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Sample records for acid composition analyses

  1. Fatty acid composition analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao

    2003-04-01

    Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty acid content and composition have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1ω9) and oleic (18:1ω9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic acid (18:1ω11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.

  2. Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

  3. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  4. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Analyses of moisture in polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A suitable method for the direct measurement of moisture concentrations after humidity/thermal exposure on state of the art epoxy and polyimide resins and their graphite and glass fiber reinforcements was investigated. Methods for the determination of moisture concentration profiles, moisture diffusion modeling and moisture induced chemical changes were examined. Carefully fabricated, precharacterized epoxy and polyimide neat resins and their AS graphite and S glass reinforced composites were exposed to humid conditions using heavy water (D20), at ambient and elevated temperatures. These specimens were fixtured to theoretically limit the D20 permeation to a unidirectional penetration axis. The analytical techniques evaluated were: (1) laser pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry; (2) solids probe mass spectrometry; (3) laser pyrolysis conventional infrared spectroscopy; and (4) infrared imaging thermovision. The most reproducible and sensitive technique was solids probe mass spectrometry. The fabricated exposed specimens were analyzed for D20 profiling after humidity/thermal conditioning at three exposure time durations.

  6. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  7. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  8. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  9. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  11. Fatty acid analyses may provide insight into the progression of starvation among squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-10-01

    Fasting-induced changes in fatty acid composition have been reported to occur within the body lipids of several types of animals; however, little is known about the changes in fatty acid profiles exhibited by reptiles subjected to prolonged fasting. This study characterizes the fatty acid profiles of six reptile species subjected to sublethal periods of fasting lasting 0, 56, 112, and 168 days. Analyses of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) conducted on the total body lipids of rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta), pythons (Python regius), boas (Boa constrictor), true vipers (Bitis gabonica), and monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) revealed that all of the species exhibited similar characteristic changes in their fatty acid profiles during starvation stress. According to ANOVAs, the four most effective indicators of the onset of starvation were significant increases in the [1] fatty acid unsaturation index as well as ratios of [2] linoleic to palmitoleic acid, [3] oleic to palmitic, and [4] arachidonic to total fatty acid concentrations. The results of this study suggest that FAME analyses might be useful for identifying nutritional stress and/or starvation among squamate reptiles; however, forthcoming studies will be required to validate the generality of these responses. I also review the potential limitations of this approach, and suggest experiments that will be important for future applications of FAME analyses. Ultimately, it is hoped that FAME analyses can be used in conjunction with current practices as an additional tool to characterize the prevalence of starvation experienced by free-living reptiles. PMID:18657629

  12. Chemical composition of acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Jacob, D.J.; Flagan, R.C.; Morgan, J.J.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1982-11-12

    Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation and evaporation of water vapor on preexisting aerosol and the scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid.

  13. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  14. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl transferase binds acidic and basic amino acid substrates.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Aman; Clifton, Ian J; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Ivison, David; Domene, Carmen; Schofield, Christopher J

    2011-09-21

    Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl-transferases catalyse the reversible transfer of an acetyl-group from a basic (ornithine) to an acidic (glutamate) amino acid by employing a common mechanism involving an acetyl-enzyme intermediate but using different side chain binding modes. PMID:21796301

  15. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W. Jr.; Cochran, H.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In the safe handling and processing of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), it is often desirable to calculate vapor composition and pressure from known liquid composition and temperature. Furthermore, the ability to use analyses of equilibrium vapor-phase samples to calculate liquid-phase compositions would be economically advantageous to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its international safeguards program and to uranium enrichment operators. The latter technique is projected to save the IAEA on the order of $1500 or more per sample. Either type of calculation could be performed with a multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) model if this model were shown to apply to UF{sub 6} and its common impurities. This report is concerned with the distribution of four potential impurities in UF{sub 6} between liquid and vapor phases. The impurities are carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride, chloryl fluoride, and Freon-114 (CClF{sub 2}CClF{sub 2}). There are no binary equilibrium data on the first three of these impurities; hence, the VLE calculations are based entirely on the thermodynamic properties of the pure components. There are two sets of binary equilibrium data for the system Freon-114-UF{sub 6} that are analyzed in terms of the model of Prausnitz et al. Calculations based on these data are compared with those based solely on the thermodynamic properties of pure Freon-114 and pure UF{sub 6}. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Strength and dynamic characteristics analyses of wound composite axial impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jifeng; Olortegui-Yume, Jorge; Müller, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    A low cost, light weight, high performance composite material turbomachinery impeller with a uniquely designed blade patterns is analyzed. Such impellers can economically enable refrigeration plants to use water as a refrigerant (R718). A strength and dynamic characteristics analyses procedure is developed to assess the maximum stresses and natural frequencies of these wound composite axial impellers under operating loading conditions. Numerical simulation using FEM for two-dimensional and three-dimensional impellers was investigated. A commercially available software ANSYS is used for the finite element calculations. Analysis is done for different blade geometries and then suggestions are made for optimum design parameters. In order to avoid operating at resonance, which can make impellers suffer a significant reduction in the design life, the designer must calculate the natural frequency and modal shape of the impeller to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The results show that using composite Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix enables the impeller to run at high tip speed and withstand the stresses, no critical speed will be matched during start-up and shut-down, and that mass imbalances of the impeller shall not pose a critical problem.

  17. Imperfection Insensitivity Analyses of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Farrokh, Babak; Stanford, Bret K.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Two advanced composite tow-steered shells, one with tow overlaps and another without overlaps, were previously designed, fabricated and tested in end compression, both without cutouts, and with small and large cutouts. In each case, good agreement was observed between experimental buckling loads and supporting linear bifurcation buckling analyses. However, previous buckling tests and analyses have shown historically poor correlation, perhaps due to the presence of geometric imperfections that serve as failure initiators. For the tow-steered shells, their circumferential variation in axial stiffness may have suppressed this sensitivity to imperfections, leading to the agreement noted between tests and analyses. To investigate this further, a numerical investigation was performed in this study using geometric imperfections measured from both shells. Finite element models of both shells were analyzed first without, and then, with measured imperfections that were then, superposed in different orientations around the shell longitudinal axis. Small variations in both the axial prebuckling stiffness and global buckling load were observed for the range of imperfections studied here, which suggests that the tow steering, and resulting circumferentially varying axial stiffness, may result in the test-analysis correlation observed for these shells.

  18. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish. PMID:25732591

  19. Remote Compositional Analyses of Lunar Olivine-Bearing Lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, P.; Clark, R. N.; Head, J. W.; Klima, R.; Petro, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Thaisen, K. G.; Tompkins, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a guest instrument on Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon. M3 is an imaging spectrometer covering the wavelength range of 430 nm - 3000 nm, and was designed to map the mineralogy of the lunar surface. The high spectral resolution of M3 enables the diagnostic absorption features of lunar minerals to be identified clearly, while the high spatial resolution of M3 allows the identification and mapping of distinct lithologic units. Olivine is an important mineral with which to interpret the petrologic evolution of igneous rocks. The composition of olivine (Mg#) is used to indicate the degree of evolution of the source magma from which a sample crystallized. Visible to near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is sensitive to the Mg# of olivine, as the diagnostic olivine absorption features shift in response to changing major element abundances (Mg and Fe) content. These changes in diagnostic absorption features can be detected by modeling the individual absorption bands with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM). Spectra of lunar olivines differ from spectra of their terrestrial and synthetic counterparts due to the inclusions of Cr-spinel common to lunar olivines; however, analysis of lunar olivine mineral separates in terrestrial laboratories and modeling of the resulting reflectance spectra have been able to unravel the chromite effects on the olivine spectrum. Previous efforts at remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine have been limited by spectral resolution and coverage or by spatial resolution. However, the spatial and spectral resolution provided by M3 enable olivine composition to be determined remotely in a spatial context. We are in the process of identifying olivine-bearing lithologies on the lunar farside and analyzing the olivine composition with the modified MGM approach. Initial compositional analyses have been completed for a crater on the rim of the Moscoviense basin that appears to be largely dominated

  20. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  1. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  2. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  3. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  4. Accumulated analyses of amino acid precursors in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Six amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) obtained by hydrolysis of extracts have been quantitatively determined in ten collections of fines from five Apollo missions. Although the amounts found, 7-45 ng/g, are small, the lunar amino acid/carbon ratios are comparable to those of the carbonaceous chondrites, Murchison and Murray, as analyzed by the same procedures. Since both the ratios of amino acid to carbon, and the four or five most common types of proteinous amino acid found, are comparable for the two extraterrestrial sources despite different cosmophysical histories of the moon and meteorites, common cosmochemical processes are suggested.

  5. Amino acid analyses of R and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; McLain, Hannah; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Davidson, Jemma; Miller, Kelly E.; Andronikov, Alexander V.; Lauretta, Dante; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous delivery of amino acids and other organic molecules to planetary surfaces may have played an important role in the origins of life on Earth and other solar system bodies. Previous studies have revealed the presence of indigenous amino acids in a wide range of carbon-rich meteorites, with the abundances and structural distributions differing significantly depending on parent body mineralogy and alteration conditions. Here we report on the amino acid abundances of seven type 3-6 CK chondrites and two Rumuruti (R) chondrites. Amino acid measurements were made on hot water extracts from these meteorites by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the nine meteorites analyzed, four were depleted in amino acids, and one had experienced significant amino acid contamination by terrestrial biology. The remaining four, comprised of two R and two CK chondrites, contained low levels of amino acids that were predominantly the straight chain, amino-terminal (n-ω-amino) acids β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid. This amino acid distribution is similar to what we reported previously for thermally altered ureilites and CV and CO chondrites, and these n-ω-amino acids appear to be indigenous to the meteorites and not the result of terrestrial contamination. The amino acids may have been formed by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, although this hypothesis needs further testing.

  6. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1992-01-01

    The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plans of three random response research topics are discussed, namely acoustics-structure interactions using boundary/finite element methods, nonlinear vibrations of beams and composite plates under harmonic and random excitations, and numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading.

  7. AB196. Multivariate analyses of urinary calculi composition: a 13-year single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chunyu; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of urinary stone are increasing throughout the world. Compared with the past, urolithiasis compositions by patient demographics are strikingly different. Furthermore, recent clinical studies implied that seasonal cyclicity might influence the distribution of stone composition. Methods We sought to determine the trends in pathogenesis of urolithiasis based on urinary stone analyses. A total of 2,383 eligible urinary stone samples from different patients between 2002 and 2014 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for urinary calculi analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship of urinary calculi composition and calendar month (season), gender and age in North China during the past 13 years. Results Calcium containing calculi were the most frequent with an overall incidence of 84.1%. Calcium phosphate (CaP) or magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) stones were more frequent in females, while monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM), dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD) or uric acid (UA) stones were more common in males. Older individuals were associated with an increased risk of UA stones and a decreased risk of COD, CaP or cystine stones. Additionally, from 2002 to 2014, the frequency of COD and MAP stone increased, whereas the trend of CaP, UA and cystine stones decreased. However, calendar month (season) was not significantly associated with differences in composition. Conclusions This study provides a picture of the present distribution of urolithiasis compositions in China. From 2002 to 2014, age and gender were significantly associated with stone composition, whereas calendar month not.

  8. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  9. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the semiannual research progress, accomplishments, and future plans performed under the NASA Langley Research Center Grant No. NAG-1-1358. The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plates on four sonic fatigue research topics are described. The sonic fatigue design and passive control of random response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites presented in section 4, which is suited especially for HSCT, is a new initiative.

  10. Amino acid composition of humic substances in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral amino acid fragments of humic and fulvic acid molecules from tundra soils have been identified and quantified. A significant weight fraction of amino acids has been found in humic acid preparations, which exceeds their content in fulvic acids. Features of the amino acid composition of humic substances along the soil profile and depending on the degree of hydromorphism and the proportions of different (neutral, basic, acidic, cyclic) groups in amino acids have been revealed. The molar ratio between the hydroxy and heterocyclic amino acids reflects the degree of humification of the soil.

  11. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  12. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  13. Discrimination of prey species of juvenile swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758) using signature fatty acid analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jock W.; Guest, Michaela A.; Lansdell, Matt; Phleger, Charles F.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2010-07-01

    Signature lipid and fatty acid analysis were used to discriminate the diet of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, orbital fork length: 60-203 cm) from waters off eastern Australia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of a range of known prey (squid, myctophids, and other fishes) of swordfish, taken from stomach samples and from net tows, was compared with that of the white muscle tissue (WMT) of swordfish from the same region. Swordfish muscle was lipid rich (average 24-42% dry weight), as was the skeleton (28-41%). The robustness of the approach was also tested by comparison against a key squid prey species that was collected and stored using different protocols: (i) fresh frozen, (ii) fresh frozen, then thawed, and (iii) stomach content collection. The FA profiles were generally similar, with the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and palmitic acid (16:0) in particular showing no significant difference. Major fatty acids in swordfish WMT were 18:1ω9c, 16:0, 22:6ω3, and 18:0. Multidimensional scaling showed that the swordfish WMT grouped closely with small fish prey including myctophids, and not with squid. Squid contained markedly higher 22:6ω3 than swordfish. Individual prey species of the myctophidae could also be separated by the same technique. These results were supported by traditional stomach content analyses (SCA) that showed fish were the dominant prey for small swordfish sampled from southern waters whereas squid were the main prey in more northern waters, matching the FA patterns we found for the two regions. We propose that where general diet patterns are established, signature FA analysis has good potential to compliment or in some cases, replace temporal and spatial monitoring of trophic pathways for swordfish and other marine species.

  14. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The δ13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  15. Towards fruitful metabolomics: high throughput analyses of polyphenol composition in berries using direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon; Martinussen, Inger; Stewart, Derek

    2008-08-15

    Tannin-enriched extracts from raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) techniques. The raspberry and cloudberry extracts contained a similar mixture of identifiable ellagitannin components and ellagic acid. However, the strawberry extract contained a complex mixture of ellagitannin and proanthocyanidin components that could not be adequately resolved to allow identification of individual peaks. Nevertheless, the negative ESI-MS spectra obtained by direct infusion mass spectrometric (DIMS) analysis described the diversity of these samples. For example, the predominance of signals associated with Lambertianin C in cloudberry and Sanguiin H6 in raspberry tannin extracts could be discerned and the diversity of signals from procyanidin and propelargonidin oligomers could be identified in the strawberry extract. The dose response for the main ellagitannin-derived signals in the raspberry tannin sample revealed a saturation effect probably due to ion suppression effects in the ion trap spectrometer. Nevertheless, DIMS spectra of whole berry extracts described qualitative differences in ellagitannin-derived peaks in raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry samples. In addition, positive mode DIMS spectra illustrated qualitative differences in the anthocyanin composition of berries of progeny from a raspberry breeding population that had been previously analysed by LC-MS. This suggests that DIMS could be applied to rapidly assess differences in polyphenol content, especially in large sample sets such as the progeny from breeding programmes. PMID:18650134

  16. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  17. Life in hot acid: pathway analyses in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea.

    PubMed

    Auernik, Kathryne S; Cooper, Charlotte R; Kelly, Robert M

    2008-10-01

    The extremely thermoacidophilic archaea are a particularly intriguing group of microorganisms that must simultaneously cope with biologically extreme pHs (< or = 4) and temperatures (Topt > or = 60 degrees C) in their natural environments. Their expanding biotechnological significance relates to their role in biomining of base and precious metals and their unique mechanisms of survival in hot acid, at both the cellular and biomolecular levels. Recent developments, such as advances in understanding of heavy metal tolerance mechanisms, implementation of a genetic system, and discovery of a new carbon fixation pathway, have been facilitated by the availability of genome sequence data and molecular genetic systems. As a result, new insights into the metabolic pathways and physiological features that define extreme thermoacidophily have been obtained, in some cases suggesting prospects for biotechnological opportunities. PMID:18760359

  18. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  19. Relatedness of acyl carrier proteins shown by amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Walker, T A; Ernst-Fonberg, M L

    1982-01-01

    1. Relatedness among the following carrier proteins was assessed on the basis of amino acid compositions: eight acyl carrier proteins (ACP's) associated with fatty acid synthesis, ACP's associated with citrate lyase and citramalate lyase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein and cytochrome 552. Two independent indices of amino acid composition were used. 2. The fatty acid synthesis-associated ACP's of many organisms and the lyase-associated ACP's show a high degree of relatedness among one another. 3. The ACP's show no relatedness to biotin carboxyl carrier protein or cytochrome 552. PMID:7128903

  20. Organic Analysis in the Miller Range 090657 CR2 Chondrite: Part 2 Amino Acid Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Cao, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Messenger, S.; Clemett, S. J.; Aponte, J. C.; Elsila, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of organic material, ranging from soluble discrete molecules to insoluble, unstructured kerogen-like components, as well as structured nano-globules of macromolecular carbon. The relationship between the soluble organic molecules, macromolecular organic material, and host minerals are poorly understood. Due to the differences in extractability of soluble and insoluble organic materials, the analysis methods for each differ and are often performed independently. The combination of soluble and insoluble analyses, when performed concurrently, can provide a wider understanding of spatial distribution, and elemental, structural and isotopic composition of organic material in primitive meteorites. Using macroscale extraction and analysis techniques in combination with in situ microscale observation, we have been studying both insoluble and soluble organic material in the primitive CR2 chondrite Miller Range (MIL) 090657. In accompanying abstracts (Cao et al. and Messenger et al.) we discuss insoluble organic material in the samples. By performing the consortium studies, we aim to improve our understanding of the relationship between the meteorite minerals and the soluble and insoluble organic phases and to delineate which species formed within the meteorite and those that formed in nebular or presolar environments. In this abstract, we present the results of amino acid analyses of MIL 090657 by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Amino acids are of interest because they are essential to life on Earth, and because they are present in sufficient structural, enantiomeric and isotopic diversity to allow insights into early solar system chemical processes. Furthermore, these are among the most isotopically anomalous species, yet at least some fraction are thought to have formed by aqueously-mediated processes during parent body alteration.

  1. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with semen quality. In addition, the composition of fatty acids of spermatozoa has been shown to be important for their function. The aim of the study was to examine the association between BMI and the composition of spermatozoa fatty acids in men spanning a broad BMI range. We also analysed the relation between fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and semen characteristics, and the relationship between serum fatty acids and spermatozoa fatty acids. One hundred forty-four men with unknown fertility status were recruited from the general population, from couples with identified female infertility and from morbid obesity centres. Standard semen analysis (WHO) and sperm DNA integrity (DFI) analysis were performed. Fatty acid compositions were assessed by gas chromatography. When adjusted for possible confounders, BMI was negatively associated with levels of sperm docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p < 0.001) and palmitic acid (p < 0.001). The amount of sperm DHA correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.482), sperm concentration (r = 0.469), sperm vitality (r = 0.354), progressive sperm motility (r = 0.431) and normal sperm morphology (r = 0.265). A negative association was seen between DHA levels and DNA fragmentation index (r = -0.247). Levels of spermatozoa palmitic acid correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.227), while levels of linoleic acid correlated negatively (r = -0.254). When adjusted for possible confounders, only the levels of arachidonic acid showed positive correlation between spermatozoa and serum phospholipids (r = 0.262). Changes in the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa could be one of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between BMI and semen quality. The relationship between fatty acids of spermatozoa and serum phospholipids was minor, which indicates that BMI affects fatty acid composition of spermatozoa through regulation of fatty acid

  2. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  3. Buckling and postbuckling of isogrid-stiffened fiber-composite laminate shells: Analyses and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.S.; Srinivasan, S.; Su, K.B.; Dunham, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber-composites manufacturing and structural efficiency requirements have led to the consideration of large isogrid-stiffened fiber-composite laminate shells for various aeronautical and space structural applications. Very little information, if any, on buckling and postbuckling of these grid-stiffened shells is currently available in the literature. In this paper, a combined analytical and experimental study is reported on the buckling and postbuckling behavior of these filament-wound fiber-composite laminate shells constructed with continuous-filament isogrid stiffeners made of the same composite material system. Solutions from linear bifurcation and geometric nonlinear postbuckling analyses have been obtained for stiffened composite shells, monocoque shells and isogrid stiffeners. Experiments have been conducted in parallel to the analyses, and buckling loads and postbuckling deformation characteristics have been studied for these structures.

  4. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  5. [Effect of organic composition of humic acids on Enterobacteria multiplication].

    PubMed

    Buzoleva, L S; Sidorenko, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enterobacteria have been found to be capable of active multiplication in humic acids isolated from bentonite clays containing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Humic acids fractions have been found to be heterogeneous by their molecular weight and organic composition; consequently, they have been found to produce different influence in the multiplication of bacteria. PMID:11548272

  6. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  7. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  8. Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekeli, Yener; Sezgin, Mehmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ozmen Guler, Gokalp; Aydin Sanda, Murad

    2010-12-01

    In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps and C. cariensis subsp. microlepis. Generally, C 18:2 ω6 linoleic acid, C 16:0 palmitic acid, C 18:3 ω3 linolenic acid and C 18:1 oleic acid were found to be the major fatty acids in all species. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in all species. PUFAs were determined at 55.10%, 50.25%, 51.41%, 41.02%, 46.18% and 58.80% in C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and C. iberica, respectively. PMID:21108113

  9. [Amino acid composition of rice grain proteins].

    PubMed

    Peruanskiĭ, Iu V; Savich, I M

    1976-01-01

    The composition of the major reserve proteins of rice grain--globulins, prolamines and glutelins--was examined in four rice varieties (Dubovsky 129, Kuban 3, Alakul, Ushtobinsky). Globulins proved to be most heterogeneous whereas glutelins appeared to be least heterogeneous. In regards to the ratio of components globulins showed high variability and glutelins displayed high stability. PMID:1005365

  10. SURFACE DEGRADATION OF COMPOSITE RESINS BY ACIDIC MEDICINES AND pH-CYCLING

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; Neves, Beatriz Gonçalves; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic medicines (Dimetapp® and Claritin®), under pH-cycling conditions, on the surface degradation of four composite resins (microhybrid: TPH, Concept, Opallis and Nanofilled: Supreme). Thirty disc-shaped specimens (Ø = 5.0 mm / thickness = 2.0 mm) of each composite were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10): a control and two experimental groups, according to the acidic medicines evaluated. The specimens were finished and polished with aluminum oxide discs, and the surface roughness was measured by using a profilometer. After the specimens were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen and immersion in acidic medicines for 12 days, the surface roughness was measured again. Two specimens for each material and group were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after pH-cycling. Data were analyzed by the Student's-t test, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range test and paired t-test (α=0.05). Significant increase in roughness was found only for TPH in the control group and TPH and Supreme immersed in Claritin® (p<0.05). SEM analyses showed that the 4 composite resins underwent erosion and surface degradation after being subjected to the experimental conditions. In conclusion, although the roughness was slightly affected, the pH-cycling and acidic medicines caused surface degradation of the composite resins evaluated. Titratable acidity seemed to play a more crucial role on surface degradation of composite resins than pH. PMID:19089257

  11. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  12. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  14. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Fatty-Acid Composition of Seeds and Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Sixteen Sapindaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Diogenes J Gusmão; Barbosa, Mariana O; Silva, Rejane M; da Silva, Suzene I; de Oliveira, Antonio Fernando M

    2015-08-01

    Circumscriptions for the Sapindaceae family and its infrafamilial relationships have been widely discussed. Certain groups are highly morphologically similar; thus, it is difficult to identify certain taxa. DNA Analyses have also indicated complex phylogenetic relationships, and it is difficult to relate such analyses to morphological data. Given the above concerns, this study aimed to investigate the fatty-acid profiles of the seed oils of 16 Sapindaceae species belonging to five tribes and to evaluate their potential chemotaxonomic significance. In total, eleven fatty acids were identified, and eicosenoic acid predominated in nine species. Multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) of the fatty-acid profiles of the seed oils allowed to separate them in two major clusters. The first cluster, characterized by oils with high eicosenoic acid levels, included all species belonging to the Paullinieae tribe (Cardiospermum, Paullinia, and Serjania species). In the second main cluster, the chemical similarity of the oils was lower, and the species belonged to different tribes. Nevertheless, the tree investigated Allophylus species (Thouinieae tribe) constituted a separate subcluster. Thus, the results showed that the fatty-acid composition of the seed oils of Sapindaceae species provide chemotaxonomic support for the separation of the Paullinieae tribe from the other tribes studied. PMID:26265579

  17. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  18. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions. PMID:25854931

  19. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). PMID:23075272

  20. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  1. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  2. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  3. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  4. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  5. MATERNAL EFFECTS FOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOYBEAN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) oil accounts for nearly half of the edible vegetable oil production worldwide. The fatty acid composition of soybean seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand to produce soy...

  6. Maternal Effects on Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. The success of developing soybean lines with genetically altered seed oil is greatly determined by the rate of genetic gain through selection. Maternal effec...

  7. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  8. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  9. A Property Extracted by Composition / Thermal Decomposition Analyses of Various Biomass Resources and Its Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro; Ida, Tamio; Namba, Kunihiko; Fuchihata, Manabu; Sawai, Toru

    Effective utilization of biomass resource rapidly has been promoting since the government adopted the ‘Biomass Nippon’ strategy at a cabinet meeting in 2002. Especially, the energy conversion technology of applying biomass has been expected from a point of view of environment and resource conservation. However, the energy conversion technologies are developed only for woody and herby biomass, and not for all of biomass. A stable supply of large quantity of biomass will be pressed in the future because the conversion technology must expand to use a variety of biomass. This study is to consider ways by various quantitative correlation analyses between the atomic composition and thermal decomposition of various biomass samples. The results found that thermal decomposition analyses of various biomass resources have correlations between atomic composition properties and exothermic properties.

  10. Method of preparing and using and composition for acidizing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-08-21

    A composition and method of acidizing or fracturing a subterranean formation comprises contacting the formation with a composition comprising an acid, urea, and a selected gelling agent. The urea is present in an amount sufficient to extend the viscous stability of the gelled acid composition in comparison to the acid and gelling agent alone.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp) of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata) was sequenced. All protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from the same strand. Flustra shares long intergenic sequences with the cheilostomate ectoproct Bugula, which might be a synapomorphy of these taxa. Further synapomorphies might be the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA L(UUR), the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA S(UCN) and the unique anticodon sequence GAG of the tRNA L(CUN). The gene order of the mitochondrial genome of Flustra differs strongly from that of the other known ectoprocts. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial nucleotide and amino acid data sets show that the lophophorate lineages are more closely related to trochozoan phyla than to deuterostomes or ecdysozoans confirming the Lophotrochozoa hypothesis. Furthermore, they support the monophyly of Cheilostomata and Ectoprocta. However, the relationships of the lophophorate lineages within Lophotrochozoa differ strongly depending on the data set and the used method. Different approaches for reducing heterogeneity in nucleotide and amino acid data sets and saturation did not result in a more robust resolution of lophotrochozoan relationships. Conclusion The contradictory and usually weakly supported phylogenetic

  12. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ~2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ~3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ~3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP~4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  13. Global Trophic Position Comparison of Two Dominant Mesopelagic Fish Families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) Using Amino Acid Nitrogen Isotopic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ∼2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ∼3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ∼3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP∼4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure. PMID:23209656

  14. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  15. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable. PMID:24803696

  16. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  17. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  18. Nitrogen-deprivation elevates lipid levels in Symbiodinium spp. by lipid droplet accumulation: morphological and compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  19. A review of the occurrence, analyses, toxicity, and biodegradation of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Joyce S; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-07-01

    Naphthenic acids occur naturally in crude oils and in oil sands bitumens. They are toxic components in refinery wastewaters and in oil sands extraction waters. In addition, there are many industrial uses for naphthenic acids, so there is a potential for their release to the environment from a variety of activities. Studies have shown that naphthenic acids are susceptible to biodegradation, which decreases their concentration and reduces toxicity. This is a complex group of carboxylic acids with the general formula CnH(2n+Z)O2, where n indicates the carbon number and Z specifies the hydrogen deficiency resulting from ring formation. Measuring the concentrations of naphthenic acids in environmental samples and determining the chemical composition of a naphthenic acids mixture are huge analytical challenges. However, new analytical methods are being applied to these problems and progress is being made to better understand this mixture of chemically similar compounds. This paper reviews a variety of analytical methods and their application to assessing biodegradation of naphthenic acids. PMID:15963797

  20. Technical note: improved methodology for analyses of acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin.

    PubMed

    Raffrenato, E; Van Amburgh, M E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the methodology of the acid detergent lignin (ADL) assay in an effort to evaluate particle loss, improve repeatability, and decrease variation within and among samples. The original ADL method relied on asbestos as a filtering aid, but that was removed in 1989 with the mandate from the Environmental Protection Agency to eliminate asbestos in the environment. Furthermore, recent work on fiber methodology indicated that pore size in the Gooch sintered glass crucible (40-60 μm) was too large to trap all of the small particles associated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Thus, any loss of ADF could potentially result in a loss of ADL. Sixty forages including conventional and brown midrib corn silages, alfalfa silages and hays, mature grasses, early vegetative grasses, and 9 feces samples, were analyzed sequentially for ADF and ADL as outlined in the 1973 procedure of Van Soest except for the use of the asbestos fiber. A glass microfiber filter with a 1.5-μm pore size was chosen as a filtering aid because it met the criteria required by the assay: glass, heat resistant, acid resistant, chemically inert, and hydrophobic. To compare with the current ADF and ADL assays, the assays were conducted with either no filter or the glass filter inserted into crucibles, rinsed with acetone, and then according to the 1973 procedure of Van Soest. The samples analyzed covered a range from 18.11 to 55.79% ADF and from 0.96 to 9.94% ADL on a dry matter (DM) basis. With the use of the filter, the mean ADF values increased 4.2% and mean ADL values increased 18.9%. Overall, both ADF and ADL values were greater with the use of the glass microfiber filter than without, indicating that as the type of sample analyzed changed, use of the Gooch crucible without the filtering aid results in particle loss. The adoption of the use of a small pore size (1.5 μm) glass microfiber filter to improve filtration and recovery

  1. Dynamics of a microbial community associated with manure hot spots as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Frostegård, A; Petersen, S O; Bååth, E; Nielsen, T H

    1997-01-01

    Microbial community dynamics associated with manure hot spots were studied by using a model system consisting of a gel-stabilized mixture of soil and manure, placed between layers of soil, during a 3-week incubation period. The microbial biomass, measured as the total amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), had doubled within a 2-mm distance from the soil-manure interface after 3 days. Principal-component analyses demonstrated that this increase was accompanied by reproducible changes in the composition of PLFA, indicating changes in the microbial community structure. The effect of the manure was strongest in the 2-mm-thick soil layer closest to the interface, in which the PLFA composition was statistically significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the unaffected soil layers throughout the incubation period. An effect was also observed in the soil layer 2 to 4 mm from the interface. The changes in microbial biomass and community structure were mainly attributed to the diffusion of dissolved organic carbon from the manure. During the initial period of microbial growth, PLFA, which were already more abundant in the manure than in the soil, increased in the manure core and in the 2-mm soil layer closest to the interface. After day 3, the PLFA composition of these layers gradually became more similar to that of the soil. The dynamics of individual PLFA suggested that both taxonomic and physiological changes occurred during growth. Examples of the latter were decreases in the ratios of 16:1 omega 7t to 16:1 omega 7c and of cyclopropyl fatty acids to their respective precursors, indicating a more active bacterial community. An inverse relationship between bacterial PLFA and the eucaryotic 20:4 PLFA (arachidonic acid) suggested that grazing was important. PMID:9172342

  2. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  3. Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, R; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-11-15

    The construction and performance of bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors for the selective determination of l- or d-amino acids is reported. D- or L-Amino acid oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and the mediator ferrocene were coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of a graphite-70% Teflon electrode matrix. Working conditions including amino acid oxidase loading and pH were optimized. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.00 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different biosensors illustrate the robustness of the bioelectrodes design. Calibration plots by both amperometry in stirred solutions and flow injection with amperometric detection were obtained for L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, D-leucine, D-methionine, D-serine, and D-valine. Differences in sensitivity were discussed in terms of the hydrophobicity of the substrate and of the electrode surface. The bienzyme composite electrode was applied to the determination of L- and D-amino acids in racemic samples, as well as to the estimation of the L-amino acids content in muscatel grapes. PMID:11700983

  4. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  5. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  6. Surface analyses of composites exposed to the space environment on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, Joseph J.; Uht, Joseph C.; Hemminger, Carol S.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface analyses on carbon fiber/poly(arylacetylene) (PAA) matrix composites that were exposed to the space environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite were conducted. These composite panels were arranged in pairs on both the leading edge and trailing edge of LDEF. None of the composites were catastrophically damaged by nearly six years of exposure to the space environment. Composites on the leading edge exhibited from 25 to 125 microns of surface erosion, but trailing edge panels exhibited no physical appearance changes due to exposure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show that the erosion morphology on the leading edge samples was dominated by crevasses parallel to the fibers with triangular cross sections 10 to 100 microns in depth. The edges of the crevasses were well defined and penetrated through both matrix and fiber. The data suggest that the carbon fibers are playing an important role in crevasse initiation and/or enlargement, and in the overall erosion rate of the composite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results showed contamination from in-flight sources of silicone.

  7. Surface analyses of composites exposed to the space environment on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, Joseph J.; Uht, Joseph C.; Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted a series of surface analyses on carbon fiber/polyarylacetylene matrix composites that were exposed to the space environment on the LDEF satellite. None of the composites were catastrophically damaged by nearly six years of exposure to the space environment. Composites on the leading edge exhibited about 5 mils of surface erosion, but trailing edge panels exhibited no physical appearance changes due to exposure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show that the erosion morphology on the leading edge samples was dominated by crevasses parallel to the fibers with triangular cross sections 10 to 100 microns in depth. The edges of the crevasses were well defined and penetrated through both matrix and fiber. The data suggest that the carbon fibers are playing a significant role in crevasse initiation and/or enlargement, and in the overall erosion rate of the composite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results showed the presence of silicone and hydrocarbon contamination from in-flight sources. The role of contamination in crevasse initiation and enlargement is unknown at this time. These LDEF results demonstrate that the prediction of long term atomic oxygen erosion morphology for composite materials from erosion data obtained on short Space Shuttle missions is difficult. A better understanding of other factors such as thermal cycling and UV exposure which may influence erosion is necessary to improve the accuracy of the predictions.

  8. VOC composition of current motor vehicle fuels and vapors, and collinearity analyses for receptor modeling

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of motor vehicle fuels can alter the magnitude and composition of evaporative and exhaust emissions occurring throughout the fuel cycle. Information regarding the volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of motor fuels other than gasoline is scarce, especially for bioethanol and bio-diesel blends. This study examines the liquid and vapor (headspace) composition of four contemporary and commercially available fuels: gasoline (<10% ethanol), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and B20 (20% soy-biodiesel and 80% ULSD). The composition of gasoline and E85 in both neat fuel and headspace vapor was dominated by aromatics and n-heptane. Despite its low gasoline content, E85 vapor contained higher concentrations of several VOCs than those in gasoline vapor, likely due to adjustments in its formulation. Temperature changes produced greater changes in the partial pressures of 17 VOCs in E85 than in gasoline, and large shifts in the VOC composition. B20 and ULSD were dominated by C9 to C16 n-alkanes and low levels of the aromatics, and the two fuels had similar headspace vapor composition and concentrations. While the headspace composition predicted using vapor–liquid equilibrium theory was closely correlated to measurements, E85 vapor concentrations were underpredicted. Based on variance decomposition analyses, gasoline and diesel fuels and their vapors VOC were distinct, but B20 and ULSD fuels and vapors were highly collinear. These results can be used to estimate fuel related emissions and exposures, particularly in receptor models that apportion emission sources, and the collinearity analysis suggests that gasoline- and diesel-related emissions can be distinguished. PMID:22154341

  9. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  10. Isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra; Yuen, George U.

    1992-01-01

    The monocarboxylic acids and hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite (CM2) were isolated for isotropic analysis. The nonvolatile hydrocarbons were analyzed as crude methanol and benzene-methanol extracts and also after separation by silica gel chromatography into predominantly aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbon fractions. The volatile hydrocarbons were obtained after progressive decomposition of the meteorite matrix by freeze-thaw, hot water, and acid treatment. Molecular analyses of the aromatic hydrocarbons showed them to comprise a complex suite of compounds in which pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene were the most abundant components, a result similar to earlier analyses. The polar hydrocarbons also comprise a very complex mixture in which aromatic ketones, nitrogen, and sulfur heterocycles were identified. The monocarboxylic acids, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbons, and the indigenous volatile hydrocarbons were found to be D-rich. The deuterium enrichment observed in these compounds is suggestive. In two separate analyses, the delta-D values of the nonvolatile hydrocarbons were observed to increase in the following order: aliphatic-aromatic-polar. This finding is consistent with an early solar system or parent body conversion of aromatic to aliphatic compounds as well as the suggestion of pyrolytic formation of aromatic from aliphatic compounds.

  11. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  13. The Effect of Scale Dependent Discretization on the Progressive Failure of Composite Materials Using Multiscale Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    A multiscale modeling methodology, which incorporates a statistical distribution of fiber strengths into coupled micromechanics/ finite element analyses, is applied to unidirectional polymer matrix composites (PMCs) to analyze the effect of mesh discretization both at the micro- and macroscales on the predicted ultimate tensile (UTS) strength and failure behavior. The NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver were used to analyze the progressive failure of a PMC tensile specimen that initiates at the repeating unit cell (RUC) level. Three different finite element mesh densities were employed and each coupled with an appropriate RUC. Multiple simulations were performed in order to assess the effect of a statistical distribution of fiber strengths on the bulk composite failure and predicted strength. The coupled effects of both the micro- and macroscale discretizations were found to have a noticeable effect on the predicted UTS and computational efficiency of the simulations.

  14. Damage Model and Progressive Failure Analyses for Filament Wound Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Leite; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei

    2013-10-01

    Recent improvements in manufacturing processes and materials properties associated with excellent mechanical characteristics and low weight have made composite materials very attractive for application on civil aircraft structures. However, even new designs are still very conservative, because the composite failure phenomenon is very complex. Several failure criteria and theories have been developed to describe the damage process and how it evolves, but the solution of the problem is still open. Moreover, modern filament winding techniques have been used to produce a wide variety of structural shapes not only cylindrical parts, but also “flat” laminates. Therefore, this work presents the development of a damage model and its application to simulate the progressive failure of flat composite laminates made using a filament winding process. The damage model was implemented as a UMAT (User Material Subroutine), in ABAQUSTM Finite Element (FE) framework. Progressive failure analyses were carried out using FE simulation in order to simulate the failure of flat filament wound composite structures under different loading conditions. In addition, experimental tests were performed in order to identify parameters related to the material model, as well as to evaluate both the potential and the limitations of the model. The difference between numerical and the average experimental results in a four point bending set-up is only 1.6 % at maximum load amplitude. Another important issue is that the model parameters are not so complicated to be identified. This characteristic makes this model very attractive to be applied in an industrial environment.

  15. Associations between a fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphism and blood arachidonic acid compositions in Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Sayaka; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Ishijima, Akiko; Minezaki, Takayuki; Baba, Mamiko; Kontai, Yoshiko; Horikawa, Chika; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism rs174547 (T/C) of the fatty acid desaturase-1 gene, FADS1, is associated with changes in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipid (PL) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition in elderly Japanese participants (n=124; 65 years or older; self-feeding and oral intake). The rs174547 C-allele carriers had significantly lower arachidonic acid (ARA; n-6 PUFA) and higher linoleic acid (LA, n-6 PUFA precursor) levels in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL (15% and 6% ARA reduction, respectively, per C-allele), suggesting a low LA to ARA conversion rate in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL of C-allele carriers. α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA precursor) levels were higher in the plasma PL of C-allele carriers, whereas levels of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were unchanged in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL. Thus, rs174547 genotypes were significantly associated with different ARA compositions of the blood of elderly Japanese. PMID:26869086

  16. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

  17. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  18. Survey of SSC12 Regions Affecting Fatty Acid Composition of Intramuscular Fat Using High-Density SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, María; Alves, Estefânia; Corominas, Jordi; Folch, Josep María; Casellas, Joaquim; Noguera, Jose Luis; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of back fat (BF) and intramuscular fat (IMF). In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of IMF in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60-cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait). This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of BF, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase ∝ gene (ACACA). Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for palmitic content. PMID

  19. Effects of simple acid leaching of crushed and powdered geological materials on high-precision Pb isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Erin; Stracke, Andreas; Scherer, Erik E.

    2015-07-01

    We present new results of simple acid leaching experiments on the Pb isotope composition of USGS standard reference material powders and on ocean island basalt whole rock splits and powders. Rock samples were leached with cold 6 N HCl in an ultrasonic bath, then on a hot plate, and washed with ultrapure H2O before sample digestion in HF-HNO3 and chromatographic purification of Pb. Lead isotope analyses were measured by Tl-doped MC-ICPMS. Intrasession and intersession analytical reproducibilities of repeated analyses of both synthetic Pb solutions and Pb from single digests of chemically processed natural samples were generally better than 100 ppm (2 SD). The comparison of leached and unleached samples shows that leaching consistently removes variable amounts of contaminants that differ in Pb isotopic composition for different starting materials. For repeated digests of a single sample, analyses of leached samples reproduce better than those of unleached ones, confirming that leaching effectively removes most of the heterogeneously distributed extraneous Pb. Nevertheless, the external reproducibility of leached samples is still up to an order of magnitude worse than that of Pb solution standards (˜100 ppm). More complex leaching methods employed by earlier studies yield Pb isotope ratios within error of those produced by our method and at similar levels of reproducibility, demonstrating that our simple leaching method is as effective as more complex leaching techniques. Therefore, any Pb isotope heterogeneity among multiple leached digests of samples in excess of the external reproducibility is attributed to inherent isotopic heterogeneity of the sample. The external precision of ˜100 ppm (2 SD) achieved for Pb isotope ratio determination by Tl-doped MC-ICPMS is thus sufficient for most rocks. The full advantage of the most precise Pb isotope analytical methods is only realized in cases where the natural isotopic heterogeneity among samples in a studied suite is

  20. Fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Gomez Zavaglia, A; Disalvo, E A; De Antoni, G L

    2000-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance of eight strains of thermophilic lactobacilli were studied. Seven of these contained the same polar and neutral lipids, the five major components making up 90% of the cellular fatty acid pool being 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1 and C19 cyclopropane (cyc19:0). Strain comparison by means of cluster analysis based on the fatty acid ratios using the overlap coefficient revealed two well defined clusters. One was formed by three strains of species Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, the other included five strains of the species Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus and Lb. helveticus. Resistance of strains with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (66-70%) decreased with increasing cyc19:0 concentrations. In contrast, in strains with a low concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (42-49%), increasing cyc19:0 levels were associated with increased freeze-thaw resistance. PMID:10840678

  1. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Bernhoft, Aksel; Wold, Jens P; Hetland, Harald; Christophersen, Olav A; Sogn, Trine

    2007-01-01

    Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form) per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle). The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5), DPA (22:5) and DHA (22:6), thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form) may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle. PMID:17967172

  2. Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péron, Sandrine; Moreira, Manuel; Colin, Aurélia; Arbaret, Laurent; Putlitz, Benita; Kurz, Mark D.

    2016-09-01

    The origin of volatiles on Earth is still a matter of debate. Noble gases are an efficient geochemical tool to constrain Earth formation processes due to their inertness. Several studies have focused on the neon isotopic composition of the lower mantle because the 20Ne/22Ne ratio is thought to reflect that of Earth's primordial components. Two models to explain the origin of light noble gases on Earth have been proposed: either solar wind implantation onto the Earth's solid precursors or dissolution into the mantle of a primordial atmosphere captured from solar nebula gas. In order to test these two models, we analyzed the noble gas compositions (helium, neon and argon) of two submarine oceanic island basalt glasses from Fernandina volcano (Galápagos archipelago), which have among the most primitive/unradiogenic terrestrial helium and neon isotopic compositions. Several sample pieces are studied both by step-crushing and by laser ablation analyses of single vesicles. Results of step-crushing are consistent with those of laser ablation analyses, but the latter results provide new insights into the origin of atmospheric contamination. The single-vesicle laser-ablation measurements overlap with the step crushing results, but have systematically higher 40Ar/36Ar, and 3He/36Ar, suggesting less atmospheric contamination using this method. The single vesicle data therefore suggest that atmospheric contamination is introduced by exposure to the modern atmosphere, after sample collection. 3He/4He values are about 23 times the atmospheric ratio (R/Ra) for the two Fernandina (Galápagos) samples, in agreement with previous studies. We obtain 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar isotopic ratios as high as 12.91 and 9400, respectively, for the mantle source of the Galápagos hotspot. The new data show that step-crushing and laser ablation analyses are complementary methods that should be used together to derive the noble gas ratios in uncontaminated samples. The results of neon

  3. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  4. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A. )

    1990-09-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for (14C)triolein, (14C)cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans.

  5. Bayesian Analyses of Multiple Epistatic QTL Models for Body Weight and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTL. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity. PMID:16545150

  6. Isotopic analyses of nitrogenous compounds from the Murchison meteorite: ammonia, amines, amino acids, and polar hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, S.; Feng, X.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The combined volatile bases (ammonia, aliphatic amines, and possibly other bases), ammonia, amino acids, and polar hydrocarbons were prepared from the Murchison meteorite for isotopic analyses. The volatile bases were obtained by cryogenic transfer after acid-hydrolysis of a hot-water extract and analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. The aliphatic amines present in this preparation comprise a mixture that includes both primary and secondary isomers through C5 at a total concentration of > or = 100 nmoles g-1. As commonly observed for meteoritic organic compounds, almost all isomers through C5 are present, and the concentrations within homologous series decrease with increasing chain length. Ammonia was chromatographically separated from the other volatile bases and found at a concentration of 1.1-1.3 micromoles g-1 meteorite. The ammonia analyzed includes contributions from ammonium salts and the hydrolysis of extractable organic compounds, e.g., carboxamides. Stable isotope analyses showed the volatile bases to be substantially enriched in the heavier isotopes, relative to comparable terrestrial compounds delta D < or = +1221%; delta 13C = +22%; delta 15N = +93%). Ammonia, per se, was found to have a somewhat lower delta 15N value (+69%) than the total volatile bases; consequently, a higher delta 15N (>93%) can be inferred for the other bases, which include the amines. Solvent-extractable polar hydrocarbons obtained separately were found to be enriched in 15N (delta 15N = +104%). Total amino acids, prepared from a hydrolyzed hot-water extract by cation exchange chromatography, gave a delta 15N of +94%, a value in good agreement with that obtained previously. Nitrogen isotopic data are also given for amino acid fractions separated chromatographically. The delta 15N values of the Murchison soluble organic compounds analyzed to date fall within a rather narrow range (delta 15N = +94 +/- 8%), an observation

  7. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  8. Composition of Humic Acids of the Lake Baikal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakova, O.; Chimitdorzhieva, G.; Andreeva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances are the final stage of the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter in the biosphere. Its natural compounds are found not only in soil, peat, coal, and sediments of basins. Chemical composition and properties of humic substances are determined by the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore the study of the unique Lake Baikal sediments can provide information about their genesis, as well as the processes of organic matter transformation. For this purpose, preparations of humic acids (HA) were isolated by alkaline extraction method. The composition of HA was investigated by the elemental analyzer CHNS/O PerkinElmer Series II. Various located sediments of the Lake Baikal were the objects of the study: 1 - Chivyrkuisky Bay, 2 - Kotovo Bay, 3 - Selenga river delta near Dubinino village, 4 - Selenga river delta near Murzino village. Data on the elemental composition of HA in terms of ash-free portion show that the carbon content (CC) is of 50-53% with a maximum value in a sample 3, and minimum - in a sample 2. Such values are characteristic also for the soils with low biochemical activity. The hydrogen content is of 4,2-5,3%, a maximum value is in a sample 1. Data recalculation to the atomic percentages identified following regularities. The CC of HA is of 35-39 at. %. Hydrogen content is of 37-43 at. %. According to the content of these elements investigated substances are clearly divided into two groups: HA of the sediments of the Lake Baikal and river Selenga delta. The magnitude of the atomic ratio H/C can be seen varying degrees of condensation of the molecules of humic acids. The high atomic ratio H/C in HA of the former group indicates the predominance of aliphatic structures in the molecules. Humic acids of the later group are characterized by a low value H/C (<1), suggesting a large proportion of aromatic components in HA composition. In sediments of the Selenga river delta there is an addition of organic matter of terrigenous

  9. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  10. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  11. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%), stearic acid (6.36–7.73%), oleic acid (4.31–6.98%), arachidic acid (ND–3.48%), margaric acid (1.44–2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  12. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  14. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  15. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on bile acid composition in hamster bile.

    PubMed

    Matejka, M; Vescina, C; Carducci, C N; Alayón, A; Dios, A; Scarlatto, E; Mamianetti, A

    1990-01-01

    The modification in the composition of bile acids in hamster by the administration of high dose of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups: a control group, two groups that received 0.5 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days and another two groups that received 1 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days. After ether anaesthesia the gallbladder was removed and bile was immediately aspirated. Bile acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Taurolithocholic (TLCA) and glycolithocholic acids (GLCA) increased significantly in all treated groups. The glyco/tauro ratio of 0.69 in controls became more than 1 in treated animals except in the case of lithocholic acid (LCA) conjugates which remained less than 1. UDCA derivatives increased proportionally to the administered dose and the cholic/cheno ratio diminished significantly. A moderate increase of 3- and 7-keto derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was observed in all treated groups but the above mentioned increment was especially evident in 3-keto derivatives. A high percentage of UDCA administered in the hamster was likely transformed to CDCA and the glyco conjugates of the bile acids were the predominant species except for the LCA derivatives. PMID:2367280

  16. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  17. Thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and bagasse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCB) composite by adding isosorbide diesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthai, Suthaphat; Magaraphan, Rathanawan

    2015-05-01

    An isosorbide diesters is one of isororbide types used as a plasticizer. The influence of this plasticizer on thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid and bagasse carboxymethyl cellulose (PLA/CMCB) composites was studied. PLA was blended with CMCB at 1%wt using various contents of isosorbide diesters (5, 10, 15 and 20%wt of PLA). The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses indicated that the increment of isosorbide diesters concentration resulted in decreasing glass transition, melting and decomposition temperatures, as well as the reduction of storage modulus of PLA/CMCB composites. Moreover, the elongation of PLA/CMCB composites was significantly improved with increasing plasticizer content.

  18. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  19. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijie; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Silva, Ana Marta; Coombs, Graham H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts. PMID:26368322

  20. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  1. A new look at numerical analyses of free-edge stresses in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Whitcomb, J. D.; Goree, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The edge stress problem for a + or - 45 deg graphite/epoxy laminate was examined. The reliability of the displacement formulated finite element method in analyzing the edge stress problem was investigated. Analyses of two well known elasticity problems, one involving a stress discontinuity and one a singularity, showed that the finite element analysis yields accurate stress distributions everywhere except in two elements closest to the stress discontinuity of singularity. Stress distributions for a + or - 45 deg laminate showed the same behavior near the singularity found in the well known problems with exact solutions. The displacement formulated finite element method appears to be a highly accurate technique for calculating interlaminar stress in composite laminates. The disagreement among the numerical methods was attributed to the unsymmetric stress tensor at the singularity.

  2. Compositional and micro-scratch analyses of laser induced colored surface of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, Erhan; Cerkezoglu, Ecem

    2016-09-01

    Laser marking of metallic surface is a very important application for industry. It is revealed that controlled oxide layer generation above the treated surface leads to colored appearance of metals with interference effect. The oxide layer control is provided with laser and process parameters. In this study, different colors of the Grade 2 titanium samples have been obtained by varying the laser scanning speed. Chromaticity coordinates of the different color surface have been calculated from the reflectance spectrum of the samples. Compositional analyses have been performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. To examine the mechanical properties of the surface, micro-scratch test has been applied to all the colored surfaces. Although delamination has been observed between two laser scanning speed as 950 mm/s and 450 mm/s, it can be said that the adhesion between the titanium substrate and the oxide coating is good.

  3. Compositional provinces of Mars from statistical analyses of TES, GRS, OMEGA and CRISM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Hamilton, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    identified 10 distinct classes of mineral assemblage on Mars through statistical analyses of mineral abundances derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data at a spatial resolution of 8 pixels per degree. Two classes are new regions in Sinus Meridiani and northern Hellas basin. Except for crystalline hematite abundance, Sinus Meridiani exhibits compositional characteristics similar to Meridiani Planum; these two regions may share part of a common history. The northern margin of Hellas basin lacks olivine and high-Ca pyroxene compared to terrains just outside the Hellas outer ring; this may reflect a difference in crustal compositions and/or aqueous alteration. Hesperian highland volcanic terrains are largely mapped into one class. These terrains exhibit low-to-intermediate potassium and thorium concentrations (from Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data) compared to older highland terrains, indicating differences in the complexity of processes affecting mantle melts between these different-aged terrains. A previously reported, locally observed trend toward decreasing proportions of low-calcium pyroxene relative to total pyroxene with time is also apparent over the larger scales of our study. Spatial trends in olivine and pyroxene abundance are consistent with those observed in near-infrared data sets. Generally, regions that are distinct in TES data also exhibit distinct elemental characteristics in GRS data, suggesting that surficial coatings are not the primary control on TES mineralogical variations, but rather reflect regional differences in igneous and large-scale sedimentary/glacial processes. Distinct compositions measured over large, low-dust regions from multiple data sets indicate that global homogenization of unconsolidated surface materials has not occurred.

  4. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  5. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  6. Fatty acid composition of lipids present in selected lichenized fungi: a chemotyping study.

    PubMed

    Sassaki, G L; Cruz, L M; Gorin, P A; Lacomini, M

    2001-02-01

    The total-lipid composition of 21 lichens of the ascomycetous genera Cladonia (11) and Cladina (1) of the family Cladoniacea, Cladia (1), Parmotrema (3), Ramalina (2), Leptogium (1), Cetraria (1), and the basidiomycetous genus Dictyonema (1) was determined. Analyses of those of Dictyonema glabratum were carried out with a total extract and those obtained after successive extractions with various solvents. Each extract was partitioned between n-heptane/isopropanol and 1 M sulfuric acid, giving triglycerides (TG) in the upper phase. Extracts were methanolyzed and the resulting methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methanolyzates of TG unexpectedly contained esters of 9-oxodecanoic, 9-methyl-tetradecanoic, 6-methyl-tetradecanoic, 3-hydroxy-decanoic, nonanedioic, and decanedioic acids, as well as common fatty acids. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles from the lichens were submitted to cluster analysis, and the resulting dendogram showed a cluster consistent with Cladonia spp., suggesting an efficient aid to lichen taxonomy. The total carbohydrate content of each lipid extract was determined by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method, which compensated for the presence of pigments. PMID:11269697

  7. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species. PMID:22005403

  8. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  9. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stable Isotope and Signature Fatty Acid Analyses Suggest Reef Manta Rays Feed on Demersal Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa). Stable isotope δ15N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ13C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs. PMID:24167562

  11. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources. PMID:18268376

  12. Tying Biological Activity to Changes in Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition via Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Collins, D. B.; Axson, J. L.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In remote marine environments, sea spray aerosols (SSA) often represent the greatest aerosol burden, thus having significant impacts on direct radiative interactions and cloud processes. Previous studies have shown that SSA is a complex mixture of inorganic salts and an array of dissolved and particulate organic components. Enrichment of SSA organic content is often correlated to seawater chlorophyll concentrations, a measure of oceanic biological activity. As the physical and chemical properties of aerosols control their radiative effects, recent studies conducted by the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment have endeavored to further elucidate the ties between marine biological activity and primary SSA chemical composition using highly time resolved single particle analyses. A series of experiments performed in the recently developed Marine Aerosol Reference Tank evaluated the effect of changing marine microbial populations on SSA chemical composition, which was monitored via an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a variety of offline spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Each experiment was initiated using unfiltered and untreated seawater, thus maintaining a high level of biogeochemical complexity. This study is the first of its kind to capture daily changes in the primary SSA mixing state over the growth and death of a natural phytoplankton bloom. Increases in organic aerosol types (0.4-3 μm), internally and externally mixed with sea salt, could not be correlated to chlorophyll concentrations. Maximum production of these populations occurred two to four days after the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence peaked in intensity. This work is in contrast to the current paradigm of correlating SSA organic content to seawater chlorophyll concentration.

  13. Adansonian Analysis and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1965-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 89:454–461. 1965.—A total of 33 strains of Serratia marcescens were subjected to Adansonian analysis for which more than 200 coded features for each of the organisms were included. In addition, the base composition [expressed as moles per cent guanine + cytosine (G + C)] of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prepared from each of the strains was determined. Except for four strains which were intermediate between Serratia and the Hafnia and Aerobacter group C of Edwards and Ewing, the S. marcescens species group proved to be extremely homogeneous, and the different strains showed high affinities for each other (mean similarity, ¯S = 77%). The G + C ratio of the DNA from the Serratia strains ranged from 56.2 to 58.4% G + C. Many species names have been listed for the genus, but only a single clustering of the strains was obtained at the species level, for which the species name S. marcescens was retained. S. kiliensis, S. indica, S. plymuthica, and S. marinorubra could not be distinguished from S. marcescens; it was concluded, therefore, that there is only a single species in the genus. The variety designation kiliensis does not appear to be valid, since no subspecies clustering of strains with negative Voges-Proskauer reactions could be detected. The characteristics of the species are listed, and a description of S. marcescens is presented. PMID:14255714

  14. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics. PMID:27083372

  15. Composition of transgenic soybean seeds with higher γ-linolenic acid content is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengyun; Kang, Linzhi; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Song, Jingshen; Zhao, Yinhua

    2012-03-01

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) has been used as a general nutraceutical for pharmacologic applications, particularly in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema. Four transgenic soybean lines that produce GLA at high yields (4.21% of total fatty acids, up to 1002-fold) were generated through the stable insertion of the Delta-6-fatty acid desaturase gene isolated from Borago officinalis into the genome of a conventional soybean cultivar. As part of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops, the transgenic soybean seeds were compared with their parental soybean seeds (nontransgenic) by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring the fatty acids, proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, TDF, and ash contents), amino acids, lectins, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The present results showed that the specific transgenic cultivar studied was similar to the conventional control. PMID:22324875

  16. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. PMID:27179602

  17. Iron oxohydroxide-polyacrylic acid magnetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata-Zamora, M. E.; Arriola, H.; Nava, N.; Saniger, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    Powdered nanometer-sized precipitates of Fe(II)Fe(III) 2O x(OH) y were obtained by reacting solutions of ferrous-ferric salts with a Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio < 2, with an excess of ammonium hydroxide. These precipitates were then mixed at room temperature with a solution of polyacrylic acid (PAA) in order to obtain a composite material. The XRD analysis showed that the iron oxohydroxide precipitates, with an average size around 10 nm, were crystalline and had a spinel structure resembling to either magnetite or maghemite. The Mössbauer spectra of the iron oxohydroxide particles presented a major magnetic phase with the double Zeeman splitting characteristic of magnetite and a minor paramagnetic phase probably originated by the nanometer size of the particles. Its structure was found to correspond to a disordered spinel, as result of the analysis of the intrinsic magnetic field and its splitting parameters. The composite material PAA-Fe(II)Fe(III) 2O x(OH) y presented a diffractogram close to the original oxohydroxide, but its Mössbauer spectrum showed a major paramagnetic phase. This change was explained as a consequence of the chemical coordination of the nanometer sized iron oxohydroxides particles with the PAA carboxylate groups.

  18. Citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds enhance calvarial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4 mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  20. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  1. Morphology and Composition of Structured, Phase-Separated Behenic Acid-Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid Monolayer Films.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jeveria; Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; He, Anqiang; Paige, Matthew F

    2016-05-31

    The phase separation of immiscible surfactants in mixed monolayer films provides an approach to physically manipulate important properties of thin films, including surface morphology, microscale composition, and mechanical properties. In this work, we predict, based upon existing miscibility studies and their thermodynamic underpinnings described in the literature, the miscibility and film morphology of mixed monolayers comprised of behenic acid (C21H43COOH) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (C13F27COOH) in various molar ratios. Predictions are tested using a combination of experimental surface characterization methods for probing miscibility and film morphology at the solid/air and air/water interfaces. Film components were immiscible and phase-separated into chemically well-defined domains under a variety of experimental conditions, with monolayer morphology consistent with initial predictions. The extensibility of these basic predictions to other systems is discussed in the context of using these works for different perfluorinated surfactant molecules. PMID:27163482

  2. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  3. Application of vibrational spectroscopy in the in vitro studies of carbon fiber-polylactic acid composite degradation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazewicz, Marta; Gajewska, Maria Chomyszyn; Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa

    1999-05-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy was used for assessment of new material for stomatology, for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniqe.Implants applied in the healing of periodontal defects using GTR technique have to meet stringent requirements concerning their chemical as well physical properties.At present the implants prepared from two layers membranes differing in porosity in their outer and inner layers are studied clinically. Composite plates prepared by us consist of three layers: polylactic acid film, carbon fibres coated with polylactic acid and carbon fabric.Vibrational spectroscopic studies of the material; polylactic acid- carbon fiber have made it possible to analyse chemical reactions occurring between the polymer and carbon surface. Analysis of the IR spectra of samples treated in Ringer solution allowed to describe the phenomena resulting from the composite degradation. It was shown that material biostability is related to the presence of carbon fibers.

  4. Folic acid alone or multivitamin containing folic acid intake during pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia through meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang-Min; Yun, Yeo-Ul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the effect of folic acid and multivitamin use during pregnancy on the risk of developing of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Methods Two reviewers independently determined all prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, large population based cohort study, retrospective secondary analysis, and double blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial published using PubMed Medline database, KERIS (Korea Education and Research Information Service), Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials comparing before conception throughout pregnancy intake oral multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone. Meta-analyses were estimated with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random effect analysis according to heterogeneity of studies. Results Data from six effect sizes from six studies involving 201,661 patients were enrolled. These meta-analyses showed multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone was not significantly effective in reducing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia incidence (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.03) than the placebo. And the difference of effective sizes of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension according to two dependent variables, multivitamin and folic acid were not significant, respectively (point estimate, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.96). Conclusion These meta-analyses demonstrate multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone was not significantly effective in reducing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia incidence. PMID:27004201

  5. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

  6. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  7. Biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites in engineering by detailed analyses of biological concept generators.

    PubMed

    Masselter, T; Hesse, L; Böhm, H; Gruhl, A; Schwager, H; Leupold, J; Gude, M; Milwich, M; Neinhuis, C; Speck, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites based on the detailed analysis of biological concept generators. The methods include analyses of the functional morphology and biomechanics of arborescent monocotyledons and columnar cacti as well as measurements and modelling of mechanical properties of biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. The key results show evidence of notch stress reduction by optimised stem-branch-attachment morphology in monocotyledons and columnar cacti. It could be shown that some of these highly interesting properties can be transferred into biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. PMID:27603330

  8. Prediction of Protein Submitochondrial Locations by Incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's General Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khurshid; Waris, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrion is the key organelle of eukaryotic cell, which provides energy for cellular activities. Submitochondrial locations of proteins play crucial role in understanding different biological processes such as energy metabolism, program cell death, and ionic homeostasis. Prediction of submitochondrial locations through conventional methods are expensive and time consuming because of the large number of protein sequences generated in the last few decades. Therefore, it is intensively desired to establish an automated model for identification of submitochondrial locations of proteins. In this regard, the current study is initiated to develop a fast, reliable, and accurate computational model. Various feature extraction methods such as dipeptide composition (DPC), Split Amino Acid Composition, and Composition and Translation were utilized. In order to overcome the issue of biasness, oversampling technique SMOTE was applied to balance the datasets. Several classification learners including K-Nearest Neighbor, Probabilistic Neural Network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used. Jackknife test is applied to assess the performance of classification algorithms using two benchmark datasets. Among various classification algorithms, SVM achieved the highest success rates in conjunction with the condensed feature space of DPC, which are 95.20 % accuracy on dataset SML3-317 and 95.11 % on dataset SML3-983. The empirical results revealed that our proposed model obtained the highest results so far in the literatures. It is anticipated that our proposed model might be useful for future studies. PMID:26746980

  9. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  10. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  11. Compositional diversity of the lunar North Pole: Preliminary analyses of Galileo SSI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Belton, M.; Head, James W.; Greeley, R.; Mcewen, A.; Fischer, E. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Klaasen, K.; Plutchak, J.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft passed through the Earth-Moon system for its final gravity assist to Jupiter. The SSI camera obtained several 6-color mosaics of the lunar north polar region and the sunlit nearside and eastern limb at approximately 1.3 km/pixel. Initial analyses have concentrated on the north polar areas to assess the composition of the crust in that region. Representative 6-color calibration SSI spectra (typically 5 x 5 pixels) are shown. Photometric corrections have not yet been applied, and all spectra are scaled to unity at 0.56 microns. The data were first calibrated relative to MS2, a standard are in Mare Serenitatis (18.7 deg N, 21.5 deg E), and the top four plots of highlands, highland craters, maria, and mare craters are displayed relative to MS2. SSI spectra of areas measured with telescopic data (mare MT1/MS2 and mare crater MSA/MS2) agree well with previous data, confirming that the calibration procedures and SSI data are spectrally accurate. The bottom three plots of craters/sun have been calibrated to reflectance using previously obtained telescopic spectra of Apollo 16/MS2 (shown with Highlands/MS2) and laboratory spectra of mature Apollo 16 soil (shown for reference with the Highland Craters/Sun). Although some variations in these spectra mimic previously observed spectra of lunar terrains, several characteristics are unusual. Familiar and unfamiliar properties are observed in these northern latitudes and both types merit further investigation in their geologic context.

  12. Wheat gluten amino acid composition analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ine; Lamberts, Lieve; Celus, Inge; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-07-17

    A simple accurate method for determining amino acid composition of wheat gluten proteins and their gliadin and glutenin fractions using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection is described. In contrast to most conventional methods, the analysis requires neither pre- or post-column derivatization, nor oxidation of the sample. It consists of hydrolysis (6.0M hydrochloric acid solution at 110 degrees C for 24h), evaporation of hydrolyzates (110 degrees C), and chromatographic separation of the liberated amino acids. Correction factors (f) accounted for incomplete cleavage of peptide bonds involving Val (f=1.07) and Ile (f=1.13) after hydrolysis for 24h and for Ser (f=1.32) losses during evaporation. Gradient conditions including an extra eluent (0.1M acetic acid solution) allowed multiple sequential sample analyses without risk of Glu contamination on the anion-exchange column. While gluten amino acid compositions by the present method were mostly comparable to those obtained by a conventional method involving oxidation, acid hydrolysis and post-column ninhydrin derivatization, the latter method underestimated Tyr, Val and Ile levels. Results for the other amino acids obtained by the different methods were linearly correlated (r>0.99, slope=1.03). PMID:19523641

  13. Neuroinformatics analyses reveal GABAt and SSADH as major proteins involved in anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Piplani, Sakshi; Verma, Prabhakar Kumar; Kumar, Ajit

    2016-07-01

    The unequivocal hypotheses about anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid (VPA) have always been a basic hurdle in designing next generation neurotherapeutics, particularly the anti-epileptic drugs. The present study reports about a comprehensive in-silico investigation into qualitative and quantitative binding of VPA and corresponding natural ligands of four major enzymes involved in neurotransmissions, namely-GABA transaminase (GABAt), α-keto glutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), Succinate Semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) and Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD), respectively. The molecular docking analyses revealed that VPA inhibits GABAt and α-KGDH through allosteric while SSADH through competitive mode of binding. There is an observed elevation in binding of glutamate over GAD in the presence of VPA. The docking inhibition constant (Ki) of VPA to all the studied enzymatic receptors were observed to be well below the therapeutic concentration of VPA in blood, except for α-KGDH, thus favouring GABAergic over glutamatergic mode of anticonvulsant activity of VPA. The report is probably the first comprehensive in-silico molecular study about VPA action. PMID:27261619

  14. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  15. Amino acid nitrogen isotopic composition patterns in lacustrine sedimenting matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Dörte; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2013-11-01

    Amino acids (AAs) comprise a large fraction of organic nitrogen (N) in plankton and sedimenting matter. Aquatic studies of organic N compounds in general and of AAs in particular, mostly concentrate on marine environments. In order to study the cycling and fate of organic N and AAs in lakes, we measured the N isotopic composition (δ15N) of bulk organic matter (OM) and of single hydrolysable AAs in sediment trap and sediment samples from two Swiss lakes with contrasting trophic state: Lake Brienz, an oligotrophic lake with an oxic water column, and Lake Zug a eutrophic, meromictic lake. We also measured the N isotopic composition of water column nitrate, the likely inorganic N source during biosynthesis in both lakes. The δ15N-AA patterns found for the sediment trap material were consistent with published δ15N-AA data for marine plankton. The AA composition and primary δ15N-AA signatures are preserved until burial in the sediments. During early sedimentary diagenesis, the δ15N values of single AAs appear to increase, exceeding those of the bulk OM. This increase in δ15N-AA is paralleled by a decreased contribution of AAs to the total OM pool with progressed degradation, suggesting preferential AA degradation associated with a significant N isotope fractionation. Indicators for trophic level based on δ15N-AAs were determined, for the first time in lacustrine systems. In our samples, the trophic AAs were generally enriched in 15N compared to source AAs and higher trophic δ15N-AA values in Lake Zug were consistent with a higher trophic level of the bulk biomass compared to Lake Brienz. Especially the difference between average trophic δ15N-AAs and average source δ15N-AAs was sensitive to the trophic states of the two lakes. A proxy for total heterotrophic AA re-synthesis (ΣV), which is strongly associated with heterotrophic microbial reworking of the OM, was calculated based on δ15N values of trophic AAs. Higher ΣV in Lake Brienz indicate enhanced

  16. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant. PMID:23148871

  17. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. PMID:16251790

  18. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  19. Selection of acid compositions in well construction in difficult geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. V.; Kamartdinov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Within the scope of the current work we have presented an approach towards selecting and substantiation of acid composition in accordance with petrophysical characteristics of formations for acid treatment of bottom-hole formation zones. Article presents the results of lab tests of selected acid compositions, in conditions, which model thermobaric conditions of a payzone, combined with an evaluation of hydraulic permeability change, and this, in its turn, should allow us to evaluate the quality of impact of the acid composition recipe on the reservoir formation.

  20. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p < 0.05). In bacterial growth inhibition test, all experimental groups containing UA resulted in complete inhibition. Conclusions Within the limitations of the experiments, UA included in the composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  1. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  2. Hexahedral mesh generation of complex composite domain - groundwater flow and transport analyses in fractured rock

    SciTech Connect

    Tanighchi, Takeo; Goda, Tomoaki; Kasper, H.; Zielke, W.

    1996-12-31

    Hexahedral mesh generation for composite domain is necessary for many engineering fields, and this paper includes three methods to generate hexahedral finite elements from the result of the 3D Delaunay triangulation. One of the difficulties of mesh generation of composite domain is how to adjust the meshing on common surfaces between adjacent subdomains, and very simple method is proposed in this paper. Proposed methods are directly applied for any composite domain as a fractured rock which consists of many convex subdomains.

  3. Identification of a Herbal Powder by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Barcoding and Structural Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Bhavisha P.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Authentic identification of plants is essential for exploiting their medicinal properties as well as to stop the adulteration and malpractices with the trade of the same. Objective: To identify a herbal powder obtained from a herbalist in the local vicinity of Rajkot, Gujarat, using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding and molecular tools. Materials and Methods: The DNA was extracted from a herbal powder and selected Cassia species, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the rbcL barcode locus. Thereafter the sequences were subjected to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis, followed by the protein three-dimension structure determination of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder and Cassia species namely Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Cassia javanica (sequences obtained in the present study), Cassia Roxburghii, and Cassia abbreviata (sequences retrieved from Genbank). Further, the multiple and pairwise structural alignment were carried out in order to identify the herbal powder. Results: The nucleotide sequences obtained from the selected species of Cassia were submitted to Genbank (Accession No. JX141397, JX141405, JX141420). The NCBI BLAST analysis of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder showed an equal sequence similarity (with reference to different parameters like E value, maximum identity, total score, query coverage) to C. javanica and C. roxburghii. In order to solve the ambiguities of the BLAST result, a protein structural approach was implemented. The protein homology models obtained in the present study were submitted to the protein model database (PM0079748-PM0079753). The pairwise structural alignment of the herbal powder (as template) and C. javanica and C. roxburghii (as targets individually) revealed a close similarity of the herbal powder with C. javanica. Conclusion: A strategy as used here, incorporating the integrated use of DNA

  4. Influence of the chemical composition on gamma ray attenuation by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bhandal, G S; Singh, K

    1992-04-01

    The dependence of gamma ray attenuation on the chemical composition of fatty acids is investigated in the energy range from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients (muF) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff) have been calculated for 27 different fatty acids. They show appreciable variation with the chemical composition of fatty acids in the region of gamma ray energies from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. PMID:1314792

  5. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  6. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  7. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  8. The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2015-05-01

    With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio <5) and those from summer (November) not. This study indicates that Egyptian goose meat does not only vary in nutritional composition but season may also have a substantial effect on the flavor profile and ultimate uniformity of the meat. The season and portion effects were, however, interlinked but the general tendency shows that the portions, especially the breast and thigh do differ concerning the major fatty acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product. PMID:25810407

  9. Application of gold compositional analyses to mineral exploration in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, J.C.; Campbell, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Native gold is a mineral composed of Au, Ag and Cu in solid solution and it usually contains one or more trace metals as lattice impurities, as mineral inclusions, in grain boundaries or in surface coatings. Alloy proportions of Au, Ag and Cu, together with certain other elements, can be thought of as constituting a gold "signature". Gold is associated with a great variety of ore deposits and has characteristic signatures for each of several types of ore deposits. Signatures for gold derived from igneous-metamorphic, hypothermal, mesothermal and epithermal deposits reflect conditions of ore formation by their content of Ag, Cu and characteristic associated elements. At higher temperatures of ore formation, gold has low Ag and high Cu content, and Bi and Pb are the most abundant trace elements. But at lower temperatures of ore formation, Ag is high, Cu is low, and Pb is the most abundant trace element. The same trend in gold signatures is observable in gold mining districts, such as Central City, Colorado, where zoning as shown by mineral assemblages indicates ore deposition at progressively lower temperatures as the distance from a central high-temperature zone increases. The signatures of gold may be useful in searching for porphyry Cu deposits. Signatures from Butte (Montana), Mineral Park (Arizona) and Cala Abajo (Puerto Rico), on the basis of limited sampling, are similar and distinctive. They are characterized by a similar assemblage of trace elements and are relatively high in both Ag and Cu. Another application of gold compositional data is in tracing placer gold to its bedrock source. For example, the Ag content of placer gold in the Tarryall district of Colorado differed from that of nearly all of the bedrock sources of gold found by early prospectors. However, one lightly prospected area peripheral to the Tertiary quartz monzonite stock at Montgomery Gulch contains gold with a Ag content similar to that of the placer gold. This area is the most likely

  10. Fatty acid composition of birds and game hunted by the Eastern James Bay Cree people of Québec

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Francoise; Johnson-Down, Louise; Berthiaume, Line; Greffard, Karine; Julien, Pierre; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. Objective To determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional game and bird meats hunted in the Eastern James Bay area. Design Harvested traditional game and birds were analysed for FA composition. A total of 52 samples from six wildlife species were collected in the areas of Chisasibi, Waswanipi and Mistissini, of which 35 were from birds (white partridge and Canada goose) and 17 were from land animals (beaver, moose, caribou and black bear). Results Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was the most common n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in all samples except for the black bear flesh, in which it was docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3). In white partridge, beaver and caribou flesh, PUFAs (mainly n-6) were the most common category of fats while in goose, moose and black bear flesh, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) predominated. In all species, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were the second most important FAs. It would appear that in the land animals and birds that were analysed, the SFA content was lower and the PUFA content was higher than store-bought meats giving them a more heart-healthy profile. Conclusions These results showed that the FA composition of game species consumed by the James Bay Cree population is consistent with a beneficial diet and that traditional foods should continue to be promoted among the Cree people to provide better physical health as well as social and spiritual benefits. PMID:27495903

  11. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  12. Influence of geography on fatty acid composition of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of 24 seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S. was measured to determine the influence of geography on fatty acid distribution. Seed oils were extracted with hexane utilizing the Soxhlet method and fatty acid...

  13. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  14. Genotyping and fatty acid composition analysis in segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (C18:1), a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid is an important seed quality trait in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) because it provides improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, a beneficial effect on human health, and increased shelf life for stored food products. Consequently, an...

  15. Conception, analyse et caracterisation des proprietes mecaniques de ressorts composites a renfort tresse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebdi, Oussama

    High performance composites reinforced by woven or braided fabrics have several different applications in various fields such as in the aerospace, automobile and marine industry. This research project was carried out at the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal in collaboration with an industrial sponsor, the company Composites Atlantic Ltd. Composite springs often represent an interesting alternative, given the reduction in weight that they allow with equal mechanical performance compared to metallic springs. Their good resistance to fatigue and corrosion bring additional benefits in several industrial applications. Moreover, the use of the composites increases safety by avoiding the risks of brutal rupture because of the low propagation velocity of cracks in this type of material. Lastly, in electrotechnics, another significant advantage comes into play because of the electrical insulation capability of composite springs. Few research results can be found on composite springs in the scientific literature. The first part of this thesis studies the problems connected with the design of composite springs. The results are promising, because it was confirmed that composite springs can be devised with the same mechanical performance in term of stiffness as metallic ones. Two solutions were found to replace the metallic springs of the suspension of a four wheel drive: the first spring was in carbon-epoxy, and the second one in glass-epoxy. In the second part, software was developed in order to devise a new approach to predict the mechanical properties of woven or braided composites. This work shows how an inverse method based on plate laminate theory allows creating, from experimental results on braided composites, a virtual basic ply that includes the effect of fiber architecture (undulation and braiding angle). Using this model, the properties of the composite can be predicted for any braid angle. The comparison with the experimental results shows a good correlation with

  16. Comparative evaluation of essential fatty acid composition of mothers' milk of some urban and suburban regions of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers. PMID:22575018

  17. Recombinant lactobacilli expressing linoleic acid isomerase can modulate the fatty acid composition of host adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva; Stanton, Catherine; O'Mahony, Liam; Wall, Rebecca; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2011-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oral administration of a metabolically active Bifidobacterium breve strain, with ability to form cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), resulted in modulation of the fatty acid composition of the host, including significantly elevated concentrations of c9, t11 CLA and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether a recombinant lactobacillus expressing linoleic acid isomerase (responsible for production of t10, c12 CLA) from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) could influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues in a mouse model. Linoleic-acid-supplemented diets (2 %, w/w) were fed in combination with either a recombinant t10, c12 CLA-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (Lb338), or an isogenic (vector-containing) control strain, to BALB/c mice for 8 weeks. A third group of mice received linoleic acid alone (2 %, w/w). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by GLC at the end of the trial. Ingestion of the strain expressing linoleic acid isomerase was associated with a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in t10, c12 CLA in adipose tissues of the mice when compared with mice that received the isogenic non-CLA-producing strain. The livers of the mice that received the recombinant CLA-producing Lb338 also contained a 2.5-fold (albeit not significantly) higher concentration of t10, c12 CLA, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that a single gene (encoding linoleic acid isomerase) expressed in an intestinal microbe can influence the fatty acid composition of host fat. PMID:21178166

  18. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of an unidirectional, 9 vol percent tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanfeliz, Jose G.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling via elastic-plastic finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects that the residual stresses and the degree of matrix work hardening (i.e., cold-worked, annealed) have upon the behavior of a 9 vol percent, unidirectional W/Cu composite, undergoing tensile loading. The inclusion of the residual stress-containing state as well as the simulated matrix material conditions proved to be significant since the Cu matrix material exhibited plastic deformation, which affected the subsequent tensile response of the composite system. The stresses generated during cooldown to room temperature from the manufacturing temperature were more of a factor on the annealed-matrix composite, since they induced the softened matrix to plastically flow. This event limited the total load-carrying capacity of this matrix-dominated, ductile-ductile type material system. Plastic deformation of the hardened-matrix composite during the thermal cooldown stage was not considerable, therefore, the composite was able to sustain a higher stress before showing any appreciable matrix plasticity. The predicted room temperature, stress-strain response, and deformation stages under both material conditions represented upper and lower bounds characteristic of the composite's tensile behavior. The initial deformation stage for the hardened material condition showed negligible matrix plastic deformation while for the annealed state, its initial deformation stage showed extensive matrix plasticity. Both material conditions exhibited a final deformation stage where the fiber and matrix were straining plastically. The predicted stress-strain results were compared to the experimental, room temperature, tensile stress-strain curve generated from this particular composite system. The analyses indicated that the actual thermal-mechanical state of the composite's Cu matrix, represented by the experimental data, followed the annealed material condition.

  19. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  20. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

  1. Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Mann, Neil; Pirotta, Yvonne; O'Connell, Stella; Li, Duo; Kelly, Fiona; Sinclair, Andy

    2006-07-01

    High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health. PMID:17069347

  2. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  3. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Robinson, Mark S.; Coombs, Cassandra

    2000-02-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  4. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Baeza, Rosa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Krüger-Johnsen, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2015-05-01

    In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt, and on the percentage of motile sperm. Here, our results suggest that the total volume of extractable milt is a DHA-dependent process, as we found the diets with the highest DHA levels induced the most milt while the diet with the lowest DHA level induced the least amount of milt. The diet with the highest level of ARA induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel and this impacted sperm performance. PMID:25638567

  5. Acid Rain Affecting the Electrical Properties of Outdoor Composite Dielectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Kumagai, Seiji; Yoshimura, Noboru

    1998-12-01

    Acid rain is precipitation with acidity, i.e., pH, below 5.6. There is an increasing interest in the degradation of the electrical properties of outdoor composite dielectric materials under severe contaminant conditions such as acid rain. In this study, the degradation effects of acid rain on the outdoor composite dielectrics are investigated by accelerated aging due to artificial acid rain. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the composition of artificial acid rain is chosen to agree with the actual composition of precipitation. The surface potential, breakdown voltage, tracking resistance, and surface discharge current of dielectric materials are studied. Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of electrical properties of composite dielectrics are discussed by investigating the degradation of the chemical and physical microstructures of material surface using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction spectrum (XDS), and the metalloscope. Experimental results show that the outdoor polymeric dielectrics suffer severely and degrade due to acid rain so that their surface electrical properties deteriorate after aging. The erosion, by acid rain, of the energized dielectric materials is larger than that of outdoor materials used for other purposes.

  6. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  7. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  8. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  9. Further Developments of BEM for Micro and Macromechanical Analyses of Composites: Boundary Element Software Technology-Composite User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Henry, D. P.; Hopkins, D. A.; Goldberg, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    BEST-CMS (Boundary Element Solution Technology - Composite Modeling System) is an advanced engineering system for the micro-analysis of fiber composite structures. BEST-CMS is based upon the boundary element program BEST3D which was developed for NASA by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft and the State University of New York at Buffalo under contract NAS3-23697. BEST-CMS presently has the capabilities for elastostatic analysis, steady-state and transient heat transfer analysis, steady-state and transient concurrent thermoelastic analysis and elastoplastic and creep analysis. The fibers are assumed to be perfectly bonded to the composite matrix, or in the case of static or steady-state analysis, the fibers may be assumed to have spring connections, thermal resistance, and/or frictional sliding between the fibers and the composite matrix. The primary objective of this User's Manual is to provide an overview of all BEST-CMS capabilities, along with detailed descriptions of the input data requirements. A brief review of the theoretical background is presented for each analysis category. Then, Chapter 3 discusses the key aspects of the numerical implementation, while Chapter 4 provides a tutorial for the beginning BEST-CMS user. The heart of the manual, however, is in Chapter 5, where a complete description of all data input items is provided. Within this chapter, the individual entries are grouped on a functional basis for a more coherent presentation. Chapter 6 includes sample problems and should be of considerable assistance to the novice. Chapter 7 includes capsules of a number of fiber-composite analysis problems that have been solved using BEST-CMS. This chapter is primarily descriptive in nature and is intended merely to illustrate the level of analysis that is possible within the present BEST-CMS system. Chapter 8 contains a detailed description of the BEST-CMS Neutral File which is helpful in writing an interface between BEST- CMS and any graphic post-processor program

  10. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingzhi; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat. PMID:26761795

  11. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  12. Global and Local Stress Analyses of McDonnell Douglas Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains results of structural analyses performed in support of the NASA structural testing of an all-composite stitched/RFI (resin film infusion) wing stub box. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company designed and fabricated the wing stub box. The analyses used a global/local approach. The global model contains the entire test article. It includes the all-composite stub box, a metallic load-transition box and a metallic wing-tip extension box. The two metallic boxes are connected to the inboard and outboard ends of the composite wing stub box, respectively. The load-transition box was attached to a steel and concrete vertical reaction structure and a load was applied at the tip of the extension box to bend the wing stub box upward. The local model contains an upper cover region surrounding three stringer runouts. In that region, a large nonlinear deformation was identified by the global analyses. A more detailed mesh was used for the local model to obtain more accurate analysis results near stringer runouts. Numerous analysis results such as deformed shapes, displacements at selected locations, and strains at critical locations are included in this report.

  13. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    PubMed Central

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  14. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations.

    PubMed

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  15. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  16. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  17. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

  18. Crustal diversity of the Moon: Compositional analyses of Galileo solid state imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Fischer, E. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Belton, M.; McEwen, A.; Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Hoffmann, H.

    1993-09-01

    The multispectral images of the lunar limb and farside obtained by the solid state imaging (SSI) system on board the Galileo spacecraft provide the first new pulse of compositional data of the Moon by a spacecraft in well over a decade. The wavelength range covered by SSI filters (0.4-1.0 μm) is particularly sensitive to the composition of mare basalts, the abundance of mafic (ferrous) minerals, and the maturity of the regolith. To a first order, the limb and farside material is consistent with previous characterization of nearside lunar spectral types for mare and highland soils and craters. Most basalts are of an intermediate TiO2 composition and most of the highland crust is feldspathic with local variations in mafic content identified principally at impact craters. Dark mantling material on the farside can be interpreted in terms of known properties of lunar pyroclastic glass. Regions of cryptomare are shown to have spectral properties intermediate between those of highland and mare soils, as would be expected from mixture of the two. There are several important exceptions and surprises, however. Unlike the basalt types identified on the nearside, limb and farside basalts exhibit an exceptionally weak 1 μm ferrous absorption band. This may indicate a compositionally distinct lunar basalt group that, for example, is more Mg-rich than most basalts of the nearside. Some of the most notable compositional anomalies are associated with South Pole-Aitken Basin. This large region has a much lower albedo than surrounding highlands. The inner, darkest, portion of the basin exhibits optical properties indistinguishable from low-Ti basalts. Deposits to the south exhibit unique properties with a strong and broad ferrous 1 μm absorption, most consistent with abundant olivine. The unusual compositions associated with South Pole-Aitken and their spatial extent suggests the impact creating this huge lunar basin excavated mafic-rich lower crust or perhaps mantle material.

  19. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2008-11-15

    Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from 1.6 to 25.8g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.5g/kg dry matter). Quinic acid was the major compound (72.2%), followed by citric acid (13.6%). Significant differences were found in malic and quinic acids relative abundances and total organic acid contents according to collection time, which indicates a possible use of these compounds as maturity markers. Between June and August seems to be the best period to harvest quince leaves for preparation of decoctions or infusions, since organic acids total content is higher in this season. PMID:26047441

  20. Analysis of porcine adipose tissue transcriptome reveals differences in de novo fatty acid synthesis in pigs with divergent muscle fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were represented by interspersed repeats, SINEs being the most abundant elements. Differential expression analyses identified 396 candidate genes among divergent animals for intramuscular fatty acid composition. Sixty-two percent of these genes (247/396) presented higher expression in the group of pigs with higher content of intramuscular SFA and MUFA, while the remaining 149 showed higher expression in the group with higher content of PUFA. Pathway analysis related these genes to biological functions and canonical pathways controlling lipid and fatty acid metabolisms. In concordance with the phenotypic classification of animals, the major metabolic pathway differentially modulated between groups was de novo lipogenesis, the group with more PUFA being the one that showed lower expression of lipogenic genes. Conclusions These results will help in the identification of genetic variants at loci that affect fatty acid composition traits. The implications of these results range from the improvement of porcine meat quality traits to the application of the pig as an animal model of human metabolic diseases. PMID:24289474

  1. Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

    1995-01-01

    In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids. PMID:7784510

  2. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaddis, L.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Coombs, C.

    2000-01-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  3. High-tip-speed fiber composite compressor blades - Vibration and strength analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lynch, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described which couples composite mechanics computer codes with NASTRAN. This procedure was used to perform a detailed analysis of a high-tip-speed fiber composite compressor fan blade. The results indicate that the various vibration modes of this blade are highly coupled. Mechanical load ply stresses are well below the corresponding room temperature strengths. Lamination residual stresses are likely to cause transply cracks and interply delamination. Transply cracks and relaxation of root fixity decrease the vibrational frequencies whereas centrifugal stiffening increases them. Comparisons of results for various parameters are presented in tabular and graphical form.

  4. Results of compositional and microstructural analyses of solidified ingots. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banan, Mohsen

    1991-01-01

    The results of compositional and microstructural analysis of solidified ingots are discussed. In the vibration section, the microstructural and compositional analysis of ingots solidified with and without vibration, the vibration induced dynamic acceleration measurements, and the macroscopic growth rate measurements using an interface demarcation technique are discussed. The Current induced Perturbation section includes the results of solidification of an ingot with alternating current pulses, the current interface demarcation in an alloy of In0.2Ga0.8SB, and in situ temperature measurements in the charges of GaSb and In0.2Ga0.8Sb during the passage of electric current.

  5. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  6. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  7. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    PubMed

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem. PMID:9464888

  8. Influence of glyphosate on amino acid composition of Egyptian broomrape.

    PubMed

    Nandula, V K; Westwood, J H; Foster, J G; Foy, C L

    2001-03-01

    The parasitic plant broomrape is entirely dependent on its host for reduced carbon and nitrogen and is also susceptible to inhibition by glyphosate that is translocated to the parasite through a host. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of broomrape parasitism on amino acid concentrations of two hosts: common vetch that is tolerant of low levels of glyphosate and oilseed rape that has been genetically engineered for glyphosate resistance. The influence of glyphosate on the amino acid content of broomrape and the two hosts was also examined. Amino acid concentrations in leaves and roots of parasitized common vetch plants were generally similar to those of the corresponding tissues of nonparasitized plants. Amino acid concentrations in broomrape were lower than those of the parasitized common vetch root. For common vetch, glyphosate applied at rates that selectively inhibited broomrape growth did not alter individual amino acid concentrations in the leaves, but generally increased amino acid levels at 0.18 kg ha-1. Glyphosate application also increased the amino acid concentrations, with the exception of arginine, of broomrape growing on common vetch and did not generally influence concentrations in leaves or roots of common vetch. In oilseed rape, parasitization by broomrape generally led to higher amino acid concentrations in leaves but lower concentrations in roots of parasitized plants. Broomrape had higher amino acid concentrations than roots of the parasitized oilseed rape. Glyphosate applied at 0.25 and 0.5 kg ha-1 generally increased the amino acid concentrations in oilseed rape leaves, but the 0.75 kg ha-1 application caused the amino acid concentrations to decrease compared to those of untreated plants. In oilseed rape root the general trend was an increase in the concentration of amino acids at the two highest rates of glyphosate. Individual amino acid concentrations in broomrape attachments growing on oilseed rape were generally increased

  9. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 1 MOLARAND 3 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-23

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  10. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC LIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 16 MOLAR AND 8 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  11. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  12. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  13. Detailed composition analyses of diverse oat genotype kernels grown in different environments in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional composition of oat kernels from 18 genotypes grown in 6 environments in North Dakota (USA) was analyzed by chemical means. Of the macro-nutrients, mean starch concentration was 56.5%, protein was 18.1%, oil was 7.9%, neutral detergent fiber (insoluble fiber) was 6.0%, beta-glucan (solubl...

  14. Robustness of two-step acid hydrolysis procedure for composition analysis of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Nunez, Angelica; Wyman, Charles E; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-01

    The NREL standard procedure for lignocellulosic biomass composition has two steps: primary hydrolysis in 72% wt sulfuric acid at 30°C for 1h followed by secondary hydrolysis of the slurry in 4wt% acid at 121°C for 1h. Although pointed out in the NREL procedure, the impact of particle size on composition has never been shown. In addition, the effects of primary hydrolysis time and separation of solids prior to secondary hydrolysis on composition have never been shown. Using poplar, it was found that particle sizes less than 0.250mm significantly lowered the glucan content and increased the Klason lignin but did not affect xylan, acetate, or acid soluble lignin contents. Composition was unaffected for primary hydrolysis time between 30 and 90min. Moreover, separating solids prior to secondary hydrolysis had negligible effect on composition suggesting that lignin and polysaccharides are completely separated in the primary hydrolysis stage. PMID:27282557

  15. Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 (FADS1) Gene Polymorphisms Control Human Hepatic Lipid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS)-identified six FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and these lipid levels as well as total hepatic fat content (HFC) were tested. The potential function of these SNPs in regulating transcription of 3 FADS genes (FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3) in the locus was also investigated. We found that while these SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 >0.8), the rare alleles of these SNPs were consistently and significantly associated with the accumulation of multiple very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), with C47H85O13P (C36:4), a phosphatidylinositol (PI) and C43H80O8PN (C38:3), a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) reached the Bonferroni corrected significance (p<3×10−4). Meanwhile, these SNPs were significantly associated with increased ratios between the more saturated and relatively less saturated forms of VLCFAs, especially between PEs, PIs and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) (p≤3.5×10−6). These alleles were also associated with increased total HFC (p<0.05). Further analyses revealed that these alleles were associated with decreased hepatic expression of FADS1 (p=0.0018 for rs174556), but not FADS2 or FADS3 (p>0.05). Conclusion Our findings revealed critical insight into the mechanism underlying FADS1 and its polymorphisms in modulating hepatic lipid deposition by altering gene transcription and controlling lipid composition in human livers. PMID:25123259

  16. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  17. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  18. Evaluation of FABP2 as candidate gene for a fatty acid composition QTL in porcine chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Estellé, J; Mercadé, A; Pérez-Enciso, M; Pena, R N; Silió, L; Sánchez, A; Folch, J M

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this work was to analyse the porcine Fatty acid binding protein 2, intestinal (FABP2) gene as a candidate gene for a fatty acid composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously described on porcine chromosome 8 in an Iberian by Landrace F(2) cross (IBMAP). Re-sequencing of the porcine FABP2 gene in three Iberian and eight Landrace parental animals resulted in the identification of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms, all of them localized in intron 1. The polymorphism FABP2:g.412T>C, localized in intron 1, and two additional microsatellites were genotyped in the IBMAP population in order to perform an association test of the FABP2 gene and to better define the QTL position previously described. Association analyses of the FABP2:g.412T>C with the fatty acid composition traits were not significant in simple association and marker-assisted association tests, suggesting that the FABP2 region sequenced is not responsible for the QTL. However, the addition of three new markers to the pedigree allowed us to define the S0144-SW61 marker interval as the most likely QTL position, facilitating the future study of other candidate genes for this QTL. PMID:19207930

  19. High intraspecific variability in the diet of a deep-sea nematode: Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses of Deontostoma tridentum on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Daniel; Brown, Julie C. S.; Bury, Sarah J.; Lörz, Anne-Nina

    2015-03-01

    Small deep-sea organisms may exhibit a high degree of intraspecific variability in diet due to their ability to exploit a wide range of food sources and patchiness in food availability. Trophic interactions of small deep-sea benthic organisms, however, remain poorly understood. Here we describe spatial variation in diet/trophic level of the common deep-sea nematode Deontostoma tridentum on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific, using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. We also analysed sediment organic matter (SOM) and compared the isotopic composition of D. tridentum to other benthic and suprabenthic macrofaunal taxa with a variety of feeding modes. Variability in D. tridentum δ13C and δ15N signatures was high both among sites and within a single site on the southern flank of Chatham Rise. Among-site variation in SOM δ13C signatures was not sufficient to explain variation in nematode isotopic signatures. The presence of a positive correlation between δ13C and δ15N signatures of D. tridentum (both among and within sites) could suggest that differences in trophic level is the cause behind this variation. Nitrogen isotope data suggest the presence of 1-3 trophic levels in this species, which may reflect differences in prey availability, nematode body size, or habitat (benthic versus epizoic). Nematode δ15N values exceeded those of all other taxa we investigated, including other predators, but reasons for this enrichment remain unclear. The fatty acid composition of D. tridentum did not vary substantially between sites and was characterised by relatively high levels of 18:1n9 (15-20%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; ~22%). Although limited inferences can be made based on fatty acid composition due to the potential impacts of non-dietary factors, high levels of PUFAs indicate that D. tridentum represents a good source of these essential nutrients to higher trophic levels. In conclusion, our results show that (1) some deep-sea organisms

  20. Spectroscopic analyses and studies on respective interaction of cyanuric acid and uric acid with bovine serum albumin and melamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dandan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qi; Qiao, Heng

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the fluorescence quenching was used to study the interaction of cyanuric acid (CYA) and uric acid (UA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at two different temperatures (283 K and 310 K). The bimolecular quenching constant (Kq), apparent quenching constant (Ksv), effective binding constant (KA) and corresponding dissociation constant (KD), binding site number (n) and binding distance (r) were calculated by adopting Stern-Volmer, Lineweaver-Burk, Double logarithm and overlap integral equations. The results show that CYA and UA are both able to obviously bind to BSA, but the binding strength order is BSA + CYA < BSA + UA. And then, the interactions of CYA and UA with melamine (MEL) under the same conditions were also studied by using similar methods. The results indicates that both CYA and UA can bind together closely with melamine (MEL). It is wished that these research results would facilitate the understanding the formation of kidney stones and gout in the body after ingesting excess MEL.

  1. Behaviour study of thick laminated composites: Experimentation and finite element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchaine, Francois

    In today's industries, it is common practice to utilize composite materials in very large and thick structures like bridge decks, high pressure vessels, wind turbine blades and aircraft parts to mention a few. Composite materials are highly favoured due to their physical characteristics: low weight, low cost, adaptable mechanical properties, high specific strength and stiffness. The use of composite materials for large structures has however raised several concerns in the prediction of the behaviour of thick laminated composite parts. A lack of knowledge and experience in the use of composite materials during the design, sizing and manufacturing of thick composite parts can lead to catastrophic events. In this thesis, it was supposed that the elastic material properties may vary with the laminate thickness. In order to measure the influence of the thickness on nine orthotropic elastic material properties (E1, E2, E3, nu12, nu 13, nu23, G12, G13 and G23), three categories of thickness have been defined using a comparison between the classical lamination theory (CLT), different beam theories and a numerical 3D solid finite element analysis (FEA) model. The defined categories are: thin laminates for thicknesses below 6 mm (0.236"), moderately thick laminates for thicknesses up to 16 mm (0.630") and thick laminates for thicknesses above 16 mm (0.630"). For three different thicknesses (thin -- 1.5 mm, moderately thick -- 10 mm and thick -- 20 mm), the influence of the thickness on the orthotropic elastic material properties of unidirectional (UD) fibreglass/epoxy laminates has been measured. A torsion test on rectangular bar is also proposed to measure the influence of the thickness on G13 and G23. The nine elastic material properties, in function of the thickness, have been used in CLT and 3D solid FEA model in order to predict the axial Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates. Experimental results have also been obtained for

  2. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  3. Free amino acid composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp and peel) and jam.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2004-03-10

    Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121

  4. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.

  5. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  6. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  7. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

  8. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  9. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  10. Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

  11. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  12. Application of molecular methods for analysing the distribution and diversity of acetic acid bacteria in Chilean vineyards.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Carmen; Jara, Carla; Mas, Albert; Romero, Jaime

    2007-04-20

    The presence of acetic acid bacteria populations on grape surfaces from several Chilean valleys is reported. The bacteria were analysed at both the species and the strain level by molecular methods such as RFLP-PCR 16S rRNA gene, RFLP-PCR ITS 16S-23S rRNA gene regions and Arbitrary Primed (AP) PCR. Our results show that there are limited numbers of species of acetic acid bacteria in the grapes and that there is a need for an enrichment medium before plating to recover the individual colonies. In the Northernmost region analysed, the major species recovered was a non-acetic acid bacteria, Stenotrophomonas maltophila. Following the North-South axis of Chilean valleys, the observed distribution of acetic acid bacteria was zonified: Acetobacter cerevisiae was only present in the North and Gluconobacter oxydans in the South. Both species were recovered together in only one location. The influence of the grape cultivar was negligible. Variability in strains was found to be high (more than 40%) for both Acetobacteraceae species. PMID:17289199

  13. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tangherlini, M.; Dell’Anno, A.; Zeigler Allen, L.; Riccioni, G.; Corinaldesi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:27329207

  14. Bayesian statistical approaches to compositional analyses of transgenic crops 2. Application and validation of informative prior distributions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jay M; Breeze, Matthew L; Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G

    2013-03-01

    Bayesian approaches to evaluation of crop composition data allow simpler interpretations than traditional statistical significance tests. An important advantage of Bayesian approaches is that they allow formal incorporation of previously generated data through prior distributions in the analysis steps. This manuscript describes key steps to ensure meaningful and transparent selection and application of informative prior distributions. These include (i) review of previous data in the scientific literature to form the prior distributions, (ii) proper statistical model specification and documentation, (iii) graphical analyses to evaluate the fit of the statistical model to new study data, and (iv) sensitivity analyses to evaluate the robustness of results to the choice of prior distribution. The validity of the prior distribution for any crop component is critical to acceptance of Bayesian approaches to compositional analyses and would be essential for studies conducted in a regulatory setting. Selection and validation of prior distributions for three soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein) and two oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) are illustrated in a comparative assessment of data obtained on GM and non-GM soybean seed harvested from replicated field sites at multiple locations in the US during the 2009 growing season. PMID:23261475

  15. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Tangherlini, M; Dell'Anno, A; Zeigler Allen, L; Riccioni, G; Corinaldesi, C

    2016-01-01

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:27329207

  16. Specific catalysis of asparaginyl deamidation by carboxylic acids: kinetic, thermodynamic, and quantitative structure-property relationship analyses.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Brian D; Tran, Benjamin; Moore, Jamie M R; Sharma, Vikas K; Kosky, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Asparaginyl (Asn) deamidation could lead to altered potency, safety, and/or pharmacokinetics of therapeutic protein drugs. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different carboxylic acids on Asn deamidation rates using an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb1*) and a model hexapeptide (peptide1) with the sequence YGKNGG. Thermodynamic analyses of the kinetics data revealed that higher deamidation rates are associated with predominantly more negative ΔS and, to a lesser extent, more positive ΔH. The observed differences in deamidation rates were attributed to the unique ability of each type of carboxylic acid to stabilize the energetically unfavorable transition-state conformations required for imide formation. Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) analysis using kinetic data demonstrated that molecular descriptors encoding for the geometric spatial distribution of atomic properties on various carboxylic acids are effective determinants for the deamidation reaction. Specifically, the number of O-O and O-H atom pairs on carboxyl and hydroxyl groups with interatomic distances of 4-5 Å on a carboxylic acid buffer appears to determine the rate of deamidation. Collectively, the results from structural and thermodynamic analyses indicate that carboxylic acids presumably form multiple hydrogen bonds and charge-charge interactions with the relevant deamidation site and provide alignment between the reactive atoms on the side chain and backbone. We propose that carboxylic acids catalyze deamidation by stabilizing a specific, energetically unfavorable transition-state conformation of l-asparaginyl intermediate II that readily facilitates bond formation between the γ-carbonyl carbon and the deprotonated backbone nitrogen for cyclic imide formation. PMID:24620787

  17. Carotenoid and fatty acid compositions of an indigenous Ettlia texensis isolate (Chlorophyceae) under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Arzu; Demirel, Zeliha; İşleten-Hoşoğlu, Müge; Akgün, İsmail Hakkı; Hatipoğlu-Uslu, Sevde; Conk-Dalay, Meltem

    2014-02-01

    Ettlia oleoabundance (formerly known as Neochloris oleoabundance) is an attractive candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid accumulation, and it's taking the majority of the attention among the strains of Ettlia genus; however, potential of the other genus members is unknown. An indigenous strain from Salda Lake (South West Turkey) identified by 18S rDNA sequencing as Ettlia texensis (GenBank accession no: JQ038221), and its fatty acid and carotenoid compositions under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions was investigated to evaluate the potential of the strain for commercial uses. A threefold increase was observed in total lipid content (total fatty acids; from 13% to 37%) in mixotrophic culture respect to the phototrophic growth conditions. The oleic acid (C18:1) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) were the major unsaturated fatty acids accounting for 40% and 13.2% of total fatty acids in mixotrophic culture, respectively. Carotenoid analyses of the mixotrophic culture revealed the metabolite canthaxanthin, a commercially valuable carotenoid used mainly for food coloring, was the major constituent among other pigments. The possible use of E. texensis in biotechnological applications is discussed. PMID:24166102

  18. Composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seeds: phenolics, organic acids and free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2005-04-01

    Phenolic compounds, organic acids and free amino acids of quince seeds were determined by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/UV and GC/FID, respectively. Quince seeds presented a phenolic profile composed of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol. Six identified organic acids constituted the organic acid profile of quince seeds: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The free amino acid profile was composed of 21 identified free amino acids and the three most abundant were glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. PMID:15702641

  19. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelley, A. M.; Scherer, J. R.; Aubrey, A. D.; Ivester, R. H.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips (1, 2). To analyze amino acids in situ, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip. The heart of the MOA is the microchip that contains the CE separation channels as well as microfabricated valves and pumps (3) for sample handling. The pneumatic microfabricated valves are created by combining an etched displacement chamber, an actuated PDMS membrane layer, and a discontinuous fluidic channel structure. A microfabricated pump is created by combining three individually-addressable valves in series. These membrane valves and pumps are integrated with the glass separation channel using a novel multilayer design in which sample enters the top fluidic layer for routing and is directed to the bottom glass layers for CE separation and analysis. The microfabricated device is operated by the portable instrument which contains solenoids for controlling fluidic valves, electronics, a 15 mW 400 nm diode laser, confocal detection optics, and a fiber-optic coupled photomultiplier for fluorescence detection. Limits of detection of fluorescamine-labeled amino acids are in the nM to pM range corresponding to part-per-trillion sensitivities in soil samples (4). The portable CE instrument, in combination with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) (5), was recently successfully field tested on soil samples rich in jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA. Jarosite has recently been detected on Mars

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS MODEL FOR ACID RAIN ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses forecasts of industrial combustion emissions being developed by the U.S. EPA as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) Model will estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and p...

  1. Functional analyses of carnivorous plant-specific amino acid residues in S-like ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Arai, Naoki; Nishimura, Emi; Kikuchi, Yo; Ohyama, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    Unlike plants with no carnivory, carnivorous plants seem to use S-like ribonucleases (RNases) as an enzyme for carnivory. Carnivorous plant-specific conserved amino acid residues are present at four positions around the conserved active site (CAS). The roles of these conserved amino acid residues in the enzymatic function were explored in the current study by preparing five recombinant variants of DA-I, the S-like RNase of Drosera adelae. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzymes revealed that among the four variants with a single mutation, the serine to glycine mutation at position 111 most negatively influenced the enzymatic activity. The change in the bulkiness of the amino acid residue side-chain seemed to be the major cause of the above effect. Modeling of the three dimensional (3D) structures strongly suggested that the S to G mutation at 111 greatly altered the overall enzyme conformation. The conserved four amino acid residues are likely to function in keeping the two histidine residues, which are essential for the cleavage of RNA strands, and the CAS in the most functional enzymatic conformation. PMID:26235877

  2. Quantitative analyses of tartaric acid based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Binghua; Fan, Mengbao

    2010-10-01

    Terahertz wave is the electromagnetic spectrum situated between microwave and infrared wave. Quantitative analysis based on terahertz spectroscopy is very important for the application of terahertz techniques. But how to realize it is still under study. L-tartaric acid is widely used as acidulant in beverage, and other food, such as soft drinks, wine, candy, bread and some colloidal sweetmeats. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to quantify the tartaric acid. Two methods are employed to process the terahertz spectra of different samples with different content of tartaric acid. The first one is linear regression combining correlation analysis. The second is partial least square (PLS), in which the absorption spectra in the 0.8-1.4THz region are used to quantify the tartaric acid. To compare the performance of these two principles, the relative error of the two methods is analyzed. For this experiment, the first method does better than the second one. But the first method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of materials which has obvious terahertz absorption peaks, while for material which has no obvious terahertz absorption peaks, the second one is more appropriate.

  3. [Influence of rations with various linoleic acid contents on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood platelets of rats].

    PubMed

    Atrokhov, V V; Markov, Kh M

    1987-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in platelets of Wistar-Kioto rats which received semisynthetic rations with varying content of linoleic acid, 1 week prenatally and 18 weeks postnatally. In ration I the level of 18:2n6 was lower than 0.1 cal%, ration II contained 9.0 cal%, and ration III -- 16.0 cal%. Ration III, as compared to ration II, induced an increase in the content of linoleic fatty acids, arachidonic fatty acid content being unchanged. Ration I, as compared to ration II induced a decrease in linoleic fatty acid content, and an increase in the content of oleic and linolenic fatty acids attended by the appearance of appreciable amounts of 20:3n9 and 20:5n3. Long-term linoleic acid deficiency induced no changes in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in platelet phospholipids of rats given ration I. This is an evidence of high reserve possibilities of the mechanisms regulating fatty acid metabolism in the mammals. PMID:2894094

  4. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

  5. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  6. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  7. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Prasek, Jan; Huska, Dalibor; Jasek, Ondrej; Zajickova, Lenka; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  8. Evaluation of the retention pattern on ionic liquid columns for gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Chen; Wasta, Ziar; Mjøs, Svein A

    2014-07-11

    Fatty acid methyl esters from marine sources were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on three ionic liquid columns, SLB-IL61, SLB-IL82 and SLB-IL100 (Supelco). Retention indices (equivalent chain lengths) are reported for more than 100 compounds and the overlap patterns are evaluated from these data. The influence of chromatographic conditions on the retention indices of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters is also evaluated. Compared to typical alternative phases the retention patterns on all three columns are highly dependent on the conditions. The SLB-IL61 phase had overlaps between nutritionally important fatty acids that could not be resolved by changing the chromatographic conditions. This column is therefore regarded as unsuitable for clinical and nutritional studies of the fatty acid composition, but similar overlaps may be avoided on IL82 and IL100. On all three columns double bonds close to the carboxyl group in the analytes contribute with limited retention, which makes it challenging to predict the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. PMID:24873965

  9. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-05-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.

  10. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  11. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  12. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    PubMed Central

    Raineri, C.; Stivari, T. S. S.; Gameiro, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i) costs composition, and ii) cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses. PMID:26104531

  13. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs.

    PubMed

    Raineri, C; Stivari, T S S; Gameiro, A H

    2015-08-01

    Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i) costs composition, and ii) cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses. PMID:26104531

  14. Approach for validating actinide and fission product compositions for burnup credit criticality safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a depletion code validation approach for criticality safety analysis using burnup credit for actinide and fission product nuclides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) compositions. The technical basis for determining the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations is comparison of calculations to available measurements obtained from destructive radiochemical assay of SNF samples. Probability distributions developed for the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations were applied to the SNF compositions of a criticality safety analysis model by the use of a Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling method to determine bias and bias uncertainty in effective neutron multiplication factor. Application of the Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling approach is demonstrated for representative criticality safety analysis models of pressurized water reactor spent fuel pool storage racks and transportation packages using burnup-dependent nuclide concentrations calculated with SCALE 6.1 and the ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. Furthermore, the validation approach and results support a recent revision of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interim Staff Guidance 8.

  15. Approach for validating actinide and fission product compositions for burnup credit criticality safety analyses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a depletion code validation approach for criticality safety analysis using burnup credit for actinide and fission product nuclides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) compositions. The technical basis for determining the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations is comparison of calculations to available measurements obtained from destructive radiochemical assay of SNF samples. Probability distributions developed for the uncertainties in the calculated nuclide concentrations were applied to the SNF compositions of a criticality safety analysis model by the use of a Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling method to determine bias and bias uncertainty in effective neutron multiplication factor. Application ofmore » the Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling approach is demonstrated for representative criticality safety analysis models of pressurized water reactor spent fuel pool storage racks and transportation packages using burnup-dependent nuclide concentrations calculated with SCALE 6.1 and the ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. Furthermore, the validation approach and results support a recent revision of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interim Staff Guidance 8.« less

  16. Analyses for Debonding of Stitched Composite Sandwich Structures Using Improved Constitutive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Sleight, D. W.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis based on strain energy release rates is used to study the effect of stitching in bonded sandwich beam configurations. Finite elements are used to model the configurations. The stitches were modeled as discrete nonlinear spring elements with a compliance determined by experiment. The constitutive models were developed using the results of flatwise tension tests from sandwich material rather than monolithic material. The analyses show that increasing stitch stiffness, stitch density and debond length decrease strain energy release rates for a fixed applied load.

  17. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. PMID:25186278

  18. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

    2016-01-12

    The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

  19. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  20. A parametric study of variables that affect fiber microbuckling initiation in composite laminates. I - Analyses. II - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. G.; Ochoa, Ozden O.; Bradley, Walter L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the stacking sequence (orientation of plies adjacent to the 0-deg plies), free surfaces, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength, initial fiber waviness, resin-rich regions, and nonlinear shear constitutive behavior of the resin on the initiation of fiber microbuckling in thermoplastic composites were investigated using nonlinear geometric and nonlinear 2D finite-element analyses. Results show that reductions in the resin shear tangent modulus, large amplitudes of the initial fiber waviness, and debonds each cause increases in the localized matrix shear strains; these increases lead in turn to premature initiation of fiber microbuckling. The numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained using three thermoplastic composite material systems: (1) commercial APC-2, (2) QUADRAX Unidirectional Interlaced Tape, and AU4U/PEEK.

  1. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  2. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo-Ik ); Hammes, G.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the {beta}-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution.

  3. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque. PMID:27545001

  4. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of in-vitro embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Lunn, L A; Kwong, W Y; Wonnacott, K; Linforth, R S T; Craigon, J

    2008-06-01

    The value of using the amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of embryo development was assessed in a bovine model of in-vitro maturation (IVM), IVF and blastocyst culture (IVC). A total of 445 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) aspirated from visually healthy follicles underwent IVM and IVF singly (n = 138) or in groups (n = 307). Of these COC, 349 cleaved (78%) following IVF and 112 went on to form blastocysts (32% of cleaved) following IVC. Culture method (singly or in groups) had no effect on development. In contrast to fatty acids, which had no predictive value, the amino acid composition of follicular fluid was associated with morphological assessments of COC quality and with post-fertilization development to the blastocyst stage. Principal component analysis identified two amino acids (i.e. alanine and glycine) that had the highest value for predicting early post-fertilization development. The predictive value of these two amino acids, in terms of the percentage of oocytes that cleaved following IVF, was greatest for COC with the poorest morphological grades but, with respect to blastocyst yields, was independent of morphological grade, and so may serve as a useful additional non-invasive measure of COC quality. PMID:18549697

  5. Thermoformed protein based composites in presence of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World industrialization has generated substantial quantities of petroleum-based plastics over many years, which are non biodegradable. There is a growing demand for the use of renewable agricultural sources to develop eco-friendly biobased composites. Agriculture-sourced proteins and starches are b...

  6. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Lussiana, Carola; Cornale, Paolo; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Fortina, Riccardo; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0.001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0.001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption. PMID:26869109

  7. Multi-Tissue Omics Analyses Reveal Molecular Regulatory Networks for Puberty in Composite Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L.; Ashley, Ryan L.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Fortes, Marina R. S.; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A.; Snelling, Warren M.; Medrano, Juan F.; Thomas, Milton G.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  8. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  9. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  10. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  11. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  12. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    PubMed

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  13. Temperature independence of the composition of triglyceride fatty acids synthesized de novo by the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Van Handel, E

    1966-01-01

    The hypothesis that depot fat is more unsaturated when it is synthesized at lower temperatures was tested in the mosquito. Female mosquitoes (Aedes sollicitans) were starved until no triglycerides remained. A single dose of sugar was fed and the mosquitoes were maintained at different temperatures. Approximately the same amount of triglyceride was synthesized per mosquito at each temperature, although at different rates. Mosquitoes maintained at low temperatures did not synthesize more unsaturated triglycerides than those at higher temperatures: the fatty acid composition was essentially the same from 10 to 35 degrees. The triglycerides synthesized from sugar contained no poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Total amounts and composition of phospholipid fatty acids remained unaltered during sugar feeding. When deprived of food, the mosquitoes catabolized triglyceride fatty acids randomly; cold-exposure did not cause selective retention or utilization of any individual fatty acid. PMID:4378885

  14. Retention of mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of a phosphate-based glass fiber/polylactic acid composite.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Cronin, P S; Abou Neel, E A; Parsons, A J; Knowles, J C; Rudd, C D

    2009-04-01

    Polymers prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) have found a multitude of uses as medical devices. The main advantage of having a material that degrades is so that an implant would not necessitate a second surgical event for removal. In addition, the biodegradation may offer other advantages. In this study, fibers produced from a quaternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) in the system 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Na(2)O-5Fe(2)O(3) (nontreated and heat-treated) were used to reinforce the biodegradable polymer, PLA. Fiber properties were investigated, along with the mechanical and degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the composites produced. Retention of mechanical properties overtime was also evaluated. The mean fiber strength for the phosphate glass fibers was 456 MPa with a modulus value of 51.5 GPa. Weibull analysis revealed a shape and scale parameter value of 3.37 and 508, respectively. The flexural strength of the composites matched that for cortical bone; however, the modulus values were lower than those required for cortical bone. After 6 weeks of degradation in deionized water, 50% of the strength values obtained was maintained. The composite degradation properties revealed a 14% mass loss for the nontreated and a 10% mass loss for the heat-treated fiber composites. It was also seen that by heat-treating the fibers, chemical and physical degradation occurred much slower. The pH profiles also revealed that nontreated fibers degraded quicker, thus correlating well with the degradation profiles. The in vitro cell culture experiments revealed both PLA (alone) and the heat-treated fiber composites maintained higher cell viability as compared to the nontreated fiber composites. This was attributed to the slower degradation release profiles of the heat-treated composites as compared to the nontreated fiber composites. SEM analyses revealed a porous structure after degradation, and it is clear that there are possibilities here to tailor the distribution of porosity

  15. Effects of hydroxyapatite and PDGF concentrations on osteoblast growth in a nanohydroxyapatite-polylactic acid composite for guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Talal, Ahmed; McKay, I J; Tanner, K E; Hughes, Francis J

    2013-09-01

    The technique of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has evolved over recent years in an attempt to achieve periodontal tissue regeneration by the use of a barrier membrane. However, there are significant limitations in the currently available membranes and overall outcomes may be limited. A degradable composite material was investigated as a potential GTR membrane material. Polylactic acid (PLA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite was analysed, its bioactive potential and suitability as a carrier system for growth factors were assessed. The effect of nHA concentrations and the addition of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was investigated. The bioactivity was dependent on the nHA concentration in the films, with more apatite deposited on films containing higher nHA content. Osteoblasts proliferated well on samples containing low nHA content and differentiated on films with higher nHA content. The composite films were able to deliver PDGF and cell proliferation increased on samples that were pre-absorbed with the growth factor. nHA-PLA composite films are able to deliver active PDGF. In addition the bioactivity and cell differentiation was higher on films containing more nHA. The use of a nHA-PLA composite material containing a high concentration of nHA may be a useful material for GTR membrane as it will not only act as a barrier, but may also be able to enhance bone regeneration by delivery of biologically active molecules. PMID:23832451

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

  17. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  18. Phagocytosis of hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing oxidized dextrans conjugated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shkurupy, V A; Arkhipov, S A; Troitsky, A V; Luzgina, N G; Zaikovskaja, M V; Ufimceva, E G; Iljine, D A; Akhramenko, E S; Gulyaeva, E P; Bistrova, T N

    2009-12-01

    We studied phagocytic activity of macrophages towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions consisting of 150-800-nm nanoliposomes containing oxidized dextrans with a molecular weight of 35 and 60 kDa obtained by chemical ("permanganate") and radiochemical oxidation of dextran conjugated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (dextrazides, intracellular prolonged antituberculous drugs). Phagocytic activity of macrophages towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing dextrazides obtained by chemical oxidation of dextrans is higher than activity towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing dextrazides prepared by radiochemical oxidation and depends on the size of hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions and molecular weight of oxidized dextrans. PMID:21116494

  19. Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, Michael

    In the orthopedic/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying novel biomaterials under development, by evaluating their chemical properties, performance, and safety. The goals of this research were: (i) Characterize the assay/quality of every resin component and quantify elution of extractable monomers from novel, DUDMA-based RHAKOSS(TM) implant, (ii) Determine degree of conversion (alpha) and rate of polymerization (Rp) for novel, Bis-GMA-based CORTOSS(TM) composite, (iii) Assess risk for radical-induced post-surgical cytotoxicity for CORTOSS, (iv) Determine if surface radical chemistries occur for sterilized RHAKOSS and assess its oxidative stability, and (v) Quantify antibiotic elution from antibiotic-impregnated CORTOSS and identify factors that control elution. The phenomena studied necessitated the utilization of several analytical spectroscopic techniques; fluorometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), attenuated total reflectance---Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A battery of lateral chemical techniques were employed as well; including molecular derivatization/tagging, phase partitioning, spin-trapping, and thermal annealing. Results demonstrated that RHAKOSS monomer percent compositions were prepared according to formulations and monomer elution was virtually undetectable, serving as an empirical gauge to

  20. A 2000-yr record of the extent of decomposition and vegetation change in peats from the Western Siberian Lowland as revealed from carbohydrate, lignin and amino acid analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, R. H.; Kaiser, K.; Philben, M. J.; Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Western Siberian Lowland is among the largest wetlands in the world, and it is estimated to store ~70 Pg C as peat. Based on radiocarbon dating, peat accumulation rates at sites south of 60°N are higher than those at more northerly sites during the past 2000 yr. The biochemical composition of peat from high-resolution sampling in four cores was analyzed to investigate the influence of current and past climatic events on the decomposition and diagenetic alteration of the accumulated peat. The analyzed cores were collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113). Molecular analyses of hydrolysable neutral sugars, amino acids and lignin phenols accounted for about 36% of the C and 50% of the N in the peat samples, indicating the observed compositional trends are generally representative of bulk C and N dynamics. Prominent compositional anomalies were observed in the upper 6-43 cm of SIB04, the most southern core. An 8-fold decline in Sphagnum-derived p-hydroxy phenols was accompanied by a 5-fold increase in gymnosperm-derived vanillyl phenols in the upper SIB04 core, indicating a shift in vegetation that was also observed at 5 other depths in the core. The yield of neutral sugars decreased from 27% to 10% of total C in peat deposited over a span of about 230 yr. The C/N ratio declined from 68 to 45, and the yield of amino acids increased two-fold. These changes indicate extensive decomposition of the surface (6-9 cm) peat occurred during the last few decades, a period of significant warming in the region. We estimate a 50-65% mass loss in surface peat at the SIB04 site. No apparent indication of extensive decomposition was observed in surface peat at the SIB06 site located 2° further north. About 33% of total C was accounted for in neutral sugars, the C/N ratio was above 100 and amino acid yields were relatively low. A 2-fold increase in vanillyl and syringyl phenols indicates the input of angiosperm vegetation in the upper SIB06

  1. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

  2. RBS and XPS analyses of the composite calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2005-12-01

    The calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants are widely used for biomedical applications. The calcium phosphate coatings require mechanical strength, strong adhesion to the metallic implants, chemical stability and low dissolution into the human body fluid for stable functioning in the corrosive environment of the human body. In this study, a novel approach for improving the calcium phosphate coatings is utilized by adding trace metallic element into the coatings. We focused on teeth enamel, which is the hardest calcium phosphate tissue in the human body. Zn concentration increases exponentially from the interior to the surface of the enamel. As the Zn concentration increases, so the local hardness increases. Our previous studies suggest that Zn has influence on the hardness and other properties of enamel, calcium phosphate tissue. Calcium phosphate coatings doped with Zn was fabricated and characterized. The atomic composition and chemical state were investigated by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. Scratch test was also carried out for measuring the adhesion of the coatings.

  3. Analyses of the Deformation Mechanisms of Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Reinforcements during Preforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Sylvain; Boisse, Philippe; Dumont, François

    2012-06-01

    Two experimental devices are used for the analysis of the deformation mechanisms of biaxial non-crimp fabric composite reinforcements during preforming. The bias extension test, commonly use for the shear behaviour characterisation of woven fabrics, allows to highlight the sliding between the two plies of the reinforcement. This sliding is localized in areas of high gradient of shearing. This questions the use of bias extension test in determining the shear stiffness of the studied reinforcement. Then a hemispherical stamping experiment, representative of a preforming process, allows to quantify this sliding. The slippage is defined as the distance, projected onto the middle surface, of two points initially opposed on both sides of the reinforcement. For both experiments, the characteristic behavior of the non-crimp fabric reinforcement is highlighted by comparison with a woven textile reinforcement. This woven fabric presents only a very little sliding between warp and weft yarns during preforming. This aspect of the deformation kinematics of the non-crimp fabric reinforcement must be considered when simulating the preforming.

  4. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  5. Body Composition in Asians and Caucasians: Comparative Analyses and Influences on Cardiometabolic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sumanto; Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Within the last four decades Asia has witnessed major transformation in its population demographics, which gave rise to changes in food availability, food habits and lifestyle. A significant consequence of these changes has been the continuing rise in overweight and obesity across Asia. In parallel, there has been a significant rise in Asians in the incidence of the major chronic diseases, particularly in cardiometabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Given that the majority of the evidence, to date, investigating the associations between adiposity and cardiometabolic disorder risk have been obtained from studies undertaken either in European or in North American Caucasians, in this chapter, we have reviewed differences in body fat content and distribution between East Asians, South Asians, and Caucasians. The evidence is consistent that the content and distribution of body fat are markedly different between the various ethnic groups. We found that Asians have a greater predisposition towards adiposity at higher BMI than in Caucasians. Moreover, at any given level of adiposity, Asians have a much greater predisposition to risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Caucasians. We therefore strongly endorse the need for different adiposity cutoffs in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. We have also reviewed the predictive abilities of the various body composition/adiposity measures in determining risk of cardiometabolic disorders in Asians. PMID:26319906

  6. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, “Green King”. Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  7. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  8. Fatty acid composition of twelve algae from the coastal zones of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Heiba, H I; Al-Easa, H S; Rizk, A F

    1997-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of twelve algal species from two different classes were determined. Three Chlorophyta species (Acetabularia calyculus, Cladophora sericoides and Dictyosphaeria cavernosa) and nine Phaeophyta species (Colpomenia sinuosa, Cystoseria trinodis, Dictyota cervicornis, Hormophysa triquetra, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum binderi, S. boveanum, S. denticulatum and S. heteromorpha) were investigated. Thirty-four fatty acids were identified. Myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, eicosodienic and lignoceric acids were predominant in all examined algal species. Branched saturated fatty acids were also found in all investigated species except Cladophora sericoides. PMID:9498691

  9. Proteome and Membrane Fatty Acid Analyses on Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 Grown under Chemolithoautotrophic and Heterotrophic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debarati; Kumar, Ranjit; Nanduri, Bindu; French, Todd; Pendarvis, Ken; Brown, Ashli; Lawrence, Mark L.; Burgess, Shane C.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 T. (DSM 1227, ATCC 49405) is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium able to utilize CO and H2 to derive energy for fixation of CO2. Thus, it is capable of growth using syngas, which is a mixture of varying amounts of CO and H2 generated by organic waste gasification. O. carboxidovorans is capable also of heterotrophic growth in standard bacteriologic media. Here we characterize how the O. carboxidovorans proteome adapts to different lifestyles of chemolithoautotrophy and heterotrophy. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown with acetate or with syngas showed that the bacterium changes membrane fatty acid composition. Quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown in the presence of acetate and syngas showed production of proteins encoded on the megaplasmid for assimilating CO and H2 as well as proteins encoded on the chromosome that might have contributed to fatty acid and acetate metabolism. We found that adaptation to chemolithoautotrophic growth involved adaptations in cell envelope, oxidative homeostasis, and metabolic pathways such as glyoxylate shunt and amino acid/cofactor biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:21386900

  10. Microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter elucidated by amino acid and amino sugar analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, S.; Osono, T.; Noro, K.; Hirota, M.; Benner, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    There is still much to be revealed about carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in terrestrial soil systems. The objectives of this study were to identify molecular changes in composition during plant litter decomposition and gain insights about microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter. Litter bag experiments with three plant species, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus crispula, were conducted for three years, and the concentrations of C, N, amino acids and amino sugars were determined at various times during the experiments. Mass loss (AFDW) ranged from 66-90% for the plant tissues. The weight %C remained fairly constant, whereas the weight %N increased throughout the study indicating N immobilization was occurring. The percentages of C as amino acids and amino sugars also increased throughout the study suggesting these biomolecules were largely of microbial origin. The increasing yields of amino acids and amino sugars were inversely related to overall C loss from the litter material. As microorganisms degraded the plant litter they left behind molecular signatures that were useful predictors of the extent of overall degradation. The C/N ratio of litter decreased throughout the study and was inversely related to galactosamine yields. The glucosamine/galactosamine (GlcN/GalN) ratio gradually declined to values near 2 by the end of the study. Galactoasamine is more abundant in bacteria than fungi, and the declining GlcN/GalN ratio suggest the relative contributions of bacterial to litter C and N increased relative to contributions from fungi. A cluster analysis of 0- and 36-month litters based on amino acid and amino sugar composition showed that 0-month litters of three plant species were separated from 36-month litters, suggesting common diagenetic pathways during decomposition irrespective of plant species. The microbial decomposers contribute to N immobilization and their contributions to the C and N content of litter increases

  11. Studies on saturated and trans fatty acids composition of few commercial brands of biscuits sold in Indian market.

    PubMed

    Amrutha Kala, A L

    2014-11-01

    Saturated fat and trans fat consumption is linked to cardiovascular disease. Considering the health implications of saturated and trans fats investigation was undertaken with the objective to study the fat compositions in biscuits sold in Indian market. These commercial biscuits were analysed for saturated and trans fatty acids using capillary GC. The results of analysis of 46 biscuit samples showed that the total fat content ranged from 9.5 to 25.0 g/100 g of biscuits. The fatty acid profile showed that, saturated fat content in biscuits ranged from 5.1 to 18.7 g/100 g. The overall range of total trans fat content was found to be 0.1 to 3.2 g/100 g biscuit and cis monounsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.9 to 8.6 g/100 g of biscuits. The low-level trans fatty acid was mainly by dienes and trienes where as high-level trans was from monoenes of C18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in biscuits ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 g/100 g. Biscuits of same brand on repeat analysis over a period of one year showed little variation in fat, saturated and trans fat content. PMID:26396357

  12. Global Transcriptome and Mutagenic Analyses of the Acid Tolerance Response of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Daniel; Pati, Niladri Bhusan; Ojha, Urmesh K.; Padhi, Chandrashekhar; Ray, Shilpa; Jaiswal, Sangeeta; Singh, Gajinder P.; Mannala, Gopala K.; Schultze, Tilman; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the leading causative agents of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis. Swift invasion through the intestinal tract and successful establishment in systemic organs are associated with the adaptability of S. Typhimurium to different stress environments. Low-pH stress serves as one of the first lines of defense in mammalian hosts, which S. Typhimurium must efficiently overcome to establish an infection. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptability of S. Typhimurium to acid stress is highly relevant. In this study, we have performed a transcriptome analysis of S. Typhimurium under the acid tolerance response (ATR) and found a large number of genes (∼47%) to be differentially expressed (more than 1.5-fold or less than −1.5-fold; P < 0.01). Functional annotation revealed differentially expressed genes to be associated with regulation, metabolism, transport and binding, pathogenesis, and motility. Additionally, our knockout analysis of a subset of differentially regulated genes facilitated the identification of proteins that contribute to S. Typhimurium ATR and virulence. Mutants lacking genes encoding the K+ binding and transport protein KdpA, hypothetical protein YciG, the flagellar hook cap protein FlgD, and the nitrate reductase subunit NarZ were significantly deficient in their ATRs and displayed varied in vitro virulence characteristics. This study offers greater insight into the transcriptome changes of S. Typhimurium under the ATR and provides a framework for further research on the subject. PMID:26386064

  13. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416518

  14. Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Anisha, B S; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified. PMID:24060281

  15. Differences in Muscle Transcriptome among Pigs Phenotypically Extreme for Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Corominas, Jordi; Estellé, Jordi; Pérez-Montarelo, Dafne; Hudson, Nicholas J.; Casellas, Joaquim; Folch, Josep M.; Ballester, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Besides having an impact on human health, the porcine muscle fatty acid profile determines meat quality and taste. The RNA-Seq technologies allowed us to explore the pig muscle transcriptome with an unprecedented detail. The aim of this study was to identify differentially-expressed genes between two groups of 6 sows belonging to an Iberian × Landrace backcross with extreme phenotypes according to FA profile. Results We sequenced the muscle transcriptome acquiring 787.5 M of 75 bp paired-end reads. About 85.1% of reads were mapped to the reference genome. Of the total reads, 79.1% were located in exons, 6.0% in introns and 14.9% in intergenic regions, indicating expressed regions not annotated in the reference genome. We identified a 34.5% of the intergenic regions as interspersed repetitive regions. We predicted a total of 2,372 putative proteins. Pathway analysis with 131 differentially-expressed genes revealed that the most statistically-significant metabolic pathways were related with lipid metabolism. Moreover, 18 of the differentially-expressed genes were located in genomic regions associated with IMF composition in an independent GWAS study in the same genetic background. Thus, our results indicate that the lipid metabolism of FAs is differently modulated when the FA composition in muscle differs. For instance, a high content of PUFA may reduce FA and glucose uptake resulting in an inhibition of the lipogenesis. These results are consistent with previous studies of our group analysing the liver and the adipose tissue transcriptomes providing a view of each of the main organs involved in lipid metabolism. Conclusions The results obtained in the muscle transcriptome analysis increase the knowledge of the gene regulation of IMF deposition, FA profile and meat quality, in terms of taste and nutritional value. Besides, our results may be important in terms of human health. PMID:24926690

  16. Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Etelvino H; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J; Cunha, Tony J F; Madari, Beáta E; de M Benites, Vinícius; Hayes, Michael H B

    2007-01-15

    The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested "Terra Preta de Indio" or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite pi pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity. PMID:17310698

  17. Integral Manufacturing of Composite Skin-Stringer Assembly and Their Stability Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Majumdar, Prasun; Saha, Mrinal; Shamery, Frederick; Jeelani, Shaik

    2004-05-01

    Stiffened composite constructions are increasingly being used in the primary structures of aircraft. One key component in these structures is the assembly between the skin and the stringer. The purpose of the stringers sandwiched between two separate layers of skin is to provide structural integrity to a relatively weak skin-structure. Current practice is to fabricate the skin and the stringer separately, assemble them with adhesively bonded joints, and then co-cure the entire assembly in an autoclave. However, the reliability of the joint manufactured in this fashion is not dependable and hence requires riveting of the skin with the stringer by hundreds of mechanical fasteners. Although the mechanical fastener improves the joint reliability, it certainly increases the weight and reduces the strength of the structure by introducing stress concentration points around the rivet holes. In order to eliminate these disadvantages, an innovative low cost manufacturing technique has been developed. The technique utilizes the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process to co-inject both the skin and the stringer in one integral step. Furthermore, the skin and the stringer are now part of one continuous fabric preform which by default eliminates any adhesive bonding. Several skin-stringer assemblies with plain weave carbon fabric and SC-15 epoxy resin have been manufactured following this procedure. Stability of the manufactured skin-stringer assembly has been investigated experimentally. The extensive analysis focused on the determination of the critical load corresponding to the instability of the structure, failure load and study of the failure mechanisms. Details of manufacturing procedures and experimental investigations are presented in the paper.

  18. Composition of phosphorus in wetland soils determined by SMT and solution 31P-NMR analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Jin, Xin; Ding, Yuekui; Zhu, Xiaolei; Rong, Nan; Li, Jie; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-05-01

    In Eastern China, wetlands are common in the lower reaches of catchments or in coastal zones. Wetlands are at risk from eutrophication because of the large quantities of phosphorus (P) they receive from rivers. They are also decreasing in size. In this contribution, we present information about the composition of P in wetland soils, obtained using the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) protocol and (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Average P concentrations varied in the different wetland soils and, in four of the five wetlands sampled, exceeded 500 mg∙kg(-1). HCl-inorganic P (Pi) was the main Pi fraction in wetland soils. The percentage contribution of Pi (89.7 %) to total P was the highest in the Yangtze River estuary wetland. Six P components were detected by (31)P-NMR analysis. Mono-P was the main organic P (Po) in wetland soils. Orthophosphate (Ortho-P) was positively and negatively related to NaOH-Pi (R (2) = 0.957, p < 0.001) and HCl-Pi (R (2) = -0.689, p < 0.001), respectively. Orthophosphate monoesters (Mono-P) were positively related to Po (R (2) = 0.617, p < 0.001) and ortho-P (R (2) = 0.624, p < 0.001), respectively. The main Po component was Mono-P, and it may be mineralized to ortho-P under the frequently changing redox conditions in wetland soils. The information from this study will support the development of robust scientific and effective policy for P management in wetlands. PMID:26832861

  19. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  20. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  1. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Chastin, Sebastien F M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between movement behaviours (sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity) and health indicators in a representative sample of children and youth using compositional analyses. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4169 children and youth (aged 6-17 years) from cycles 1 to 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Sedentary time (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer-derived. Sleep duration was subjectively measured. Body mass index z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, and aerobic fitness were measured in the full sample. Triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were measured in a fasting subsample. The composition of movement behaviours was entered into linear regression models via an isometric log ratio transformation and was found to be associated with all health indicators (p < 0.01). Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB or LPA was positively associated (p < 0.04) and time spent in MVPA or sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.02) with obesity risk markers. Similarly, LPA was positively associated (p < 0.005) and sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.03) with unfavourable behavioural strengths and difficulties scores and systolic blood pressure. Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB was negatively associated (p < 0.001) and time spent in MVPA (p < 0.001) was positively associated with aerobic fitness. Likewise, MVPA was also negatively associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers (p < 0.008). Compositional data analyses provide novel insights into collective health implications of 24-h movement behaviours and can facilitate interesting avenues for future investigations. PMID:27306435

  2. Molar ratio iron: zinc and folic acid in Brazilian biscuits and snacks and test for classification using principal component analyses.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Adriana Teixeira; Rebelatto, Ana Paula; Borin-Nogueira, Alessandra; Lima-Pallone, Juliana Azevedo

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate molar ratio iron: zinc and the levels of folic acid in biscuit and snacks commercialized in Brazil, prepared with folic acid and iron fortified flours. These nutrients are important for human nutrition; however, iron can have a negative effect on zinc absorption. Molar ratio iron:zinc can indicate if there will be any problems for absorption of these nutrients. The folic acid content varied from 58 to 433 μg/100 g and iron and zinc levels varied from 2.9 to 9.4 mg/100 g and from 0.2 to 1.3 mg/100 g, respectively, for 75 analyzed samples. The average iron contents observed in the products and molar ratio iron:zinc (in average 8:1 for biscuits and 12.8:1 for snacks) could result in problems with the zinc absorption. Moreover, principal compo- nent analyses (PCA) indicated low uniformity in the distribution of minerals and vitamin in the majority of the samples, mainly among brands. The results indicated that for the majority of the samples tested folic acid and iron content was higher than expected for flours and could be useful to governmental authorities in their evaluation program of flour fortification. PMID:25799687

  3. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  4. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites.

    PubMed

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a "blocking effect" between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1~114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  5. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  6. Sterol and n-alkane biomarker composition of modern fen plants - potential application for palaeoecological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkainen, T.; McClymont, E. L.; Väliranta, M.; Tuittila, E.

    2011-12-01

    plant types that would give insight into major palaeoecological challenges (e.g. Sphagnum subsecundum, Warnstorfia exannulata, Carex livida). We report n-alkane and sterol distributions and concentrations in shoots, stems and roots from 12 plant species common to fens. The primary results are promising, confirming some previously established relationships in peat-forming plants e.g. n-alkane chain length differs between the main plant types (e.g. Sphagnum versus non-Sphagnum). However, we also find that biomarker composition, and thus interpretation of the chemical fingerprints of fen plants, is not as straightforward as in bog plants. The implications of these results for palaeo-ecological investigations are discussed.

  7. The effect of diet on the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria and myelin in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, L.

    1965-01-01

    1. Three groups of female rats (8–12 weeks old) were maintained respectively on a linoleic acid-rich diet, a linoleic acid-poor predominantly saturated-fatty acid diet and a normal diet. Changes in the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin were observed. 2. Of the serum fatty acids, linoleic acid showed the greatest change in the percentage of the total acids in response to diet; the change in the proportion of oleic acid was considerable. The percentages of arachidonic acid in serum fatty acids in the groups on the linoleic acid-rich and linoleic acid-poor diets were similar, but higher than those in the normal group. 3. Changes in the proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid occurred in brain fatty acids that to some extent paralleled those occurring in the serum. Changes in the proportions of most other acids in the serum fatty acids were not accompanied by corresponding changes in the brain fatty acids. 4. The percentage fatty acid compositions of a mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin are given, and changes in the relative proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and possibly some docosapolyenoic acids were demonstrated to occur as a result of diet. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the possible aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:5881652

  8. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites. PMID:26405910

  9. Properties of polylactic acid composites reinforced with oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Zakaria, Zainoha; Inuwa, I M; Islam, M S; Jawaid, M

    2013-10-15

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm biomass were successfully prepared through solution casting. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that there are no significant changes in the peak positions, suggesting that incorporation of MCC in PLA did not result in any significant change in chemical structure of PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on the samples. The T50 decomposition temperature improved with addition of MCC, showing increase in thermal stability of the composites. The synthesized composites were characterized in terms of tensile properties. The Young's modulus increased by about 30%, while the tensile strength and elongation at break for composites decreased with addition of MCC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites fractured surface shows that the MCC remained as aggregates of crystalline cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic image of the composite surfaces show clustering of MCC with uneven distribution. PMID:23987327

  10. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  11. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic microbial communities associated with the siliceous vent walls and outflow channel of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, have been examined for lipid biomarkers and carbon isotopic signatures. These data were compared with that obtained from representatives of three Aquificales genera. Thermocrinis ruber. "Thermocrinis sp. HI", Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus and Aquifex aeolicus all contained phospholipids composed not only of the usual ester-linked fatty acids, but also ether-linked alkyls. The fatty acids of all cultured organisms were dominated by a very distinct pattern of n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21 compounds. The alkyl glycerol ethers were present primarily as CIS() monoethers with the expection of the Aquifex spp. in which dialkyl glycerol ethers with a boarder carbon-number distribution were also present. These Aquificales biomarker lipids were the major constituents in the lipid extracts of the Octopus Spring microbial samples. Two natural samples, a microbial biofilm growing in association with deposition of amorphous silica on the vent walls at 92 C, and the well-known 'pink-streamers community' (PSC), siliceous filaments of a microbial consortia growing in the upper outflow channel at 87 C were analyzed. Both the biofilm and PSC samples contained mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers with a prevalence of C-18 and C-20 alkyls. Phospholipid fatty acids were comprised of both the characteristic Aquificales n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21, and in addition, a series of iso-branched fatty acids from i-C-15:0 to i-C-21:0, With i-C-17:0 dominant in the PSC and i-C-19:0 in the biofilm, suggesting the presence of two major bacterial groups. Bacteriohopanepolyols were absent and the minute quantities of archaeol detected showed that Archaea were only minor constituents. Carbon isotopic compositions of the PSC yielded information about community structure and likely physiology. Biomass was C-13-depleted (10.9%) relative to available

  12. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  13. Discrimination, correlation, and provenance of Bed I tephrostratigraphic markers, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, based on multivariate analyses of phenocryst compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, Jörg M.; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Stollhofen, Harald; Tolosana-Delgado, Raimon; Stanistreet, Ian G.; Deino, Alan L.

    2016-06-01

    The chronology of Pleistocene flora and fauna, including hominin remains and associated Oldowan industries in Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, is primarily based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of intercalated tuffs and lavas, combined with detailed tephrostratigraphic correlations within the basin. Although a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework has been established for the eastern part of the Olduvai Basin, the western subbasin is less well known due in part to major lateral facies changes within Bed I combined with discontinuous exposure. We address these correlation difficulties using the discriminative power of the chemical composition of the major juvenile mineral phases (augite, anorthoclase, plagioclase) from tuffs, volcaniclastic sandstones, siliciclastic units, and lavas. We statistically evaluate these compositions, obtained from electron probe micro-analysis, applying principal component analysis and discriminant analysis to develop discriminant models that successfully classify most Bed I volcanic units. The correlations, resulting from integrated analyses of all target minerals, provide a basin-wide Bed I chemostratigraphic framework at high lateral and vertical resolution, consistent with the known geological context, that expands and refines the geochemical databases currently available. Correlation of proximal ignimbrites at the First Fault with medial and distal Lower Bed I successions of the western basin enables assessment of lateral facies and thickness trends that confirm Ngorongoro Volcano as the primary source for Lower Bed I, whereas Upper Bed I sediment supply is mainly from Olmoti Volcano. Compositional similarity between Tuff IA, Bed I lava, and Mafic Tuffs II and III single-grain fingerprints, together with north- and northwestward thinning of Bed I lava, suggests a common Ngorongoro source for these units. The techniques applied herein improve upon previous work by evaluating compositional affinities with statistical rigor rather than

  14. Lipid Composition of the Human Eye: Are Red Blood Cells a Good Mirror of Retinal and Optic Nerve Fatty Acids?

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Niyazi; Berdeaux, Olivier; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Martine, Lucy; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P.; Bron, Alain M.; Bretillon, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Background The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. Even well accepted such relationships have never been clearly established. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following recent data linking lipid intake to ocular health and disease. In the present study, we wanted to determine in humans whether a lipidomic approach based on red blood cells could reveal associations between circulating and tissue lipid profiles. To check if the analytical sensitivity may be of importance in such analyses, we have used a double approach for lipidomics. Methodology and Principal Findings Red blood cells, retinas and optic nerves were collected from 9 human donors. The lipidomic analyses on tissues consisted in gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization source-mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). Gas chromatography did not reveal any relevant association between circulating and ocular fatty acids except for arachidonic acid whose circulating amounts were positively associated with its levels in the retina and in the optic nerve. In contrast, several significant associations emerged from LC-ESI-MS analyses. Particularly, lipid entities in red blood cells were positively or negatively associated with representative pools of retinal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), retinal very-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFA) or optic nerve plasmalogens. Conclusions and Significance LC-ESI-MS is more appropriate than gas chromatography for lipidomics on red blood cells, and further extrapolation to ocular lipids. The several individual lipid species we have identified are good candidates to represent circulating biomarkers of ocular lipids. However, further investigation is needed before considering them as indexes of disease risk and before using them in clinical studies on optic nerve

  15. Influence of oxidation on fulvic acids composition and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Kozyatnyk, Ivan; Świetlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, Ursula; Dąbrowska, Agata; Klymenko, Nataliya; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    Oxidation is well-known process of transforming natural organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. Chlorine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide are common oxidants used in water treatment technologies for this purpose. We studied the influence of different doses of these oxidants on by-products formation and changes in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of fulvic acids (FA) with different BDOC content. Chlorination did not significantly change the MWD of FA and disinfection by-products formation. However, higher molecular weight compounds, than those in the initial FA, were formed. It could be a result of chlorine substitution into the FA structure. Chlorine dioxide oxidized FA stronger than chlorine. During ozonation of FA, we found the highest increase of BDOD due to the formation of a high amount of organic acids and aldehydes. FA molecules were transformed into a more biodegradable form. Ozonation is the most preferable process among those observed for pre-treatment of FA before biofiltration. PMID:23746389

  16. Influencing fatty acid composition of yeasts by lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Kolouchova, Irena; Sigler, Karel; Zimola, Michal; Rezanka, Tomas; Matatkova, Olga; Masak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of microorganisms is affected by cultivation conditions, concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources and the presence of trace elements. One of the new possibilities of influencing the production of cell mass or lipids is the use of lanthanides. Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry and their concentration as environmental contaminants is therefore increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants but their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements or operate as potent blockers of Ca(2+) channels. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on traditional biotechnologically useful yeast species (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii), and species capable of high accumulation of lipids (Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp., Yarrowia lipolytica). Low concentrations of lanthanum and monazite were conducive to an increase in cell mass and lipids and also higher production of palmitoleic acid, commonly used in cosmetics and medicine, and ω6-linoleic acid which is a precursor of thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leucotrienes. PMID:27339307

  17. Comparison of the Morphology and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Composition of 27 Strains of Nitrifying Bacteria1

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Stanley W.; Mandel, Manley

    1971-01-01

    The gross morphology, fine structure, and per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) composition of deoxyribonucleic acid of 27 strains of nitrifying bacteria were compared. Based on morphological differences, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were separated into four genera. Nitrosomonas species and Nitrosocystis species formed one homogenous group, and Nitrosolobus species and Nitrosospira species formed a second homogenous group in respect to their deoxyribonucleic acid GC compositions. Similarly, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were separated into three genera based on their morphology. The members of two of these nitrite-oxidizing genera, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus, had similar GC compositions, but Nitrospina gracilis had a significantly lower GC composition than the members of the other two genera. Images PMID:4939767

  18. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  19. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  20. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  1. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  2. Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

    1996-01-01

    One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes

  3. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products. PMID:27432239

  4. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  5. Evolutionary analyses of the 12-kDa acidic ribosomal P-proteins reveal a distinct protein of higher plant ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Szick, Kathleen; Springer, Mark; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    1998-01-01

    The P-protein complex of eukaryotic ribosomes forms a lateral stalk structure in the active site of the large ribosomal subunit and is thought to assist in the elongation phase of translation by stimulating GTPase activity of elongation factor-2 and removal of deacylated tRNA. The complex in animals, fungi, and protozoans is composed of the acidic phosphoproteins P0 (35 kDa), P1 (11–12 kDa), and P2 (11–12 kDa). Previously we demonstrated by protein purification and microsequencing that ribosomes of maize (Zea mays L.) contain P0, one type of P1, two types of P2, and a distinct P1/P2 type protein designated P3. Here we implemented distance matrices, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining analyses to assess the evolutionary relationships between the 12 kDa P-proteins of maize and representative eukaryotic species. The analyses identify P3, found to date only in mono- and dicotyledonous plants, as an evolutionarily distinct P-protein. Plants possess three distinct groups of 12 kDa P-proteins (P1, P2, and P3), whereas animals, fungi, and protozoans possess only two distinct groups (P1 and P2). These findings demonstrate that the P-protein complex has evolved into a highly divergent complex with respect to protein composition despite its critical position within the active site of the ribosome. PMID:9482893

  6. The use of amino acid analyses in (palaeo-) limnological investigations: A comparative study of four Indian lakes in different climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Basavaiah, Nathani; Das, Brijraj Krishna; Gaye, Birgit; Herrmann, Nicole; Prasad, Sushma

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we report the results of comprehensive amino acid (AA) analyses of four Indian lakes from different climate regimes. We focus on the investigation of sediment cores retrieved from the lakes but data of modern sediment as well as vascular plant, soil, and suspended particulate matter samples from individual lakes are also presented. Commonly used degradation and organic matter source indices are tested for their applicability to the lake sediments, and we discuss potential reasons for possible limitations. A principal component analysis including the monomeric AA composition of organic matter of all analysed samples indicates that differences in organic matter sources and the environmental properties of the individual lakes are responsible for the major variability in monomeric AA distribution of the different samples. However, the PCA also gives a factor that most probably separates the samples according to their state of organic matter degradation. Using the factor loadings of the individual AA monomers, we calculate a lake sediment degradation index (LI) that might be applicable to other palaeo-lake investigations.

  7. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  8. CDC group IIc: phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid composition, and isoprenoid quinone content.

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, D G; Moss, C W; Daneshvar, M I; Wallace-Shewmaker, P L

    1996-01-01

    Twenty strains of glucose-utilizing, small gram-negative slightly pleomorphic rods that grew well aerobically and that were isolated from clinical specimens formed a phenotypically similar group that was designated CDC group IIc. The phenotypic characteristics of CDC group IIc were most similar to those of CDC groups IIe and IIh, the major differences being that CDC group IIc produced acid from sucrose, hydrolyzed esculin, and usually reduced nitrate. The CDC group IIc strains were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for their cellular fatty acid compositions, and all contained relatively large amounts of isobranched hydroxy and nonhydroxy acids. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the quinone extract showed menaquinone-6 as the major component. Both the cellular fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone compositions were consistent with the profiles of CDC groups IIe and IIh. Thirty percent of the isolates were from human blood. PMID:8862612

  9. Identify Secretory Protein of Malaria Parasite with Modified Quadratic Discriminant Algorithm and Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-E

    2016-06-01

    Malaria parasite secretes various proteins in infected red blood cell for its growth and survival. Thus identification of these secretory proteins is important for developing vaccine or drug against malaria. In this study, the modified method of quadratic discriminant analysis is presented for predicting the secretory proteins. Firstly, 20 amino acids are divided into five types according to the physical and chemical characteristics of amino acids. Then, we used five types of amino acids compositions as inputs of the modified quadratic discriminant algorithm. Finally, the best prediction performance is obtained by using 20 amino acid compositions, the sensitivity of 96 %, the specificity of 92 % with 0.88 of Mathew's correlation coefficient in fivefold cross-validation test. The results are also compared with those of existing prediction methods. The compared results shown our method are prominent in the prediction of secretory proteins. PMID:26286010

  10. Elemental and fatty acid composition of snow algae in Arctic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Spijkerman, Elly; Wacker, Alexander; Weithoff, Guntram; Leya, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Red, orange or green snow is the macroscopic phenomenon comprising different eukaryotic algae. Little is known about the ecology and nutrient regimes in these algal communities. Therefore, eight snow algal communities from five intensively tinted snow fields in western Spitsbergen were analysed for nutrient concentrations and fatty acid (FA) composition. To evaluate the importance of a shift from green to red forms on the FA-variability of the field samples, four snow algal strains were grown under nitrogen replete and moderate light (+N+ML) or N-limited and high light (−N+HL) conditions. All eight field algal communities were dominated by red and orange cysts. Dissolved nutrient concentration of the snow revealed a broad range of NH+4 (<0.005–1.2 mg N l−1) and only low PO3−4 (<18 μg P l−1) levels. The external nutrient concentration did not reflect cellular nutrient ratios as C:N and C:P ratios of the communities were highest at locations containing relatively high concentrations of NH+4 and PO3−4. Molar N:P ratios ranged from 11 to 21 and did not suggest clear limitation of a single nutrient. On a per carbon basis, we found a 6-fold difference in total FA content between the eight snow algal communities, ranging from 50 to 300 mg FA g C−1. In multivariate analyses total FA content opposed the cellular N:C quota and a large part of the FA variability among field locations originated from the abundant FAs C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, and C18:3n-3. Both field samples and snow algal strains grown under −N+HL conditions had high concentrations of C18:1n-9. FAs possibly accumulated due to the cessation of growth. Differences in color and nutritional composition between patches of snow algal communities within one snow field were not directly related to nutrient conditions. We propose that the highly patchy distribution of snow algae within and between snow fields may also result from differences in topographical and geological parameters such as slope, melting

  11. Acidity and mineral composition of precipitation in Moscow: Influence of deicing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring data and analysis of the variation in acidity and mineral composition of atmospheric precipitation in Moscow in 2012 are presented. We have found that the chloride anions in the precipitation are largely caused by chlorides of deicing salts. Here, the chloride anions, along with metal chlorides (components of deicing salts), are partly caused by dissolved hydrogen chloride. The appearance of hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Moscow has been shown to result from heterophase chemical reactions involving deicing salts. We have obtained preliminary estimates for the scales of the effect of these salts on the mineral composition and acidity of precipitations in Moscow.

  12. Multifaceted chitin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite nanogels.

    PubMed

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Biswas, Raja; Chellan, Gopi; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    Cyto-compatible, 80nm sized chitin/PLGA composite nanogels (chit/PLGA-comp NGs) were prepared by regeneration method and characterized. The multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp NGs were surface modified with Au, Fe3O4, CdTe/ZnTe-QDs and umbelliferone, respectively. 185nm sized Au-chit/PLGA-comp NGs, 170nm sized QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 160nm sized Fe3O4-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs showed RF heating. The QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 180nm sized umb-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs were well uptaken by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The chit/PLGA-comp NGs could be useful for microbial monitoring and RF application for cancer therapy. The preliminary data showed that multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp-NGs could be useful for hyperthermia for cancer treatment and microbial labelling and imaging. PMID:24685461

  13. Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P < 0.05). Cattle with the LL genotype had higher palmitic acid (C16:1), triglycerides, and C16 index but lower stearic acid (C18:0) and SFA compared to those with the LS genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 84-bp indel of SREBP1 could be used as a genetic marker for selecting Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

  14. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  15. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

  16. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  17. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  18. Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2013-04-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  19. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  20. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzyme using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition in conjunction with probabilistic neural network model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer Ullah; Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Muazzam Ali

    2015-01-21

    Enzyme catalysis is one of the most essential and striking processes among of all the complex processes that have evolved in living organisms. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which play a significant role in industrial applications as well as in medical areas, due to profound specificity, selectivity and catalytic efficiency. Refining catalytic efficiency of enzymes has become the most challenging job of enzyme engineering, into acidic and alkaline. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzymes through experimental approaches is difficult, sometimes impossible due to lack of established structures. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a computational model for discriminating acidic and alkaline enzymes from primary sequences. In this study, we have developed a robust, accurate and high throughput computational model using two discrete sample representation methods Pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and split amino acid composition. Various classification algorithms including probabilistic neural network (PNN), K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machine are applied to predict acidic and alkaline with high accuracy. 10-fold cross validation test and several statistical measures namely, accuracy, F-measure, and area under ROC are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The performance of the model is examined using two benchmark datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The empirical results show that the performance of PNN in conjunction with PseAAC is quite promising compared to existing approaches in the literature so for. It has achieved 96.3% accuracy on dataset1 and 99.2% on dataset2. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be useful for basic research and drug related application areas. PMID:25452135

  1. Effects of growth phase and nitrogen starvation on expression of fatty acid desaturases and fatty acid composition of Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    PubMed

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-07-15

    Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) are important dietary requirements for maintaining human health. Many marine microalgae are naturally high in ω-3 VLC-PUFAs, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning fatty acid (FA) desaturation and elongation in algae are poorly understood. An advanced molecular understanding would facilitate improvements of this nascent industry. We aimed to investigate expression responses of four front-end fatty acid desaturase genes and downstream effects on FA profiles to nitrogen limitation and cultivation growth stage in Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO). Cultures were grown in nitrogen-replete and -deplete medium; samples were harvested during logarithmic, late logarithmic and stationary growth phases to analyse FA content/composition and gene expression of ∆(6)-, ∆(8)-, ∆(5)- and ∆(4)-desaturases (d6FAD (putative), d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD, respectively). d6FAD (putative) exhibited no differential expression, while d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD were significantly upregulated during logarithmic growth of nutrient-replete cultures, coinciding with rapid cell division. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that expression of some FADs in I. aff. galbana varies with culture age and nitrogen status which has downstream consequences on FA desaturation levels. This has implications for the commercial production of VLC-PUFAs where a trade-off between total lipid yield and VLC-PUFAs has to be made. PMID:24802118

  2. Studies on acid oils and fatty acids for chickens III. Effect of chemical composition on metabolisable energy of by-products of vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Vila, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    1996-03-01

    1. Fourteen by-products of oil refining, selected for their variability in free fatty acid and unsaponifiable contents, were analysed chemically with the objective of relating the determined ME values of the products to chemical composition by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Refined sunflower oil was included as a reference fat. 2. Twenty-one 2-week-old chicks were used to determine fat digestibilities and AMEn values of diets, using the total collection method. Fats were included in a wheat-soyabean meal diet at 100 g/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to express the ME values of fats as functions of the parameters measured (moisture, gross energy, impurities, unsaponifiables, non eluted material, free fatty acid content, unsaturated: saturated ratio, peroxide value, TBA test). 3. The ME of the fat products lay in the range l2.62 to 24.35 MJ/kg, and 29.26 MJ/kg for refined sunflower oil. Free fatty acid content of the fats was shown to be a poor predictor of their ME values, whereas non eluted material (NEM) of the fat products showed a good correlation with their ME. A regression equation could be derived (R2 0.6548; SEE 2.0064) with the unsaturated: saturated ratio (U:S) and NEM. An ME prediction equation based on the U:S, NEM and unsaponifiable content is also proposed (R2= 0.7l68; SEE= 1.9058). PMID:8833534

  3. Beta-galactosidase and selective neutrality. [amino acid composition of proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three hypotheses to explain the amino acid composition of proteins are inconsistent (about 10 to the minus 9th) with the experimental data for beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The exceptional length of this protein, 1021 residues, permits rigorous tests of these hypotheses without complication from statistical artifacts. Either this protein is not at compositional equilibrium, which is unlikely from knowledge about other proteins, or the evolution of this protein and its coding gene have not been selectively neutral. However, the composition of approximately 60% of the molecule is consistent with either a selectively neutral or nonneutral evolutionary process.

  4. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses of nutrient composition and condensed tannin concentrations in carolina willow (Salix caroliniana).

    PubMed

    Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Wooley, Stuart C; Stone, Koni; Russell, Scott; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2015-11-01

    Iron overload disorder has been described in a number of zoo-managed species, and it has been recommended to increase the tannin composition of the diet as a safe way to minimize iron absorption in these iron-sensitive species. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid and simple screening tool to assess willow (Salix caroliniana) nutrient composition (crude protein: CP; acid detergent fiber: ADF; neutral detergent fiber: NDF; lignin, gross energy: GE) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations. Calibration equations were developed by regression of the lab values from 2 years using partial least squares on n = 144 NIRS spectra to predict n = 20 independent validation samples. Using the full 2-year dataset, good prediction statistics were obtained for CP, ADF, NDF, and GE in plant leaves and stems (r(2 ) > 0.75). NIRS did not predict lignin concentrations reliably (leaves r(2)  = 0.52, stems r(2)  = 0.33); however, CTs were predicted moderately well (leaves r(2)  = 0.72, stems r(2)  = 0.67). These data indicate that NIRS can be used to quantify several key nutrients in willow leaves and stems including concentrations of plant secondary compounds which, depending on the bioactivity of the compound, may be targeted to feed iron-sensitive browsing animals. PMID:26315823

  5. Nitric oxide is required for determining root architecture and lignin composition in sunflower. Supporting evidence from microarray analyses.

    PubMed

    Corti Monzón, Georgina; Pinedo, Marcela; Di Rienzo, Julio; Novo-Uzal, Esther; Pomar, Federico; Lamattina, Lorenzo; de la Canal, Laura

    2014-05-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal molecule involved in several physiological processes in plants, including root development. Despite the importance of NO as a root growth regulator, the knowledge about the genes and metabolic pathways modulated by NO in this process is still limited. A constraint to unravel these pathways has been the use of exogenous applications of NO donors that may produce toxic effects. We have analyzed the role of NO in root architecture through the depletion of endogenous NO using the scavenger cPTIO. Sunflower seedlings growing in liquid medium supplemented with cPTIO showed unaltered primary root length while the number of lateral roots was deeply reduced; indicating that endogenous NO participates in determining root branching in sunflower. The transcriptional changes induced by NO depletion have been analyzed using a large-scale approach. A microarray analysis showed 330 genes regulated in the roots (p≤0.001) upon endogenous NO depletion. A general cPTIO-induced up-regulation of genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway was observed. Even if no detectable changes in total lignin content could be detected, cell walls analyses revealed that the ratio G/S lignin increased in roots treated with cPTIO. This means that endogenous NO may control lignin composition in planta. Our results suggest that a fine tuning regulation of NO levels could be used by plants to regulate root architecture and lignin composition. The functional implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24747108

  6. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  7. Three-dimensional nanometer scale analyses of precipitate structures and local compositions in titanium aluminide engineering alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstl, Stephan S. A.

    Titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys are among the fastest developing class of materials for use in high temperature structural applications. Their low density and high strength make them excellent candidates for both engine and airframe applications. Creep properties of TiAl alloys, however, have been a limiting factor in applying the material to a larger commercial market. In this research, nanometer scale compositional and structural analyses of several TiAl alloys, ranging from model Ti-Al-C ternary alloys to putative commercial alloys with 10 components are investigated utilizing three dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and transmission electron microscopies. Nanometer sized borides, silicides, and carbide precipitates are involved in strengthening TiAl alloys, however, chemical partitioning measurements reveal oxygen concentrations up to 14 at. % within the precipitate phases, resulting in the realization of oxycarbide formation contributing to the precipitation strengthening of TiAl alloys. The local compositions of lamellar microstructures and a variety of precipitates in the TiAl system, including boride, silicide, binary carbides, and intermetallic carbides are investigated. Chemical partitioning of the microalloying elements between the alpha2/gamma lamellar phases, and the precipitate/gamma-matrix phases are determined. Both W and Hf have been shown to exhibit a near interfacial excess of 0.26 and 0.35 atoms nm-2 respectively within ca. 7 nm of lamellar interfaces in a complex TiAl alloy. In the case of needle-shaped perovskite Ti3AlC carbide precipitates, periodic domain boundaries are observed 5.3+/-0.8 nm apart along their growth axis parallel to the TiAl[001] crystallographic direction with concomitant composition variations after 24 hrs. at 800°C.

  8. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

    2009-01-01

    Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL

  9. Experimental investigation of interfaces in hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid/polycaprolactone composites using photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-04-01

    Molecular interactions in hydroxyapatite (HAP) polymer composites have been studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. HAP is mineralized by wet precipitation under two conditions: first is in the absence of polyacrylic acid (PAAc) (ex-situ HAP) and second in the presence of PAAc (in-situ HAP). Porous and solid composites of ex-situ and in-situ HAP with polycaprolactone (PCL) have also been made to evaluate their applicability as bone scaffolds. Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy studies indicate that both in-situ and ex-situ HAP have HPO4 (2-) in their structure, which leads to Ca2+ deficiency. During crystallization of in-situ HAP, PAAc dissociates to form carboxylate ions, which binds to calcium ions and act as suitable site for nucleation for HAP crystallization. PA-FTIR spectra of porous and solid composites indicate that porous composites adsorb more water, which is hydrogen bonded with carbonyl of PCL. Mechanical tests on solid samples indicate that ex-situ HAP/PCL composites have higher elastic modulus than in-situ HAP/PCL composites. However, in case of porous composites, in-situ HAP/PCL composites are found to have higher elastic modulus. In-situ HAP is chemically and structurally different from ex-situ HAP. This modified HAP causes variation in microstructure of porous composite and hence alteration of its load transfer mechanisms and hence mechanical properties. PMID:16355408

  10. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  11. Effect of ascorbic acid, ethanol and acetone on adhesion between the treated fiber posts and composite resin cores

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Khamverdi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ascorbic acid, ethanol and acetone on microtensile bond strength between fiber posts pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide and composite resin cores. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty four fiber posts were pre-treated with 24% hydrogen peroxide and divided into 4 groups as follows: G1: no treatment, as control group; G2: treatment with 10% ascorbic acid solution for 5 minutes; G3: treatment with 70% ethanol solution for 5 minutes; and G4: treatment with 70% acetone solution for 5 minutes. Each fiber post was surrounded by a cylinder-shaped polyglass matrix which was subsequently filled with composite resin. Two sections from each sample were selected for microtensile test at a crosshead with speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey HSD test. Fractured surfaces were observed under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification. The fractured surfaces of the specimens were observed and evaluated under a SEM. RESULTS Means of microtensile bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations in the groups were as follows: G1: 9.70±0.81; G2: 12.62±1.80; G3: 16.60±1.93; and G4: 21.24±1.95. G4 and G1 had the highest and the lowest bond strength values, respectively. A greater bond strength value was seen in G3 compared to G2. There were significant differences between all the groups (P<.001). All the failures were of the adhesive mode. CONCLUSION Application of antioxidant agents may increase microtensile bond strength between fiber posts treated with hydrogen peroxide and composite cores. Acetone increased bond strength more than ascorbic acid and ethanol. PMID:23236569

  12. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot-finished beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven Angus crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on pasture- vs. feedlot-finishing beef steers on fatty acid (FA) composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A completely randomized design with repeated measures was used with steers arranged into 3 treatments...

  13. Hepatic fatty acid composition differs between chronic hepatitis C patients with and without steatosis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Prayitno, Nita R; Ma, David W L; Nguyen, Augustin; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition may influence steatosis development in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In a cross-sectional study, we compared the hepatic FA profile in hepatitis C patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 33) steatosis (> or =5% of hepatocytes involved). FA composition of hepatic and RBC total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and plasma, blood biochemistry, and nutritional status were also assessed. Patients with steatosis had more fibrosis, higher necroinflammatory activity of their hepatitis C infection, were more often infected with genotype 3, and had lower serum cholesterol. Monounsaturated FA in the liver were higher and trans FA were lower in patients with steatosis. Lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid in hepatic total lipids suggested higher Delta9-desaturase activity. alpha-Linolenic acid in the liver was higher and the ratios of long-chain PUFA:essential FA precursors were lower for (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA. Plasma vitamin C was lower in steatosis, but RBC FA composition and other parameters did not differ. We conclude that hepatic FA composition is altered in patients with hepatitis C and steatosis, probably due to modulation of enzymatic elongation and desaturation. Oxidative stress or nutritional status does not seem to play a predominant role for development of steatosis in CHC. PMID:19211827

  14. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  15. COMPOSITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF HUMIC ACIDS FROM ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND AMENDED SOILS IN MINNESOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of organic amendments requires an adequate control of the chemical quality of their humic acid (HA)-like fractions and of the effects that these materials may have on the status, quality, chemistry and functions of native soil HAs. In this work, the compositional, functional and structural p...

  16. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  17. Different Oilseed Supplements Alter Fatty Acid Composition of Different Adipose Tissues of Adult Ewes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lamb and mutton are important dietary components in human diets in northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor and flavor and nutritional value of fat for human consumption. Twenty-f...

  18. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  20. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) and pectin composite films intended for application in antimicrobial packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composite films of pectin and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded by extrusion. A model antimicrobial polypeptide, nisin, was loaded into the film by diffusion. The incorporation of pectin into PLA resulted in a heterogeneous biphasic structure as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy, co...

  1. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  2. Gibberellic acid (GA3) effects on late season grapefruit peel oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is commonly applied to citrus fruit in the late summer/early autumn to delay peel maturation and extend late season quality. The effect of August/September GA3 application on oil gland composition of "Marsh" white grapefruit harvested in March 18 and April 16 from three groves...

  3. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  4. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  5. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax. PMID:24871199

  6. Polyaniline/poly acid acrylic thin film composites: a new gamma radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lima Pacheco, Ana P.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a new and straightforward route to prepare polyaniline/poly acid acrylic (PAA) thin film composites in large areas and on almost any surface. This method was developed to improve the mechanical and adherence properties of polyaniline devices used as ionization radiation sensors. The route consists of the combination of the metal oxidant with polymer acid to form a highly homogeneous and viscous paste, which can be easily spread over any surface. In the second step, an aniline acid solution is brought in contact with the dried paste where polymerization occurs, yielding a high homogeneous and conducting polymer composite. The UV-visible absorption and infrared analysis confirm that a polyaniline/PAA complex is obtained. The four-point conductivity measurements show that the composite conductivity {rho} is the order of 5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Preliminary gamma radiation interaction with the composite shows that the doped composite exhibits a linear response that can be used in the development of real-time radiation sensors for the dose range from 0 to 5000 Gy.

  7. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  9. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Particulate-Bound Fatty Acids From the California Borderland Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Campbell, B. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the hydrogen-isotopic composition of fatty acids associated with particulate organic matter (POM) from depth transects in three California Borderland stations. Our goals were to determine (1) the natural variability of δD values in POM-associated fatty acids and (2) the magnitude of isotopic fractionations associated with fatty acid degradation in the marine environment. Some differences in molecular abundance were observed between completely ventilated and occasionally suboxic sites, but no corresponding shifts in δD values were measured. Values of δD for specific fatty acids were generally consistent between stations. Saturated fatty acids (C14, C16, and C18) yielded δD values ranging from -230‰ to -132‰, with δD values generally decreasing with chain length. We found no evidence of extreme D-enrichment of the C18 fatty acid as has been observed in studies of isolated macroalgae (Chikaraishi, et al, 2004). The unsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids showed a similar trend while the polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6 was somewhat enriched in D (δD values ranging from -186‰ to -68‰) relative to 20:5 (-208‰ to -93‰). Unsaturated fatty acids tended to have more positive δD values than their saturated counterparts, opposite the trend observed in sediments from the same location. The bacterial fatty acid C15 showed even greater deuterium enrichment with δD values ranging from - 145‰ to -88‰. This offset can likely be attributed to differences in biosynthetic fractionation between bacteria and eukaryotes, to differences in hydrogen isotopic composition of the food sources of these organisms, or some combination of these two factors. Within the surface waters, fatty acids become enriched with depth by an average of 25‰. The C18:0 acid is a significant exception, becoming depleted by 48‰ over that same interval. Below 100 meters depth, all fatty acids tend to become slightly depleted in D with increasing depth. The difference in δD values

  10. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses-Isotopic Composition Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The expanded use of burnup credit in the United States (U.S.) for storage and transport casks, particularly in the acceptance of credit for fission products, has been constrained by the availability of experimental fission product data to support code validation. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has noted that the rationale for restricting the Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit for storage and transportation casks (ISG-8) to actinide-only is based largely on the lack of clear, definitive experiments that can be used to estimate the bias and uncertainty for computational analyses associated with using burnup credit. To address the issues of burnup credit criticality validation, the NRC initiated a project with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to (1) develop and establish a technically sound validation approach for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety evaluations based on best-available data and methods and (2) apply the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the isotopic composition (depletion) validation approach and resulting observations and recommendations. Validation of the criticality calculations is addressed in a companion paper at this conference. For isotopic composition validation, the approach is to determine burnup-dependent bias and uncertainty in the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) due to bias and uncertainty in isotopic predictions, via comparisons of isotopic composition predictions (calculated) and measured isotopic compositions from destructive radiochemical assay utilizing as much assay data as is available, and a best-estimate Monte Carlo based method. This paper (1) provides a detailed description of the burnup credit isotopic validation approach and its technical bases, (2) describes the application of the approach for

  11. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  12. Lactic acid fermentation by cells immobilised on various porous cellulosic materials and their alginate/poly-lactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mrinal Nishant; Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Masson, Jean Bernard; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Porous delignified cellulose (or tubular cellulose, abbr. TC) from Indian Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta) wood and Rice husk, and TC/Ca-alginate/polylactic acid composites, were used as Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilisation carriers leading to improvements in lactic acid fermentation of cheese whey and synthetic lactose media, compared to free cells. Specifically, shorter fermentation rates, higher lactic acid yields (g/g sugar utilised) and productivities (g/Ld), and higher amounts of volatile by-products were achieved, while no significant differences were observed on the performance of the different immobilised biocatalysts. The proposed biocatalysts are of food grade purity, cheap and easy to prepare, and they are attractive for bioprocess development based on immobilised cells. Such composite biocatalysts may be used for the co-immobilisation of different microorganisms or enzymes (in separate layers of the biocatalyst), to efficiently conduct different types of fermentations in the same bioreactor, avoiding inhibition problems of chemical or biological (competition) nature. PMID:24690466

  13. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). PMID:22980905

  14. Effect of organic acids in dental biofilm on microhardness of a silorane-based composite

    PubMed Central

    Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Talebi, Mohammad; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the microhardness of a silorane-based composite compared to two methacrylate-based composite resins. Materials and Methods Thirty disc-shaped specimens each were fabricated of Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT. After measuring of Vickers microhardness, they were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) and immersed in lactic acid, acetic acid or distilled water. Microhardness was measured after 48 hr and 7 day of immersion. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). The surfaces of two additional specimens were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after immersion. Results All groups showed a reduction in microhardness after 7 day of immersion (p < 0.001). At baseline and 7 day, the microhardness of Z250 was the greatest, followed by Z350 and P90 (p < 0.001). At 48 hr, the microhardness values of Z250 and Z350 were greater than P90 (p < 0.001 for both), but those of Z250 and Z350 were not significantly different (p = 0.095). Also, the effect of storage media on microhardness was not significant at baseline, but significant at 48 hr and after 7 day (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Lactic acid had the greatest effect. Conclusions The microhardness of composites decreased after 7 day of immersion. The microhardness of P90 was lower than that of other composites. Lactic acid caused a greater reduction in microhardness compared to other solutions. PMID:26295021

  15. Experimental evaluation of fatty acid profiles as a technique to determine dietary composition in benthic elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Crystal L; Mitchell, James G; Seuront, Laurent; Stone, David A J; Huveneers, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that complements traditional stomach content analyses. Controlled feeding experiments were used to determine the extent to which the FA composition of diet is reflected in the liver and muscle tissue of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Over 10 wk, two groups of sharks were fed prawns or squid, which have distinct FA profiles. The percentage of total FA was significantly different for shark liver and muscle tissue when comparing controls with prawn- and squid-fed sharks. Compared with experimentally fed sharks, control shark muscle and liver had higher levels of 18:1n-9 and 20:2n-9. When comparing prawn- and squid-fed sharks, only liver tissue showed a significant difference in FA profiles. The livers of prawn-fed sharks were comparatively higher in 18:1n-7, 22:5n-3, 20:0, and 18:1n-9, while the squid-fed sharks had higher levels of 16:0 and 22:6n-3. These FAs in shark liver tissue were all reflective of higher amounts in their respective dietary items, demonstrating the conservative transfer of FA from diet to liver tissue. This study shows that liver and muscle FA profiles can be used as indicators of dietary change through the comparison of controls and fed sharks. The timescale of this study may not have been sufficient for capturing the integration of FA into muscle tissue because only liver FA profiles were useful to distinguish between sharks fed different diets. These findings have important implications for sampling design where FA profiles are used to infer dietary preferences. PMID:23434786

  16. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  17. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  18. Cellular fatty acid composition of cyanobacteria assigned to subsection II, order Pleurocapsales.

    PubMed

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M; Butterfield, J E

    2000-05-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of five of the six genera of unicellular cyanobacteria in subsection II, Pleurocapsales (Dermocarpa, Xenococcus, Dermocarpella, Myxosarcina and the Pleurocapsa assemblage) contained high proportions of saturated straight-chain fatty acids (26-41% of the total) and unsaturated straight chains (40-67%). Isomers of 16:1 were the main monounsaturated acid component (11-59%). Polyunsaturated acids were present at trace levels (0-1% or less) in Xenococcus and Myxosarcina, at concentrations of less than 7% in Dermocarpa, Dermocarpella, Pleurocapsa and CCMP 1489, and at high concentrations (35% or more) in Chroococcidiopsis. Chroococcidiopsis was also different in terms of the percentage of 16:1 isomers (10-12%) compared to other genera (30-59%), and in terms of total 16-carbon and 18-carbon fatty acids. In general, the composition and heterogeneity of fatty acids in the order Pleurocapsales was similar to that reported for the unicellular cyanobacteria of subsection I, order Chroococcales. PMID:10843042

  19. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  20. Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance lanthanide probe analyses of short-range conformational interrelations controlling ribonucleic acid structures.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Inagaki, F; Miyazawa, T

    1981-05-12

    An advanced method was developed for lanthanide-probe analyses of the conformations of flexible biomolecules such as nucleotides. The new method is to determine structure parameters (such as internal-rotation angles) and population parameters for local conformational equilibria of flexible sites, together with standard deviations of these parameters. As the prominent advantage of this method, the interrelations among local conformations of flexible sites may be quantitatively elucidated from the experimental data of lanthanide-induced shifts and relaxations and vicinal coupling constants. As a structural unit of ribonucleic acids, the molecular conformations and conformational equilibria of uridine 3'-monophosphate in aqueous solution were analyzed. The stable local conformers about the C3'-O3' bond are the G+ (phi' = 281 +/- 11 degrees) and G- (phi' = 211 +/- 8 degrees) forms. The internal rotation about the C3'-O3' bond and the ribose-ring puckering are interrelated; 97 +/- 5% of the C3'-endo ribose ring is associated with the G- form while 70 +/- 22% o the C2'-endo ribose ring is associated with the G+ form. An interdependency also exists between the internal rotation about the C4'-C5' bond and the ribose-ring puckering. These short-range conformational interrelations are probably important in controlling the dynamic aspects of ribonucleic acid structures. PMID:6166319

  1. Amino acid composition and crude protein values of some Cyanobacteria from Çanakkale (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgül, Rıza; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Akgül, Füsun; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) form an important component of integrated nutrient managements in agriculture and are exploited in commercial biotechnological ventures. In this study, Rivularia bullata (Poir) Berkeley ex Bornet & Flahault, Nostocs pongiaeforme C. Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault were researched for their amino acid composition and crude protein values. R. bullata was collected from coastal zones of the Gulf of Saros and N. spongiaeforme from the Ayazma Stream. The levels of amino acids were measured in algae samples using EZ: fast kits (EZ: fast GC/FID Protein Hydrolysate Amino Acid Kit) by gas chromatography. The crude proteins of samples were determined by the Kjeldahl method and were calculated using a nitrogen conversion factor of 6.25. Thirty-two amino acids were investigated, for N. spongiaeforme eight free essential amino acids (EAA), eight free non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and eleven other amino acids (OAA); for R. bullata eight EAA, eight NEAA and eight OAA were detected. Aspartic acid is the major constituent for both species. The total protein percents were determined for N. spongiaeforme as % 19.83 and for R. bullata as % 6.15. When considering the increasing world population and reducing natural products; Cyanobacteria will benew feed sources for all living. PMID:26408895

  2. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs. PMID:27166662

  3. Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Hedges, John I.

    2000-08-01

    Compositions and fluxes of amino acids and major chloropigments were measured in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean as part of the US JGOFS EqPac program. Fluxes decreased by several orders of magnitude, from 400 to 0.03 mg amino acid m -2 d -1 and from 9 mg to 0.0004 μg chloropigment m -2 d -1, between production in the surface waters and accumulation at the sea floor. Most rapid losses were in surface waters and at the sediment interface. Losses from the mid-water column were as great as those in surface waters or at the sediment interface, but occurred over a much greater depth range. Export flux estimates based on floating sediment traps were higher near the equator and decreased poleward, similar to primary production. Little meridional difference was apparent in composition of either amino acids or pigments in exported material over the 24° of latitude sampled in spite of the large (factor of 5-6) difference in fluxes. However, pigment composition changed dramatically with depth in the water column, and considerable diagenesis occurred before particles reached the sediment. Pigment compositions suggest that suspended particles were more degraded in the northern than in the southern hemisphere, possibly due to differences in food chain structure. Compositional changes in amino acids occurred in the water column, but were most noticeable at the sediment-seawater interface. Increases in the relative proportions of aspartic acid and glycine with depth were more consistent with preferential preservation within the particulate matrix than with any inherent stability of these compounds to heterotrophic consumption. The contribution of amino acids and pigments to total organic carbon clearly shows that selective degradation of organic matter occurs with depth; this is not evident from total organic carbon data alone. Amino acids contributed about a quarter of the total organic carbon (OC) in surface waters and 16% of the OC in sediment; pigments decreased from 1

  4. Electrochromism of electrochemically codeposited composites of phosphomolybdic acid and tungsten trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, B.H.; Lee, J.Y.

    1996-09-01

    The electrochromism of phosphomolybdic acid (PM) in solution and in a series of solid WO{sub 3}-PM composites is investigated. PM in solution changes color from light yellow to dark blue upon reduction whereas the composites show a change from light yellow to bluish brown under identical conditions. PM could not be deposited as a thin film by itself, and electrochemical codeposition was used to incorporate it into the WO{sub 3} matrix. The basic electrochromatic properties of WO{sub 3} are changed upon the incorporation of PM even in small quantities. The composites have a more intense color, a different cold spectrum, and a slower electrochromic response speed than that of WO{sub 3}. The composites, like WO{sub 3}, are also degraded by slow and continuous potential cycling.

  5. Fabrication of a novel bone ash-reinforced gelatin/alginate/hyaluronic acid composite film for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Neslihan

    2016-10-20

    In this study, a novel pH-sensitive composite film with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties was prepared by the incorporation of bone ash at varying concentrations from 0 to 10v.% into gelatin/sodium alginate/hyaluronic acid (Gel/SA/HyA) polymeric structure for colon-specific drug delivery system. Films were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and XRD analyses. Thermal and mechanical performances of films were determined by DSC, TGA and universal mechanical tester, respectively. Results proved that thermal stability and mechanical properties of bone ash-reinforced composite films improved significantly with respect to that of neat Gel/SA/HyA film. Cytotoxicity assay for composite films was carried out by using L929 cells. Water uptake capacity of films was determined by swelling test. Herein, release experiments of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) were performed in two different solutions (pH 2.1 and 7.4). The results assured that Gel/SA/HyA film containing BA could be considered as a potential biomaterial for controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:27474650

  6. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis in the Martian Regolith with a Microfabricated in situ Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelley, A. M.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in microfabricated "lab-on-a-chip" technologies have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of chemical and biochemical analyzers. The portability and sensitivity of these devices makes them ideal instruments for in situ chemical analysis on other planets. We have focused our initial studies on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more chemically resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker [1]. Previously, we developed a prototype electrophoresis chip, detection system and analysis method where the amino acids were labeled with fluorescein using FITC and then electrophoretically analyzed using g-cyclodextrin as the chiral resolution agent [2]. Extracts of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed, and the D/L ratios determined by microchip CE closely matched those from HPLC and GCMS and exhibited greater precision. Our microchip analyzer has now been further improved by establishing the capability of performing amino acid composition and chirality analyses using fluorescamine rather than FITC [3]. Fluorescamine is advantageous because it reacts more rapidly than FITC, and because excess reagent is hydrolyzed to a non-fluorescent product. Furthermore, the use of fluorescamine facilitates interfacing with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) [4]. Fluorescamine-amino acids are separated using similar conditions as the FITC-aa, resulting in similar separation times and identical elution orders. Fluorescamine-aa are chirally resolved in the presence of hydroxy-propyl-b-cyclodextrin, and typical limits of detection are ˜ 50 nM. This work establishes the feasibility of combining fluorescamine labeling of amino acids with microfabricated CE devices to develop low-volume, high-sensitivity apparatus for extraterrestrial exploration. The stage is now set for the development of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system for amino acid extraction and chiral analysis that will

  7. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947

  8. The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino acids. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino acid balance close to that required for egg protein formation laid significantly larger clutches (18% greater) than control birds, whereas birds receiving an otherwise identical supplementary diet but without a favourable amino acid balance did not increase egg production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary amino acid composition may limit egg production in free-living birds.

  9. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  10. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Owen J; Bramble, Judith E; Heisler, I Lorraine; Phillips, Christopher A; Cox, David L

    2005-10-01

    Most snakes and lizards produce eggs with flexible shells that interact with the environment to maintain water balance. Geckos produce rigid eggshells that are independent of an external source of water and can be oviposited in more open, dryer locations. In this study, we analyzed and compared the amino acid composition of 24 lizard species, six snake species, and four outgroups (including avian and reptilian elastin and chicken eggshell). Rigid Gecko eggshells had significantly lower levels of seven of the 17 amino acids evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that proline was the most important amino acid in distinguishing between these two groups of eggshells, occurring at significantly higher levels in flexible eggshells. High levels of proline have also been observed in the eggshells of other species. Proline and other amino acids are associated with the alleviation of water and salt stress in plants. PMID:16195850

  11. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  12. Protein location prediction using atomic composition and global features of the amino acid sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Cherian, Betsy Sheena; Nair, Achuthsankar S.

    2010-01-22

    Subcellular location of protein is constructive information in determining its function, screening for drug candidates, vaccine design, annotation of gene products and in selecting relevant proteins for further studies. Computational prediction of subcellular localization deals with predicting the location of a protein from its amino acid sequence. For a computational localization prediction method to be more accurate, it should exploit all possible relevant biological features that contribute to the subcellular localization. In this work, we extracted the biological features from the full length protein sequence to incorporate more biological information. A new biological feature, distribution of atomic composition is effectively used with, multiple physiochemical properties, amino acid composition, three part amino acid composition, and sequence similarity for predicting the subcellular location of the protein. Support Vector Machines are designed for four modules and prediction is made by a weighted voting system. Our system makes prediction with an accuracy of 100, 82.47, 88.81 for self-consistency test, jackknife test and independent data test respectively. Our results provide evidence that the prediction based on the biological features derived from the full length amino acid sequence gives better accuracy than those derived from N-terminal alone. Considering the features as a distribution within the entire sequence will bring out underlying property distribution to a greater detail to enhance the prediction accuracy.

  13. Aerosols Collected at a Tropical Marine Environment: Size-Resolved Chemical Composition Using IC, TOC, and Thermal-Optical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-García, F.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Repollet-Pedrosa, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Ramírez-Santa Cruz, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-05-01

    Size-resolved chemical characterization was performed on aerosol samples collected at two different marine sites in the tropics: Dian Point (DP), Antigua and Cape San Juan (CSJ), Puerto Rico. A 13-stage Dekati low- pressure impactor (Dp 0.1 to 10 μm), a 10-stage micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (Dp 0.054 to 18 μm), and stacked-filter units (Dp < 1.7 μm) were used to collect the samples. Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, acetate, formate, malonate, and oxalate were determined using ion chromatography (IC). Thermal-optical analysis (TOA) was used to determine the concentrations of aerosol total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC). Five-day back trajectories calculated using NOAA's HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model identified air masses coming from the North Atlantic (maritime air), Northwest Africa (desert dust), and North America (anthropogenic pollution). Size-resolved chemical characterization of aerosol samples using IC and TOA confirmed that aerosols become aged as they are transported to the Caribbean and their composition depends on the air mass origin. Gravimetric analyses showed that average fine mass concentrations for CSJ station were higher than for DP station (CSJ: 1.9 μg m-3; DP: 1.2 μg m-3). The aerosol chemical composition changed with air masses of different origin and with different pollution levels. In both locations the predominant water-soluble ions in the fine aerosol fraction were Cl-, Na+, and SO42-. Sulphate was observed in higher concentrations during the polluted case and particulate organic matter concentrations were higher for the maritime case. During desert dust events an increase in Ca2+ and Mg2+ of 4 and 2 times, respectively, was observed mainly in the coarse mode. Results for the size-resolved chemical composition and complete aerosol chemical apportionment including the residual mass will be presented.

  14. Effect of the amino acid composition of cyclic peptides on their self-assembly in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Perrier, Sébastien; Jolliffe, Katrina A

    2015-02-28

    The effect of amino acid composition on the formation of transmembrane channels in lipid bilayers upon self-assembly of alt-(L,D)-α-cyclic octapeptides has been investigated. Cyclic peptides comprising D-leucine, alternating with different combinations of L-azidolysine, L-lysine(Alloc), L-lysine and L-tryptophan were synthesized and the size of pores formed via self-assembly of these molecules in lipid bilayers was elucidated using large unilamellar vesicle fluorescence assays and dynamic light scattering. Pore formation was examined in large unilamellar vesicles made up of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine or Escherichia coli total lipid extract. From these analyses, we have established that cyclic peptides with charged side chains form large pores while those with neutral side chains form unimeric pores. Furthermore, the cyclic peptides that consist of non-symmetric amino acid configurations possess a higher membrane activity than the cyclic peptides with a symmetric amino acid configuration. In addition, we have found that peptide amphiphilicity plays a vital role in selective partitioning between bilayers that consist of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and those comprised of E. coli total lipid extract. These results suggest that selective transbilayer channel formation via self-assembly may be a viable alternative for many applications that currently use more expensive, multistep synthesis methods. PMID:25566760

  15. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed. PMID:25532360

  16. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  17. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  18. Single-crystalline ceramic whisker-reinforced carboxylic acid-resin composites with fluoride release.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Eichmiller, F C; Antonucci, J M; Flaim, G M

    2000-01-01

    Currently available glass-ionomer, resin-modified glass-ionomer, and compomer materials have relatively low strength and toughness and, therefore, are inadequate for use in large stress-bearing posterior restorations. In the present study, ceramic single-crystalline whiskers were mixed with fluorosilicate glass particles and used as fillers to reinforce experimental carboxylic acid-resin composites. The carboxylic acid was a monofunctional methacryloxyethyl phthalate (MEP). Five mass fractions of whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass), and corresponding resin (resin + MEP), were evaluated. Four control materials were also tested for comparison: a glass ionomer, a resin-modified glass ionomer, a compomer, and a hybrid composite resin. Flexural specimens were fabricated to measure the flexural strength, elastic modulus, and work-of-fracture (an indication of toughness). Fluoride release was measured by using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The properties of whisker composites depended on the whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass) mass fraction. At a mass fraction of 0.8, the whisker composite had a flexural strength in MPa (mean +/- sd; n = 6) of 150 +/- 16, significantly higher than that of a glass ionomer (15 +/- 7) or a compomer control (89 +/- 18) (Tukey's multiple comparison test; family confidence coefficient = 0.95). Depending on the ratio of whisker:fluorosilicate glass, the whisker composites had a cumulative fluoride release up to 60% of that of a traditional glass ionomer. To conclude, combining ceramic whiskers and fluorosilicate glass in a carboxylic acid-resin matrix can result in fluoride-releasing composites with significantly improved mechanical properties. PMID:11203805

  19. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair. PMID:20683132

  20. Computational analyses of the length and compositional variations of the FNBP4 gene across 10 different species.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit; Bhattacharya, Simanti; Bhattacharjee, Sanchari; Bagchi, Angshuman; Dasgupta, Rakhi

    2016-01-10

    Formin binding protein 4 (FNBP4) interacts with formins and other proteins via its WW domains. Previously, we reported the structural and phylogenetic clustering of FNBP4 across a wide range of organisms from different taxonomic groups along with characterizing its plant variant (Arabidopsis thaliana F4JC80). Recently, the FNBP4 gene is reported to be associated with a congenital disorder Microphthalmia with Limb Anomalies. Except these reports, FNBP4 is mostly uncharacterized, especially the FNBP4 gene. In this context, we have attempted to characterize the FNBP4 gene in terms of its length and compositional variations across 10 different organisms from different taxonomic groups. Our findings highlight that the length of the FNBP4 gene varies greatly among different species. Introns, UTRs and the entire gene were AT rich while CDS and mRNAs were GC rich. The RSCU values were also different for the different organisms indicating a possible impact on translational efficiency of this protein. Comparative analyses highlight gene element and base proportions related characteristics specific to highly expression regulated genes like FNBP4. PMID:26456197

  1. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  2. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  3. Dietary fat in relation to erythrocyte fatty acid composition in men.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, Markus; Agren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition is used in the validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the evaluation of dietary fat quality. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate associations of diet with EMFA. Altogether, 1,033 randomly selected Finnish men, aged from 47 to 75 years filled in a FFQ and their EMFA composition was analyzed. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake correlated positively with erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (r(s) = 0.415 and r(s) = 0.340, respectively, P < 0.001) and inversely with all n-6 PUFA analyzed (P < 0.001). PUFA intake from spreads and cooking fats correlated positively with alpha-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LNA) and nervonic acids (r(s) = 0.229, r(s) = 0.160 and r(s) = 0.143, respectively, P < 0.001). Milk fat intake was associated with myristic and behenic acids (r(s) = 0.186 and r(s) = 0.132, respectively P < 0.001). Butter users had lower ALA and LNA proportions (mol%) than non-users (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05, P < 0.001 and 7.77 ± 1.02 vs. 8.12 ± 1.11, P = 0.001). Higher PUFA intake from meat was related to decreased long-chain n-3 (P < 0.001) and increased n-6 PUFA (P < 0.001) proportions. In conclusion, EMFA composition reflects particularly well the intakes of n-3 PUFA, whereas other associations remained lower. Yet, all main sources of dietary fat were related with EMFA. The dietary effect on the nervonic acid proportion was confirmed. PMID:23975575

  4. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  5. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle. PMID:7070040

  6. Community Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of Chemoautotrophic Iron-Oxidizing "Leptospirillum rubarum" (Group II) and "Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum" (Group III) Bacteria in Acid Mine Drainage Biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Goltsman, Daniela; Denef, Vincent; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Lefsrud, Mark G; Mueller, Ryan; Dick, Gregory J.; Sun, Christine; Wheeler, Korin; Zelma, Adam; Baker, Brett J.; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other biofilms identified 64.6% and 44.9% of the predicted proteins of Leptospirillum groups II and III, respectively, and 20% of the predicted plasmid proteins. The bacteria share 92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and >60% of their genes, including integrated plasmid-like regions. The extrachromosomal plasmid carries conjugation genes with detectable sequence similarity to genes in the integrated conjugative plasmid, but only those on the extrachromosomal element were identified by proteomics. Both bacterial groups have genes for community-essential functions, including carbon fixation and biosynthesis of vitamins, fatty acids, and biopolymers (including cellulose); proteomic analyses reveal these activities. Both Leptospirillum types have multiple pathways for osmotic protection. Although both are motile, signal transduction and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins are more abundant in Leptospirillum group III, consistent with its distribution in gradients within biofilms. Interestingly, Leptospirillum group II uses a methyl-dependent and Leptospirillum group III a methyl-independent response pathway. Although only Leptospirillum group III can fix nitrogen, these proteins were not identified by proteomics. The abundances of core proteins are similar in all communities, but the abundance levels of unique and shared proteins of unknown function vary. Some proteins unique to one organism were highly expressed and may be key to the functional and ecological differentiation of Leptospirillum groups II and III.

  7. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  8. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  9. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  10. Tartaric Acid-Assisted Self-Assembly of Hybrid Block Copolymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Lin, Ying; Watkins, James

    2014-03-01

    Enantiopure tartaric acid was used as an additive to increase the segregation strength of poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) copolymers through strong, selective interactions with one of the polymer chain segments. Addition of tartaric acid to PEO-b-PtBA exhibiting cylindrical morphologies resulted in the formation of helical superstructures as observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was also found that this small acid additive can also enable phase-selective ultra-high loading of nanoparticles (NPs) into target domains of the block copolymer composites. The loading of tartaric acid can increase enthalpically favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the host domain and mitigate entropic penalties associated with NP incorporation into the target domain. A metal content of over 40 weight percent by mass of the resulting well ordered composites was achieved as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis in PEO-b-PtBA/tartaric acid/4-hydroxythiophenol functionalized Au NP hybrid system. Funding from Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CHM); Facility support from Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at UMass Amherst.

  11. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods. PMID:26576657

  12. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  13. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids. PMID:14733508

  14. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  15. Influence of Aerosol Acidity on the Chemical Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, A. W.; Schlling, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Edgerton, E. S.; Tanner, R. L.; Shaw, S. L.; Zheng, M.; Knipping, E. M.; Seinfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI- TOFMS). A number of first- , second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde) are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS).

  16. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, A. W. H.; Schilling, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E. O.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Edgerton, E. S.; Tanner, R. L.; Shaw, S. L.; Zheng, M.; Knipping, E. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS). A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde) are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS).

  17. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, A. W. H.; Schilling, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E. O.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Edgerton, E. S.; Tanner, R. L.; Shaw, S. L.; Zheng, M.; Knipping, E. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS). A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increase of acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde) are identified as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS).

  18. Ultrastructural aspects and amino acid composition of the purified inner and outer membranes of human liver mitochondria as compared to rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Poruţiu, D; Hodârnău, A; Ferdinand, W

    1992-05-01

    1. The mitochondria isolated from human or rat liver were fractionated into submitochondrial particles and purified inner and outer membrane. According to different marker enzymes the inner membranes were enriched about 5-6-fold and the outer membranes about 12-14-fold. The electron microscopical appearance of the membranes was that expected on the basis of enzymic characterization. 2. A comparison of the average amino acid composition of the membrane proteins from the two types of mitochondria has been made. In the case of submitochondrial particles there were statistically significant differences between the human and rat hydrolysates for only five amino acids. Analysing the purified mitochondrial membranes there were significant differences between the two species for nine amino acids in the case of outer membranes and for 12 amino acids in the case of inner membranes. 3. With one exception all amino acids that were increased or decreased in the outer membrane exhibited a similar trend in the inner membrane of human compared with rat liver mitochondria. It appears that liver mitochondrial membranes have a species-dependent pattern of amino acid composition of their proteins. PMID:1526116

  19. The protective effect of vitamin E against changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Bayar, Ahmet Serhat; Kizmaz, Veysi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of deltamethrin on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses (phosphatidylchlonine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositole (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) and the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin were determined by gas chromatography. The changes in the fatty acid profile were analysed after 14 d of exposure. Treatments included Group I (fed with basal diet only), Group II (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet), Group III (fed with basal diet and exposed to deltamethrin) and Group IV (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet and exposed to deltamethrin). The effects of deltamethrin on PI, PE and PS were valid for the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The effect on PC was detected in total SFAs and total PUFAs. The vitamin E-supplemented diet did not show complete protective effect on fatty acid composition of the fish exposed to deltamethrin. However, the protective effect was observed in total SFAs, total MUFAs and total PUFAs in PC. In PI, protective effect was only recorded on total PUFAs. There was no protective effect in PS and PE. The results of the present study demonstrated that deltametrin exposure had harmful effects on cell membrane and treatment with vitamin E could only partially protect fish gills. PMID:26766025

  20. First-order kinetics analysis of monomer composition dependent polyhydroxyalkanoic acid degradation in Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mun Hwan; Rho, Jong Kook; Lee, Ho-Joo; Song, Jae Jun; Yoon, Sung Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2003-01-01

    The intracellular degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) in pseudomonads was investigated by first-order kinetics analysis using the initial rate method. One type of PHA was accumulated in five Pseudomonas spp., P. oleovorans, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. citronellolis, and P. putida, by growing them on octanoic acid. The monomer compositions of the five PHA were not significantly different from one another: 85-90 mol % 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3HO), 7-12 mol % 3-hydorxycaproic acid (3HC), and 3-6 mol % 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3HD). The first-order degradation rate constants (k(1)) for the octanoate-derived PHA (designated P(3HO)) in the five species were in a similar range between 0.060 and 0.088 h(-1). This may indicate the similar specificities of the five intracellular depolymerases. In addition, the similar k(1) among the different species may correlate with the high degree of amino acid sequence identities (over 85%) among the intracellular PHA depolymerase phaZ genes. Six other chemically different types of PHA were accumulated in P. putida from n-nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, 5-phenyvaleric acid, or 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid as a single or a mixed carbon source. The calculated k(1) values were characteristic to each PHA, reflecting their chemical structures. In comparison with P(3HO), an increase in the levels of the two minor monomers 3HC and 3HD as in P(21 mol % 3HC-co-56 mol % 3HO-co-23 mol % 3HD) significantly slowed the rate of intracellular degradation. From the comparison of k(1) values, it is suggested that the P. putida intracellular depolymerase is most active against P(3HO). PMID:12625741

  1. [Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae)].

    PubMed

    D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Reyes, Dilia; Salazar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33-31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 omega-11, C22:1 omega-9, C18:3 omega-3, C20:5 omega-3 and C22:6 omega-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization. PMID:20527465

  2. [Amino acid composition evaluation of Pleurotus spp. cultivated in banana leaves].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L

    1998-12-01

    The protein quality of edible mushrooms besides being species/strain specific, could also vary with the growth substrate. The aim of this work was to determine the amino acid composition of the protein from edible mushrooms--Pleurotus sp. "Florida" (L1), P. ostreatoroseus (L2) and P. sajor-caju (L3), cultivated on banana leaves (BL) single and, mixed with sugar cane bagasse (BLSCB). Total amino acids, cystine and tryptophan were evaluated; the chemical score index and PDCAAS--"protein digestibility-correct amino acid scoring" were calculated. From both substrates, the studied species contain all essential amino acids; in decreasing order, the amino acids in great amounts were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. The L1 chemical score was 90.4, with limitation in sulfur and aromatic amino acids when from BL substrate; and, from BLSC substrate the chemical score was 88.7 with limitation in aromatics only. The L2 and L3 was 100, 0, independent of cultivation substrate. The calculated PDCAAS value, considering 90% of recommended digestibility, varied between 80.0-96%. The L1 proteins were limiting in sulfur and aromatic amino acids and had the lowest value of PDCAAS (approximately 80.0) in both substrates; the L3 proteins were limiting in aromatic, sulfur and tryptophan, dependent of cultivation substrate; the L2 proteins had the greatest value of PDCAAS (approximately 96%) and were limiting in aromatic and/or sulfur amino acids, dependent of cultivation substrate. Considering the conditions of this study, the protein of the studied species is incomplete, although of high biological value, comparable to meet. PMID:10347700

  3. Poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites: Preparation and viscoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, L. D.; Fakirov, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) from petrochemical-derived polymers have been investigated for several years and the technique can result in significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared with the neat matrix material of the respective composite. The current work applies the technique to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers for potential applications in bioabsorbable medical devices. MFCs were prepared from melt blended poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) via cold drawing then compression molding of extruded yarn. These MFCs were shown to have higher Young's moduli than that of neat PLLA but for load-bearing applications the creep characteristics are of interest. The MFC sheets resulting from compression molding were subjected to tensile relaxation tests at 37°C in the fiber orientation direction. Specimens were also tested via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Neat PLLA specimens were subjected to the same tests for comparison. Results indicate that at 37°C PLLA/PGA MFCs exhibit lower creep resistance than that of neat PLLA due to the more rapid relaxation of stress observed. DMTA results elucidate the loss modulus changes in PLLA/PGA MFCs which occur as the material approaches the glass transition temperature of PGA (˜45°C).

  4. Predicting lipase types by improved Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ya; Li, Hong-Chun; Gao, Jia-Qiang; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2008-01-01

    By proposing a improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition approach to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences. To avoid redundancy and bias, demonstrations were performed on a dataset where none of the proteins has > or =25% sequence identity to any other. The overall success rate thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test was over 90%, indicating that the improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches. PMID:19075826

  5. Melamine/Stearic Acid Composite Nanowires and Vesicles with an Intercalated Nanostructure Prepared through NCCM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Juan; Chen, Dao-yong

    2012-12-01

    A solvent-non-solvent method invented in our laboratory for preparing non-covalently connected micelles (NCCM) was used to intercalate melamine (MA) molecules into stearic acid (SA) bilayers to form the composite nanoparticles with an intercalated nanostructure in which a melamine bilayer is sandwiched between two stearic acid bilayers, NCCM method helps to sufficiently mix the two components in nanospace and meanwhile inhibits the strong tendency of self-crystallization of MA, leading to the intercalation. Although the nanoparticles have a regular inner structure, the primary MA/SA nanoparticles have an irregular morphology. Regular nanoparticles were obtained through annealing the suspension of the primary nanoparticles. Through annealing at different temperatures, the MA/SA composite nanowires and vesicles with an intercalated structure were prepared respectively. It is proposed that the morphological change results from the change in the intercalated structure.

  6. Preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite microspheres with patterned surface structures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huiyun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu; Gu, Zhongze

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide (AM) and methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer microgels were prepared by a reverse suspension polymerization technique. The microgels were used as templates for the preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [Ag-P(AM-co-MAA)] composite microspheres. The surface structures of the microspheres prepared in this way are characterized by zigzag-like structures. It was found that the composition of the microgels, the nature and dosage of surfactants, the quantity of the metal, and even the reduction methods employed have a significant effect upon the surface structures of the microspheres. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Ag formed during the process is in a crystal state of a face-centered cubic structure. PMID:24058232

  7. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences. PMID:26878105

  8. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  9. Comparison of the fatty-acid compositions of prey items and yolks of Australian insectivorous scincid lizards.

    PubMed

    Speake, Brian K; Herbert, Jacquie F; Thompson, Michael B

    2004-07-01

    The yolk fatty-acid profiles of a range of species of insectivorous scincid lizards generally conform to a common pattern, typified by high proportions of linoleic acid (13.5-18.5% of total fatty acids), substantial proportions of alpha-linolenic acid (2.4-8.2%), and significant amounts of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (1.6-3.3%), eicosapentaenoic (0.7-1.2%) and docosahexaenoic (0.7-1.6%) acids. We characterised the fatty-acid compositions of ten prey taxa that are eaten by female skinks during vitellogenesis. Linoleic acid is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in all prey, excepting Orthoptera where alpha-linolenic acid predominates. To varying extents, alpha-linolenic acid is present in all the prey items. Arachidonic acid forms over 1% of total fatty acids for six of the prey items. Four of the prey items contain eicosapentaenoic acid at over 1%. Most notably, docosahexaenoic acid is essentially absent from all the prey items. There is a general similarity between the fatty-acid profiles of prey and yolk, suggesting that the linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids required for egg formation can be supplied directly from the maternal diet. However, the docosahexaenoic acid of the egg lipids cannot derive from the diet and must, therefore, be formed by biosynthesis in the maternal liver, using dietary alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids as precursors. PMID:15085383

  10. [Psychotropic effect of phenibut salts and their compositions with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaia, A N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2011-01-01

    The spectra of psychotropic action of some phenibut salts (succunate, maleate, nicotinate) and a composition of phenibut with glutamic acid were studied. It is established, that the substances studied show psychotropic activity spectrum generally similar to that of phenibut, but different in expressiveness of some particular effects. Compound RSPU-149 exhibited the most pronounced psychotropic action: its anxiolytic effect was below, the antidepressant effect was comparable with, and the nootrope action exceeded that of phenibut. PMID:21476277

  11. [Effect of phenibut and its composition with nicotinic acid on hemostasis in rats with brain ischemia].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Litvinov, A A; Tarasov, A S

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that, in rats with global cerebral ischemia modeled by a complete irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery and forced hypotension, the hemostasis is characterized by a shift toward hypercoagulation. A single preventive introduction of phenibut and, to a greater degree, a composition of phenibut with nicotinic acid, in rats with acute cerebral ischemia reduced the extent of disturbances in the hemostasis system of experimental animals. PMID:22702103

  12. Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid and lubricating oil composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.

    1981-08-11

    An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil composition containing same is provided.

  13. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin Spatangus purpureus elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Barberá, C; Fernández-Jover, D; López Jiménez, J A; González Silvera, D; Hinz, H; Moranta, J

    2011-05-01

    Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments. In the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands S. purpureus occurs in soft red algal beds, and can reach high densities. The diet of S. purpureus is unknown and it is particularly difficult to analyze the stomach contents of this group; therefore, we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of the gonads and potential food resources in order to assess the trophic relationships of this species. The FA profiles of the gonads of S. purpureus agree well with the FA composition of the potential trophic resources (algae and sediment) and reveals changes between localities with different available resources. Three polyunsaturated FAs mainly contributes in the composition in the S. purpureus gonads: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), both abundant in the macroalgal material, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), which is characteristic of sediment samples. Trophic markers of bacterial input and carnivorous feeding were significantly more abundant in sea urchins caught on bottoms with less vegetation. The current study demonstrates that the FA content of S. purpureus gonads is a useful marker of diet, as differences in the profiles reflected the variations in detritus composition. The results of this study show that this species has omnivorous feeding behavior; however, viewed in conjunction with available abundance data the results suggest that phytodetritus found within algal beds is an important carbon source for this species. PMID:21334740

  14. Is Asteroid 433 Eros Compositionally Homogeneous? New Analyses of NEAR-Shoemaker X-Ray Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nittler, L. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    We present new analysis techniques for NEAR-Shomaker X-ray spectrometer data to infer the compositional heterogeneity of asteroid 433 Eros. Preliminary results indicate a largely chondritic, homogeneous composition. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

  16. Indications of human activity from amino acid and amino sugar analyses on Holocene sediments from lake Lonar, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Wiesner, M.; Prasad, S.; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Brauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The DFG funded HIMPAC (Himalaya: Modern and Past Climates) programme aims to reconstruct Holocene Indian Monsoon climate using a multi-proxy and multi-archive approach. First investigations made on sediments from a ca. 10 m long core covering the whole Holocene taken from the lake Lonar in central India's state Maharashtra, Buldhana District, serve to identify changes in sedimentation, lake chemistry, local vegetation and regional to supra-regional climate patterns. Lake Lonar occupies the floor of an impact crater that formed on the ~ 65 Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. It covers an area of ca. 1 km2 and is situated in India's core monsoon area. The modern lake has a maximum depth of about 5 m, is highly alkaline, and hyposaline, grouped in the Na-Cl-CO3 subtype of saline lakes. No out-flowing stream is present and only three small streams feed the lake, resulting in a lake level highly sensitive to precipitation and evaporation. The lake is eutrophic and stratified throughout most of the year with sub- to anoxic waters below 2 m depth. In this study the core sediments were analysed for their total amino acid (AA) and amino sugar (AS) content, the amino acid bound C and N percentage of organic C and total N in the sediment and the distribution of individual amino acids. The results roughly show three zones within the core separated by distinct changes in their AA content and distribution. (i) The bottom part of the core from ca. 12000 cal a BP to 11400 cal a BP with very low AA and AS percentage indicating high lithogenic contribution, most probably related to dry conditions. (ii) From 11400 cal a BP to 1200 cal a BP the sediments show moderate AA and AS percentages and low values for the ratios of proteinogenic AAs to their non-proteinogenic degradation products (e.g. ASP/β-ALA; GLU/γ-ABA). (iii) The top part of the core (< 1200 cal a BP) is characterised by an intense increase in total AA and AS, AA-C/Corg and AA-N/Ntotas well as in the ratio of

  17. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Kirk J; Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Read, Harry; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components. PMID:25849080

  18. Unique Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hive Component-Based Communities as Detected by a Hybrid of Phospholipid Fatty-Acid and Fatty-Acid Methyl Ester Analyses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components. PMID:25849080

  19. Polypropylene Glycol-Silver Nanoparticle Composites: A Novel Anticorrosion Material for Aluminum in Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Moses M.; Umoren, Saviour A.; Israel, Aniekemeabasi U.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-11-01

    Admixture of polypropylene glycol and 1 mM AgNO3 together with natural honey as reducing and stabilizing agent was employed to prepare in situ polypropylene glycol/silver nanoparticle (PPG/AgNPs) composite. The prepared PPG/AgNPs composite was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and EDS, while the morphology of the Ag nanoparticles in the composite was obtained by TEM. TEM results revealed that the Ag nanoparticles were spherical in shape. The anticorrosion property of PPG/AgNPs composite was examined by electrochemical, weight loss, SEM, EDS, and water contact angle measurements. Results obtained show that PPG/AgNPs are effective in retarding the dissolution of Al in an acid-induced corrosive environment. Inhibition efficiency increased with the increasing composite concentration but decreased with the increasing temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that PPG/AgNPs functions as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The adsorption of the composite onto Al surface was found to follow El-Awady et al. adsorption isotherm model. SEM, EDS, and water contact angle results confirmed the adsorption of PPG/AgNPs films onto Al surface.

  20. Lactic acid based PEU/HA and PEU/BCP composites: Dynamic mechanical characterization of hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rich, Jaana; Tuominen, Jukka; Kylmä, Janne; Seppälä, Jukka; Nazhat, Showan N; Tanner, K Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid based poly(ester-urethane) (PEU-BDI) and its composites with 20 and 40 vol.% bioceramic filler were characterized prior to their use as biocompatible and bioabsorbable artificial bone materials. Morphological, dynamic mechanical properties, and degradation of these either hydroxyapatite or biphasic calcium phosphate containing composites were determined. Addition of particulate bioactive filler increased the composite stiffness and the glass transition temperature, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Materials were sterilized by gamma-irradiation, which reduced the average molecular weights by 30-40%. However, dynamic mechanical properties were not significantly affected by irradiation. Specimens were immersed in 0.85 w/v saline at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and changes in molecular weights, mass, water absorption, and dynamic mechanical properties were recorded. All the composite materials showed promising dynamic mechanical performance over the 5 weeks of hydrolysis. Average molecular weights of PEU-BDI and its composites did not change substantially during the test period. PEU-BDI retained its modulus values relatively well, and although the moduli of the composite materials were much higher, especially at high filler content, they exhibited faster loss of mechanical integrity. PMID:12115768

  1. Fabrication and biocompatibility of poly(l-lactic acid) and chitosan composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures.

    PubMed

    Lou, Tao; Wang, Xuejun; Yan, Xu; Miao, Yu; Long, Yun-Ze; Yin, Hai-Lei; Sun, Bin; Song, Guojun

    2016-07-01

    The scaffold microstructure is crucial to reconstruct tissue normal functions. In this article, poly(l-lactic acid) and chitosan fiber (PLLA/CTSF) composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures both in fiber and pore sizes were successfully fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The composite scaffolds consisted of a nanofibrous PLLA matrix with diameter of 50-500nm, and chitosan fibers with diameter of about 20μm were homogenously distributed in the PLLA matrix as a microsized reinforcer. The composite scaffolds also had high porosity (>94%) and hierarchical pore size, which were consisted of both micropores (50nm-10μm) and macropores (50-300μm). By tailoring the microstructure and chemical composition, the mechanical property, pH buffer and protein adsorption capacity of the composite scaffold were improved significantly compared with those of PLLA scaffold. Cell culture results also revealed that the PLLA/CTSF composite scaffolds supported MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and penetration. PMID:27127062

  2. Analyses of Failure Mechanisms in Woven Graphite/Polyimide Composites with Medium and High Modulus Graphite Fibers Subjected to In-Plane Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumosa, M.; Armentrout, D.; Rupnowski, P.; Kumosa, L.; Shin, E.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The application of the Iosipescu shear test for the room and high temperature failure analyses of the woven graphite/polyimide composites with the medium (T-650) and igh (M40J and M60J) modulus graphite fibers is discussed. The M40J/PMR-II-50 and M60J/PMR-II-50 composites were tested as supplied and after thermal conditioning. The effect of temperature and conditioning on the initiation of intralaminar damage and the shear strength of the composites was established.

  3. Effects of heating on composition, degree of darkness, and stacking nanostructure of soil humic acids.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Koyo; Okazaki, Masanori

    2016-01-15

    Wildfires and prescribed burning can affect both the quality and the quantity of organic matter in soils. In this study, we investigated qualitative and quantitative changes of soil humic substances in two different soils (an Entisol from a paddy field and an Inceptisol from a cedar forest) under several controlled heating conditions. Soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, or 300 °C for 1, 3, 5, or 12h. The humic acid and fulvic acid contents of the soil samples prior to and after heating were determined. The degree of darkness, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of humic acids extracted from the soils before and after heating were measured. The proportion of humic acids in total carbon decreased with increasing heating time at high temperature (300 °C), but increased with increasing heating time at ≤ 250 °C. The degree of darkness of the humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. During darkening, the H/C atomic ratios, the proportion of aromatic C, and the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios increased, whereas the proportions of alkyl C and O-alkyl C decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis verified that a stacking nanostructure developed by heating. Changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids from the heated soils depended on the type of soil. The major structural components of the humic acids from the heated Entisol were aromatic C and carboxylic C, whereas aliphatic C, aromatic C, and carboxylic C structural components were found in the humic acids from the heated Inceptisol. These results suggest that the heat-induced changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids depended on the source plant. PMID:26398447

  4. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  5. Automatic ¹H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by ¹H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  6. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  7. [Prediction of lipases types by different scale pseudo-amino acid composition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangya; Li, Hongchun; Gao, Jiaqiang; Fang, Baishan

    2008-11-01

    Lipases are widely used enzymes in biotechnology. Although they catalyze the same reaction, their sequences vary. Therefore, it is highly desired to develop a fast and reliable method to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences, or even just to confirm whether they are lipases or not. By proposing two scales based pseudo amino acid composition approaches to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to address the problems. The overall success rates thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test were shown as below: for predicting lipases and nonlipase, the success rates were 92.8%, 91.4% and 91.3%, respectively. For lipase types, the success rates were 92.3%, 90.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Among them, the Z scales based pseudo amino acid composition was the best, T scales was the second. They outperformed significantly than 6 other frequently used sequence feature extraction methods. The high success rates yielded for such a stringent dataset indicate predicting the types of lipases is feasible and the different scales pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches. PMID:19256347

  8. Morphology and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes from monkeys exposed to ozone for one year

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, E.C.; Goheen, S.C.; Rao, G.A.

    1983-12-01

    Monkeys (Macaca radiata) were exposed to a low dose (0.64 ppm) of ozone (O/sub 3/) for 8 hr each day over a 1-year period. Control monkeys were exposed to filtered air. The morphology of the red blood cell (RBC) from these monkeys was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Red cells from control monkeys had normal morphology with 69% having biconcave shape (discocytes). In O/sub 3/-exposed animals, blood contained only 35% discocytes. Knizocytes, stomatocytes, and spherocytes each have defined shape which are different from discocytes. The number of knizocytes and stomatocytes in O/sub 3/-exposed monkeys was that of controls. In addition, significant levels of spherocytes were observed while they were absent in the blood of controls. The fatty acid composition of RBC from control and O/sub 3/-exposed monkeys was the same. These were similar to that of human RBC. However, earlier reports of monkey RBC fatty acid composition differ from our results. These are discussed. The authors conclude that low-dose O/sub 3/ exposure changes the morphology, but not the fatty acid composition, of erthrocytes in vivo. 29 references.

  9. Effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid administration on bile lipid composition in humans.

    PubMed

    Di Padova, C; Di Padova, F; Buzzetti, M; Tritapepe, R

    1984-09-01

    The effects of the lipid-lowering agent 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMGA) on serum lipids and on biliary lipid composition were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in normolipidemic volunteers. After 4 weeks of HMGA administration (1 g three times a day orally) serum total cholesterol showed a significant decrease with regard to both pretreatment values and corresponding values of controls. The bile lipid molar percentage composition and the cholesterol saturation index showed no modification after HMGA and did not differ from the values obtained in the placebo group. These findings indicate that HMGA exerts no adverse effects on bile lipid composition in humans, differing from other hypolipidemic drugs currently in clinical use, which increase the bile cholesterol saturation index. PMID:6083597

  10. Voltammetric detection of phenol at platinum-polytyramine composite electrodes in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Spătaru, Nicolae

    2010-08-15

    A composite obtained by depositing platinum nanoparticles in a polytyramine (PTy) matrix, electrochemically formed on graphite substrate, was used as electrode material for the investigation of phenol oxidation by use of anodic voltammetry. The results show that, in acidic media, the measurement of the oxidation peak current can be used as the basis for a simple, rapid method for the determination of phenol within a concentration range of 0.3-10 mM. A much better resistance to fouling during phenol detection (compared both with smooth platinum and with Pt nanoparticles on bare graphite substrate) is the main advantage of the Pt-PTy composite. These results are also noteworthy because they provide a basis for additional experiments devoted to obtaining new composite materials with improved performances for phenol anodic oxidation. PMID:20462693

  11. A combined study based on experimental analyses and theoretical calculations on properties of poly (lactic acid) under annealing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loued, W.; Wéry, J.; Dorlando, A.; Alimi, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the significance of annealing, in two different atmospheres (air and vacuum), on the surface characteristics of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements correlated to atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations of the cast PLA films show that thermal treatment under air atmosphere is responsible for a significant increase of crystallinity with the increase of temperature. However, band gap energy of the title compound is slightly affected by annealing at different temperatures. As for the untreated PLA, the molecular geometry was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31g (d) basis set in ground state. From the optimized geometry, HOMO and LUMO energies and quantum chemical parameters were performed at B3LYP/6-31g (d). The theoretical results, applied to simulated optical spectra of the compound, were compared to the observed ones. On the basis of theoretical vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties were calculated at different temperatures, revealing the correlation between internal energy (U), enthalpy (H), entropy (S), Free energy (G) and temperatures.

  12. Angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor axis activation ameliorates the changes in fatty acid composition in diabetic rats with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Tajinder; Sharma, PL

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with altered fatty acids composition. This study was designed to investigate the role of angiotensin (Ang) (1-7)/Mas receptor in improving fatty acids composition in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Rats treated with STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. once) developed DN after 8 weeks. Fatty acid composition was estimated in renal cortical tissue by gas chromatography. Treatment with Ang (1-7), A-779, and Ang (1-7) plus A-779 was given from week 4 to week 8. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in levels of saturated fatty acids and a significant decrease in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Treatment with Ang (1-7) significantly attenuated these diabetes-induced changes. In diabetic rats, prior administration of A-779 significantly attenuated the increase in PUFAs produced by Ang (1-7); however, for saturated fatty acids, A-779 significantly blocked the decrease in palmitic acid only. Our study, for the first time, documented that endogenous Ang (1-7) modulates fatty acid composition in rats. Further, treatment with Ang (1-7) significantly attenuated diabetes-induced changes in fatty acids composition. This may be an additional mechanism implying the renoprotective role of Ang (1-7) in diabetic rats.

  13. ADANSONIAN ANALYSIS AND DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF SOME GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1964-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of some gram-negative bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 87:1412–1422. 1964.—The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base compositions and S values for a minimum of 134 coded properties were determined for representative cultures of the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Aerobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, and Flavobacterium. Those cultures having a high degree of similarity by the criterion of numerical taxonomy were found to have similar DNA base compositions. The relative affinities of clusters of cultures suggest taxonomic relations. Eleven species of Xanthomonas might be a single species, and V. metschnikovii was shown to be more closely related to enteric bacteria than to other vibrios which, in turn, were found to be like pseudomonads. Aeromonas was found to be intermediate in similarity to enterics and pseudomonads and divisible into at least two, but possibly three, species. F. aquatile was unlike any of the other organisms studied, and its DNA also differed greatly in composition from other representatives of the genus. PMID:14188722

  14. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition of formic and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Like; Huang, Daikuan; An, Ning; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bin

    2013-05-15

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment and in many biological processes. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of formic and acetic acids is important to understanding their biogeochemical cycles. However, it has been faced with poor accuracy and high detection limits due to their low carbon number, high hydrophilicity, and semi-volatility. Here we developed an analytical technique by needle trap and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The organic acids in aqueous solution were extracted using a NeedlEx needle through purge-and-trap and were analyzed by GC-IRMS for δ(13)C. The procedures incur no isotope fractionation. Defined as the point at which the mean δ(13)C is statistically the same as the given value and the analytical error starts rising, the method's detection limits are 200 and 100 mg/L for formic and acetic acids, respectively, with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5‰ in direct extraction and analysis. They were lowered to 1 mg/L with precision of 0.9‰ after samples were subjected to preconcentration. The method was successfully applied to natural samples as diverse as precipitation, vinegars, ant plasma, and vehicle exhaust, which vary considerably in concentration and matrix of the organic acids. It is applicable to the organic acids in not only aqueous solution but also gaseous phase. PMID:23395975

  15. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    PubMed

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  16. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. PMID:26213005

  17. Fatty acid composition modulates sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila to warnericin RK, an antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Labanowski, Jérome; Sahr, Tobias; Ferreira, Thierry; Lacombe, Christian; Buchrieser, Carmen; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Héchard, Yann

    2011-04-01

    Warnericin RK is an antimicrobial peptide, produced by a Staphyloccocus warneri strain, described to be specifically active against Legionella, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for Legionnaires' disease. Warnericin RK is an amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, which possesses a detergent-like mode of action. Two others peptides, δ-hemolysin I and II, produced by the same S. warneri strain, are highly similar to S. aureus δ-hemolysin and also display anti-Legionella activity. It has been recently reported that S. aureus δ-hemolysin activity on vesicles is likewise related to phospholipid acyl-chain structure, such as chain length and saturation. As staphylococcal δ-hemolysins were highly similar, we thus hypothesized that fatty acid composition of Legionella's membrane might influence the sensitivity of the bacteria to warnericin RK. Relationship between sensitivity to the peptide and fatty acid composition was then followed in various conditions. Cells in stationary phase, which were already described as less resistant than cells in exponential phase, displayed higher amounts of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and short chain fatty acids. An adapted strain, able to grow at a concentration 33 fold higher than minimal inhibitory concentration of the wild type (i.e. 1μM), was isolated after repeated transfers of L. pneumophila in the presence of increased concentrations of warnericin RK. The amount of BCFA was significantly higher in the adapted strain than in the wild type strain. Also, a transcriptomic analysis of the wild type and adapted strains showed that two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the adapted strain. These genes encode enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids respectively. Their repression was in agreement with the decrease of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid chain length in the adapted strain. Conclusively, our results indicate that the increase of BCFA and the decrease of fatty acid

  18. Does membrane fatty acid composition modulate mitochondrial functions and their thermal sensitivities?

    PubMed

    Lemieux, H; Blier, P U; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modifying fatty acid modification of heart mitochondrial membranes by dietary intervention on the functions and thermal sensitivity of electron transport system complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Four groups of rats were fed diets differing in their fat (coconut, olive or fish oil) and antioxidant (fish oil with or without probucol) contents. After 16 weeks of feeding, the coconut and olive oil groups had lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents and a lower unsaturation index compared to both fish oil groups. These differences in fatty acid composition were not related to any differences in the mitochondrial respiration rate induced at Complexes I, II or IV, or to differences in their thermal sensitivity. The coconut oil group showed a lower mitochondrial affinity for pyruvate at 5 degrees C (k(mapp)=6.4+/-1.8) compared to any other groups (k(mapp)=3.8+/-0.5; 4.7+/-0.8; 3.6+/-1.1, for olive, fish oil and fish oil and probucol groups, respectively). At least in rat heart, our results do not support a major impact of the fatty acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane on the function of mitochondrial enzymatic complexes or on their temperature sensitivity. PMID:17993286

  19. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Trisha L; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2010-04-28

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions obtained from HPLC separation of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) were studied. Thermolysin hydrolysis of pea protein isolate and ultrafiltration (3 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane) yielded a PPH that was separated into five fractions (F1-F5) on a C(18) reverse phase HPLC column. The fractions that eluted later from the column (F3-F5) contained higher contents hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids when compared to fractions that eluted early or the original PPH. Fractions F3-F5 also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities; however, hydrophobic character did not seem to contribute to reducing power of the peptides. In comparison to glutathione, the peptide fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation and chelate metals. In contrast, glutathione had significantly higher (p < 0.05) free radical scavenging properties than the peptide fractions. PMID:20359226

  20. Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-11-15

    Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

  1. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  2. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Effect of trans-10 cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on bovine oocyte competence and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Lapa, M; Marques, C C; Alves, S P; Vasques, M I; Baptista, M C; Carvalhais, I; Silva Pereira, M; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive performance of dairy cows may be improved by feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements during early lactation. The mechanism of action of t10,c12 CLA is not clearly known. Our objective was to investigate the effect of t10,c12 CLA on oocyte maturation and lipid composition of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC). The developmental potential of oocytes incubated in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplemented with t10,c12 CLA to the blastocyst stage and embryo quality were also assessed. In experiment 1, abattoir-derived oocytes were matured in TCM199 + 10% serum supplemented with 100 μM t10,c12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA n = 672) or without it (control n = 672). Mature oocytes were either stained for chromatin configuration or inseminated and cultured for embryo development assessment. In experiment 2, COC and IVM culture media were subjected to fatty acid (FA) analysis prior and after maturation with t10,c12 CLA or without it (control). Total lipids and FA profiles in oocytes, cumulus cells and culture media were determined by gas chromatography. t10,c12 CLA supplementation to IVM medium improved (p = 0.05) embryo quality evaluated morphologically. This effect was associated with t10,c12 CLA presence (3.1 ± 0.7%, p = 0.04) and lower levels of arachidonic acid in FA profile of t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes (immature oocytes = 4.4 ± 1.9%, t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes = 1.0 ± 0.7%, p = 0.05). Differences in myristic and eicotrienoic acids, saturated and unsaturated FA concentrations between oocytes and cumulus cells were detected (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of t10,c12 CLA during maturation interfered on lipid metabolism improving bovine oocyte competence to develop into higher quality embryos. PMID:21366717

  4. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  5. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the 'classical' (neutral) and 'alternative' (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. PMID:23391614

  6. Study of the organic acids composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit and jam.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Mendes, Gisela C; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2002-04-10

    The organic acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by HPLC. The sample preparation was simple, involving only extraction with methanol (40 degrees C) and filtration through a Sep-pack C18 cartridge. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an ion exclusion column, Nucleogel Ion 300 OA (300 x 7.7 mm), in conjunction with a column heating device at 30 degrees C. An isocratic elution with H(2)SO(4) 0.01 N as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min, and UV detection at 214 nm were used. These analyses showed that all samples presented a similar profile composed of at least six identified organic acids: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids. Several samples also contained oxalic acid. This study suggests that the organic acids levels and ratios may be useful for the determination of percent fruit content of quince jams. The citric acid value can also be used in the differentiation of the type of manufacture of the commercial quince jams (homemade or industrially manufactured). PMID:11929290

  7. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  8. Fatty acid composition evaluation of edible parts of Eriocheir sinensis in intensive ponds of Gucheng waters.

    PubMed

    Yu, J Y; Yan, P S

    2015-01-01

    In Gucheng Lake, Jiangsu Province, China, randomly selected crabs were fed 2 diet types. Crab crude oil methyl ester analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acid compositions in the 3 edible parts of a crab - the hepatopancreas, gonad, and muscle - were analyzed. C16:1 and C18:2 were significantly higher in most commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs than in small trash fish-feeding crabs, while the opposite was observed for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Phytanic acid reached 1.93% in the hepatopancreas of small trash fish-feeding crabs. Furan fatty-acid-DiMe (11,5) contents in the testes of small trash fish-feeding crabs was 1.49%. These values were higher in male crabs than in female crabs. According to a standard ratio of 1:1:1 which meaning the saturated fathy acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were 33.33 each, fatty acid structure analysis of crab edible parts showed that SFA:MUFA:PUFA of crab edible parts was 2.3-4.1:2.9-5.0:1.3-4.8. The highest muscle score was 29.53 in male trash fish-feeding crabs, and the lowest hepatopancreas score was -40.81 in female commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs. The n-6/n-3 ratio was 0.36-2.48. Muscle ratio was the lowest in female commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs. Thus, small trash fish-feeding and commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs are healthy foods. Overall, for consumption, the males of small trash fish-feeding crabs were better than the females, the muscle was better than the gonads and hepatopancreas, and the testis was better than the ovary. PMID:26125730

  9. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-15

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO{sub 4}, by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}).2H{sub 2}O and Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O fertilizer. - Graphical abstract: A new synthesis scheme for preparation of composite titanium phosphate (TiP) ion-exchangers upon one-stage decomposition process of natural sphene with phosphoric acid is presented. Syntheses of {alpha}-TiP-silica composites proceed via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases. The concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} determines the porosity of final products and their sorption affinities.

  10. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  11. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  12. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fatty acid composition in an Iberian × Landrace cross.

    PubMed

    Ramayo-Caldas, Y; Mercadé, A; Castelló, A; Yang, B; Rodríguez, C; Alves, E; Díaz, I; Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Noguera, J L; Pérez-Enciso, M; Fernández, A I; Folch, J M

    2012-09-01

    The lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profile have an important impact in human health as well as in the technological transformation and nutritional and organoleptic quality of meat. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 144 backcross pigs (25% Iberian × 75% Landrace) was performed for 32 traits associated with intramuscular FA composition and indices of FA metabolism. The GWAS was carried out using Qxpak 5.0 and the genotyping information obtained from the Porcine SNP60K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Signals of significant association considering a false- discovery rate (q-value < 0.05) were observed in 15 of the 32 analyzed traits, and a total of 813 trait-associated SNP (TAS), distributed in 43 chromosomal intervals on almost all autosomes, were annotated. According to the clustering analysis based on functional classification, several of the annotated genes are related to FA composition and lipid metabolism. Some interesting positional concordances among TAS and previously reported QTL for FA compositions and/or other lipid traits were also found. These common genomic regions for different traits suggest pleiotropic effects for FA composition and were found primarily on SSC4, SSC8, and SSC16. These results contribute to our understanding of the complex genetic basis of FA composition and FA metabolism. PMID:22785162

  13. Trophic Dynamics of Filter Feeding Bivalves in the Yangtze Estuarine Intertidal Marsh: Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sikai; Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Sheng, Qiang; Wu, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Benthic bivalves are important links between primary production and consumers, and are essential intermediates in the flow of energy through estuarine systems. However, information on the diet of filter feeding bivalves in estuarine ecosystems is uncertain, as estuarine waters contain particulate matter from a range of sources and as bivalves are opportunistic feeders. We surveyed bivalves at different distances from the creek mouth at the Yangtze estuarine marsh in winter and summer, and analyzed trophic dynamics using stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) techniques. Different bivalve species had different spatial distributions in the estuary. Glauconome chinensis mainly occurred in marshes near the creek mouth, while Sinonovacula constricta preferred the creek. Differences were found in the diets of different species. S. constricta consumed more diatoms and bacteria than G. chinensis, while G. chinensis assimilated more macrophyte material. FA markers showed that plants contributed the most (38.86 ± 4.25%) to particular organic matter (POM) in summer, while diatoms contributed the most (12.68 ± 1.17%) during winter. Diatoms made the largest contribution to the diet of S. constricta in both summer (24.73 ± 0.44%) and winter (25.51 ± 0.59%), and plants contributed no more than 4%. This inconsistency indicates seasonal changes in food availability and the active feeding habits of the bivalve. Similar FA profiles for S. constricta indicated that the bivalve had a similar diet composition at different sites, while different δ13C results suggested the diet was derived from different carbon sources (C4 plant Spartina alterniflora and C3 plant Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter) at different sites. Species-specific and temporal and/or spatial variability in bivalve feeding may affect their ecological functions in intertidal marshes, which should be considered in the study of food webs and material flows in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:26261984

  14. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  15. Diffusion dialysis. Effect of membrane composition on acid/salt separation

    SciTech Connect

    Narebska, A.; Warszawski, A. )

    1992-05-01

    Diffusion dialysis is an energy-saving separation technique. In order to highlight the relationship between membrane composition and ability to separate acid/salt mixtures by diffusion dialysis, a few anion-exchange membranes were examined. Experiments on solubility/diffusivity phenomena were carried out in contact with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solutions (single- and two-solute experiments). Computations using Glueckauf and Tye models have indicated high nonuniformity in the distribution of fixed charged within the membranes and different accessibilities of the internal membrane volumes for the acid and salt. The Neosepta AFN-7 membrane (Tokuymam Soda Co.) has proved effective in differentiating the permeants by sorption (k{sub HCl}/k{sub NaCl} {approx} 2) and diffusivity ({bar D}{sub HCl}/{bar D}{sub NaCl} up to 10). This membrane is also the only one which, when in contact with two-solutes solutions, absorbs the acid preferentially to the salt. For this membrane the preferential sorption and transport of the acid depends not only on the physical structure of the membrane but also on the chemical nature of the polymer which contains pyridine moieties.

  16. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  17. Characterization of the bovine gene LIPE and possible influence on fatty acid composition of meat

    PubMed Central

    Goszczynski, Daniel Estanislao; Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Ripoli, María Verónica; Villarreal, Edgardo Leopoldo; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos Alberto; Melucci, Lilia Magdalena; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    LIPE is an intracellular neutral lipase, which is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters and plays a key role in the mobilization of fatty acids from diacylglycerols. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic polymorphism of bovine LIPE gene and to evaluate the possible association between three SNPs in the coding regions of this gene with the fatty acid composition of meat in a cattle population. Forty-three unrelated animals from different cattle breeds were re-sequenced and 21 SNPs were detected over approximately 2600 bp, five of these SNPs were novel. Three SNPs were selected, on the basis of evolutionary conservation, to perform validation and association studies in a crossbred cattle population. Our results may suggest a possible association of SNP1 with contents of oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), and SNP2 and SNP3 with Heneicosylic acid content (p < 0.01), may be helpful to improve the quality of meat and improve health. PMID:25606458

  18. Characterization of lipid and fatty acids composition of Chlorella zofingiensis in response to nitrogen starvation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shunni; Wang, Yajie; Shang, Changhua; Wang, Zhongming; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-08-01

    Cellular biochemical composition of the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis was studied under favorable and nitrogen starvation conditions, with special emphasis on lipid classes and fatty acids distribution. When algal cells were grown in nitrogen-free medium (N stress), the increase in the contents of lipid and carbohydrate while a decrease in protein content was detected. Glycolipids were the major lipid fraction (50.7% of total lipids) under control condition, while neutral lipids increased to be predominant (86.7% of total lipids) under N stress condition. Triacylglycerol (TAG) content in N stressed cells was 27.3% dw, which was over three times higher than that obtained under control condition. Within neutral lipids fraction, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the main group (40.6%) upon N stress, in which oleic acid was the most representative fatty acids (34.5%). Contrarily, glycolipids and phospholipids showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Lipid quality assessment indicated the potential of this alga as a biodiesel feedstock when its neutral lipids were a principal lipid fraction. The results demonstrate that the neutral lipids content is key to determine the suitability of the microalga for biodiesel, and the stress cultivation is essential for lipid quality. PMID:25782619

  19. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series. PMID:22322400

  20. Breed effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and palatability attributes in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Laborde, F L; Mandell, I B; Tosh, J J; Wilton, J W; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    2001-02-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 136) were used to assess breed differences in growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition (total lipids and phospholipids), and palatability attributes of longissimus muscle. A multiple regression model was applied to crossbreeding data to estimate genetic differences between Simmental and Red Angus at the same level of backfat finish (10 mm). Simmental spent 71 more (P < 0.001) days on feed to acquire the same degree of backfat thickness as Red Angus, had heavier (P < 0.001) slaughter weights, larger (P = 0.002) longissimus muscle area, and increased (P = 0.023) lean yield. Average daily gain did not differ (P = 0.297) between breeds. Simmental were less (P = 0.012) efficient in converting feed to gain than Red Angus. Generally, there were few breed differences in palatability attributes for longissimus and semitendinosus muscles, with the exception of increased (P < 0.05) beef flavor scores for Simmental beef vs Red Angus beef across both muscles. For total lipids, concentrations of myristoleic acid (14:1), palmitoleic acid (16:1), and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), along with n-6 to n-3 fatty acid (n-6:n-3) ratio, were greater (P < 0.05) in Simmental than Red Angus. In contrast, concentrations of margaric acid (17:0), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) were greater (P < 0.05) in Red Angus than Simmental. For phospholipids, Simmental had lower (P < 0.05) amounts of 20:5n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and n-3 PUFA, with a greater (P = 0.017) n-6:n-3 ratio. Activity of delta9-desaturase enzyme in the conversion of palmitic acid (16:0) to 16:1 was greater (P = 0.001) in total lipids from Simmental as compared with Red Angus. A genetic basis for fatty acid differences is suggested, although the biological and practical significance needs to be demonstrated. PMID:11219444

  1. ANALYTICAL VARIATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF STANDARD PREPARATIONS OF BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA: AN INTERLABORATORY EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international interlaboratory exercise was conducted to investigate the variability associated with the preparation and analysis of samples and the reporting of fatty acid composition data for tvo samples of Artemia supplied to the laboratories by the Artemia Reference Center ...

  2. Adaptive modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and metabolic thermosuppression of brown adipose tissue in heat-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S. K.; Ohno, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    Thermogenesis, especially facultative thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), is less important in high ambient temperature and the heat-acclimated animals show a lower metabolic rate. Adaptive changes in the metabolic activity of BAT are generally found to be associated with a modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition. However, the effect of heat acclimation on membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition is as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the thermogenic activity and phospholipid fatty acid composition of interscapular BAT from heat-acclimated rats (control: 25+/-1°C, 50% relative humidity and heat acclimation: 32+/-0.5°C, 50% relative humidity). Basal thermogenesis and the total thermogenic capacity after noradrenaline stimulation, as estimated by in vitro oxygen consumption of BAT (measured polarographically using about 1-mm3 tissue blocks), were smaller in the heat-acclimated group than in the control group. There was no difference in the tissue content of phospholipids between the groups when expressed per microgram of DNA. The phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by a capillary gas chromatograph. The state of phospholipid unsaturation, as estimated by the number of double bonds per fatty acid molecule, was similar between the groups. The saturated fatty acid level was higher in the heat-acclimated group. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, heat acclimation decreased docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid levels, and increased the arachidonic acid level. The tissue level of docosahexaenoic acid correlated with the basal oxygen consumption of BAT (r=0.6, P<0.01) and noradrenaline-stimulated maximum values of oxygen consumption (r=0.5, P<0.05). Our results show that heat acclimation modifies the BAT phospholipid fatty acids, especially the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, which is possibly involved in the metabolic thermosuppression.

  3. Rock Maker: an MS Excel™ spreadsheet for the calculation of rock compositions from proportional whole rock analyses, mineral compositions, and modal abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Steffen H.

    2012-01-01

    Rock Maker is a simple software tool that computes bulk rock compositions resulting from mixing or unmixing of rocks or minerals. The calculations describe the chemical expression of processes such as magma mixing, fractional crystallization, assimilation, residual melt extraction, or formation of solid solutions. Rock Maker can also be used for the elimination of thermodynamically inactive or unwanted chemical components from the whole rock composition, such as cores of porphyroblasts that are considered not to be in equilibrium with the matrix. The calculation of the resulting rock composition is essentially based on modal proportions and compositions of different components in rocks, which may include specific portions of the rock or individual mineral phases. Compositional data, obtained using XRF, ICPMS, EDS, or EPMA, may include major and trace element concentrations. Depending upon the nature of the problem to be solved, the concentrations of oxidic and elemental components can be added to, or subtracted from, each other, producing the calculated normalized whole rock composition after completion of the investigated process (mixing, unmixing, depletion, enrichment, etc.). Furthermore, the software allows the calculation of whole rock compositions from ideal mineral compositions, for which modal proportions can be chosen from pre-defined mineral compositions. The data set includes the most common rock forming minerals and allows the addition of further phases. This section can be used to calculate the approximate whole rock compositions from petrographic modal analysis. This part of Rock Maker is specifically suitable as a teaching tool that illustrates the interrelationship between mineral compositions, modes, and the corresponding whole rock compositions.

  4. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  5. Influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.S.; Lin, Z.J.; Wu, M.Y.; Liu, J.I.; Yuan, C.

    1998-12-31

    This study investigated the influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition both temporally and spatially in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan. During the period of January--December, 1996, both wet and dry deposition samples were collected by automatic acid precipitation samplers at six sampling sites which covered the entire metropolitan area. Major cations (NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}) and anions (F{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}) of acid deposition samples were analyzed in a central laboratory, while the pH value and conductivity of rainwater samples were measured in situ. Results from chemical analysis indicated that Ca{sup +2} was the most abundant cation in acid deposition samples. Major cations were Ca{sup +2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, while major anions were SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. This study also revealed that the pH value, suspended solids, Ca{sup +2}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} of rainwater decreased with rainy time in a sequential rainwater sampling process. It was estimated that approximately 80% of suspended particles could be washed out by rain droplets in the first hour of raining process. Therefore, alkaline suspended particles in the atmosphere played an very important role on the chemical composition of acid precipitation in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan.

  6. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  7. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    PubMed

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration,