpler interpretations than traditional statistical significance tests. An important advantage of Bayesian approaches is that they allow formal incorporation of previously generated data through prior distributions in the analysis steps. This manuscript describes key steps to ensure meaningful and transparent selection and application of informative prior distributions. These include (i) review of previous data in the scientific literature to form the prior distributions, (ii) proper statistical model specification and documentation, (iii) graphical analyses to evaluate the fit of the statistical model to new study data, and (iv) sensitivity analyses to evaluate the robustness of results to the choice of prior distribution. The validity of the prior distribution for any crop component is critical to acceptance of Bayesian approaches to compositional analyses and would be essential for studies conducted in a regulatory setting. Selection and validation of prior distributions for three soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein) and two oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) are illustrated in a comparative assessment of data obtained on GM and non-GM soybean seed harvested from replicated field sites at multiple locations in the US during the 2009 growing season.

  4. High intraspecific variability in the diet of a deep-sea nematode: Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses of Deontostoma tridentum on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Daniel; Brown, Julie C. S.; Bury, Sarah J.; Lörz, Anne-Nina

    2015-03-01

    Small deep-sea organisms may exhibit a high degree of intraspecific variability in diet due to their ability to exploit a wide range of food sources and patchiness in food availability. Trophic interactions of small deep-sea benthic organisms, however, remain poorly understood. Here we describe spatial variation in diet/trophic level of the common deep-sea nematode Deontostoma tridentum on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific, using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. We also analysed sediment organic matter (SOM) and compared the isotopic composition of D. tridentum to other benthic and suprabenthic macrofaunal taxa with a variety of feeding modes. Variability in D. tridentum δ13C and δ15N signatures was high both among sites and within a single site on the southern flank of Chatham Rise. Among-site variation in SOM δ13C signatures was not sufficient to explain variation in nematode isotopic signatures. The presence of a positive correlation between δ13C and δ15N signatures of D. tridentum (both among and within sites) could suggest that differences in trophic level is the cause behind this variation. Nitrogen isotope data suggest the presence of 1-3 trophic levels in this species, which may reflect differences in prey availability, nematode body size, or habitat (benthic versus epizoic). Nematode δ15N values exceeded those of all other taxa we investigated, including other predators, but reasons for this enrichment remain unclear. The fatty acid composition of D. tridentum did not vary substantially between sites and was characterised by relatively high levels of 18:1n9 (15-20%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; ~22%). Although limited inferences can be made based on fatty acid composition due to the potential impacts of non-dietary factors, high levels of PUFAs indicate that D. tridentum represents a good source of these essential nutrients to higher trophic levels. In conclusion, our results show that (1) some deep-sea organisms

  5. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  6. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  7. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    PubMed Central

    Raineri, C.; Stivari, T. S. S.; Gameiro, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i) costs composition, and ii) cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses. PMID:26104531

  8. Approach for validating actinide and fission product compositions for burnup credit criticality safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a depletion code validation approach for criticality safety analysis using burnup credit for actinide and fission product nuclides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) compositions. The technical basis for determining the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations is comparison of calculations to available measurements obtained from destructive radiochemical assay of SNF samples. Probability distributions developed for the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations were applied to the SNF compositions of a criticality safety analysis model by the use of a Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling method to determine bias and bias uncertainty in effective neutron multiplication factor. Application of the Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling approach is demonstrated for representative criticality safety analysis models of pressurized water reactor spent fuel pool storage racks and transportation packages using burnup-dependent nuclide concentrations calculated with SCALE 6.1 and the ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. Furthermore, the validation approach and results support a recent revision of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interim Staff Guidance 8.

  9. Approach for validating actinide and fission product compositions for burnup credit criticality safety analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a depletion code validation approach for criticality safety analysis using burnup credit for actinide and fission product nuclides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) compositions. The technical basis for determining the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations is comparison of calculations to available measurements obtained from destructive radiochemical assay of SNF samples. Probability distributions developed for the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations were applied to the SNF compositions of a criticality safety analysis model by the use of a Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling method to determine bias and bias uncertainty in effective neutron multiplication factor. Application ofmore » the Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling approach is demonstrated for representative criticality safety analysis models of pressurized water reactor spent fuel pool storage racks and transportation packages using burnup-dependent nuclide concentrations calculated with SCALE 6.1 and the ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. Furthermore, the validation approach and results support a recent revision of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interim Staff Guidance 8.« less

  10. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  11. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-05-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.

  12. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-05-06

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.

  13. Effect of different levels of supplied cobalt on the fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Karlengen, Inger J; Taugbøl, Ole; Salbu, Brit; Aastveit, Are H; Harstad, Odd M

    2013-03-14

    In previous studies, administration of high amounts of Co decreased the proportion of MUFA in bovine milk. The present study was conducted to examine the amount of Co needed to obtain this effect. High-yielding dairy cows (n 4), equipped with ruminal cannulas, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The basal diet consisted of concentrate mixture (9 kg/d) without added Co and grass silage (ad libitum). The following four levels of Co were administrated as cobalt acetate dissolved in distilled water: no Co (treatment 1, T1); 4·0 mg Co/d (T2); 380 mg Co/d (T3); 5300 mg Co/d (T4). Each period lasted for 18 d, including 11 d of treatment. During the treatment periods, the solutions were continuously infused into the rumen. Milk yield and milk concentration of fat, fatty acids (FA), protein, lactose, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu were determined. Blood plasma was analysed with respect to FA, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu. Feed intake and total tract digestibility of feed components were also determined. There was a linear effect of increasing the level of Co on milk FA composition. The effects of Co on FA composition in blood were insignificant compared with the effects on milk. In milk fat, the concentration of cis-9-18 : 1 was reduced by as much as 38 % on T4 compared with T1. Feed intake and milk yield were negatively affected by increasing the Co level.

  14. Analyses for Debonding of Stitched Composite Sandwich Structures Using Improved Constitutive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Sleight, D. W.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis based on strain energy release rates is used to study the effect of stitching in bonded sandwich beam configurations. Finite elements are used to model the configurations. The stitches were modeled as discrete nonlinear spring elements with a compliance determined by experiment. The constitutive models were developed using the results of flatwise tension tests from sandwich material rather than monolithic material. The analyses show that increasing stitch stiffness, stitch density and debond length decrease strain energy release rates for a fixed applied load.

  15. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipid obtained from children suffering from kwashiorkor and marasmus.

    PubMed

    Vajreswari, A; Narayanareddy, K; Rao, P S

    1990-08-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane (EM) lipids obtained from normal, kwashiorkor, and marasmic children was analyzed by gas chromatography. The proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) was lower and of oleic acid (18:1) higher in the kwashiorkor group than in the control group. The marasmic group showed lower proportions of eicosatrienoic acid (20:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) and a higher proportion of oleic acid (18:1) than the control group. A significant difference was found between the marasmic and kwashiorkor groups with respect to arachidonic acid (20:4), which showed a lower proportion in the former group than the latter. The ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid (20:4/18:2) was markedly lower in the marasmic group than the control group, suggesting a possible impairment in the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in marasmic children. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was markedly elevated in the kwashiorkor group over that of control group, indicating increased fluidity of EM in kwashiorkor. It is suggested that the altered membrane fatty acid composition reflects deranged lipid metabolism and affects the physical and physiological properties of EM and could contribute to changes in the activities of several red blood cell membrane-bound enzymes reported earlier in kwashiorkor children.

  16. Spectroscopic analyses and studies on respective interaction of cyanuric acid and uric acid with bovine serum albumin and melamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dandan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qi; Qiao, Heng

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the fluorescence quenching was used to study the interaction of cyanuric acid (CYA) and uric acid (UA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at two different temperatures (283 K and 310 K). The bimolecular quenching constant (Kq), apparent quenching constant (Ksv), effective binding constant (KA) and corresponding dissociation constant (KD), binding site number (n) and binding distance (r) were calculated by adopting Stern-Volmer, Lineweaver-Burk, Double logarithm and overlap integral equations. The results show that CYA and UA are both able to obviously bind to BSA, but the binding strength order is BSA + CYA < BSA + UA. And then, the interactions of CYA and UA with melamine (MEL) under the same conditions were also studied by using similar methods. The results indicates that both CYA and UA can bind together closely with melamine (MEL). It is wished that these research results would facilitate the understanding the formation of kidney stones and gout in the body after ingesting excess MEL.

  17. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  18. A parametric study of variables that affect fiber microbuckling initiation in composite laminates. I - Analyses. II - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. G.; Ochoa, Ozden O.; Bradley, Walter L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the stacking sequence (orientation of plies adjacent to the 0-deg plies), free surfaces, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength, initial fiber waviness, resin-rich regions, and nonlinear shear constitutive behavior of the resin on the initiation of fiber microbuckling in thermoplastic composites were investigated using nonlinear geometric and nonlinear 2D finite-element analyses. Results show that reductions in the resin shear tangent modulus, large amplitudes of the initial fiber waviness, and debonds each cause increases in the localized matrix shear strains; these increases lead in turn to premature initiation of fiber microbuckling. The numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained using three thermoplastic composite material systems: (1) commercial APC-2, (2) QUADRAX Unidirectional Interlaced Tape, and AU4U/PEEK.

  19. Proximate composition, fatty acid and lipid class composition of the muscle from deep-sea teleosts and elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Økland, Hege M W; Stoknes, Iren S; Remme, Jannicke F; Kjerstad, Margareth; Synnes, Marianne

    2005-03-01

    Proximate composition of muscle was determined for the following deep-sea fish species: roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax), mora/deep-sea cod (Mora moro), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis), black dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii), leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), greater lantern shark (Etmopterus princeps), smalleyed rabbitfish/ghostshark (Hydrolagus affinis), birdbeak dogfish (Deania calcea) and two species of smooth head (Alepocephalus bairdii and Alepocephalus agassizii). The first eight species contained less than 1% fat in the muscle, while the last two contained 3.0% and 3.6% fat, respectively. Fatty acid and lipid class composition was determined for the first five fish species and showed that the dominant class of lipids was phospholipids. The lipids consisted mainly of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the dominant fatty acid. Roughhead grenadier and mora showed resemblance to cod (Gadus morhua) regarding protein content, fat content and fatty acid composition. However, the muscle from the deep-sea fish species did contain a higher proportion of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) than cod muscle.

  20. Analysis of porcine adipose tissue transcriptome reveals differences in de novo fatty acid synthesis in pigs with divergent muscle fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were represented by interspersed repeats, SINEs being the most abundant elements. Differential expression analyses identified 396 candidate genes among divergent animals for intramuscular fatty acid composition. Sixty-two percent of these genes (247/396) presented higher expression in the group of pigs with higher content of intramuscular SFA and MUFA, while the remaining 149 showed higher expression in the group with higher content of PUFA. Pathway analysis related these genes to biological functions and canonical pathways controlling lipid and fatty acid metabolisms. In concordance with the phenotypic classification of animals, the major metabolic pathway differentially modulated between groups was de novo lipogenesis, the group with more PUFA being the one that showed lower expression of lipogenic genes. Conclusions These results will help in the identification of genetic variants at loci that affect fatty acid composition traits. The implications of these results range from the improvement of porcine meat quality traits to the application of the pig as an animal model of human metabolic diseases. PMID:24289474

  1. Report-The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil.

    PubMed

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Dawood, Sumaya; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Gundidza, Mazuru; Magwa, Michael Libala; Muredzi, Perkins; Samie, Amidou

    2015-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil was determined using gas chromatographic methods. C. abbreviata seeds yielded 9.53% of yellowish-green oil consisting mainly of oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (26.7%), stearic acid (4.1%) and elaidic acid (2.1%). The oil was solid at room temperature, had a saponification value of 376.16 mg KOH/g and an iodine value of 26.48 g I2/100g oil. The fatty acid composition and saponification value of the C. abbreviata seed oil suggest that it may find application in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical natural product formulations.

  2. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  3. Report-The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil.

    PubMed

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Dawood, Sumaya; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Gundidza, Mazuru; Magwa, Michael Libala; Muredzi, Perkins; Samie, Amidou

    2015-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of the underutilised Cassia abbreviata seed oil was determined using gas chromatographic methods. C. abbreviata seeds yielded 9.53% of yellowish-green oil consisting mainly of oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (26.7%), stearic acid (4.1%) and elaidic acid (2.1%). The oil was solid at room temperature, had a saponification value of 376.16 mg KOH/g and an iodine value of 26.48 g I2/100g oil. The fatty acid composition and saponification value of the C. abbreviata seed oil suggest that it may find application in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical natural product formulations. PMID:26004707

  4. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    PubMed

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem. PMID:9464888

  5. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  6. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  7. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  8. Influence of glyphosate on amino acid composition of Egyptian broomrape.

    PubMed

    Nandula, V K; Westwood, J H; Foster, J G; Foy, C L

    2001-03-01

    The parasitic plant broomrape is entirely dependent on its host for reduced carbon and nitrogen and is also susceptible to inhibition by glyphosate that is translocated to the parasite through a host. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of broomrape parasitism on amino acid concentrations of two hosts: common vetch that is tolerant of low levels of glyphosate and oilseed rape that has been genetically engineered for glyphosate resistance. The influence of glyphosate on the amino acid content of broomrape and the two hosts was also examined. Amino acid concentrations in leaves and roots of parasitized common vetch plants were generally similar to those of the corresponding tissues of nonparasitized plants. Amino acid concentrations in broomrape were lower than those of the parasitized common vetch root. For common vetch, glyphosate applied at rates that selectively inhibited broomrape growth did not alter individual amino acid concentrations in the leaves, but generally increased amino acid levels at 0.18 kg ha-1. Glyphosate application also increased the amino acid concentrations, with the exception of arginine, of broomrape growing on common vetch and did not generally influence concentrations in leaves or roots of common vetch. In oilseed rape, parasitization by broomrape generally led to higher amino acid concentrations in leaves but lower concentrations in roots of parasitized plants. Broomrape had higher amino acid concentrations than roots of the parasitized oilseed rape. Glyphosate applied at 0.25 and 0.5 kg ha-1 generally increased the amino acid concentrations in oilseed rape leaves, but the 0.75 kg ha-1 application caused the amino acid concentrations to decrease compared to those of untreated plants. In oilseed rape root the general trend was an increase in the concentration of amino acids at the two highest rates of glyphosate. Individual amino acid concentrations in broomrape attachments growing on oilseed rape were generally increased

  9. Fatty Acid Composition and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content in Different Carcass parts of Dağlıç Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Ali; Boztepe, Saim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare fatty acid composition and content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different regions of sheep carcasses. Lambs of the Dağlıç breed were used for this purpose. Subsequent to a 68-day period of intensive fattening, fatty acids were examined in samples taken from the legs, shoulders, breasts, and ribs of lamb carcasses. According to the analysis, in leg, shoulder, breast, and rib, respectively, total saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found to be 40.38, 42.69, 42.56, and 40.27%, unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found to be 40.38, 44.17, 46.17, and 49.50%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 4.79, 4.29, 3.80, and 3.72%, and CLAs were found to be 1.49, 1.69, 1.53, and 1.59%. PMID:24523647

  10. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  11. Multi-Tissue Omics Analyses Reveal Molecular Regulatory Networks for Puberty in Composite Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L.; Ashley, Ryan L.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Fortes, Marina R. S.; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A.; Snelling, Warren M.; Medrano, Juan F.; Thomas, Milton G.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  12. Robustness of two-step acid hydrolysis procedure for composition analysis of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Nunez, Angelica; Wyman, Charles E; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-01

    The NREL standard procedure for lignocellulosic biomass composition has two steps: primary hydrolysis in 72% wt sulfuric acid at 30°C for 1h followed by secondary hydrolysis of the slurry in 4wt% acid at 121°C for 1h. Although pointed out in the NREL procedure, the impact of particle size on composition has never been shown. In addition, the effects of primary hydrolysis time and separation of solids prior to secondary hydrolysis on composition have never been shown. Using poplar, it was found that particle sizes less than 0.250mm significantly lowered the glucan content and increased the Klason lignin but did not affect xylan, acetate, or acid soluble lignin contents. Composition was unaffected for primary hydrolysis time between 30 and 90min. Moreover, separating solids prior to secondary hydrolysis had negligible effect on composition suggesting that lignin and polysaccharides are completely separated in the primary hydrolysis stage. PMID:27282557

  13. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat.

  14. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat. PMID:26506539

  15. Specific catalysis of asparaginyl deamidation by carboxylic acids: kinetic, thermodynamic, and quantitative structure-property relationship analyses.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Brian D; Tran, Benjamin; Moore, Jamie M R; Sharma, Vikas K; Kosky, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Asparaginyl (Asn) deamidation could lead to altered potency, safety, and/or pharmacokinetics of therapeutic protein drugs. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different carboxylic acids on Asn deamidation rates using an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb1*) and a model hexapeptide (peptide1) with the sequence YGKNGG. Thermodynamic analyses of the kinetics data revealed that higher deamidation rates are associated with predominantly more negative ΔS and, to a lesser extent, more positive ΔH. The observed differences in deamidation rates were attributed to the unique ability of each type of carboxylic acid to stabilize the energetically unfavorable transition-state conformations required for imide formation. Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) analysis using kinetic data demonstrated that molecular descriptors encoding for the geometric spatial distribution of atomic properties on various carboxylic acids are effective determinants for the deamidation reaction. Specifically, the number of O-O and O-H atom pairs on carboxyl and hydroxyl groups with interatomic distances of 4-5 Å on a carboxylic acid buffer appears to determine the rate of deamidation. Collectively, the results from structural and thermodynamic analyses indicate that carboxylic acids presumably form multiple hydrogen bonds and charge-charge interactions with the relevant deamidation site and provide alignment between the reactive atoms on the side chain and backbone. We propose that carboxylic acids catalyze deamidation by stabilizing a specific, energetically unfavorable transition-state conformation of l-asparaginyl intermediate II that readily facilitates bond formation between the γ-carbonyl carbon and the deprotonated backbone nitrogen for cyclic imide formation.

  16. Functional analyses of carnivorous plant-specific amino acid residues in S-like ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Arai, Naoki; Nishimura, Emi; Kikuchi, Yo; Ohyama, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    Unlike plants with no carnivory, carnivorous plants seem to use S-like ribonucleases (RNases) as an enzyme for carnivory. Carnivorous plant-specific conserved amino acid residues are present at four positions around the conserved active site (CAS). The roles of these conserved amino acid residues in the enzymatic function were explored in the current study by preparing five recombinant variants of DA-I, the S-like RNase of Drosera adelae. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzymes revealed that among the four variants with a single mutation, the serine to glycine mutation at position 111 most negatively influenced the enzymatic activity. The change in the bulkiness of the amino acid residue side-chain seemed to be the major cause of the above effect. Modeling of the three dimensional (3D) structures strongly suggested that the S to G mutation at 111 greatly altered the overall enzyme conformation. The conserved four amino acid residues are likely to function in keeping the two histidine residues, which are essential for the cleavage of RNA strands, and the CAS in the most functional enzymatic conformation.

  17. Quantitative analyses of tartaric acid based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Binghua; Fan, Mengbao

    2010-10-01

    Terahertz wave is the electromagnetic spectrum situated between microwave and infrared wave. Quantitative analysis based on terahertz spectroscopy is very important for the application of terahertz techniques. But how to realize it is still under study. L-tartaric acid is widely used as acidulant in beverage, and other food, such as soft drinks, wine, candy, bread and some colloidal sweetmeats. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to quantify the tartaric acid. Two methods are employed to process the terahertz spectra of different samples with different content of tartaric acid. The first one is linear regression combining correlation analysis. The second is partial least square (PLS), in which the absorption spectra in the 0.8-1.4THz region are used to quantify the tartaric acid. To compare the performance of these two principles, the relative error of the two methods is analyzed. For this experiment, the first method does better than the second one. But the first method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of materials which has obvious terahertz absorption peaks, while for material which has no obvious terahertz absorption peaks, the second one is more appropriate.

  18. Functional analyses of carnivorous plant-specific amino acid residues in S-like ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Arai, Naoki; Nishimura, Emi; Kikuchi, Yo; Ohyama, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    Unlike plants with no carnivory, carnivorous plants seem to use S-like ribonucleases (RNases) as an enzyme for carnivory. Carnivorous plant-specific conserved amino acid residues are present at four positions around the conserved active site (CAS). The roles of these conserved amino acid residues in the enzymatic function were explored in the current study by preparing five recombinant variants of DA-I, the S-like RNase of Drosera adelae. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzymes revealed that among the four variants with a single mutation, the serine to glycine mutation at position 111 most negatively influenced the enzymatic activity. The change in the bulkiness of the amino acid residue side-chain seemed to be the major cause of the above effect. Modeling of the three dimensional (3D) structures strongly suggested that the S to G mutation at 111 greatly altered the overall enzyme conformation. The conserved four amino acid residues are likely to function in keeping the two histidine residues, which are essential for the cleavage of RNA strands, and the CAS in the most functional enzymatic conformation. PMID:26235877

  19. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  20. New estimation method for fatty acid composition in oil using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuo

    2002-12-01

    The absorption bands of cis-unsaturation and the carbon chain length of the fatty acid moieties in oil appear in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region, especially around 1600-1800 nm. Using this region, a new estimation method for fatty acid composition analysis is proposed. Because the differences of the original NIR spectra are miniscule even in this region, the second derivative NIR spectra were examined in order to estimate the fatty acid composition in oil exclusively from the spectral patterns obtained. The parameters for calculating the second derivative NIR spectra were examined to make the spectral difference clearer. In any parameter, the absorption band was shifted to the shorter wavelength region when the unsaturation in fatty acid moieties increased, and it was shifted to the longer wavelength region when the carbon chain length increased. When the parameters were correct, this NIR method can estimate the fatty acid composition roughly, but simply, easily, and sometimes nondestructively.

  1. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  2. Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

  3. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown. PMID:26638484

  4. Influence of Flaxseed Oil on Fecal Microbiota, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolks in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Heo, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Do-Woon; Park, Tae-Eun; Han, Geon Goo; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Ho-Bin; Jung, Eojin; Kim, Hee Sung; Na, Yerim; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many attempts to produce ω-3 fatty acid-rich eggs using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that is a popular fatty acid in the poultry feed industry, only limited knowledge about the effects of ALA-enriched diets on chicken fecal microbiota is currently available. Herein we examined the changes in the fecal microbiota composition, egg quality traits and fatty acid composition of the egg yolks of laying hens fed ALA-rich flaxseed oil for 8 weeks. The animals fed the experimental diets that contained 0 % (group C), 0.5 % (group T1), and 1.0 % (group T2) of flaxseed oil, respectively, and eggs and feces were obtained for the analyses. ω-3 fatty acids, including ALA, were increased in T1 and T2 compared with C. Furthermore, the freshness of eggs was improved with no side effects on the eggs. The diet also changed the fecal microbiota; Firmicutes was increased in T1 and T2 (48.6 to 83 and 79.6 %) and Bacteroidetes was decreased (40.2 to 8.8 and 4.2 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, among the 56 examined genera, was the most influenced bacterial group in terms of the fecal microbial community shifts. These results indicate that ALA-rich diets influenced both the egg and fecal microbiota in beneficial manners in laying hens although the association between the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk and the fecal microbiota was not clear. This study is a first step to understand the effect of flaxseed oil as well as intestinal microbiota of laying hens. PMID:26613617

  5. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  6. Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, Michael

    In the orthopedic/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying novel biomaterials under development, by evaluating their chemical properties, performance, and safety. The goals of this research were: (i) Characterize the assay/quality of every resin component and quantify elution of extractable monomers from novel, DUDMA-based RHAKOSS(TM) implant, (ii) Determine degree of conversion (alpha) and rate of polymerization (Rp) for novel, Bis-GMA-based CORTOSS(TM) composite, (iii) Assess risk for radical-induced post-surgical cytotoxicity for CORTOSS, (iv) Determine if surface radical chemistries occur for sterilized RHAKOSS and assess its oxidative stability, and (v) Quantify antibiotic elution from antibiotic-impregnated CORTOSS and identify factors that control elution. The phenomena studied necessitated the utilization of several analytical spectroscopic techniques; fluorometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), attenuated total reflectance---Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A battery of lateral chemical techniques were employed as well; including molecular derivatization/tagging, phase partitioning, spin-trapping, and thermal annealing. Results demonstrated that RHAKOSS monomer percent compositions were prepared according to formulations and monomer elution was virtually undetectable, serving as an empirical gauge to

  7. Evaluation of the retention pattern on ionic liquid columns for gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Chen; Wasta, Ziar; Mjøs, Svein A

    2014-07-11

    Fatty acid methyl esters from marine sources were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on three ionic liquid columns, SLB-IL61, SLB-IL82 and SLB-IL100 (Supelco). Retention indices (equivalent chain lengths) are reported for more than 100 compounds and the overlap patterns are evaluated from these data. The influence of chromatographic conditions on the retention indices of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters is also evaluated. Compared to typical alternative phases the retention patterns on all three columns are highly dependent on the conditions. The SLB-IL61 phase had overlaps between nutritionally important fatty acids that could not be resolved by changing the chromatographic conditions. This column is therefore regarded as unsuitable for clinical and nutritional studies of the fatty acid composition, but similar overlaps may be avoided on IL82 and IL100. On all three columns double bonds close to the carboxyl group in the analytes contribute with limited retention, which makes it challenging to predict the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. PMID:24873965

  8. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, “Green King”. Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  9. Validation of the scale system for PWR spent fuel isotopic composition analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.; Brady, M.C.

    1995-03-01

    The validity of the computation of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel isotopic composition by the SCALE system depletion analysis was assessed using data presented in the report. Radiochemical measurements and SCALE/SAS2H computations of depleted fuel isotopics were compared with 19 benchmark-problem samples from Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, H. B. Robinson Unit 2, and Obrigheim PWRs. Even though not exhaustive in scope, the validation included comparison of predicted and measured concentrations for 14 actinides and 37 fission and activation products. The basic method by which the SAS2H control module applies the neutron transport treatment and point-depletion methods of SCALE functional modules (XSDRNPM-S, NITAWL-II, BONAMI, and ORIGEN-S) is described in the report. Also, the reactor fuel design data, the operating histories, and the isotopic measurements for all cases are included in detail. The underlying radiochemical assays were conducted by the Materials Characterization. Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Approved Testing Material program and by four different laboratories in Europe on samples processed at the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.

  10. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-08-28

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  11. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  12. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  13. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition. PMID:19557745

  14. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  15. [Fatty acid composition variability of rapeseed oil: classical selection and biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L A

    2010-01-01

    The problems and achievements in the rapeseed Brassica napus L. var. oleifera breeding directed on the change of fatty acid composition in seed oil with the use of traditional and genetic engineering approaches are analyzed. It is noticed that the combination of biotechnological workings out and methods of classical breeding is the optimum for the further improvement of rapeseed oil composition.

  16. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  17. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    This study highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the global and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in southwest Australia. Results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies may form a necessary preconditioning for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity experiments based on pattern correlation analyses, and using both observations and coupled climate model simulations, indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are actually not associated with HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. The results presented here have interesting implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  18. Compositional and immunobiological analyses of extracellular vesicles released by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gabriele; Rocha, Juliana D B; Oliveira, Debora Leite; Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Frases, Susana; Santos, Suelen S; Nosanchuk, Joshua Daniel; Gomes, Andre Marco Oliveira; Medeiros, Lia C A S; Miranda, Kildare; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Arigi, Emma A; Casadevall, Arturo; Guimaraes, Allan J; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo; Almeida, Igor C; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) by fungal organisms is considered an alternative transport mechanism to trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules. Previous studies have revealed the presence of EV in culture supernatants from fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Malassezia sympodialis and Candida albicans. Here we investigated the size, composition, kinetics of internalization by bone marrow-derived murine macrophages (MO) and dendritic cells (DC), and the immunomodulatory activity of C. albicans EV. We also evaluated the impact of EV on fungal virulence using the Galleria mellonella larvae model. By transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we identified two populations ranging from 50 to 100 nm and 350 to 850 nm. Two predominant seroreactive proteins (27 kDa and 37 kDa) and a group of polydispersed mannoproteins were observed in EV by immunoblotting analysis. Proteomic analysis of C. albicans EV revealed proteins related to pathogenesis, cell organization, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, response to stress, and several other functions. The major lipids detected by thin-layer chromatography were ergosterol, lanosterol and glucosylceramide. Short exposure of MO to EV resulted in internalization of these vesicles and production of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-12, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and IL-10. Similarly, EV-treated DC produced IL-12p40, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. In addition, EV treatment induced the up-regulation of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class-II (MHC-II). Inoculation of G. mellonella larvae with EV followed by challenge with C. albicans reduced the number of recovered viable yeasts in comparison with infected larvae control. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. albicans EV were immunologically active and could potentially interfere with the host responses in the setting of

  19. Integral Manufacturing of Composite Skin-Stringer Assembly and Their Stability Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Majumdar, Prasun; Saha, Mrinal; Shamery, Frederick; Jeelani, Shaik

    2004-05-01

    Stiffened composite constructions are increasingly being used in the primary structures of aircraft. One key component in these structures is the assembly between the skin and the stringer. The purpose of the stringers sandwiched between two separate layers of skin is to provide structural integrity to a relatively weak skin-structure. Current practice is to fabricate the skin and the stringer separately, assemble them with adhesively bonded joints, and then co-cure the entire assembly in an autoclave. However, the reliability of the joint manufactured in this fashion is not dependable and hence requires riveting of the skin with the stringer by hundreds of mechanical fasteners. Although the mechanical fastener improves the joint reliability, it certainly increases the weight and reduces the strength of the structure by introducing stress concentration points around the rivet holes. In order to eliminate these disadvantages, an innovative low cost manufacturing technique has been developed. The technique utilizes the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process to co-inject both the skin and the stringer in one integral step. Furthermore, the skin and the stringer are now part of one continuous fabric preform which by default eliminates any adhesive bonding. Several skin-stringer assemblies with plain weave carbon fabric and SC-15 epoxy resin have been manufactured following this procedure. Stability of the manufactured skin-stringer assembly has been investigated experimentally. The extensive analysis focused on the determination of the critical load corresponding to the instability of the structure, failure load and study of the failure mechanisms. Details of manufacturing procedures and experimental investigations are presented in the paper.

  20. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo-Ik ); Hammes, G.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the {beta}-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution.

  1. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Kapopara, M B; Patel, V H

    2010-06-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually increased upon incorporation of PB. The hardness of biscuits also increased with increasing proportion of PB. Overall sensory quality of experimental biscuits improved when 50% vanaspati replaced by PB in the standard biscuits recipe. Biscuits prepared with 50% supplementation of PB had better fatty acid composition with balanced oil quality and also had a greater acceptability by sensory evaluation panel.

  2. A citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongjin; Yang, Jian; Kodali, Pradeep; Koh, Jason; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2006-12-01

    We describe a novel approach to process bioceramic microparticles and poly(diol citrates) into bioceramic-elastomer composites for potential use in orthopedic surgery. The composite consists of the biodegradable elastomer poly(1,8-octanediol-citrate) (POC) and the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HA). The objective of this work was to characterize POC-HA composites and assess the feasibility of fabricating tissue fixation devices using machining and molding techniques. The mechanical properties of POC-HA composites with HA (40, 50, 60, 65wt.%) were within the range of values reported for tissue fixation devices (for POC-HA 65wt.%, S(b)=41.4+/-3.1, E(b)=501.7+/-40.3, S(c)=74.6+/-9.0, E(c)=448.8+/-27.0, S(t)=9.7+/-2.3, E(t)=334.8+/-73.5, S(s)=27.7+/-2.4, T(s)=27.3+/-4.9, all values in MPa). At 20 weeks, the weight loss of POC-HA composites ranged between 8 and 12wt.%, with 65wt.% HA composites degrading the slowest. Exposure of POC-HA to simulated body fluid resulted in extensive mineralization in the form of calcium phosphate with Ca/P of 1.5-1.7 similar to bone. POC-HA supported osteoblast adhesion in vitro and histology results from POC-HA samples that were implanted in rabbit knees for 6 weeks suggest that the composite is biocompatible. Synthesis of POC-HA is easy and inexpensive, does not involve harsh solvents or initiators, and the mechanical properties of POC-HA with 65wt.% HA are suitable for the fabrication of potentially osteoconductive bone screws.

  3. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte, platelet, and serum lipids in strict vegans.

    PubMed

    Agren, J J; Törmälä, M L; Nenonen, M T; Hänninen, O O

    1995-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes, platelets, and serum lipids was compared between subjects who had been eating a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food") for years and omnivore controls. The vegan diet contains equal amounts of fat but more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the mixed diet of the control group. In vegans, the proportion of linoleic acid was greater in all lipid fractions studied. Also, the levels of other n-6 fatty acids were greater, with the exception of arachidonic acid levels, which were similar in most fractions. In erythrocytes, platelets and serum phospholipid fractions, this increase was mainly at the expense of the n-3 fatty acids. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were only 29-36% and 49-52% of those in controls, respectively. In vegans the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids was only about half that in omnivores. In addition to the lower levels of n-3 fatty acids, the proportions of palmitic and stearic acids were lower in serum cholesteryl esters, triglycerides and free fatty acids of vegans. The proportion of oleic acid was slightly lower only in serum cholesteryl esters and erythrocyte phosphatidylserine. The results show that, in the long term, the vegan diet has little effect on the proportions of oleic and arachidonic acids, whereas the levels of n-3 fatty acids are depressed to very low levels with prolonged consumption of the high linoleic and oleic acid components of this diet.

  4. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Chastin, Sebastien F M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between movement behaviours (sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity) and health indicators in a representative sample of children and youth using compositional analyses. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4169 children and youth (aged 6-17 years) from cycles 1 to 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Sedentary time (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer-derived. Sleep duration was subjectively measured. Body mass index z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, and aerobic fitness were measured in the full sample. Triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were measured in a fasting subsample. The composition of movement behaviours was entered into linear regression models via an isometric log ratio transformation and was found to be associated with all health indicators (p < 0.01). Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB or LPA was positively associated (p < 0.04) and time spent in MVPA or sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.02) with obesity risk markers. Similarly, LPA was positively associated (p < 0.005) and sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.03) with unfavourable behavioural strengths and difficulties scores and systolic blood pressure. Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB was negatively associated (p < 0.001) and time spent in MVPA (p < 0.001) was positively associated with aerobic fitness. Likewise, MVPA was also negatively associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers (p < 0.008). Compositional data analyses provide novel insights into collective health implications of 24-h movement behaviours and can facilitate interesting avenues for future investigations. PMID:27306435

  5. Automated determination of fatty acid methyl ester and cis/trans methyl ester composition of fats and oils.

    PubMed

    de Koning, S; van der Meer, B; Alkema, G; Janssen, H G; Brinkman, U A

    2001-07-13

    The determination of the fatty acid composition (as methyl esters, FAMEs) of fats and oils and their cis/trans (CTME) distribution requires a simple, but manual and time-consuming sample preparation. The so-called BF3 method is often the preferred procedure. Because FAME/CTME analyses are encountered very frequently in the food industry, an automated, robot-based alternative is proposed which uses the sodium methylate procedure. After sample weighing and the (manual) addition of heptane (2 min), a XYZ robotic autosampler is used for all remaining work, which includes reagent addition, agitation, sample settling and the final injection into the gas chromatograph (10 min). The performance of the sodium methylate and BF3 methods are compared by analysing some 30 oil and fat samples. The novel procedure is much faster (less than 15 min versus ca. 1 h) and manual sample handling is drastically decreased. The experimental results obtained with the two methods frequently are the same, while small differences can be explained by (known) differences of the two methods in the conversion of minor oil/fat constituents, such as free fatty acids, wax esters and sterol esters. In case of FAME analyses, a hot injection is to be preferred over a cold injection. The RSDs of the peak areas were 1.5% for the major fatty acids to 11% for peaks that were just above the noise level. The detection limit were approximately 0.03%.

  6. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelley, A. M.; Scherer, J. R.; Aubrey, A. D.; Ivester, R. H.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips (1, 2). To analyze amino acids in situ, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip. The heart of the MOA is the microchip that contains the CE separation channels as well as microfabricated valves and pumps (3) for sample handling. The pneumatic microfabricated valves are created by combining an etched displacement chamber, an actuated PDMS membrane layer, and a discontinuous fluidic channel structure. A microfabricated pump is created by combining three individually-addressable valves in series. These membrane valves and pumps are integrated with the glass separation channel using a novel multilayer design in which sample enters the top fluidic layer for routing and is directed to the bottom glass layers for CE separation and analysis. The microfabricated device is operated by the portable instrument which contains solenoids for controlling fluidic valves, electronics, a 15 mW 400 nm diode laser, confocal detection optics, and a fiber-optic coupled photomultiplier for fluorescence detection. Limits of detection of fluorescamine-labeled amino acids are in the nM to pM range corresponding to part-per-trillion sensitivities in soil samples (4). The portable CE instrument, in combination with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) (5), was recently successfully field tested on soil samples rich in jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA. Jarosite has recently been detected on Mars

  7. Effects of previous diet and duration of soybean oil supplementation on light lambs carcass composition, meat quality and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bessa, R J B; Lourenço, M; Portugal, P V; Santos-Silva, J

    2008-12-01

    Forty Merino Branco ram lambs were used to study the effects of initial diet and duration of supplementation with a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promoting diet, on carcass composition, meat quality and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. The experimental period was 6 weeks. The experimental design involved 2 initial diets (commercial concentrate (C); dehydrated lucerne (L)), and 2 finishing periods (2 and 4 weeks) on dehydrated lucerne plus 10% soybean oil (O). Data were analysed as a 2×2 factorial arrangement with initial diet and time on finishing (CLA promoting) diet as the main factors. The lambs were randomly assigned to four groups: CCO; COO; LLO; LOO according to the lamb's diet fed in each period. Lambs initially fed with concentrate showed higher hot carcass weights (11.2 vs 9.6kg) than lambs fed initially with lucerne. The increase of the duration of finishing period reduced the carcass muscle percentage (57.4% vs 55.5%) and increased the subcutaneous fat percentage (5.67% vs 7.03%). Meat colour was affected by initial diet. Lambs initially fed with concentrate showed a lower proportion of CLA (18:2cis-9, trans-11 isomer) (0.98% vs 1.38% of total fatty acids) and most of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids than lambs initially fed with lucerne. Initial diet did not compromise the response to the CLA-promoting diet and the proportion of 18:2cis-9, trans-11 in intramuscular fat increased with the duration of time on the CLA-promoting diet (1.02% vs 1.34% of total fatty acids).

  8. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05).

  9. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  10. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

    2016-01-12

    The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

  11. An integrated portable hand-held analyser for real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew C; Steimle, George; Ivanov, Stan; Holly, Mark; Fries, David P

    2007-08-29

    A compact hand-held heated fluorometric instrument for performing real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification and detection is described. The optoelectronic instrument combines a Printed Circuit Board/Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (PCB/MEMS) reaction detection/chamber containing an integrated resistive heater with attached miniature LED light source and photo-detector and a disposable glass waveguide capillary to enable a mini-fluorometer. The fluorometer is fabricated and assembled in planar geometry, rolled into a tubular format and packaged with custom control electronics to form the hand-held reactor. Positive or negative results for each reaction are displayed to the user using an LED interface. Reaction data is stored in FLASH memory for retrieval via an in-built USB connection. Operating on one disposable 3 V lithium battery >12, 60 min reactions can be performed. Maximum dimensions of the system are 150 mm (h) x 48 mm (d) x 40 mm (w), the total instrument weight (with battery) is 140 g. The system produces comparable results to laboratory instrumentation when performing a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction, and also displayed comparable precision, accuracy and resolution to laboratory-based real-time nucleic acid amplification instrumentation. A good linear response (R2 = 0.948) to fluorescein gradients ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM was also obtained from the instrument indicating that it may be utilized for other fluorometric assays. This instrument enables an inexpensive, compact approach to in-field genetic screening, providing results comparable to laboratory equipment with rapid user feedback as to the status of the reaction. PMID:17719904

  12. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  13. Fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides of the strains of different species of Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Frolov, A F; Ruban, N M; Vasyurenko, Z P

    1989-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides of the strains of Y. enterocolitica, Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii and Y. ruckeri studied during cultivation on meat-peptone agar is characterized by the predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic and dodecanoic acids. Closely related to the mentioned bacteria is the strain of Y. kristensenii which is distinguished only by its higher level of hexadecanoic acid. The strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and the vaccine strain of Y. pestis have a uniform fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides with predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid. Their relatively low level of dodecanoic acid conditions the characteristic fatty acid spectrum of lipopolysaccharides which differs from that of the above mentioned group of Yersinia. The peculiarities of the fatty acid composition of lipopolysaccharides of both groups of Yersinia are preserved during growth on meat-peptone broth, but the increase in the level of hexadecanoic acid balances the differences between Y. kristensenii, the other Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria and Y. ruckeri. The obtained results confirm close relationship of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis, and also of Y. enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria, showing propinquity of Y. ruckeri to the latter.

  14. Fatty acid composition and extreme temperature tolerance following exposure to fluctuating temperatures in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Suring, Wouter; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-09-01

    Ectotherms commonly adjust their lipid composition to ambient temperature to counteract detrimental thermal effects on lipid fluidity. However, the extent of lipid remodeling and the associated fitness consequences under continuous temperature fluctuations are not well-described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated temperature fluctuations on fatty acid composition and thermal tolerance. We exposed the springtail Orchesella cincta to two constant temperatures of 5 and 20°C, and a continuously fluctuating treatment between 5 and 20°C every 2 days. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between constant low and high temperatures. As expected, animals were most cold tolerant in the low temperature treatment, while heat tolerance was highest under high temperature. Under fluctuating temperatures, fatty acid composition changed with temperature initially, but later in the experiment fatty acid composition stabilized and closely resembled that found under constant warm temperatures. Consistent with this, heat tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was comparable to the constant warm treatment. Cold tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was intermediate compared to animals acclimated to constant cold or warmth, despite the fact that fatty acid composition was adjusted to warm conditions. This unexpected finding suggests that in animals acclimated to fluctuating temperatures an additional underlying mechanism is involved in the cold shock response. Other aspects of homeoviscous adaptation may protect animals during extreme cold. This paper forms a next step to fully understand the functioning of ectotherms in more thermally variable environments. PMID:21704631

  15. Discrimination, correlation, and provenance of Bed I tephrostratigraphic markers, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, based on multivariate analyses of phenocryst compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, Jörg M.; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Stollhofen, Harald; Tolosana-Delgado, Raimon; Stanistreet, Ian G.; Deino, Alan L.

    2016-06-01

    The chronology of Pleistocene flora and fauna, including hominin remains and associated Oldowan industries in Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, is primarily based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of intercalated tuffs and lavas, combined with detailed tephrostratigraphic correlations within the basin. Although a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework has been established for the eastern part of the Olduvai Basin, the western subbasin is less well known due in part to major lateral facies changes within Bed I combined with discontinuous exposure. We address these correlation difficulties using the discriminative power of the chemical composition of the major juvenile mineral phases (augite, anorthoclase, plagioclase) from tuffs, volcaniclastic sandstones, siliciclastic units, and lavas. We statistically evaluate these compositions, obtained from electron probe micro-analysis, applying principal component analysis and discriminant analysis to develop discriminant models that successfully classify most Bed I volcanic units. The correlations, resulting from integrated analyses of all target minerals, provide a basin-wide Bed I chemostratigraphic framework at high lateral and vertical resolution, consistent with the known geological context, that expands and refines the geochemical databases currently available. Correlation of proximal ignimbrites at the First Fault with medial and distal Lower Bed I successions of the western basin enables assessment of lateral facies and thickness trends that confirm Ngorongoro Volcano as the primary source for Lower Bed I, whereas Upper Bed I sediment supply is mainly from Olmoti Volcano. Compositional similarity between Tuff IA, Bed I lava, and Mafic Tuffs II and III single-grain fingerprints, together with north- and northwestward thinning of Bed I lava, suggests a common Ngorongoro source for these units. The techniques applied herein improve upon previous work by evaluating compositional affinities with statistical rigor rather than

  16. Metazoan remaining genes for essential amino acid biosynthesis: sequence conservation and evolutionary analyses.

    PubMed

    Costa, Igor R; Thompson, Julie D; Ortega, José Miguel; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2014-12-24

    Essential amino acids (EAA) consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS) and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL) relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals.

  17. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase.

  18. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  19. Microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter elucidated by amino acid and amino sugar analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, S.; Osono, T.; Noro, K.; Hirota, M.; Benner, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    There is still much to be revealed about carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in terrestrial soil systems. The objectives of this study were to identify molecular changes in composition during plant litter decomposition and gain insights about microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter. Litter bag experiments with three plant species, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus crispula, were conducted for three years, and the concentrations of C, N, amino acids and amino sugars were determined at various times during the experiments. Mass loss (AFDW) ranged from 66-90% for the plant tissues. The weight %C remained fairly constant, whereas the weight %N increased throughout the study indicating N immobilization was occurring. The percentages of C as amino acids and amino sugars also increased throughout the study suggesting these biomolecules were largely of microbial origin. The increasing yields of amino acids and amino sugars were inversely related to overall C loss from the litter material. As microorganisms degraded the plant litter they left behind molecular signatures that were useful predictors of the extent of overall degradation. The C/N ratio of litter decreased throughout the study and was inversely related to galactosamine yields. The glucosamine/galactosamine (GlcN/GalN) ratio gradually declined to values near 2 by the end of the study. Galactoasamine is more abundant in bacteria than fungi, and the declining GlcN/GalN ratio suggest the relative contributions of bacterial to litter C and N increased relative to contributions from fungi. A cluster analysis of 0- and 36-month litters based on amino acid and amino sugar composition showed that 0-month litters of three plant species were separated from 36-month litters, suggesting common diagenetic pathways during decomposition irrespective of plant species. The microbial decomposers contribute to N immobilization and their contributions to the C and N content of litter increases

  20. Proteome and Membrane Fatty Acid Analyses on Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 Grown under Chemolithoautotrophic and Heterotrophic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debarati; Kumar, Ranjit; Nanduri, Bindu; French, Todd; Pendarvis, Ken; Brown, Ashli; Lawrence, Mark L.; Burgess, Shane C.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 T. (DSM 1227, ATCC 49405) is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium able to utilize CO and H2 to derive energy for fixation of CO2. Thus, it is capable of growth using syngas, which is a mixture of varying amounts of CO and H2 generated by organic waste gasification. O. carboxidovorans is capable also of heterotrophic growth in standard bacteriologic media. Here we characterize how the O. carboxidovorans proteome adapts to different lifestyles of chemolithoautotrophy and heterotrophy. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown with acetate or with syngas showed that the bacterium changes membrane fatty acid composition. Quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown in the presence of acetate and syngas showed production of proteins encoded on the megaplasmid for assimilating CO and H2 as well as proteins encoded on the chromosome that might have contributed to fatty acid and acetate metabolism. We found that adaptation to chemolithoautotrophic growth involved adaptations in cell envelope, oxidative homeostasis, and metabolic pathways such as glyoxylate shunt and amino acid/cofactor biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:21386900

  1. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic microbial communities associated with the siliceous vent walls and outflow channel of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, have been examined for lipid biomarkers and carbon isotopic signatures. These data were compared with that obtained from representatives of three Aquificales genera. Thermocrinis ruber. "Thermocrinis sp. HI", Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus and Aquifex aeolicus all contained phospholipids composed not only of the usual ester-linked fatty acids, but also ether-linked alkyls. The fatty acids of all cultured organisms were dominated by a very distinct pattern of n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21 compounds. The alkyl glycerol ethers were present primarily as CIS() monoethers with the expection of the Aquifex spp. in which dialkyl glycerol ethers with a boarder carbon-number distribution were also present. These Aquificales biomarker lipids were the major constituents in the lipid extracts of the Octopus Spring microbial samples. Two natural samples, a microbial biofilm growing in association with deposition of amorphous silica on the vent walls at 92 C, and the well-known 'pink-streamers community' (PSC), siliceous filaments of a microbial consortia growing in the upper outflow channel at 87 C were analyzed. Both the biofilm and PSC samples contained mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers with a prevalence of C-18 and C-20 alkyls. Phospholipid fatty acids were comprised of both the characteristic Aquificales n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21, and in addition, a series of iso-branched fatty acids from i-C-15:0 to i-C-21:0, With i-C-17:0 dominant in the PSC and i-C-19:0 in the biofilm, suggesting the presence of two major bacterial groups. Bacteriohopanepolyols were absent and the minute quantities of archaeol detected showed that Archaea were only minor constituents. Carbon isotopic compositions of the PSC yielded information about community structure and likely physiology. Biomass was C-13-depleted (10.9%) relative to available

  2. Thermoformed protein based composites in presence of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World industrialization has generated substantial quantities of petroleum-based plastics over many years, which are non biodegradable. There is a growing demand for the use of renewable agricultural sources to develop eco-friendly biobased composites. Agriculture-sourced proteins and starches are b...

  3. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Lussiana, Carola; Cornale, Paolo; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Fortina, Riccardo; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0.001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0.001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption. PMID:26869109

  4. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Lussiana, Carola; Cornale, Paolo; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Fortina, Riccardo; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0.001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0.001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption.

  5. Influence of radiopacity of dental composites on the diagnosis of secondary caries: the correlation between objective and subjective analyses.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A D; Esteves, R G; Poiate, I A V P; Portero, P P; Almeida, S M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to objectively evaluate the radiopacity of different dental composites and their subjective influence on diagnosing secondary caries-like lesions and how these results correlate. For objective analysis, three resin specimens (1 mm thick, with a 4-mm internal diameter) were made with four composites: 1) Charisma; 2) Filtek Z250; 3) Prisma AP.H; and 4) Glacier. Three human teeth were selected and then mesio-distally sectioned (1 mm thick) to make the dental specimens. An aluminum (Al) wedge (12 steps, 1 mm thick, 99.8% purity) was used as an internal standard to calculate the radiopacity. For subjective analysis, 20 human teeth were selected and then prepared with a mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, with half the teeth receiving a round cavity to simulate the carious lesion. The MOD was restored using the composites at four different times. Standardized radiographs were acquired and then digitized (300 dpi and eight-bit TIFF) for both analyses. A histogram objectively measured the pixel intensity values of the images, which were converted into millimeters of Al using linear regressions. Eight observers subjectively evaluated the images using a five-point rating scale to diagnose the caries. The data were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test, the Kappa test, diagnostic testing, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (α=0.05). All materials showed radiopacity values compatible with dental tissues (p>0.05); Glacier was similar to dentin and Prisma AP.H was similar to enamel, while the remaining materials showed a middle radiopacity. Prisma AP.H and Glacier differed (p<0.05) in relation to their accuracy to caries diagnosis, with Glacier having greater accuracy. There was a correlation between objective and subjective analyses with negative linear dependence. An increase in the material's radiopacity could have a subjectively negative influence on the diagnosis of secondary caries; thus, an ideal radiopacity for a dental composite is

  6. Molar ratio iron: zinc and folic acid in Brazilian biscuits and snacks and test for classification using principal component analyses.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Adriana Teixeira; Rebelatto, Ana Paula; Borin-Nogueira, Alessandra; Lima-Pallone, Juliana Azevedo

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate molar ratio iron: zinc and the levels of folic acid in biscuit and snacks commercialized in Brazil, prepared with folic acid and iron fortified flours. These nutrients are important for human nutrition; however, iron can have a negative effect on zinc absorption. Molar ratio iron:zinc can indicate if there will be any problems for absorption of these nutrients. The folic acid content varied from 58 to 433 μg/100 g and iron and zinc levels varied from 2.9 to 9.4 mg/100 g and from 0.2 to 1.3 mg/100 g, respectively, for 75 analyzed samples. The average iron contents observed in the products and molar ratio iron:zinc (in average 8:1 for biscuits and 12.8:1 for snacks) could result in problems with the zinc absorption. Moreover, principal compo- nent analyses (PCA) indicated low uniformity in the distribution of minerals and vitamin in the majority of the samples, mainly among brands. The results indicated that for the majority of the samples tested folic acid and iron content was higher than expected for flours and could be useful to governmental authorities in their evaluation program of flour fortification.

  7. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque. PMID:27545001

  8. Effects of hydroxyapatite and PDGF concentrations on osteoblast growth in a nanohydroxyapatite-polylactic acid composite for guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Talal, Ahmed; McKay, I J; Tanner, K E; Hughes, Francis J

    2013-09-01

    The technique of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has evolved over recent years in an attempt to achieve periodontal tissue regeneration by the use of a barrier membrane. However, there are significant limitations in the currently available membranes and overall outcomes may be limited. A degradable composite material was investigated as a potential GTR membrane material. Polylactic acid (PLA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite was analysed, its bioactive potential and suitability as a carrier system for growth factors were assessed. The effect of nHA concentrations and the addition of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was investigated. The bioactivity was dependent on the nHA concentration in the films, with more apatite deposited on films containing higher nHA content. Osteoblasts proliferated well on samples containing low nHA content and differentiated on films with higher nHA content. The composite films were able to deliver PDGF and cell proliferation increased on samples that were pre-absorbed with the growth factor. nHA-PLA composite films are able to deliver active PDGF. In addition the bioactivity and cell differentiation was higher on films containing more nHA. The use of a nHA-PLA composite material containing a high concentration of nHA may be a useful material for GTR membrane as it will not only act as a barrier, but may also be able to enhance bone regeneration by delivery of biologically active molecules.

  9. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  10. Fatty acid composition of beef is associated with exonic nucleotide variants of the gene encoding FASN.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyep; Lee, Yoonseok; La, Boomi; Yeo, Jungsou; Chung, Euiryong; Kim, Younyoung; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2012-04-01

    Genetic associations of fatty acid composition with exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FASN) were examined using 513 Korean cattle. All five individual SNPs of g.12870 T>C, g.13126 T>C, g.15532 C>A, g.16907 T>C and g.17924 G>A were associated with a variety of fatty acid compositions and further with marbling score (P < 0.05). Their genotypes of CC, TT, AA, TT, and GG were associated with increased monounsaturated fatty acids and with decreased saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). The genotypes at all the SNPs also increased marbling score (P < 0.05). Further genetic associations with fatty acid composition suggested that homozygous genotype with the haplotype of ATG at g.15532, g.16907, and g.17924 in a linkage disequilibrium block increased monounsaturated fatty acids and marbling score (P < 0.05). We concluded that the five exonic SNPs of g.12870, g.13126, g.15532, g.16907, and g.17924 in the FASN gene could change fatty acid contents. Their genotypes of CC, TT, AA, TT, and GG and haplotype of ATG at g.15532, g.16907, and g.17924 were recommended for genetic improvement of beef quality.

  11. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  12. 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized graphene oxide composites: Preparation, characterization and selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Qu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    Selective enrichment and isolation of glycopeptides from complex biological samples was indispensable for mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics, however, it remained a great challenge due to the low abundance of glycoproteins and the ion suppression of non-glycopeptides. In this work, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized graphene oxide composites were synthesized via loading gold nanoparticles on polyethylenimine modified graphene oxide surface, followed by 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid immobilization by the formation of Au-S bonding (denoted as GO/PEI/Au/4-MPB composites). The composites showed highly specific and efficient capture of glycopeptides due to their excellent hydrophilicity and abundant boronic acid groups. The composites could selectively capture the glycopeptides from the mixture of glycopeptides and nonglycopeptides, even when the amounts of non-glycopeptides were 100 times more than glycopeptides. Compared with commercial meta-amino phenylboronic acid agarose, the composites showed better selectivity when the sample was decreased to 10 ng. These results clearly verified that the GO/PEI/Au/4-MPB composites might be a promising material for glycoproteomics analysis.

  13. Comparison of fatty acid composition of cell homogenates and isolated chloroplasts in Acetabularia crenulata (Lamouroux).

    PubMed

    Santiago-Vázquez, Lory Z; Jacobs, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    Algal preparations from Acetabularia crenulata were analyzed for their fatty acid composition to establish the suitability of this alga as a model to study fatty acid oxidation and oxylipin biosynthesis. The work was based on two goals. The first goal of this study was to determine the contribution of fatty acids from contaminating bacteria and how this influenced the total fatty acid composition of cell homogenates of A. crenulata collected in the wild as compared to specimens cultured in sterile conditions. The major fatty acids detected for both specimens were palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-7), oleic (C18:1n-9), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolenic (C18:3n-3), and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4n-3). Significant amounts of odd-chain fatty acids common to bacteria were not detected in either sample. Furthermore, branched-chain fatty acids, typical bacterial biomarkers, were not detected in either sample. Data suggest that bacteria do not greatly contribute to the total fatty acid pool of A. crenulata. The second goal was to compare the fatty acid composition of cell homogenates with that of isolated chloroplasts. Comparatively speaking palmitoleic and octadecatetraenoic acid were found at significantly lower concentrations in the chloroplast whereas oleic and linolenic acid were found at significantly higher amounts in this organelle. Furthermore, the amount of hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3), a fatty acid commonly esterified to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG; lipid present at high concentrations inside the chloroplasts of algae), was present at very low concentrations in these plastids (0.7%). Typically green algal follow the "prokaryotic pathway" for MGDG biosynthesis where C18:3 is esterified at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone and C18:3 or C16:3 at the sn-2 position, making C16:3 a major fatty acid inside chloroplasts. Interestingly, our results suggest that chloroplasts of A. crenulata appear to follow the "eukaryotic pathway" for MGDG

  14. Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Etelvino H; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J; Cunha, Tony J F; Madari, Beáta E; de M Benites, Vinícius; Hayes, Michael H B

    2007-01-15

    The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested "Terra Preta de Indio" or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite pi pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity. PMID:17310698

  15. Differences in Muscle Transcriptome among Pigs Phenotypically Extreme for Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Corominas, Jordi; Estellé, Jordi; Pérez-Montarelo, Dafne; Hudson, Nicholas J.; Casellas, Joaquim; Folch, Josep M.; Ballester, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Besides having an impact on human health, the porcine muscle fatty acid profile determines meat quality and taste. The RNA-Seq technologies allowed us to explore the pig muscle transcriptome with an unprecedented detail. The aim of this study was to identify differentially-expressed genes between two groups of 6 sows belonging to an Iberian × Landrace backcross with extreme phenotypes according to FA profile. Results We sequenced the muscle transcriptome acquiring 787.5 M of 75 bp paired-end reads. About 85.1% of reads were mapped to the reference genome. Of the total reads, 79.1% were located in exons, 6.0% in introns and 14.9% in intergenic regions, indicating expressed regions not annotated in the reference genome. We identified a 34.5% of the intergenic regions as interspersed repetitive regions. We predicted a total of 2,372 putative proteins. Pathway analysis with 131 differentially-expressed genes revealed that the most statistically-significant metabolic pathways were related with lipid metabolism. Moreover, 18 of the differentially-expressed genes were located in genomic regions associated with IMF composition in an independent GWAS study in the same genetic background. Thus, our results indicate that the lipid metabolism of FAs is differently modulated when the FA composition in muscle differs. For instance, a high content of PUFA may reduce FA and glucose uptake resulting in an inhibition of the lipogenesis. These results are consistent with previous studies of our group analysing the liver and the adipose tissue transcriptomes providing a view of each of the main organs involved in lipid metabolism. Conclusions The results obtained in the muscle transcriptome analysis increase the knowledge of the gene regulation of IMF deposition, FA profile and meat quality, in terms of taste and nutritional value. Besides, our results may be important in terms of human health. PMID:24926690

  16. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration.

  17. Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Anisha, B S; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified.

  18. Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Anisha, B S; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified. PMID:24060281

  19. Studies on saturated and trans fatty acids composition of few commercial brands of biscuits sold in Indian market.

    PubMed

    Amrutha Kala, A L

    2014-11-01

    Saturated fat and trans fat consumption is linked to cardiovascular disease. Considering the health implications of saturated and trans fats investigation was undertaken with the objective to study the fat compositions in biscuits sold in Indian market. These commercial biscuits were analysed for saturated and trans fatty acids using capillary GC. The results of analysis of 46 biscuit samples showed that the total fat content ranged from 9.5 to 25.0 g/100 g of biscuits. The fatty acid profile showed that, saturated fat content in biscuits ranged from 5.1 to 18.7 g/100 g. The overall range of total trans fat content was found to be 0.1 to 3.2 g/100 g biscuit and cis monounsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.9 to 8.6 g/100 g of biscuits. The low-level trans fatty acid was mainly by dienes and trienes where as high-level trans was from monoenes of C18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in biscuits ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 g/100 g. Biscuits of same brand on repeat analysis over a period of one year showed little variation in fat, saturated and trans fat content.

  20. Nitric oxide is required for determining root architecture and lignin composition in sunflower. Supporting evidence from microarray analyses.

    PubMed

    Corti Monzón, Georgina; Pinedo, Marcela; Di Rienzo, Julio; Novo-Uzal, Esther; Pomar, Federico; Lamattina, Lorenzo; de la Canal, Laura

    2014-05-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal molecule involved in several physiological processes in plants, including root development. Despite the importance of NO as a root growth regulator, the knowledge about the genes and metabolic pathways modulated by NO in this process is still limited. A constraint to unravel these pathways has been the use of exogenous applications of NO donors that may produce toxic effects. We have analyzed the role of NO in root architecture through the depletion of endogenous NO using the scavenger cPTIO. Sunflower seedlings growing in liquid medium supplemented with cPTIO showed unaltered primary root length while the number of lateral roots was deeply reduced; indicating that endogenous NO participates in determining root branching in sunflower. The transcriptional changes induced by NO depletion have been analyzed using a large-scale approach. A microarray analysis showed 330 genes regulated in the roots (p≤0.001) upon endogenous NO depletion. A general cPTIO-induced up-regulation of genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway was observed. Even if no detectable changes in total lignin content could be detected, cell walls analyses revealed that the ratio G/S lignin increased in roots treated with cPTIO. This means that endogenous NO may control lignin composition in planta. Our results suggest that a fine tuning regulation of NO levels could be used by plants to regulate root architecture and lignin composition. The functional implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416518

  2. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of DNA polymorphisms related to fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Narukami, Takahiro; Sasazaki, Shinji; Oyama, Kenji; Nogi, Takuya; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2011-06-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue has been recognized as an important carcass trait because of its relationship with eating quality such as favorable beef flavor and tenderness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms of liver X receptor, alpha (LXR), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), and Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) on fatty acid composition in intramuscular fat tissue of Holstein steers. The major allele frequencies were 0.705 in SCD, 0.518 in FABP4, 0.888 in FASN, and 0.984 in LXR. Genotyping of SCD showed significant effect on C14:0, C14:1, C18:0 and saturated fatty acid (P < 0.05). In addition, the result suggested that SCD genotype possibly had effect on composition of C18:1 and monounsaturated fatty acid. Genotype of FABP4 had significant effect on composition of C16:0. Effect of LXR genotypes could not be analyze because of extremely biased genotype frequencies. Our results suggest that genotypes of SCD and FABP4 may in part affect meat quality in Holstein.

  4. The use of amino acid analyses in (palaeo-) limnological investigations: A comparative study of four Indian lakes in different climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Basavaiah, Nathani; Das, Brijraj Krishna; Gaye, Birgit; Herrmann, Nicole; Prasad, Sushma

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we report the results of comprehensive amino acid (AA) analyses of four Indian lakes from different climate regimes. We focus on the investigation of sediment cores retrieved from the lakes but data of modern sediment as well as vascular plant, soil, and suspended particulate matter samples from individual lakes are also presented. Commonly used degradation and organic matter source indices are tested for their applicability to the lake sediments, and we discuss potential reasons for possible limitations. A principal component analysis including the monomeric AA composition of organic matter of all analysed samples indicates that differences in organic matter sources and the environmental properties of the individual lakes are responsible for the major variability in monomeric AA distribution of the different samples. However, the PCA also gives a factor that most probably separates the samples according to their state of organic matter degradation. Using the factor loadings of the individual AA monomers, we calculate a lake sediment degradation index (LI) that might be applicable to other palaeo-lake investigations.

  5. Evolutionary analyses of the 12-kDa acidic ribosomal P-proteins reveal a distinct protein of higher plant ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Szick, Kathleen; Springer, Mark; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    1998-01-01

    The P-protein complex of eukaryotic ribosomes forms a lateral stalk structure in the active site of the large ribosomal subunit and is thought to assist in the elongation phase of translation by stimulating GTPase activity of elongation factor-2 and removal of deacylated tRNA. The complex in animals, fungi, and protozoans is composed of the acidic phosphoproteins P0 (35 kDa), P1 (11–12 kDa), and P2 (11–12 kDa). Previously we demonstrated by protein purification and microsequencing that ribosomes of maize (Zea mays L.) contain P0, one type of P1, two types of P2, and a distinct P1/P2 type protein designated P3. Here we implemented distance matrices, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining analyses to assess the evolutionary relationships between the 12 kDa P-proteins of maize and representative eukaryotic species. The analyses identify P3, found to date only in mono- and dicotyledonous plants, as an evolutionarily distinct P-protein. Plants possess three distinct groups of 12 kDa P-proteins (P1, P2, and P3), whereas animals, fungi, and protozoans possess only two distinct groups (P1 and P2). These findings demonstrate that the P-protein complex has evolved into a highly divergent complex with respect to protein composition despite its critical position within the active site of the ribosome. PMID:9482893

  6. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  7. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  8. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  9. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  10. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  11. Solar thermal charging properties of graphene oxide embedded myristic acid composites phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Apurv; Barman, Bidyut; Kumar, Vivek; Kardam, Abhishek; Narayanan, S. Shankara; Verma, Abhishek; Madhwal, Devinder; Shukla, Prashant; Jain, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports the heat transfer characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) embedded myristic acid based phase change material (GO-PCM) composites. By varying concentrations of GO (0.1-0.5 wt%), different GO-PCM composites were preapred. Two different experimental setups were used for investigating the heat transfer characteristics of the prepared GO-PCM composites during the melting and solidification processes: (i) conventional heating and (ii) solar illumination. The experimental observations indicated a higher heat transfer rate in the GO-PCM composites as compared to pristine PCM for both experimental setups. From the experimental results of conventional heating setup, it was observed that the melting and solidification rate for GO-PCM composites, at 0.5 wt% of GO, increased by 48% and 70%, respectively in comparison to pristine PCM. The experimental results using solar illumination setup demonstrated an ultrafast heating rate for GO-PCM composites than the conventional heating based approach.

  12. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites.

  13. Properties of polylactic acid composites reinforced with oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Zakaria, Zainoha; Inuwa, I M; Islam, M S; Jawaid, M

    2013-10-15

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm biomass were successfully prepared through solution casting. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that there are no significant changes in the peak positions, suggesting that incorporation of MCC in PLA did not result in any significant change in chemical structure of PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on the samples. The T50 decomposition temperature improved with addition of MCC, showing increase in thermal stability of the composites. The synthesized composites were characterized in terms of tensile properties. The Young's modulus increased by about 30%, while the tensile strength and elongation at break for composites decreased with addition of MCC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites fractured surface shows that the MCC remained as aggregates of crystalline cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic image of the composite surfaces show clustering of MCC with uneven distribution. PMID:23987327

  14. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco A; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  15. Amino acid composition determined using multiple hydrolysis times for three goat milk formulations.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Lowry, Dianne; Prosser, Colin G

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid composition of goat milk formulations with varying protein and carbohydrate concentrations were determined. Proteins in goat milk infant formula, goat milk growing-up formula and goat whole milk powder were hydrolysed using multiple hydrolysis time intervals. A least-squares non-linear regression model was used to predict the free and protein bound amino acid concentrations. The amino acid composition of goat infant formula was compared with human milk reference values. There was good agreement between the multiple hydrolysis and single 24-h hydrolysis methods for approximately one-half of the amino acids. Tryptophan, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, isoleucine, valine, serine and alanine contents were underestimated by 10.6, 5.6, 5.6, 4.7, 4.4, 3.7, 3.7 and 3.6%, respectively, by the single 24-h hydrolysis. The study provides accurate reference data on the amino acid composition of goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula has amino acids in amounts similar to human milk reference values, when expressed on a per-energy basis.

  16. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  17. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  18. Solid Sulfonic Acid Catalysts Based on Porous Carbons and Carbon-Silica Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao Ning; Luo, Lijuan; Jiang, Zhongqing; Zhao, X. S.

    Mesoporous carbons prepared using a templating method under different carbonization temperatures are sulfonated with concentrated H2SO4. Without the moving of silica template carbon-silica composites were prepared, which can maintain the pore structure well during sulfonation reaction process. The resultant samples are characterized using nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscope, field-emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental analysis techniques. The catalytic performances of the sulfonated carbons and composites are evaluated by esterification reaction of methanol with acetic acid. The results show that a low-temperature carbonization process is favorable for improving the reaction conversion of acetic acid. In addition, the sulfonated carbon-silica composites show a higher acetic acid conversion than the sulfonated mesoporous carbons.

  19. Effects of lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts: a way to understand PLGA involvement in PLGA/calcium phosphate composite failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Florent; Wardale, John; Best, Serena; Cameron, Ruth; Rushton, Neil; Brooks, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The use of degradable composite materials in orthopedics remains a field of intense research due to their ability to support new bone formation and degrade in a controlled manner, broadening their use for orthopedic applications. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA), a degradable biopolymer, is now a popular material for different orthopedic applications and is proposed for use in tissue engineering scaffolds either alone or combined with bioactive ceramics. Interference screws composed of calcium phosphates and PLGA are readily available in the market. However, some reports highlight problems of screw migration or aseptic cyst formation following screw degradation. In order to understand these phenomena and to help to improve implant formulation, we have evaluated the effects of PLGA degradation products: lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts in vitro. Cell proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization, important for bone healing were studied. It was found that the toxicity of polymer degradation products under buffering conditions was limited to high concentrations. However, non-toxic concentrations led to a decrease in cell proliferation, rapid cell differentiation, and mineralization failure. Calcium, whilst stimulating cell proliferation was not able to overcome the negative effects of high concentrations of lactic and glycolic acids on osteoblasts. These effects help to explain recently reported clinical failures of calcium phosphate/PLGA composites, but further in vitro analyses are needed to mimic the dynamic situation which occurs in the body by, for example, culture of osteoblasts with materials that have been pre-degraded to different extents and thus be able to relate these findings to the degradation studies that have been performed previously.

  20. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses-Isotopic Composition Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The expanded use of burnup credit in the United States (U.S.) for storage and transport casks, particularly in the acceptance of credit for fission products, has been constrained by the availability of experimental fission product data to support code validation. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has noted that the rationale for restricting the Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit for storage and transportation casks (ISG-8) to actinide-only is based largely on the lack of clear, definitive experiments that can be used to estimate the bias and uncertainty for computational analyses associated with using burnup credit. To address the issues of burnup credit criticality validation, the NRC initiated a project with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to (1) develop and establish a technically sound validation approach for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety evaluations based on best-available data and methods and (2) apply the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the isotopic composition (depletion) validation approach and resulting observations and recommendations. Validation of the criticality calculations is addressed in a companion paper at this conference. For isotopic composition validation, the approach is to determine burnup-dependent bias and uncertainty in the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) due to bias and uncertainty in isotopic predictions, via comparisons of isotopic composition predictions (calculated) and measured isotopic compositions from destructive radiochemical assay utilizing as much assay data as is available, and a best-estimate Monte Carlo based method. This paper (1) provides a detailed description of the burnup credit isotopic validation approach and its technical bases, (2) describes the application of the approach for

  1. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  2. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC.

    PubMed

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein.

  3. Elemental and fatty acid composition of snow algae in Arctic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Spijkerman, Elly; Wacker, Alexander; Weithoff, Guntram; Leya, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Red, orange or green snow is the macroscopic phenomenon comprising different eukaryotic algae. Little is known about the ecology and nutrient regimes in these algal communities. Therefore, eight snow algal communities from five intensively tinted snow fields in western Spitsbergen were analysed for nutrient concentrations and fatty acid (FA) composition. To evaluate the importance of a shift from green to red forms on the FA-variability of the field samples, four snow algal strains were grown under nitrogen replete and moderate light (+N+ML) or N-limited and high light (−N+HL) conditions. All eight field algal communities were dominated by red and orange cysts. Dissolved nutrient concentration of the snow revealed a broad range of NH+4 (<0.005–1.2 mg N l−1) and only low PO3−4 (<18 μg P l−1) levels. The external nutrient concentration did not reflect cellular nutrient ratios as C:N and C:P ratios of the communities were highest at locations containing relatively high concentrations of NH+4 and PO3−4. Molar N:P ratios ranged from 11 to 21 and did not suggest clear limitation of a single nutrient. On a per carbon basis, we found a 6-fold difference in total FA content between the eight snow algal communities, ranging from 50 to 300 mg FA g C−1. In multivariate analyses total FA content opposed the cellular N:C quota and a large part of the FA variability among field locations originated from the abundant FAs C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, and C18:3n-3. Both field samples and snow algal strains grown under −N+HL conditions had high concentrations of C18:1n-9. FAs possibly accumulated due to the cessation of growth. Differences in color and nutritional composition between patches of snow algal communities within one snow field were not directly related to nutrient conditions. We propose that the highly patchy distribution of snow algae within and between snow fields may also result from differences in topographical and geological parameters such as slope, melting

  4. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  5. Mechanical properties of a reactive endcapped polyimide based composite from polyamide acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hergenrother, P.M.; Rommel, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to characterize a composite unidirectional tape made with unsized Hercules IM7 fibers and a phenylethynyl terminated polyimide in the form of a polyamide acid. A processing study to examine the effect of cure parameters and robustness of the consolidation process was conducted and showed the versatile processing afforded by the phenylethynyl terminated polyimide. The mechanical and physical properties of laminates produced from the optimized composite cure process are presented and compared to a commercially available polyimide.

  6. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  7. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  8. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers.

  9. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products.

  10. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  11. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  12. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products. PMID:27432239

  13. Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2013-04-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  14. Enzymatically Cross-linked Alginic-Hyaluronic acid Composite Hydrogels As Cell Delivery Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The ezymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tryaminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significanly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  15. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  16. Amino Acid compositions of 27 food fishes and their importance in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal; Mahanty, Arabinda; Ganguly, Satabdi; Sankar, T V; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N; Akhtar, M S; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K K; Laxmanan, P T; Sharma, A P

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

  17. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

  18. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  19. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Sandra M; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between -149 and -264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between -217 and -275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

  20. Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P < 0.05). Cattle with the LL genotype had higher palmitic acid (C16:1), triglycerides, and C16 index but lower stearic acid (C18:0) and SFA compared to those with the LS genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 84-bp indel of SREBP1 could be used as a genetic marker for selecting Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

  1. [Composition of fat acids in three Mexican populations of Artemia franciscana from epicontinental waters].

    PubMed

    Malpica Sánchez, Aída; Castro Barrera, Thalía; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Castro Mejía, Jorge; De Lara Andrade, Ramón; Castro Mejía, Germán

    2004-03-01

    In this paper is presented the percentage of fatty acids composition of three Artemia franciscana Mexican populations of epicontinentals waters; two are from natural environments (Coahuila and San Luis Potosf) and one (Texcoco) is a culture fed with Spirulina. Determination of fatty acids composition in each population, was performed by extraction of total lipid by the soxhlet method and the fatty acids methyl esters were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that Artemia of Texcoco contains the six fatty acids recommended for the culture of fish and crustaceans (16:0; 16:1; 18:1; 18:2w6; 18:3w3 and 20:5w3); Artemia from San Luis Potosi showed the poorest content in these acids and Artemia from Coahuila, although it showed a wide profile, it lacks the linolenic acid. When comparing results among the three populations with ecological data that have been published, it can be pointed out that the environment is decisive for this crustacean; Artemia from Texcoco fed with Spirulina showed the largest variety of fatty acids; the other two populations are wild, and lives in different habitats, Artemia of Coahuila is found in waters that are rich in sulfates and Artemia of San Luis Potosf lives in evaporation saltern ponds, built with stone blocks and therefore with scarce phytoplankton growth. Both Artemia populations showed deficiencies in essential fatty acids, mainly the last one.

  2. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  3. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  4. Functional analyses of three acyl-CoA synthetases involved in bile acid degradation in Pseudomonas putida DOC21.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Álvaro; Merino, Estefanía; Casabon, Israël; Rodríguez, Joaquín; Crowe, Adam M; Holert, Johannes; Philipp, Bodo; Eltis, Lindsay D; Olivera, Elías R; Luengo, José M

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOC21, a soil-dwelling proteobacterium, catabolizes a variety of steroids and bile acids. Transposon mutagenesis and bioinformatics analyses identified four clusters of steroid degradation (std) genes encoding a single catabolic pathway. The latter includes three predicted acyl-CoA synthetases encoded by stdA1, stdA2 and stdA3 respectively. The ΔstdA1 and ΔstdA2 deletion mutants were unable to assimilate cholate or other bile acids but grew well on testosterone or 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD). In contrast, a ΔstdA3 mutant grew poorly in media containing either testosterone or AD. When cells were grown with succinate in the presence of cholate, ΔstdA1 accumulated Δ(1/4) -3-ketocholate and Δ(1,4) -3-ketocholate, whereas ΔstdA2 only accumulated 7α,12α-dihydroxy-3-oxopregna-1,4-diene-20-carboxylate (DHOPDC). When incubated with testosterone or bile acids, ΔstdA3 accumulated 3aα-H-4α(3'propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1,5-indanedione (HIP) or the corresponding hydroxylated derivative. Biochemical analyses revealed that StdA1 converted cholate, 3-ketocholate, Δ(1/4) -3-ketocholate, and Δ(1,4) -3-ketocholate to their CoA thioesters, while StdA2 transformed DHOPDC to DHOPDC-CoA. In contrast, purified StdA3 catalysed the CoA thioesterification of HIP and its hydroxylated derivatives. Overall, StdA1, StdA2 and StdA3 are acyl-CoA synthetases required for the complete degradation of bile acids: StdA1 and StdA2 are involved in degrading the C-17 acyl chain, whereas StdA3 initiates degradation of the last two steroid rings. The study highlights differences in steroid catabolism between Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  5. Bacterial adherence to titanium, poly-L-lactic acid, and composite hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactic acid interference screws.

    PubMed

    Masini, Brendan D; Stinner, Daniel J; Waterman, Scott M; Wenke, Joseph C; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a potential site of bacterial adherence, the implant surface, comparing titanium, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and composite hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA-HA) interference screws using a bioluminescent in vitro model. Interference screws of three materials, titanium (Arthrex, Naples, FL), bioabsorbable poly-L-lactic acid (BIORCI, Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA), and bioabsorbable composite hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactic acid (BIORCI-HA, Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) were immersed in a broth of bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus. The screws were irrigated and then imaged with a photon-capturing camera system yielding a total photon count correlating with residual adherent bacteria. The titanium screws had the lowest mean total bacterial counts followed by the PLLA-HA screws and with the PLLA screws having the highest mean total counts. The difference in means between the titanium group and the PLLA group was statistically significant (p < .001). Titanium interference screws have less bacterial adherence than comparable bioabsorbable PLLA screws.

  6. Beta-galactosidase and selective neutrality. [amino acid composition of proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three hypotheses to explain the amino acid composition of proteins are inconsistent (about 10 to the minus 9th) with the experimental data for beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The exceptional length of this protein, 1021 residues, permits rigorous tests of these hypotheses without complication from statistical artifacts. Either this protein is not at compositional equilibrium, which is unlikely from knowledge about other proteins, or the evolution of this protein and its coding gene have not been selectively neutral. However, the composition of approximately 60% of the molecule is consistent with either a selectively neutral or nonneutral evolutionary process.

  7. Milk production, milk composition, live weight change and milk Fatty Acid composition in lactating dairy cows in response to whole linseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole linseed supplementation on performances and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The control group received 300 g of palm oil. The second group was supplemented with 344 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed plus 150 g of palm oil and the third group was supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed. All cows also received ad libitum grass silage (Brachiaria ruziziensis), had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit and individually fed according to treatments. Residual feeds were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly and at the end of the experiment. Feed samples were pooled to make representative samples for proximate and detergent analyses. Daily milk yields were recorded. Milk samples were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly. Live weights were recorded at the start and at the end of the experiment. Milk samples were taken on d 56 of the experiment and subjected to milk fatty acid composition. The results showed no statistical significant differences in intakes, live weight change, milk yields and milk compositions, however, C18:1, C18:3 and unsaturated FAs were increased while saturated FAs were reduced by whole linseed supplementation. It is recommended that the addition of 300 g/d oil from whole linseed could be beneficial to lactating dairy cows in early lactation. PMID:25049891

  8. Amino acid composition of lactating mothers' milk and confinement diet in rural North China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Peiyu; Sheng, Qing Hai

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the amino acids composition of lactating mothers' milk and their confinement diet in a town in Northern China, as well as to assess the relation of amino acids content in human milk and diet. Forty lactating mothers age 19 to 35 years participated in the study. They were 4 to 180 days postpartum. A 24-hour dietary recall was done and amino acids content of maternal milk was analyzed. The main findings are as follows: (1) The protein content of human milk is 1.58 g/dL and the ratio of EAA to NEAA is about 1:2. The most abundant amino acids in human milk are GLU (16.0%), PRO (10.2%), LEU (8.67%) and the lowest two are MET (1.76%) and TRP (0.91%). (2)The diet contains enough energy and protein, but lacks vitamins A, B and C, indicating that it is a characteristic confinement diet. Grain and eggs are the main source of protein, and soy and fish were consumed less frequently. (3) Amino acids composition in diet and milk are similar; and the correlation of the amino acids patterns between diet and milk is 0.989, demonstrating that the amino acid composition of diet is the foundation of that in human milk. However, almost no relation is found between the amino acids concentration in maternal diet and milk, suggesting that the amino acids content of the diet does not have a direct relation with that of human milk.

  9. [Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae)].

    PubMed

    D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Reyes, Dilia; Salazar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33-31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 omega-11, C22:1 omega-9, C18:3 omega-3, C20:5 omega-3 and C22:6 omega-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization.

  10. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  11. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzyme using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition in conjunction with probabilistic neural network model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer Ullah; Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Muazzam Ali

    2015-01-21

    Enzyme catalysis is one of the most essential and striking processes among of all the complex processes that have evolved in living organisms. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which play a significant role in industrial applications as well as in medical areas, due to profound specificity, selectivity and catalytic efficiency. Refining catalytic efficiency of enzymes has become the most challenging job of enzyme engineering, into acidic and alkaline. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzymes through experimental approaches is difficult, sometimes impossible due to lack of established structures. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a computational model for discriminating acidic and alkaline enzymes from primary sequences. In this study, we have developed a robust, accurate and high throughput computational model using two discrete sample representation methods Pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and split amino acid composition. Various classification algorithms including probabilistic neural network (PNN), K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machine are applied to predict acidic and alkaline with high accuracy. 10-fold cross validation test and several statistical measures namely, accuracy, F-measure, and area under ROC are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The performance of the model is examined using two benchmark datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The empirical results show that the performance of PNN in conjunction with PseAAC is quite promising compared to existing approaches in the literature so for. It has achieved 96.3% accuracy on dataset1 and 99.2% on dataset2. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be useful for basic research and drug related application areas. PMID:25452135

  12. Dietary fatty acid composition is sensed by the NLRP3 inflammasome: omega-3 fatty acid (DHA) prevents NLRP3 activation in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Micaelo, N; González-Abuín, N; Pinent, M; Ardévol, A; Blay, M

    2016-08-10

    The Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is considered to be a pivotal host platform responsible for sensing of exogenous and endogenous danger signals, including those generated as a result of metabolic dysregulation, and for the subsequent, IL-1β-mediated orchestration of inflammatory and innate immunity responses. In this way, although the molecular link between diet-induced obesity and inflammasome activation is still unclear, free fatty acids (FFA) have been proposed as a triggering event. We report that dietary fatty acid (FA) composition is sensed by the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages. For this purpose, we have analysed three roles of FA supplementation: as a priming signal for ATP-activated macrophages, in determining where the administration of dietary FAs interferes with LPS-mediated inflammasome activation and by inducing inflammasome activation per se. In this study, we confirm that saturated (SFAs) activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and stimulated the secretion of the IL-1β cytokine, while PUFAs were mainly inhibitors. Moreover, in general, DHA (n-3 PUFA) was more effective in preventing inflammasome activation than arachidonic acid (n-6 PUFA). PMID:27405925

  13. Studies on acid oils and fatty acids for chickens III. Effect of chemical composition on metabolisable energy of by-products of vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Vila, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    1996-03-01

    1. Fourteen by-products of oil refining, selected for their variability in free fatty acid and unsaponifiable contents, were analysed chemically with the objective of relating the determined ME values of the products to chemical composition by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Refined sunflower oil was included as a reference fat. 2. Twenty-one 2-week-old chicks were used to determine fat digestibilities and AMEn values of diets, using the total collection method. Fats were included in a wheat-soyabean meal diet at 100 g/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to express the ME values of fats as functions of the parameters measured (moisture, gross energy, impurities, unsaponifiables, non eluted material, free fatty acid content, unsaturated: saturated ratio, peroxide value, TBA test). 3. The ME of the fat products lay in the range l2.62 to 24.35 MJ/kg, and 29.26 MJ/kg for refined sunflower oil. Free fatty acid content of the fats was shown to be a poor predictor of their ME values, whereas non eluted material (NEM) of the fat products showed a good correlation with their ME. A regression equation could be derived (R2 0.6548; SEE 2.0064) with the unsaturated: saturated ratio (U:S) and NEM. An ME prediction equation based on the U:S, NEM and unsaponifiable content is also proposed (R2= 0.7l68; SEE= 1.9058). PMID:8833534

  14. Effects of growth phase and nitrogen starvation on expression of fatty acid desaturases and fatty acid composition of Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    PubMed

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-07-15

    Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) are important dietary requirements for maintaining human health. Many marine microalgae are naturally high in ω-3 VLC-PUFAs, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning fatty acid (FA) desaturation and elongation in algae are poorly understood. An advanced molecular understanding would facilitate improvements of this nascent industry. We aimed to investigate expression responses of four front-end fatty acid desaturase genes and downstream effects on FA profiles to nitrogen limitation and cultivation growth stage in Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO). Cultures were grown in nitrogen-replete and -deplete medium; samples were harvested during logarithmic, late logarithmic and stationary growth phases to analyse FA content/composition and gene expression of ∆(6)-, ∆(8)-, ∆(5)- and ∆(4)-desaturases (d6FAD (putative), d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD, respectively). d6FAD (putative) exhibited no differential expression, while d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD were significantly upregulated during logarithmic growth of nutrient-replete cultures, coinciding with rapid cell division. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that expression of some FADs in I. aff. galbana varies with culture age and nitrogen status which has downstream consequences on FA desaturation levels. This has implications for the commercial production of VLC-PUFAs where a trade-off between total lipid yield and VLC-PUFAs has to be made.

  15. Comparison of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and hydrofluoric acid etchants for porcelain-composite repair.

    PubMed

    Tylka, D F; Stewart, G P

    1994-08-01

    Hydrofluoric acid etches porcelain to produce a porous surface visible under scanning electron microscopy when compared to an acidulated phosphate fluoride gel. Some investigators have suggested the greater porosity of the hydrofluoric acid etch produces a greater composite-to-porcelain bond. This investigation tested that assumption with two common fluoride etchants. The etched surfaces were first viewed under scanning electron microscopy to ensure that a characteristic etch was achieved. Both etchants yielded bond strengths that produced cohesive failure of all samples. This suggested that the intraoral use of hydrofluoric acid is no more effective than the less dangerous acidulated phosphate fluoride gel.

  16. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids from platelets and erythrocytes in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gul, S.; Smith, A. D.; Thompson, R. H. S.; Wright, H. Payling; Zilkha, K. J.

    1970-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the phospholipids of red blood cells and blood platelets has been investigated in multiple sclerosis patients and in normal individuals. The variation in the platelet phospholipid fatty acid pattern in normals has been measured for the first time and has been shown to be small. The relative level of linoleate, expressed as a percentage of the five main fatty acids, was found to be significantly lower in the multiple sclerosis patients than in healthy individuals, both in the red cells and platelets. A highly significant correlation was found between serum linoleate and both platelet and red cell linoleate. PMID:5505678

  17. trans fatty acids. 5. Fatty acid composition of lipids of the brain and other organs in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J; Opstvedt, J

    1992-10-01

    The effects of dietary trans fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of the brain in comparison with other organs were studied in 3-wk-old suckling piglets. In Experiment (Expt.) 1 the piglets were delivered from sows fed partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO) (28% trans), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) (36% trans) or lard (0% trans). In Expt. 2 the piglets were delivered from sows fed PHFO, hydrogenated fish oil (HFO) (19% trans) or coconut fat (CF) (0% trans) with two levels of dietary linoleic acid (1 and 2.7%) according to factorial design. In both experiments the mother's milk was the piglets' only food. The level of incorporation of trans fatty acids in the organs was dependent on the levels in the diets and independent of fat source (i.e., PHSBO, PHFO or HFO). Incorporation of trans fatty acids into brain PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) was non-detectable in Expt. 1. In Expt. 2, small amounts (less than 0.5%) of 18:1 trans isomers were found in the brain, the level being slightly more on the lower level of dietary linoleic acid compared to the higher. In the other organs the percentage of 18:1 trans increased in the following order: heart PE, liver mitochondria PE, plasma lipids and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Small amounts of 20:1 trans were found in adipose tissue and plasma lipids. Other very long-chain fatty acids from PHFO or HFO (i.e., 20:1 cis and 22:1 cis + trans) were found in all organ lipids except for brain PE. Dietary trans fatty acids increased the percentage of 22:5n-6 in brain PE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1435095

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

    2009-01-01

    Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL

  19. Total lipid and fatty acid composition of eight strains of marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Mai, Kang-Sen; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms ( Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14∶0 (1.0% 6.3%), 16∶0 (13.5 26.4%), 16∶1n-7 (21.1% 46.3%) and 20∶5n-3 (6.5% 19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16∶2n-4, 16∶3n-4, 16∶4n-1 and 20∶4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distinguishable from those of other microalgal groups. Significant concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20∶5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was present in each strain, with the highest proportion in B222 (19.5%).

  20. Genetic and Phenotypic Analyses of a Papaver somniferum T-DNA Insertional Mutant with Altered Alkaloid Composition.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Noriaki; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Yoshimatsu, Kayo

    2012-02-02

    The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of T-DNA insertion loci among its selfed progenies. In the transplanted T0 primary mutant, the opium (latex) was found to be rich in thebaine (16.3% of dried opium) by HPLC analysis. The analyses on T-DNA insertion loci by inverse PCR, adaptor-ligation PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that as many as 18 copies of T-DNAs were integrated into a poppy genome in a highly complicated manner. The number of copies of T-DNAs was decreased to seven in the selected T3 progenies, in which the average thebaine content was 2.4-fold that of the wild type plant. This may indicate that the high thebaine phenotype was increasingly stabilized as the number of T-DNA copies was decreased. In addition, by reverse transcription PCR analysis on selected morphine biosynthetic genes, the expression of codeine 6-O-demethylase was clearly shown to be diminished in the T0 in vitro shoot culture, which can be considered as one of the key factors of altered alkaloid composition.

  1. Photoperiod affects daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; McAllan, B M; Kenagy, G J; Hiebert, Sara M

    2007-04-01

    Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus ( approximately 18-g body mass). Deer mice were acclimated for >8 weeks to one of three photoperiods (LD, light/dark): LD 8:16 (short photoperiod), LD 12:12 (equinox photoperiod), and LD 16:8 (long photoperiod). Deer mice under short and equinox photoperiods showed a greater occurrence of torpor than those under long photoperiods (71, 70, and 14%, respectively). The duration of torpor bouts was longest in deer mice under short photoperiod (9.3 +/- 2.6 h), intermediate under equinox photoperiod (5.1 +/- 0.3 h), and shortest under long photoperiod (3.7 +/- 0.6 h). Physiological differences in torpor use were associated with significant alterations of fatty acid composition in approximately 50% of the major fatty acids from leg muscle total lipids, whereas white adipose tissue fatty acid composition showed fewer changes. Our results provide the first evidence that physiological changes due to photoperiod exposure do result in changes in lipid composition in the muscle tissue of deer mice and suggest that these may play a role in survival of low body temperature and metabolic rate during torpor, thus, enhancing favourable energy balance over the course of the winter. PMID:17160415

  2. Photoperiod affects daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; McAllan, B. M.; Kenagy, G. J.; Hiebert, Sara M.

    2007-04-01

    Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (˜18-g body mass). Deer mice were acclimated for >8 weeks to one of three photoperiods (LD, light/dark): LD 8:16 (short photoperiod), LD 12:12 (equinox photoperiod), and LD 16:8 (long photoperiod). Deer mice under short and equinox photoperiods showed a greater occurrence of torpor than those under long photoperiods (71, 70, and 14%, respectively). The duration of torpor bouts was longest in deer mice under short photoperiod (9.3 ± 2.6 h), intermediate under equinox photoperiod (5.1 ± 0.3 h), and shortest under long photoperiod (3.7 ± 0.6 h). Physiological differences in torpor use were associated with significant alterations of fatty acid composition in ˜50% of the major fatty acids from leg muscle total lipids, whereas white adipose tissue fatty acid composition showed fewer changes. Our results provide the first evidence that physiological changes due to photoperiod exposure do result in changes in lipid composition in the muscle tissue of deer mice and suggest that these may play a role in survival of low body temperature and metabolic rate during torpor, thus, enhancing favourable energy balance over the course of the winter.

  3. Properties of polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuaiyang; Ren, Junli; Li, Weiying; Sun, Runcang; Liu, Shijie

    2014-03-15

    Composite films of xylan and polyvinyl alcohol were produced with citric acid as a new plasticizer or a cross-linking agent. The effects of citric acid content and polyvinyl alcohol/xylan weight ratio on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, solubility, degree of swelling and water vapor permeability of the composite films were investigated. The intermolecular interactions and morphology of composite films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The results indicated that polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films had good compatibility. With an increase in citric acid content from 10% to 50%, the tensile strength reduced from 35.1 to 11.6 MPa. However, the elongation at break increased sharply from 15.1% to 249.5%. The values of water vapor permeability ranged from 2.35 to 2.95 × 10(-7)g/(mm(2)h). Interactions between xylan and polyvinyl alcohol in the presence of citric acid become stronger, which were caused by hydrogen bond and ester bond formation among the components during film forming.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  5. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  6. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  7. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  8. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax.

  9. Polyaniline/poly acid acrylic thin film composites: a new gamma radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lima Pacheco, Ana P.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a new and straightforward route to prepare polyaniline/poly acid acrylic (PAA) thin film composites in large areas and on almost any surface. This method was developed to improve the mechanical and adherence properties of polyaniline devices used as ionization radiation sensors. The route consists of the combination of the metal oxidant with polymer acid to form a highly homogeneous and viscous paste, which can be easily spread over any surface. In the second step, an aniline acid solution is brought in contact with the dried paste where polymerization occurs, yielding a high homogeneous and conducting polymer composite. The UV-visible absorption and infrared analysis confirm that a polyaniline/PAA complex is obtained. The four-point conductivity measurements show that the composite conductivity {rho} is the order of 5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Preliminary gamma radiation interaction with the composite shows that the doped composite exhibits a linear response that can be used in the development of real-time radiation sensors for the dose range from 0 to 5000 Gy.

  10. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  11. Polymorphisms in lipogenic genes and milk fatty acid composition in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, Rafael A; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Korn, Kathleen T; Noack, Kristin; Garrick, Dorian J; Koehler, Kenneth J; Minick-Bormann, Jennifer; Reecy, James M; Spurlock, Diane E; Beitz, Donald C

    2014-12-01

    Changing bovine milk fatty acid (FA) composition through selection can decrease saturated FA (SFA) consumption, improve human health and provide a means for manipulating processing properties of milk. Our study determined associations between milk FA composition and genes from triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway. The GC dinucleotide allele of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1:g.10433-10434AA >GC was associated with lower palmitic acid (16:0) concentration but higher oleic (18:1 cis-9), linoleic (18:2 cis-9, cis-12) acid concentrations, and elongation index. Accordingly, the GC dinucleotide allele was associated with lower milk fat percentage and SFA concentrations but higher monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrations. The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial haplotypes were associated with higher myristoleic acid (14:1 cis-9) concentration and C14 desaturation index. The 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 haplotypes were associated with higher PUFA and linoleic acid concentrations. The results of this study provide information for developing genetic tools to modify milk FA composition in dairy cattle.

  12. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  14. Feeding oleamide to lactating Jersey cows 1. Effects on lactation performance and milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C

    2000-02-01

    Oleamide was previously reported to resist ruminal biohydrogenation and elevate milk oleic acid concentration when fed to lactating Holstein cows. To determine if Jersey cows responded similarly to oleamide, four lactating Jersey cows (mean 417 kg of body weight and 64 days in milk) were fed four diets in a 4x4 Latin square with 2-wk periods. Diets were total mixed ration containing 47% corn silage and 53% concentrate (dry matter basis) and were supplemented with no added fat (control), or with 3.5% added fat from either higholeic canola oil, a commercial source of oleamide, or oleamide synthesized from oleic acid and urea. The canola oil supplement had no effect on milk yield or composition. Compared to canola oil, the oleamide supplements reduced milk yield, dry matter intake, and milk fat and protein contents. Milk oleic acid concentration increased from 17.4% of total fatty acids for the control diet to 22.1% for the canola oil diet. Both oleamides further increased milk oleic acid to 30.0 and 27.1% of total fatty acids for the commercial and synthesized oleamides, respectively. Milk palmitic acid was reduced and stearic acid was increased by all fat supplements but more so by the oleamides than by the canola oil. Consistent with previous reports that fatty acyl amides resist ruminal biohydrogenation, feeding oleamide to Jersey cows in this study increased milk oleic acid concentration but had negative effects on feed intake and milk yield.

  15. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Particulate-Bound Fatty Acids From the California Borderland Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Campbell, B. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the hydrogen-isotopic composition of fatty acids associated with particulate organic matter (POM) from depth transects in three California Borderland stations. Our goals were to determine (1) the natural variability of δD values in POM-associated fatty acids and (2) the magnitude of isotopic fractionations associated with fatty acid degradation in the marine environment. Some differences in molecular abundance were observed between completely ventilated and occasionally suboxic sites, but no corresponding shifts in δD values were measured. Values of δD for specific fatty acids were generally consistent between stations. Saturated fatty acids (C14, C16, and C18) yielded δD values ranging from -230‰ to -132‰, with δD values generally decreasing with chain length. We found no evidence of extreme D-enrichment of the C18 fatty acid as has been observed in studies of isolated macroalgae (Chikaraishi, et al, 2004). The unsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids showed a similar trend while the polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6 was somewhat enriched in D (δD values ranging from -186‰ to -68‰) relative to 20:5 (-208‰ to -93‰). Unsaturated fatty acids tended to have more positive δD values than their saturated counterparts, opposite the trend observed in sediments from the same location. The bacterial fatty acid C15 showed even greater deuterium enrichment with δD values ranging from - 145‰ to -88‰. This offset can likely be attributed to differences in biosynthetic fractionation between bacteria and eukaryotes, to differences in hydrogen isotopic composition of the food sources of these organisms, or some combination of these two factors. Within the surface waters, fatty acids become enriched with depth by an average of 25‰. The C18:0 acid is a significant exception, becoming depleted by 48‰ over that same interval. Below 100 meters depth, all fatty acids tend to become slightly depleted in D with increasing depth. The difference in δD values

  16. Quantitative determination of fatty acid compositions in micro-encapsulated fish-oil supplements using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Zhang, Wei; Kralovec, Jaroslav A; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J

    2012-11-15

    The research describes a rapid method for the determination of fatty acid (FA) contents in a micro-encapsulated fish-oil (μEFO) supplement by using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique and partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. Using the ATR-FTIR technique, the μEFO powder samples can be directly analysed without any pre-treatment required, and our developed PLSR strategic approach based on the acquired spectral data led to production of a good linear calibration with R(2)=0.99. In addition, the subsequent predictions acquired from an independent validation set for the target FA compositions (i.e., total oil, total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA) were highly accurate when compared to the actual values obtained from standard GC-based technique, with plots between predicted versus actual values resulting in excellent linear fitting (R(2)≥0.96) in all cases. The study therefore demonstrated not only the substantial advantage of the ATR-FTIR technique in terms of rapidness and cost effectiveness, but also its potential application as a rapid, potentially automated, online monitoring technique for the routine analysis of FA composition in industrial processes when used together with the multivariate data analysis modelling.

  17. Effect of organic acids in dental biofilm on microhardness of a silorane-based composite

    PubMed Central

    Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Talebi, Mohammad; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the microhardness of a silorane-based composite compared to two methacrylate-based composite resins. Materials and Methods Thirty disc-shaped specimens each were fabricated of Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT. After measuring of Vickers microhardness, they were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) and immersed in lactic acid, acetic acid or distilled water. Microhardness was measured after 48 hr and 7 day of immersion. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). The surfaces of two additional specimens were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after immersion. Results All groups showed a reduction in microhardness after 7 day of immersion (p < 0.001). At baseline and 7 day, the microhardness of Z250 was the greatest, followed by Z350 and P90 (p < 0.001). At 48 hr, the microhardness values of Z250 and Z350 were greater than P90 (p < 0.001 for both), but those of Z250 and Z350 were not significantly different (p = 0.095). Also, the effect of storage media on microhardness was not significant at baseline, but significant at 48 hr and after 7 day (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Lactic acid had the greatest effect. Conclusions The microhardness of composites decreased after 7 day of immersion. The microhardness of P90 was lower than that of other composites. Lactic acid caused a greater reduction in microhardness compared to other solutions. PMID:26295021

  18. Fatty acid composition and preservation of the Tyrolean Iceman and other mummies.

    PubMed

    Makristathis, Athanasios; Schwarzmeier, Josef; Mader, Robert M; Varmuza, Kurt; Simonitsch, Ingrid; Chavez, Jose Chavez; Platzer, Werner; Unterdorfer, Hans; Scheithauer, Richard; Derevianko, Anatoly; Seidler, Horst

    2002-12-01

    In anthropology, objective parameters to adequately describe storage conditions and the preservation of mummies have yet to be identified. Considering that fatty acids degrade to stable products, we analysed their profile in human mummies and in control samples by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Originating from different epochs and civilizations, samples of the Tyrolean Iceman, other glacier corpses, a freeze dried mummy, corpses from a permafrost region, a corpse mummified immersed in water, and a desert mummy were evaluated. Chemometric analysis based on the concentrations of 16 fatty acids revealed the degree of similarity between anthropologic and fresh corpse samples, which was mainly influenced by the content of palmitic acid, oleic acid, and 10-hydroxystearic acid. The presence of 10-hydroxystearic acid was associated with immersion in water, whereas dry mummification was accompanied by high contents of oleic acid. Samples of the Tyrolean Iceman clustered between fresh tissue and those of other glacier corpses indicating the good preservation of this mummy. Thus, environmental post-mortem conditions were associated with characteristic fatty acid patterns suggesting that chemometric analysis of fatty acid contents may add to our knowledge about post-mortem storage conditions and the preservation of human corpses.

  19. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  20. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Synopsis of the Evidence Available from Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2012-01-01

    No dietary recommendations for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are given by the National Institute of Medicine, the United States Department of Agriculture, European Food and Safety Authority and the American Diabetes Association. In contrast, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the Canadian Dietetic Association both promote <25% MUFA of daily total energy consumption, while the American Heart Association sets a limit of 20% MUFA in their respective guidelines. The present review summarizes systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies investigating the effects of MUFA on cardiovascular and diabetic risk factors, cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. Electronic database Medline was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses using “monounsaturated fatty acids”, “monounsaturated fat”, and “dietary fat” as search terms with no restriction to calendar date or language. Reference lists and clinical guidelines were searched as well. Sixteen relevant papers were identified. Several studies indicated an increase of HDL-cholesterol and a corresponding decrease in triacylglycerols following a MUFA-rich diet. The effects on total and LDL-cholesterol appeared not consistent, but no detrimental effects on blood lipids were observed. Values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found to be reduced both during short- and long-term protocols using high amounts of MUFA as compared to low-MUFA diets. In type 2 diabetic subjects, MUFA exerted a hypoglycemic effect and reduced glycosylated hemoglobin in the long term. Data from meta-analyses exploring evidence from long-term prospective cohort studies provide ambiguous results with respect to the effects of MUFA on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). One meta-analysis reported an increase in CHD events, however, most meta-analyses observed a lesser number of cases in participants subjected to a high-MUFA protocol. Although no detrimental side

  1. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  2. Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

  3. Is Asteroid 433 Eros Compositionally Homogeneous? New Analyses of NEAR-Shoemaker X-Ray Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nittler, L. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    We present new analysis techniques for NEAR-Shomaker X-ray spectrometer data to infer the compositional heterogeneity of asteroid 433 Eros. Preliminary results indicate a largely chondritic, homogeneous composition. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Fatty acid composition of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid compositions of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty acids of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty acid patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic acids (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic acid was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty acid compositions of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey.

  5. Fatty acid composition of symbiotic zooxanthellae in relation to their hosts.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D G; Kenrick, J R

    1980-10-01

    Gymnodinoid dinoflagellate symbionts, commonly referred to as zooxanthellae, are widely distributed among marine invertebrates. It has been assumed that they represent only one species,Gymnodinium microadriaticum. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and galactolipids of zooxanthellae isolated from 8 species of corals, 3 species of clams and a foraminiferan have been analyzed and found to vary according to the host. For example, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in clam zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol was less than 2%, whereas in the same lipid from coral zooxanthellae, the content ranged from 9 to 22%. Corresponding values for the acid in digalactosyl-diacylglycerol were 1-8% from clam zooxanthellae and 23-40% from coral zooxanthellae. Coral zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol contain higher levels of octadecatetraenoic acid than are found in digalactosyldiacylglycerol, whereas the reverse is true in clam zooxanthellae. The fatty acid composition of the lipids of an axenic culture of zooxanthellae isolated from the clamTridacna maxima are similar to those of cells freshly isolated from the host. The results suggest either that the host is capable of affecting the fatty acid metabolism of the symbiont or that different strains of zooxanthellae occur in corals and clams.

  6. Cellular fatty acid composition of cyanobacteria assigned to subsection II, order Pleurocapsales.

    PubMed

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M; Butterfield, J E

    2000-05-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of five of the six genera of unicellular cyanobacteria in subsection II, Pleurocapsales (Dermocarpa, Xenococcus, Dermocarpella, Myxosarcina and the Pleurocapsa assemblage) contained high proportions of saturated straight-chain fatty acids (26-41% of the total) and unsaturated straight chains (40-67%). Isomers of 16:1 were the main monounsaturated acid component (11-59%). Polyunsaturated acids were present at trace levels (0-1% or less) in Xenococcus and Myxosarcina, at concentrations of less than 7% in Dermocarpa, Dermocarpella, Pleurocapsa and CCMP 1489, and at high concentrations (35% or more) in Chroococcidiopsis. Chroococcidiopsis was also different in terms of the percentage of 16:1 isomers (10-12%) compared to other genera (30-59%), and in terms of total 16-carbon and 18-carbon fatty acids. In general, the composition and heterogeneity of fatty acids in the order Pleurocapsales was similar to that reported for the unicellular cyanobacteria of subsection I, order Chroococcales. PMID:10843042

  7. Possible effects of diagenesis on the stable isotope composition of amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael H.

    2015-09-01

    The initial report of indigenous, non-racemic protein amino acids (L-enantiomer excess) in the Murchison meteorite was based on the fact that only eight of the twenty amino acids characteristic of all life on Earth was present in this stone1. The absence of the other protein amino acids indicated that contamination subsequent to impact was highly unlikely. The development of new techniques for determining the stable isotope composition of individual amino acid enantiomers in the Murchison meteorite further documented the extraterrestrial origins of these compounds2,3. The stable isotope approach continues to be used to document the occurrence of an extraterrestrial L-enantiomer excess of protein amino acids in other carbonaceous meteorites4. It has been suggested that this L-enantiomer excess may result from aqueous reprocessing on meteorite parent bodies4,5. Preliminary results of simulation experiments are presented that are used to determine the extent to which the stable isotope compositions of amino acid constituents of carbonaceous meteorites may have been altered by these types of diagenetic processes subsequent to synthesis.

  8. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  9. Response of milk fatty acid composition to dietary supplementation of soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid, or both.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Schoonmaker, J P; Bradford, B J; Beitz, D C

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein cows were blocked by parity and allotted by stage of lactation to 6 treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; free acid or calcium salt), or both, on CLA content of milk. Diets were fed for 4 wk and are as follows: (1) control, (2) control + 5% soy oil, (3) control + 1% CLA, (4) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2, (5) control + 1% CLA + 4% soy oil, and (6) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2 + 4% soy oil. Rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, blood fatty acid concentrations, milk yield, and milk composition were measured weekly or biweekly. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Dietary supplementation of soy oil or CLA had no effect on daily milk yield, milk protein concentration and production, or milk lactose concentration and production. Supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids as soy oil, CLA, or Ca(CLA)2 increased total fatty acid concentration in plasma, decreased milk fat concentration and production, and had no effect on rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The weight percentage of CLA in milk was increased from 0.4 to 0.7% with supplementation of 1% CLA, to 1.2% with supplementation of soy oil, and to 1.3% with supplementation of 1% CLA plus soy oil. Supplementation with Ca(CLA)2 or Ca(CLA)2 + soy oil increased the CLA content of milk fat to 0.9 and 1.4%, respectively. In summary, adding 5% soy oil was as effective as supplementing CLA, Ca(CLA)2, or a combination of 1% CLA (free acid or calcium salt) + 4% soy oil at increasing CLA concentrations in milk fat. Feeding CLA as the calcium salt resulted in greater concentrations of CLA in milk fat than did feeding CLA as the free acid. Dietary supplementation of 5% soy oil or 4% soy oil + 1% CLA as the free acid or the calcium salt increased the yield of CLA in milk.

  10. Community Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of Chemoautotrophic Iron-Oxidizing "Leptospirillum rubarum" (Group II) and "Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum" (Group III) Bacteria in Acid Mine Drainage Biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Goltsman, Daniela; Denef, Vincent; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Lefsrud, Mark G; Mueller, Ryan; Dick, Gregory J.; Sun, Christine; Wheeler, Korin; Zelma, Adam; Baker, Brett J.; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other biofilms identified 64.6% and 44.9% of the predicted proteins of Leptospirillum groups II and III, respectively, and 20% of the predicted plasmid proteins. The bacteria share 92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and >60% of their genes, including integrated plasmid-like regions. The extrachromosomal plasmid carries conjugation genes with detectable sequence similarity to genes in the integrated conjugative plasmid, but only those on the extrachromosomal element were identified by proteomics. Both bacterial groups have genes for community-essential functions, including carbon fixation and biosynthesis of vitamins, fatty acids, and biopolymers (including cellulose); proteomic analyses reveal these activities. Both Leptospirillum types have multiple pathways for osmotic protection. Although both are motile, signal transduction and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins are more abundant in Leptospirillum group III, consistent with its distribution in gradients within biofilms. Interestingly, Leptospirillum group II uses a methyl-dependent and Leptospirillum group III a methyl-independent response pathway. Although only Leptospirillum group III can fix nitrogen, these proteins were not identified by proteomics. The abundances of core proteins are similar in all communities, but the abundance levels of unique and shared proteins of unknown function vary. Some proteins unique to one organism were highly expressed and may be key to the functional and ecological differentiation of Leptospirillum groups II and III.

  11. Analyses of Failure Mechanisms in Woven Graphite/Polyimide Composites with Medium and High Modulus Graphite Fibers Subjected to In-Plane Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumosa, M.; Armentrout, D.; Rupnowski, P.; Kumosa, L.; Shin, E.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The application of the Iosipescu shear test for the room and high temperature failure analyses of the woven graphite/polyimide composites with the medium (T-650) and igh (M40J and M60J) modulus graphite fibers is discussed. The M40J/PMR-II-50 and M60J/PMR-II-50 composites were tested as supplied and after thermal conditioning. The effect of temperature and conditioning on the initiation of intralaminar damage and the shear strength of the composites was established.

  12. Manganese dioxide graphite composite electrodes: application to the electroanalysis of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Langley, Cathryn E; Sljukić, Biljana; Banks, Craig E; Compton, Richard G

    2007-02-01

    The modification of carbon powder with manganese dioxide using a wet impregnation procedure with electrochemical characterisation of the modified powder is described. The process involves saturation of the carbon powder with manganese(II) nitrate followed by thermal treatment at ca. 773 K leading to formation of manganese(IV) oxide on the surface of the carbon powder. The construction of composite electrodes based on manganese dioxide modified carbon powder and epoxy resin is also described, including optimisation of the percentage of the modified carbon powder. Composite electrodes showed attractive performances for electroanalytical applications, proving to be suitable for the electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and nitrite ions with limits of detection comparable to the detection limits achieved by other analytical techniques. The results obtained for detection of these analytes, together with composite electrodes flexible design and low cost offers potential application of composite electrodes in biosensors.

  13. New insight into the SSC8 genetic determination of fatty acid composition in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat content and fatty acid composition in swine are becoming increasingly studied because of their effect on sensory and nutritional quality of meat. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) for fatty acid composition in backfat was previously detected on porcine chromosome 8 (SSC8) in an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross. More recently, a genome-wide association study detected the same genomic region for muscle fatty acid composition in an Iberian x Landrace backcross population. ELOVL6, a strong positional candidate gene for this QTL, contains a polymorphism in its promoter region (ELOVL6:c.-533C < T), which is associated with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic acids in muscle and adipose tissues. Here, a combination of single-marker association and the haplotype-based approach was used to analyze backfat fatty acid composition in 470 animals of an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross genotyped with 144 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) distributed along SSC8. Results Two trait-associated SNP regions were identified at 93 Mb and 119 Mb on SSC8. The strongest statistical signals of both regions were observed for palmitoleic acid (C16:1(n-7)) content and C18:0/C16:0 and C18:1(n-7)/C16:1(n-7) elongation ratios. MAML3 and SETD7 are positional candidate genes in the 93 Mb region and two novel microsatellites in MAML3 and nine SNPs in SETD7 were identified. No significant association for the MAML3 microsatellite genotypes was detected. The SETD7:c.700G > T SNP, although statistically significant, was not the strongest signal in this region. In addition, the expression of MAML3 and SETD7 in liver and adipose tissue varied among animals, but no association was detected with the polymorphisms in these genes. In the 119 Mb region, the ELOVL6:c.-533C > T polymorphism showed a strong association with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic fatty acids and elongation ratios in backfat. Conclusions Our results suggest that the polymorphisms studied in

  14. Fabrication of a novel bone ash-reinforced gelatin/alginate/hyaluronic acid composite film for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Neslihan

    2016-10-20

    In this study, a novel pH-sensitive composite film with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties was prepared by the incorporation of bone ash at varying concentrations from 0 to 10v.% into gelatin/sodium alginate/hyaluronic acid (Gel/SA/HyA) polymeric structure for colon-specific drug delivery system. Films were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and XRD analyses. Thermal and mechanical performances of films were determined by DSC, TGA and universal mechanical tester, respectively. Results proved that thermal stability and mechanical properties of bone ash-reinforced composite films improved significantly with respect to that of neat Gel/SA/HyA film. Cytotoxicity assay for composite films was carried out by using L929 cells. Water uptake capacity of films was determined by swelling test. Herein, release experiments of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) were performed in two different solutions (pH 2.1 and 7.4). The results assured that Gel/SA/HyA film containing BA could be considered as a potential biomaterial for controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:27474650

  15. Changes in texture, colour and fatty acid composition of male and female pig shoulder fat due to different dietary fat sources.

    PubMed

    Hallenstvedt, E; Kjos, N P; Overland, M; Thomassen, M

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments with 72 slaughter pigs in each were conducted. Entire males and females were individually fed restricted. Palm kernel-, soybean- and fish-oil were used in varying combinations, giving different dietary fat levels (29-80g/kg) and iodine values ranging from 50 to 131. Shoulder fat was analysed for fatty acid composition (inner and outer layer), firmness and colour. A clear dose-response relationship was seen between fatty acids in diets and in shoulder fat. Interestingly, the very long chain n-3 fatty acids seemed to be deposited more efficiently when additional fat was included in the diet. Both high and low dietary iodine values changed towards less extreme iodine values in fat. Low-fat diets enhanced de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Males revealed a higher percentage of PUFA and a lower percentage of C18:1 and MUFA. Fat firmness, but not colour, was influenced by sex and dietary fat source.

  16. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs.

  17. Use of milk fatty acids composition to discriminate area of origin of bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Gaspardo, B; Lavrencic, A; Levart, A; Del Zotto, S; Stefanon, B

    2010-08-01

    The fatty acid composition of cow milk, collected in a survey from 19 dairy farms in the border area between Italy and Slovenia, was investigated for 2 consecutive years (2005 and 2006) to assess the possibility of discriminating the area of the origin of the milk. Farms were selected based on diet, animal breed, and farm management to represent the local variability of the systems. In Slovenian farms, grass silage and hay prevailed over corn silage and concentrate feeds, whereas in Italian farms, hay and concentrates were the predominant components of the diet. Fifty-three fatty acids were separated and quantified in Italian and Slovenian milks. Saturated fatty acids represented the most abundant class, followed by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Significant differences were observed between Italian and Slovenian milks for the concentration of 40 fatty acids, whereas significant differences were observed between years of production for 15 fatty acids. Discriminant analysis was used to identify a classification criterion of milk, using country and year of production as grouping variables. Considering statistical results and the scatter plot of the scores of the first 2 functions, the best discriminant criteria were those based on unsaturated fatty acids and on fatty acids with several carbon atoms >or=18.

  18. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs. PMID:27166662

  19. Metal organic frameworks/macroporous carbon composites with enhanced stability properties and good electrocatalytic ability for ascorbic acid and hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Zhu, Liande; Bo, Xiangjie; Han, Ce; Li, Mian; Guo, Liping

    2014-11-01

    The thermal, water and electrochemical stability of Cu-based metal organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) confined in macroporous carbon (MPC) hybrids has been investigated. Thermogravimetric analyses, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to confirm the stability of pure Cu-MOFs, MPC, and Cu-MOFs-MPC. As compared to pure Cu-MOFs, the porous composite materials of MPC and Cu-MOFs interact and seem to form new materials having homogenous structure and chemistry, which show structural stability in aqueous media and electrochemical stability in phosphate buffer solution (PBS pH 7.4). The detection of ascorbic acid and hemoglobin is performed as an electrochemical probe, indicating Cu-MOFs-MPC holds great promise for the design of electrochemical sensors.

  20. Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kiwull-Schöne, Heidrun; Kiwull, Peter; Manz, Friedrich; Kalhoff, Hermann

    2008-02-01

    Alkali-enriched diets are recommended for humans to diminish the net acid load of their usual diet. In contrast, herbivores have to deal with a high dietary alkali impact on acid-base balance. Here we explore the role of nutritional alkali in experimentally induced chronic metabolic acidosis. Data were collected from healthy male adult rabbits kept in metabolism cages to obtain 24-h urine and arterial blood samples. Randomized groups consumed rabbit diets ad libitum, providing sufficient energy but variable alkali load. One subgroup (n = 10) received high-alkali food and approximately 15 mEq/kg ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with its drinking water for 5 d. Another group (n = 14) was fed low-alkali food for 5 d and given approximately 4 mEq/kg NH4Cl daily for the last 2 d. The wide range of alimentary acid-base load was significantly reflected by renal base excretion, but normal acid-base conditions were maintained in the arterial blood. In rabbits fed a high-alkali diet, the excreted alkaline urine (pH(u) > 8.0) typically contained a large amount of precipitated carbonate, whereas in rabbits fed a low-alkali diet, both pH(u) and precipitate decreased considerably. During high-alkali feeding, application of NH4Cl likewise decreased pH(u), but arterial pH was still maintained with no indication of metabolic acidosis. During low-alkali feeding, a comparably small amount of added NH4Cl further lowered pH(u) and was accompanied by a significant systemic metabolic acidosis. We conclude that exhausted renal base-saving function by dietary alkali depletion is a prerequisite for growing susceptibility to NH4Cl-induced chronic metabolic acidosis in the herbivore rabbit.

  1. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA.

  2. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947

  3. Identification of thermophilic proteins by incorporating evolutionary and acid dissociation information into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-Liang; Liu, Yan-Ling; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-21

    Thermophilic proteins can thrive stalely at the high temperatures. Identification of thermophilic protein could be helpful to learn the function of protein. Automated prediction of thermophilic protein is an important tool for genome annotation. In this work, a powerful predictor is proposed by combining amino acid composition, evolutionary information, and acid dissociation constant. The overall prediction accuracy of 93.53% was obtained for using the algorithm of support vector machine. In order to check the performance of our method, two low-similarity independent testing datasets are used to test the proposed method. Comparisons with other methods show that the prediction results were better than other existing methods in literature. This indicates that our approach was effective to predict thermophilic proteins. PMID:27396359

  4. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis in the Martian Regolith with a Microfabricated in situ Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelley, A. M.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in microfabricated "lab-on-a-chip" technologies have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of chemical and biochemical analyzers. The portability and sensitivity of these devices makes them ideal instruments for in situ chemical analysis on other planets. We have focused our initial studies on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more chemically resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker [1]. Previously, we developed a prototype electrophoresis chip, detection system and analysis method where the amino acids were labeled with fluorescein using FITC and then electrophoretically analyzed using g-cyclodextrin as the chiral resolution agent [2]. Extracts of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed, and the D/L ratios determined by microchip CE closely matched those from HPLC and GCMS and exhibited greater precision. Our microchip analyzer has now been further improved by establishing the capability of performing amino acid composition and chirality analyses using fluorescamine rather than FITC [3]. Fluorescamine is advantageous because it reacts more rapidly than FITC, and because excess reagent is hydrolyzed to a non-fluorescent product. Furthermore, the use of fluorescamine facilitates interfacing with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) [4]. Fluorescamine-amino acids are separated using similar conditions as the FITC-aa, resulting in similar separation times and identical elution orders. Fluorescamine-aa are chirally resolved in the presence of hydroxy-propyl-b-cyclodextrin, and typical limits of detection are ˜ 50 nM. This work establishes the feasibility of combining fluorescamine labeling of amino acids with microfabricated CE devices to develop low-volume, high-sensitivity apparatus for extraterrestrial exploration. The stage is now set for the development of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system for amino acid extraction and chiral analysis that will

  5. Daytime intragastric acid control: post hoc analyses of esomeprazole 20 mg and over-the-counter proton-pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Philip; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Johnson, David A.; Lind, Tore; Röhss, Kerstin; Traxler, Barry; Hugo, Vincent; Dent, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In mild gastroesophageal reflux disease, which accounts for the great majority of cases, the major burden of reflux occurs during daytime hours, after food intake. The aim of these analyses was to evaluate intragastric pH control during the typical 14-hour daytime awake period by proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) given at over-the-counter (OTC) dosages. Methods: In one double-blind and three open-label, randomized, crossover studies, intragastric pH was monitored for 24 hours on day 5 of treatment. The 24-hour data have been reported previously. Post hoc analyses reassessed these studies for the 14-hour daytime period, comparing esomeprazole 20 mg with currently available OTC PPIs omeprazole, pantoprazole (not available in the US) and lansoprazole. Results: Subjects maintained intragastric pH >4 for a significantly greater mean percentage of the 14-hour daytime period with esomeprazole 20 mg compared with any of the PPI comparators at OTC dosages. Geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) for esomeprazole 20 mg versus the comparators were: 1.45 (1.14–1.85; p = 0.003) versus omeprazole 20 mg; 2.50 (2.01–3.11; p < 0.0001) versus pantoprazole 20 mg; and 1.69 (1.46–1.97; p < 0.0001) and 1.89 (1.05–3.37; p = 0.03) versus lansoprazole 15 mg. A greater proportion of subjects had better pH control with esomeprazole than with the other PPIs (range: 69–97%). Conclusions: Across the 14-hour daytime period, esomeprazole 20 mg once daily given 30 minutes before breakfast for 5 days provided acid control for a significantly greater average proportion of time versus the PPI comparators omeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole at currently available OTC dosages. PMID:26557888

  6. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify heart, kidney, and lung fatty acid composition in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Suárez, A; Faus, M J; Gil, A

    1996-03-01

    The fatty acid composition of heart, kidney, and lung was studied in weanling rats fed three diets differing in their polyunsaturated fatty acid content for 0, 2, and 4 wk. The first group had a 10% w/w fat semipurified diet which consisted of a mixture of olive oil (62.5%), soybean oil (11.1%), and refined coconut oil (26.4%) and provided 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in similar amounts to a maternal human milk (diet HO). The second group received 7% of HO fat and 3% fish oil (0.4% 20:4n-6 and 5% 22:6n-3 of total fatty acids) (diet FO), and the third group was fed 7% HO fat, 1.5% of the same fish oil, and 1.5% of a purified pig brain phospholipid concentrate (0.6% 20:4n-6 and 3.5% 22:6n-3 of total fatty acids) (diet FO + BPL). The experimental diets increased tissue monounsaturated fatty acids in comparison with rats at weaning. Tissue lipid content of 20:4n-6 was increased and 22:6n-3 decreased in Group HO compared with weanling rats, whereas opposite changes were observed in Group FO. Feeding diet FO + BPL increased 22:6n:3 in tissue lipids compared with diet HO, and increased 20:4n-6 content in relation to diet FO. Our results indicate that rat heart, kidney, and lung are highly responsive to dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during postnatal life. PMID:8900466

  7. GC constituents and relative codon expressed amino acid composition in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-08-10

    The genomic as well as structural relationship of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in different cyanobacterial species are determined by nucleotides as well as amino acid composition. The genomic GC constituents influence the amino acid variability and codon usage of particular subunit of PBPs. We have analyzed 11 cyanobacterial species to explore the variation of amino acids and causal relationship between GC constituents and codon usage. The study at the first, second and third levels of GC content showed relatively more amino acid variability on the levels of G3+C3 position in comparison to the first and second positions. The amino acid encoded GC rich level including G rich and C rich or both correlate the codon variability and amino acid availability. The fluctuation in amino acids such as Arg, Ala, His, Asp, Gly, Leu and Glu in α and β subunits was observed at G1C1 position; however, fluctuation in other amino acids such as Ser, Thr, Cys and Trp was observed at G2C2 position. The coding selection pressure of amino acids such as Ala, Thr, Tyr, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Asn, and Ser in α and β subunits of PBPs was more elaborated at G3C3 position. In this study, we observed that each subunit of PBPs is codon specific for particular amino acid. These results suggest that genomic constraint linked with GC constituents selects the codon for particular amino acids and furthermore, the codon level study may be a novel approach to explore many problems associated with genomics and proteomics of cyanobacteria.

  8. Chemical composition and amino acid profiles of goose muscles from native Polish breeds.

    PubMed

    Okruszek, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Orkusz, A; Werenska, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the chemical and amino acid composition of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles in 17-wk-old geese from 2 Polish conservative flocks: Rypińska (Ry, n = 20) and Garbonosa (Ga, n = 20). The geese were fed ad libitum during the experimental period on the same complete feed. Genotypes affected the moisture and fat content of breast and thigh meat. The Ga geese were characterized by higher moisture as well as lower fat lipid content compared with the Ry breast and thigh muscles. The amino acid proportions of meat proteins depended on the goose flock and type of muscles, where significant differences were found. The proteins of Ga breast muscles contained more glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, tryptophan, histidine, and methionine, and less aspartic acid, proline, serine, leucine, valine, phenyloalanine, tyrosine, and threonine than the Ry geese (P ≤ 0.05). The proteins of Ry thigh muscles were characterized by higher content of proline, serine, and essential amino acids (without lysine and methionine) and lower glutamic and asparagine acid, alanine, and glycine compared with the Ga flock. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (1991) standard, tryptophan was the amino acid limiting the nutritional value of meat proteins of Ry breast muscles (amino acid score for tryptophan = 90%). Except for tryptophan, the meat proteins of the investigated raw materials contained more essential amino acids than the standard. The total content of essential amino acids for all investigated muscles was also higher (52.51 to 55.54%) than the standard (33.90%). It is evident that muscle protein from both flocks of geese have been characterized by high nutritional value. The values of the essential amino acid index of breast muscle proteins were similar in both flocks.

  9. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  10. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration.

  11. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Owen J; Bramble, Judith E; Heisler, I Lorraine; Phillips, Christopher A; Cox, David L

    2005-10-01

    Most snakes and lizards produce eggs with flexible shells that interact with the environment to maintain water balance. Geckos produce rigid eggshells that are independent of an external source of water and can be oviposited in more open, dryer locations. In this study, we analyzed and compared the amino acid composition of 24 lizard species, six snake species, and four outgroups (including avian and reptilian elastin and chicken eggshell). Rigid Gecko eggshells had significantly lower levels of seven of the 17 amino acids evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that proline was the most important amino acid in distinguishing between these two groups of eggshells, occurring at significantly higher levels in flexible eggshells. High levels of proline have also been observed in the eggshells of other species. Proline and other amino acids are associated with the alleviation of water and salt stress in plants. PMID:16195850

  12. Stimulation of proliferation of an essential fatty acid-deficient fish cell line by C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids and effects on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Tocher, D R; Dick, J R; Sargent, J R

    1996-11-01

    Recently we reported the development of a fish cell line, EPC-EFAD, derived from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) epithelial papilloma line, EPC, that could survive and proliferate in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) medium. The EPC-EFAD cell line may be a useful model system in which to study the cellular biochemical effects of EFA deficiency and has advantages in studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and eicosanoid metabolism in fish in that the complications introduced by culture in relatively n-6 PUFA-rich mammalian sera are removed. In the present study, the effects on cell proliferation rate of supplementing EPC-EFAD cells with various n-3 and n-6 PUFA were investigated to determine the possible role(s) of PUFA in cell growth and division. The selectivity of incorporation of specific PUFA into individual glycerophospholipid classes and the feasibility of reproducing in vivo fatty acid compositions in vitro were also investigated. Proliferation of the EPC-EFAD cell line was stimulated by arachidonic (20:4 n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) fatty acids but not by 18:2 n-6 or 18:3 n-3. The differential effects of PUFA on cellular proliferation may be related to the lack of significant delta 5 desaturase activity in the cells at 22 degrees C and may implicate a role for eicosanoids in the mechanism of stimulation of proliferation. PUFA supplementation increased the cytotoxic effects of longer term culture, an effect that was partly alleviated by inclusion of vitamin E in the culture medium. The cells could generally be supplemented with PUFA to produce cellular fatty acid compositions in vitro that were similar to in vivo compositions. PMID:8981632

  13. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  14. Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M

    2014-04-24

    The adsorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) composite was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) composite such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) composite could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from textile effluents. PMID:24463242

  15. Fatty Acid Composition and Community Structure of Plankton from the San Lorenzo Channel, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, B. E.; López-Cortés, D.

    1997-12-01

    The structure of the plankton community and fatty acid composition of nano-, micro- and zooplankton are described during four seasons of 1994 from the San Lorenzo Channel. During August, the warmest temperature in the surface water was observed and a thermocline developed between 20 and 30 m. In the remaining months, a well-mixed layer occurred in the upper 30 m. The chlorophyllacontent of the nanoplankton fraction (<38 μm) was higher than the microplanktonic fraction (38-200 μm) year round. Maximal chlorophyll values (1·5-3 μ l-1) occurred in January, which may be associated with organic matter, since phytoplankton was lower than at other seasons. The relative abundance of diatoms increased from January (57% of phytoplankton) to November (99%). The increment was mainly due toNitzschiaandChaetoceros. Dinoflagellates were always low (0·03-1·36 cells ml-1). Copepods (mainlyEucalanus) dominated the zooplankton in winter and fall, while in spring and summer, the abundance of doliolids was similar to the copepods (Nannocalanus minordominated). Four fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1) were the most conspicuous in the plankton, representing usually between 40 and 80% of the total fatty acids throughout the water column. In winter, higher fatty acid content and higher relative amounts of 16:0 and 16:1 were observed than in the warm months. Stearic acid (18:0) peaked during fall. The major seasonal differences occurred in the nanoplankton, which had peaks of 20:5 during January, and 16:4 in April. A strong decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) occurred during the warm months. The fatty acid composition of microplankton and larger zooplankton was similar in winter-spring. Individual copepods of selected species (Eucalanus sewelli,Rhincalanus nasutus,Centropages furcatusandLabidocera acuta) showed fatty acid profiles similar to the mixed zooplankton, with some differences in content of PUFA.

  16. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  17. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences.

  18. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences. PMID:26878105

  19. [Fractional and amino acid composition of krill proteins and the potential for obtaining protein preparations].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T A; Churina, E E; Kuranova, L K

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the fractional composition of krill proteins demonstrated that the content of protein fractions changes depending on the time of krill catch. The highest amount of water-soluble proteins is contained by krill caught in December (64%), of salt-soluble by krill caught in June (12%), base-soluble by krill caught in May, September and February (34%). Krill protein contains from 50 to 60% of water- and salt-soluble fractions. Analysis of the amino acid composition of krill proteins showed that it does not differ essentially from that of adequate food proteins.

  20. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  1. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  2. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  3. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Skedina, M A; Katuntsev, V P; Buravkova, L B; Naidina, V P

    1998-01-01

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p<0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  4. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  5. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  6. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  7. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit.

  8. DNA methylation landscape of fat deposits and fatty acid composition in obese and lean pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Shen, Linyuan; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Qiong; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Obese and lean type pig breeds exhibit differences in their fat deposits and fatty acid composition. Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide DNA methylation on fatty acid metabolism between Landrace pigs (LP, leaner) and Rongchang pigs (RP, fatty). We found that LP backfat (LBF) had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content but a lower adipocyte volume than RP backfat (RBF). LBF exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels at the genome level than RBF. A total of 483 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located in promoter regions, mainly affecting olfactory and sensory activity and lipid metabolism. In LBF, the promoters of genes related to ATPase activity had significantly stronger methylation. This fact may suggest lower energy metabolism levels, which may result in less efficient lipid synthesis in LBF. Furthermore, we identified a DMR in the miR-4335 and miR-378 promoters and validated their methylation status by bisulfite sequencing PCR. The hypermethylation of the promoters of miR-4335 and miR-378 in LBF and the resulting silencing of the target genes may result in LBF’s low content in saturated fatty acids and fat deposition capacity. This study provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms affecting fat deposition and fatty acid composition. PMID:27721392

  9. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods. PMID:26576657

  10. Physicochemical analysis of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC seeds with fatty acids and total lipids compositions.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar; Pradhan, Rama Chandra; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Neha; Pattanayak, Rojalin; Prakash, Om; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. is a tropical legume with potential nutritional properties. In present study, the physical properties and proximate composition of the seeds were evaluated. Besides, the physico-chemical properties of fatty oil from fully mature seeds were also studied. The fatty oil compositions of immature, mature and fully mature seeds were evaluated by GC-FID, GC/MS and (1)H-NMR. The study revealed that, fatty oil from fully mature seeds contained high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (75.5 %), whereas immature seeds contained higher percentage of saturated fatty acid (61.3 %). In addition, unsaponification matter (0.25 %) of fatty oil was identified as stigmasterol (66.4 %) and β-sitosterol (25.1 %). Total lipids of fully mature seeds were extracted and isolated as neutral, glyco- and phospholipids. Overall, the fatty oil of fully mature seeds was enriched with mono-unsaturated fatty acids (38.6 %) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (36.9 %) without trans-fatty acids, thus meeting the edible oil standard.

  11. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  12. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle.

  13. A combined study based on experimental analyses and theoretical calculations on properties of poly (lactic acid) under annealing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loued, W.; Wéry, J.; Dorlando, A.; Alimi, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the significance of annealing, in two different atmospheres (air and vacuum), on the surface characteristics of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements correlated to atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations of the cast PLA films show that thermal treatment under air atmosphere is responsible for a significant increase of crystallinity with the increase of temperature. However, band gap energy of the title compound is slightly affected by annealing at different temperatures. As for the untreated PLA, the molecular geometry was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31g (d) basis set in ground state. From the optimized geometry, HOMO and LUMO energies and quantum chemical parameters were performed at B3LYP/6-31g (d). The theoretical results, applied to simulated optical spectra of the compound, were compared to the observed ones. On the basis of theoretical vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties were calculated at different temperatures, revealing the correlation between internal energy (U), enthalpy (H), entropy (S), Free energy (G) and temperatures.

  14. Unique Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hive Component-Based Communities as Detected by a Hybrid of Phospholipid Fatty-