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Sample records for acid composition changed

  1. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  2. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  3. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  5. Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

    2012-06-01

    Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

  6. Dietary fatty acid composition changes mitochondrial phospholipids and oxidative capacities in rainbow trout red muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Kraffe, E; Bureau, W; Bureau, D P

    2008-03-01

    Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups differed markedly in FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids, with significant dietary effects for virtually all FA. Mean mitochondrial DHA levels were 19, 40 and 33% in trout fed Diets 1, 2 and 3. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities changed with diet, while mitochondrial concentrations of cytochromes and of the adenylate nucleotide translocase (nmol mg(1) protein) did not. Mitochondria from fish fed Diet 1 had higher non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates at 5 degrees C than those fed other diets. When phosphorylating (state 3) rates differed between dietary groups, rates at 5 and 15 degrees C were higher for fish fed the more unsaturated diets. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that FA composition could explain much (42-70%) of the variability of state 4 rates, particularly at 5 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, FA composition explained 16-42% of the variability of states 3 and 4 rates. Similar conclusions were obtained for the complete data set (trout fed diets 1, 2 and 3) and for the data from trout achieving similar growth rates (e.g. those fed Diets 1 and 2). Neither general characteristics of membrane FA, such as % saturates, unsaturation index, n-3, n-6 or n-3/n-6 nor levels of abundant unsaturated FA such as DHA or 18:1(n-9 + n-7), were systematically correlated with mitochondrial capacities even though they differed considerably between trout fed the different diets. Relatively minor FA (20:5n-3, 20:0, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:0 and 15:0) showed better correlations with mitochondrial oxidative capacities. This supports the concept that acyl chain composition modulates mitochondrial

  7. Angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor axis activation ameliorates the changes in fatty acid composition in diabetic rats with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Tajinder; Sharma, PL

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with altered fatty acids composition. This study was designed to investigate the role of angiotensin (Ang) (1-7)/Mas receptor in improving fatty acids composition in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Rats treated with STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. once) developed DN after 8 weeks. Fatty acid composition was estimated in renal cortical tissue by gas chromatography. Treatment with Ang (1-7), A-779, and Ang (1-7) plus A-779 was given from week 4 to week 8. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in levels of saturated fatty acids and a significant decrease in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Treatment with Ang (1-7) significantly attenuated these diabetes-induced changes. In diabetic rats, prior administration of A-779 significantly attenuated the increase in PUFAs produced by Ang (1-7); however, for saturated fatty acids, A-779 significantly blocked the decrease in palmitic acid only. Our study, for the first time, documented that endogenous Ang (1-7) modulates fatty acid composition in rats. Further, treatment with Ang (1-7) significantly attenuated diabetes-induced changes in fatty acids composition. This may be an additional mechanism implying the renoprotective role of Ang (1-7) in diabetic rats.

  8. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  9. Change in membrane fatty acid compositions and cold-induced responses in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Kazemi Shahandashti, Seyyede Sanam; Maali Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2013-02-01

    Plant cells often increase cold tolerance by reprogramming their genes expression which results in adjusted metabolic alternations, a process enhanced under cold acclimation (CA) phase. In present study, we assessed the changes of membrane fatty acid compositions and defense machine (like antioxidative enzymes) along with damage indexes like electrolyte leakage index (ELI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) during CA, cold stress (CS) and recovery (R) phases in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Results showed an increase in unsaturated fatty acids ratio compare to saturated ones which is a sign of cold tolerance especially after CA phase. Antioxidant enzymes had an important role during CA and R phases while CS affected their activity which can be a sign for associating other metabolites or enzymes activities to create cold tolerance in plants. To investigation of enzymes assay under experimental treatments, the expression pattern of some enzymes including superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and lipoxygenase (lox) was studied using quantitative real time PCR. LOX activity has shown a bilateral behavior: a positive relation with membrane damage index in CA and an interesting link with double bond index (DBI) in CS indicating probably its role in secondary metabolites like jasmonic acid signaling pathway. It was suggested that increased DBI and low LOX activity under CS could be a reason for plant cold tolerance. PMID:23065233

  10. Downstream composition changes of acidic volcanic waters discharged into the Banyupahit stream, Ijen caldera, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, P.; Bernard, A.

    2000-04-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano contains extremely low pH (<0.4) waters with high SO 4 (˜70000 mg/kg), Cl (˜21000 mg/kg), F (˜1500 mg/kg), Al (˜5000 mg/kg), Fe (˜2000 mg/kg) and trace metal (Cu ˜0.5, Zn ˜4, Pb ˜3 mg/kg) contents. These brines seep outward through the western crater rim and reappear on the other side as streamlets, which form the headwaters of the Banyupahit stream. The Banyupahit first mixes with fresh rivers and thermal springs in the Ijen caldera and then irrigates a coastal agricultural plain which is 30 km from the summit crater. We discuss the downstream composition changes affecting the Banyupahit waters by using stable isotope, chemical and mineralogical data collected from sites along the stream length. The saturation of the stream waters with respect to minerals was evaluated with SOLVEQ and WATEQ4F and compared with the geochemical observations. An aluminous mineralogy (alunogen, pickeringite, tamarugite and kalinite) develops in the upper part of the Banyupahit due to concentration of the headwaters by evaporation. Downstream attenuation of dissolved element concentrations results principally from dilution and from mineral precipitation. The stream pH changes from ˜0 at the source to >4 close to the mouth. The δD and δ18O values and the relative SO 4-Cl-F contents of the Banyupahit waters indicate that the tributaries are mostly meteoric. Dissolved SO 4 in the acidic stream come only from the crater lake seepages and are not involved later in microbially mediated reactions, as shown by their δ34S and δ18O values. Re-equilibration of the stream SO 4 oxygen-isotope composition with H 2O from tributaries does not occur. Calcium, SiO 2, Al, Fe, K and SO 4 behave non-conservatively in the stream waters. Gypsum, silica (amorphous or poorly ordered), a basic aluminum hydroxysulfate (basaluminite?), K-jarosite and amorphous ferric hydroxide may exert a solubility control on these elements along the entire stream length, or in

  11. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  12. The change of fatty acids composition of Polish biscuits during storage.

    PubMed

    Koczoń, Piotr; Lipińska, Edyta; Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Ewa; Mikuła, Małgorzata; Bartyzel, Bartłomiej J

    2016-07-01

    Commercially available Polish biscuits were stored for 10months under different storage conditions i.e. in temperatures of 5°C and 20°C. The chemical quality alteration caused by chemical reactions occurring within biscuits were studied in terms of change of composition of fat extracted from studied samples in one-month intervals. Correlation of data from standard methods e.g. gas chromatography or classic titration with FT-IR spectroscopy, was followed by calculation of four statistical models that accurately predicted peroxide value, oxidative stability, polar fraction content and unsaturated trans fatty acid content in any samples. On the basis of data obtained, scheme of chemical reactions involved in oxidation process was suggested. A critical time of storage was proposed as an indicator of the period of the highest rate of chemical changes. Among factors considered to influence oxidative stability, the following had the greatest impact: initial water content, initial fat content, and time of storage. PMID:26920303

  13. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  14. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark; Stachler, Elyse N; Bibby, Kyle J; Stolz, Donna B; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Barchowsky, Aaron; Stolz, John F

    2015-12-15

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogenesis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes. PMID:26529668

  15. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  16. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition

    PubMed Central

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  17. Response of Halomonas campisalis to saline stress: changes in growth kinetics, compatible solute production and membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Aston, John E; Peyton, Brent M

    2007-09-01

    The haloalkaliphile Halomonas campisalis, isolated near Soap Lake, Washington, was grown under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions from 0 to 260 g L(-1) NaCl, with optimal growth occurring at 20 and 30 g L(-1) NaCl, respectively. Halomonas campisalis was observed to produce high concentrations of compatible solutes, most notably ectoine (up to 500 mM within the cytoplasm), but hydroxyectoine and glycine betaine were also detected. The types and amounts of compatible solutes produced depended on salinity and specific growth rate, as well as on the terminal electron acceptor available (O(2) or NO(3) (-)). A decrease in ectoine production was observed with NO(3) (-) as compared with O(2) as the terminal electron acceptor. In addition, changes in the phospholipid fatty acid composition were measured with changing salinity. An increase in trans fatty acids was observed in the absence of salinity, and may be a response to membrane instability. Cyclic fatty acids were also observed to increase, both in the absence of salinity, and at very high salinities, indicating cell stress at these conditions. PMID:17651393

  18. Changes in fatty acid composition in plant tissues expressing a mammalian delta9 desaturase.

    PubMed

    Moon, H; Hazebroek, J; Hildebrand, D F

    2000-05-01

    Plant tissues expressing a mammalian stearoyl-CoA delta9 desaturase were reported to accumulate delta9 hexadecenoic acid (16:1), normally very minor in most plant tissues. The transgenic plants were thoroughly analyzed for alterations of individual lipids in different subcellular sites. Western blot analysis indicated that the animal desaturase was targeted to the microsomes. The delta9 16:1 was incorporated into both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of all the major membrane lipids tested, indicating that the endoplasmic reticulum acyltransferases do not exclude unsaturated C16 fatty acids from the sn-2 position. In addition to increases in monounsaturated and decreases in saturated fatty acids, accumulation of 16:1 was accompanied by a reduction in 18:3 in all the lipids tested except phosphatidylglycerol, and increases in 18:2 in phospholipids. Total C16 fatty acid content in the galactolipids of the transgenics was significantly higher than that in the control, but those in the phospholipids were unchanged. In transgenics, delta11 18:1 was detected in the sn-1 position of the lipids tested except phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. Introduction of the animal desaturase, controlled by a seed-specific phaseolin promoter, into soybean somatic embryo resulted in a significant reduction in saturated fatty acids. Such effects were greater in cotyledons than hypocotyl-radicles. This study demonstrated that the animal desaturase can be used to decrease the levels of saturated fatty acids in a crop plant. PMID:10907781

  19. Change in the chemical composition of humic acids in peat thermolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnovskaya, L.I.; Maslov, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    The preliminary heat treatment of peat to 250 degrees centigrade may be a very effective factor in regulating the selectivity of a number of processes of complex peat processing schemes. Thermolysis of humic acids (in peat) was performed and solid residues were studied.

  20. [Changes in the collagen amino acid composition of calf skin after gamma-irradiation in an aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Duzhenkova, N A; Savich, A V

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the amino acid composition of calf skin collagen after gamma-irradiation (60Co) of 2.5 X 10(-6) M aerated aqueous protein solution within the dose range from 30 to 2000 Gy. The radiosensitivity of amino acid residues was compared. PMID:6657935

  1. Phase change compositions

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  2. Phase change compositions

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  3. Opportunities for change in the quantity and fatty-acid composition of carcass and milk fats.

    PubMed Central

    Jollans, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of fat in carcasses has been in process for many years and will continue in response to consumer demand. With milk and dairy products, however, the demand for fat continues and available technology will only be used if the market changes. Some increase of the polyunsaturated: saturated ratio (P/S) of carcass fat will automatically accompany reduction in quantity of fat, particularly with pigs. Further change is technically possible but might bring consumer resistance and shelf-life problems. With milk fat, the P/S ratio could be increased by the feeding of protected, polyunsaturated oils although such an expensive approach could be avoided by changing the laws on dairy product nomenclature. PMID:7465466

  4. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes. PMID:26246275

  5. HYDROLYTIC DEGRADATION OF TRIACYLGLYCERLS AND CHANGES IN FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN RICE BRAN DURING STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid degradation of lipids after milling makes rice bran unsuitable for human consumption. To better understand these lipolytic processes, bran from a conventional U.S. long ('Cypress') and medium grain ('Earl') rice cultivar were stored at room temperature for six months, and the changes in triacy...

  6. Influence of dietary fatty acid composition and exercise on changes in fat oxidation from a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Shriver, T; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2010-10-01

    Acute high-fat (HF) diets can lead to short-term positive fat balances until the body increases fat oxidation to match intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a HF diet, rich in either mono-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and exercise, on the rate at which the body adapts to a HF diet.(13)C-labeled oleate and (2)H-labeled palmitate were also given to determine the contribution of exogenous vs. global fat oxidation. Eight healthy men (age of 18-45 yr; body mass index of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were a high saturated fat diet with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions and a high monounsaturated fat diet with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Subjects stayed for 5 days in a metabolic chamber. All meals were provided. On day 1, 30% of energy intake was from fat, whereas days 2-5 had 50% of energy as fat. Subjects exercised on a stationary cycle at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were collected to calculate fat oxidation. Change from day 1 to day 5 showed both exercise treatments increased fat oxidation (SE: 76 ± 30 g, P = 0.001; UE: 118 ± 31 g, P < 0.001), whereas neither sedentary condition changed fat oxidation (SS: -10 ± 33 g, P = not significant; US: 41 ± 14 g, P = 0.07). No differences for dietary FA composition were found. Exercise led to a faster adaptation to a HF diet by increasing fat oxidation and achieving fat balance by day 5. Dietary FA composition did not differentially affect 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:20651220

  7. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  8. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835).

    PubMed

    Mfilinge, Prosper L; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  9. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study assessed the effects of combined chromium picolinate (CP) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on energy-restriction and exercise-induced changes in body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid-lipoprotein profile, and blood pressure in overweight, pre-menopausal w...

  10. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on t10, c12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced changes in fatty acid composition of mouse liver, adipose and muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation of 1.5% docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) with 0.5% t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; CLA) prevented the CLA-induced increase in expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and the decrease in expression of genes involved in fat...

  11. Changes in Colonic Bile Acid Composition following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Are Sufficient to Control Clostridium difficile Germination and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Weingarden, Alexa R.; Dosa, Peter I.; DeWinter, Erin; Steer, Clifford J.; Shaughnessy, Megan K.; Johnson, James R.; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI), but its mechanisms remain poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that gut bile acids have significant influence on the physiology of C. difficile, and therefore on patient susceptibility to recurrent infection. We analyzed spore germination of 10 clinical C. difficile isolates exposed to combinations of bile acids present in patient feces before and after FMT. Bile acids at concentrations found in patients’ feces prior to FMT induced germination of C. difficile, although with variable potency across different strains. However, bile acids at concentrations found in patients after FMT did not induce germination and inhibited vegetative growth of all C. difficile strains. Sequencing of the newly identified germinant receptor in C. difficile, CspC, revealed a possible correspondence of variation in germination responses across isolates with mutations in this receptor. This may be related to interstrain variability in spore germination and vegetative growth in response to bile acids seen in this and other studies. These results support the idea that intra-colonic bile acids play a key mechanistic role in the success of FMT, and suggests that novel therapeutic alternatives for treatment of R-CDI may be developed by targeted manipulation of bile acid composition in the colon. PMID:26789728

  12. Changes in Colonic Bile Acid Composition following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Are Sufficient to Control Clostridium difficile Germination and Growth.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Dosa, Peter I; DeWinter, Erin; Steer, Clifford J; Shaughnessy, Megan K; Johnson, James R; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI), but its mechanisms remain poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that gut bile acids have significant influence on the physiology of C. difficile, and therefore on patient susceptibility to recurrent infection. We analyzed spore germination of 10 clinical C. difficile isolates exposed to combinations of bile acids present in patient feces before and after FMT. Bile acids at concentrations found in patients' feces prior to FMT induced germination of C. difficile, although with variable potency across different strains. However, bile acids at concentrations found in patients after FMT did not induce germination and inhibited vegetative growth of all C. difficile strains. Sequencing of the newly identified germinant receptor in C. difficile, CspC, revealed a possible correspondence of variation in germination responses across isolates with mutations in this receptor. This may be related to interstrain variability in spore germination and vegetative growth in response to bile acids seen in this and other studies. These results support the idea that intra-colonic bile acids play a key mechanistic role in the success of FMT, and suggests that novel therapeutic alternatives for treatment of R-CDI may be developed by targeted manipulation of bile acid composition in the colon. PMID:26789728

  13. Changes in total nitrogen and amino acid composition of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida with growth, location and plant parts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, April Yongdong; Robertson, John; Hamid, Nazimah; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Undaria pinnatifida is known as unwanted organism in New Zealand. However, Wakame is a traditional food made of U. pinnatifida, which is now cultured extensively in East Asia. Therefore, it is important to examine this introduced alga as a potential source of dietary protein for human consumption in New Zealand. This study determined total nitrogen content and amino acid profile of New Zealand U. pinnatifida harvested from the Marlborough Sounds on a monthly basis from June to November 2011. Total average nitrogen content and crude protein content was 21.02 mg/g dry weight and 13.1% of dry weight, respectively. The three most abundant amino acids that contributed to flavour (glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine) were present and the most abundant essential amino acids were arginine, leucine, lysine and valine. The results showed that the amino acid content in blades from the exposed farm was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the others. Sporophyll maturation of U. pinnatifida in New Zealand influenced protein content and amino acid composition. Sporophyll, considered as a waste product by many, was found to be a potentially good source of protein. PMID:25976828

  14. Changes in membrane fatty acids composition of microbial cells induced by addiction of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol in the growing media.

    PubMed

    Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Hoskins, Nikki; Betts, Gail; Mauriello, Gianluigi

    2006-04-01

    Major active compounds from essential oils are well-known to possess antimicrobial activity against both pathogen and spoilage microorganisms. The aim of this work was to determine the alteration of the membrane fatty acid profile as an adaptive mechanism of the cells in the presence of a sublethal concentration of antimicrobial compound in response to a stress condition. Methanolic solutions of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol were added into growth media of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Fatty acid extraction and gas chromatographic analysis were performed to assess changes in membrane fatty acid composition. Substantial changes were observed on the long chain unsaturated fatty acids when the E. coli and Salmonella strains grew in the presence of limonene and cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol and eugenol, respectively. All compounds influenced the fatty acid profile of B. thermosphacta, while Pseudomonas and S. aureus strains did not show substantial changes in their fatty acid compositions. PMID:16569070

  15. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Dietary sunflower oil modulates milk fatty acid composition without major changes in adipose and mammary tissue fatty acid profile or related gene mRNA abundance in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castro-Carrera, T; Frutos, P; Leroux, C; Chilliard, Y; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bernard, L; Toral, P G

    2015-04-01

    There are very few studies in ruminants characterizing mammary and adipose tissue (AT) expression of genes and gene networks for diets causing variations in milk fatty acid (FA) composition without altering milk fat secretion, and even less complementing this information with data on tissue FA profiles. This work was conducted in sheep in order to investigate the response of the mammary gland and the subcutaneous and perirenal AT, in terms of FA profile and mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, to a diet known to modify milk FA composition. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (60 : 40) supplemented with 0 (control diet) or 25 (SO diet) g of sunflower oil/kg of diet dry matter for 7 weeks. Milk composition, including FA profile, was analysed after 48 days on treatments. On day 49, the animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected to analyse FA and mRNA abundance of 16 candidate genes. Feeding SO did not affect animal performance but modified milk FA composition. Major changes included decreases in the concentration of FA derived from de novo synthesis (e.g. 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increases in that of long-chain FA (e.g. 18:0, c9-18:1, trans-18:1 isomers and c9,t11-CLA); however, they were not accompanied by significant variations in the mRNA abundance of the studied lipogenic genes (i.e. ACACA, FASN, LPL, CD36, FABP3, SCD1 and SCD5) and transcription factors (SREBF1 and PPARG), or in the constituent FA of mammary tissue. Regarding the FA composition of AT, the little influence of SO did not appear to be linked to changes in gene mRNA abundance (decreases of GPAM and SREBF1 in both tissues, and of PPARG in the subcutaneous depot). Similarly, the great variation between AT (higher contents of saturated FA and trans-18:1 isomers in the perirenal, and of cis-18:1, c9,t11-CLA and n-3 PUFA in the subcutaneous AT) could not be related to

  17. [Bounds of change in unsaturation index of fatty acid composition of phospholipids at adaptation of molluscs to biogenic and abiogenic factors of external medium].

    PubMed

    Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Shukoliukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2011-01-01

    Comparative study of fatty acid composition of total phospholipids, as well as of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from hepatopancreas and leg muscle was performed on several representatives of gasteropods (Gastropoda) molluscs and bivalve (Bivalvia) mussel (Mytilus edulus). The objects of our study were marine litorins (Littorina saxsatilis) adapted to different temperature conditions of White Sea and Barents Sea, freshwater lymnaea (Lymnaea stagnalis) infested by Trematoda and mussels from White Sea and Black Sea. It was shown that depending on the existence conditions of studied tissue or lipid, the maximal change is observed in the percentage of saturated acids (4-83 %), the percentage of unsaturated acids was less expressed (1-14 %) and the changes in unsaturation index (UI) did not exceed 20 % on average. It was supposed that observed quantitative bounds of UI change under the action of different external factors is utmost for maintenance of membrane fluidity necessary for normal vital activity of cell, particularly in studied ectothermic molluscs. PMID:22145319

  18. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  19. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions.

  20. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains.

    PubMed

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  1. Constitutive androstane receptor-mediated changes in bile acid composition contributes to hepatoprotection from lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Holland, Ricky D; Besselsen, David G; Beger, Rick D; Klaassen, Curtis D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice before and during induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA). In LCA-treated WT and all the CAR-null groups (excluding controls), histology revealed severe multifocal necrosis. This pathology was absent in WT mice pretreated with PB and TCPOBOP, indicating CAR-dependent hepatoprotection. Decreases in total hepatic bile acids and hepatic monohydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy bile acids in PB- and TCPOBOP-pretreated WT mice correlated with hepatoprotection. In comparison, concentrations of monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated bile acids were increased in all the treated CAR-null mice compared with CO controls. Along with several other enzymes (Cyp7b1, Cyp27a1, Cyp39a1), Cyp8b1 expression was increased in hepatoprotected mice, which could be suggestive of a shift in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway toward the formation of less toxic bile acids. In CAR-null mice, these changes in gene expression were not different among treatment groups. These results suggest CAR mediates a shift in bile acid biosynthesis toward the formation of less toxic bile acids, as well as a decrease in hepatic bile acid concentrations. We propose that these combined CAR-mediated effects may contribute to the hepatoprotection observed during LCA-induced liver injury. PMID:19196849

  2. Growth Inhibitory Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on Colon Cancer Cells via Their Growth Inhibitory Metabolites and Fatty Acid Composition Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Yu, Haining; Ni, Xiaofeng; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is common. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells. Metabolites of PUFAs such as prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs) play a significant role in colon cancer. Methods Human colon cancer LoVo and RKO cells were cultured with different concentration of PUFAs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro. Cell morphological changes, fatty acid composition, formation of PGE2, LTB4 and LXA4 and expression of COX-2, ALOX5, PGD synthase (PGDS), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) were assessed in LoVo and RKO cells when supplemented with PUFAs and 5-FU. Results PUFAs and 5-FU inhibited growth of LoVo and RKO cells to the same extent at the doses used and produced significant alterations in their shape. As expected, higher concentrations of supplemented PUFAs were noted in the cells compared to control. LA, GLA, AA, ALA and EPA supplementation to LoVo cells suppressed production of PGE2, LTB4,and ALOX5, mPGES expression, but enhanced that of LXA4; whereas DHA enhanced PGE2 and LXA4 synthesis but decreased LTB4 formation and COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES expression. In contrast, 5-FU enhanced formation of PGE2, LTB4 and mPGES expression, but suppressed LXA4 synthesis and COX-2 expression. PGE2, LTB4 synthesis and ALOX5 expression was suppressed by LA, GLA, ALA and DHA; whereas AA, EPA and 5-FU enhanced PGE2 but paradoxically AA decreased and EPA and 5-FU enhanced LTB4 synthesis in RKO cells. All the PUFAs tested enhanced, while 5-FU decreased LXA4 formation in RKO cells; whereas GLA, AA, and 5-FU augmented while LA, ALA, EPA and DHA enhanced COX-2 expression in RKO cells. Conclusions Tumoricidal action of PUFAs on colorectal LoVo and RKO cancer cells in vitro was associated with increased formation of LXA4, decreased synthesis of PGE2 and LTB4 and suppressed expression of COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES, whereas 5-FU produced contrasting actions on these indices. PMID:25886460

  3. The protective effect of vitamin E against changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Bayar, Ahmet Serhat; Kizmaz, Veysi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of deltamethrin on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses (phosphatidylchlonine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositole (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) and the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin were determined by gas chromatography. The changes in the fatty acid profile were analysed after 14 d of exposure. Treatments included Group I (fed with basal diet only), Group II (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet), Group III (fed with basal diet and exposed to deltamethrin) and Group IV (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet and exposed to deltamethrin). The effects of deltamethrin on PI, PE and PS were valid for the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The effect on PC was detected in total SFAs and total PUFAs. The vitamin E-supplemented diet did not show complete protective effect on fatty acid composition of the fish exposed to deltamethrin. However, the protective effect was observed in total SFAs, total MUFAs and total PUFAs in PC. In PI, protective effect was only recorded on total PUFAs. There was no protective effect in PS and PE. The results of the present study demonstrated that deltametrin exposure had harmful effects on cell membrane and treatment with vitamin E could only partially protect fish gills. PMID:26766025

  4. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0

  5. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. PMID:26764053

  6. Impact of UV-B on drought- or cadmium-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of membrane lipid fractions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Szalai, Gabriella; Kovács, Viktória; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-10-01

    UV-B radiation may have either a positive or negative impact under the same conditions in wheat, depending on the type of secondary abiotic stressor: Cd or drought. Supplemental UV-B prevented the wilting and leaf rolling induced by PEG treatment. In contrast, combined UV-B and Cd treatment resulted in pronounced oxidative stress. The opposite effect of UV-B radiation in the case of drought or cadmium stress may be related to the alteration induced in the fatty acid composition. UV-B caused changes in the unsaturation of leaf phosphatidylglycerol fractions, and the accumulation of flavonoid in the leaves may prevent the stress induced by subsequent drought treatment. However it resulted in pronounced injury despite the increased flavonoid content in roots exposed to Cd. This was manifested in a drastic decrease in the unsaturation of the leaf monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and the root phosphatidylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol fractions. Data on the flavonoid content and fatty acid composition showed that oxidative stress was induced by drought in the leaves, by Cd in the roots, and interestingly, by UV-B radiation in both the leaves and roots. The additive effect of the combined stresses was also detected in the roots. The results presented here suggest a relationship between the capacity of the plant to remodel the fatty acid composition and its resistance to various stress factors. PMID:25062444

  7. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  8. Seasonal Changes in Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Production Rate with Respect to Natural Phytoplankton Species Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sun-Yong; Lee, Yeonjung; Kim, Min-Seob; Kumar, K. Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    After in situ incubation at the site for a year, phytoplanktons in surface water were exposed to natural light in temperate lakes (every month); thereafter, the net production rate of photoprotective compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs) was calculated using 13C labeled tracer. This is the first report describing seasonal variation in the net production rate of individual MAAs in temperate lakes using a compound-specific stable isotope method. In the mid-latitude region of the Korean Peninsula, UV radiation (UVR) usually peaks from July to August. In Lake Paldang and Lake Cheongpyeong, diatoms dominated among the phytoplankton throughout the year. The relative abundance of Cyanophyceae (Anabaena spiroides) reached over 80% during July in Lake Cheongpyeong. Changes in phytoplankton abundance indicate that the phytoplankton community structure is influenced by seasonal changes in the net production rate and concentration of MAAs. Notably, particulate organic matter (POM) showed a remarkable change based on the UV intensity occurring during that period; this was because of the fact that cyanobacteria that are highly sensitive to UV irradiance dominated the community. POM cultured in Lake Paldang had the greatest shinorine (SH) production rate during October, i.e., 83.83 ± 10.47 fgC·L−1·h−1. The dominance of diatoms indicated that they had a long-term response to UVR. Evaluation of POM cultured in Lake Cheongpyeong revealed that there was an increase in the net MAA production in July (when UVR reached the maximum); a substantial amount of SH, i.e., 17.62 ± 18.34 fgC·L−1·h−1, was recorded during this period. Our results demonstrate that both the net production rate as well as the concentration of MAAs related to photoinduction depended on the phytoplankton community structure. In addition, seasonal changes in UVR also influenced the quantity and production of MAAs in phytoplanktons (especially Cyanophyceae). PMID:26561820

  9. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa ensiled with a lactic acid bacterial inoculant.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Beauchemin, K A; Muck, R E; Weimer, P J

    2012-01-01

    Some silage inoculants help to improve silage quality and promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) would be different in cows fed alfalfa ensiled with the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LP) compared with those fed alfalfa ensiled without the inoculant (Ctrl). Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were allotted to 2 diets (Ctrl or LP) in a double crossover design with four 28-d periods. Diets were formulated to contain (% dry matter basis) 28.0% neutral detergent fiber and 16.2% crude protein, and contained alfalfa silage, 50.9; corn silage, 20.6; high-moisture shelled corn, 21.4; soy hulls, 4.7; plus minerals and vitamins, 2.4. Ruminal digesta were collected just before feeding on 3 consecutive days near the end of each period, and were separated into solid and liquid phases. Microbial DNA was extracted from each phase, amplified by PCR using domain-level bacterial primers, and subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The pH was 4.56 and 4.86 and the lactate-to-acetate ratio 9.8 and 4.4, respectively, for the treated and untreated alfalfa silages. Dry matter intakes and milk production data were not influenced by diets but showed a cow effect. Total volatile fatty acids (mM) tended to be greater for LP compared with Ctrl. Individual volatile fatty acids were not influenced by diets but showed a significant cow effect. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower and propionate (mol/100 mol) greater for the 2 milk fat-depressed (MFD; <3.2% fat content) cows compared with the other 6 cows. Correspondence analysis of the 265 peaks in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis profile across the 188 samples revealed that the first 2 components contributed 7.1 and 3.8% to the total variation in the profile. The ordination points representing the liquid and solid phases clustered separately

  10. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Proteinaceous Coral Skeletal Amino Acids Records Change in Source Nitrate to the Euphotic Zone in the Western Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Thibodeau, B.; Chikaraishi, Y.; Ohkouchi, N.; Grottoli, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy data and global climate model experiments indicate a multi-decadal shoaling of the western tropical Pacific (WTP) thermocline potentially related to a shift in ENSO frequency. In the WTP, the nutricline coincides with the thermocline, and a shoaling of the nutricline brings more nitrate-rich seawater higher in the water column and within the sunlit euphotic zone. In the nutrient-poor WTP, this incursion of nitrate-rich water at the bottom of the euphotic zone may stimulate productivity in the water column. However, there is a general paucity of measurements below the surface with which to investigate recent changes in seawater chemistry. Nitrogen isotope (δ15N) measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) can elucidate the source of nitrogen to the WTP and related trophic dynamics. This POM is the food source to the long-lived proteinaceous corals, and drives the nitrogen isotopic composition of their skeleton. Here, we report time series δ15N values from the banded skeletons of proteinaceous corals from offshore Palau in the WTP that provide proxy information about past changes in euphotic zone nitrogen dynamics. Bulk skeletal δ15N values declined between 1977 and 2010 suggesting a progressively increasing contribution of deep water with isotopically-light nitrate to the euphotic zone and/or a shortening of the planktonic food web. Since only some amino acids are enriched in δ15N with each trophic transfer in a food web, we measured the δ15N composition of seven individual amino acids in the same coral skeleton. The δ15N time series of the individual amino acids also declined over time, mirroring the bulk values. These new data indicate that the changes in the source nitrogen to the base of the euphotic zone drives a decline in coral skeletal δ15N values, consistent with the shoaling nutricline, with no coinciding alteration of the trophic structure in the WTP.

  11. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  12. Changes in fatty acid composition and distribution of N-3 fatty acids in goat tissues fed different levels of whole linseed.

    PubMed

    Abuelfatah, Kamaleldin; Zakaria, Md Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  13. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  14. Changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacities during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: roles of membrane proteins, phospholipids and their fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Kraffe, Edouard; Marty, Yanic; Guderley, Helga

    2007-01-01

    diacylphosphatidylethanolamine/diacylphosphatidylcholine (diacylPE/diacylPC), whereas warm acclimation led to restructuring of fatty acids (FA) and to increases of plasmalogen forms of PE and PC. Modification of overall membrane unsaturation did not appear to be the primary aim of restructuring membrane FA during warm acclimation, as total mitochondrial phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes only showed slight shifts of their acyl composition with warm acclimation. On the other hand, natural lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) showed dramatic changes in FA content, as 16:0 and 18:1n-9 doubled whereas 22:6n-3 decreased from around 50% to 32% in warm acclimated trout. Similarly, in cardiolipin (CL), the levels of 16:0 and 18:1n-7 halved while 18:2n-6 increased to over 20% of the FA with warm acclimation. Given the central role of CL in modulating the activity of CCO, F(0)F(1)-ATPase and ANT, these changes suggest that specific compositional changes in CL are important modulators of mitochondrial capacities. The many structural changes in membrane lipids contrast with the limited modifications of the membrane protein components examined and support the concept of lipid structure modulating mitochondrial capacities. PMID:17170158

  15. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  16. Source and compositional changes of soil organic matter in an acidic forest soil - from top- to subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angst, Gerrit; John, Stephan; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2014-05-01

    Subsoils can significantly contribute to the terrestrial C pool. While processes of C turnover and storage in topsoils are generally well understood, little is known about subsoils. Our project, embedded within the DFG research group FOR 1806, aims to contribute to the knowledge about subsoil C by differentiating soil organic matter (SOM) in terms of its origin and its composition. In order to obtain a meaningful sample set we studied three soil ditches, 3.15 m in length and 2.15 m in depth, in a podzolic Cambisol under European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) north of Hannover, Germany. In a to date unique sampling approach we took 64 soil samples in a regular vertical grid in each of the soil profiles, thus identifying possible gradients between top- and subsoil. The samples were subjected to a combined density and particle size fractionation to separate particulate organic matter (POM) from mineral compartments. We especially aimed at obtaining the combined fine silt and clay fraction which is thought to be most important in the long term stabilization of SOM. The chemical composition of the so obtained fractions and the bulk soil was revealed by C, N and 13C CPMAS NMR measurements. The source of OM in the soil was investigated by tracing the biopolymers cutin and suberin across the soil profile. Cutin occurs mainly in the cuticula of leaves while suberin mainly constitutes the endodermal cell walls of plant roots. In soils the two polymers can thus be used as proxies for above and belowground OM input respectively. To release the constituting monomers of the two biopolymers from the soil samples the latter were pretreated with organic solvents to extract free lipids. The soil residues were subsequently subjected to a base hydrolysis and the so obtained extracts were measured with GC/MS. The organic C contents of the bulk soil decrease significantly with depth in all transects from around 15 mg g-1 to 2 mg g-1. This is likely associated with the very high sand and

  17. A modified weighted mixture model for the interpretation of spatial and temporal changes in the microbial communities in drinking water reservoirs using compositional phospholipid fatty acid data.

    PubMed

    Stanimirova, I; Woznica, A; Plociniczak, T; Kwasniewski, M; Karczewski, J

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to check whether a methodology based on the analysis of data that contain the entire phospholipid fatty acid, PLFA, compositions of water samples can be successfully used to interpret spatial and temporal changes in the microbial communities in water reservoirs. The proposed methodology consists of the construction of a modified weighted multivariate mixture model for the PLFA profiles of the water samples collected in a given monitoring campaign and the identification of latent PLFA components through a comparison with the known PLFA profiles of some cultivated or non-cultivated microbial communities. A 16S rDNA analysis of some of the selected water samples in the monitoring campaign was performed in order to verify the results of the PLFA analysis. The results showed that the proposed methodology can be useful for a dynamic and sensitive evaluation of changes in the microbial quality of water before and after flash flooding and can help in taking a decision regarding further risk assessment. PMID:27591599

  18. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  19. Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Bogue (Boops boops) Fish during Storage at Different Temperatures by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ciampa, Alessandra; Picone, Gianfranco; Laghi, Luca; Nikzad, Homa; Capozzi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to obtain information about the changes occurring in Bogue (Boops boops) fish during storage. For this purpose, 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 600 MHz on trichloroacetic acid extracts of fish flesh stored over a 15 days period both at 4 °C and on ice. Such spectra allowed the identification and quantification of amino acids, together with the main organic acids and alcohols. The concentration of acidic and basic free amino acids was generally found to increase and decrease during storage, respectively. These concentration changes were slow during the first days, as a consequence of protein autolysis, and at higher rates afterward, resulting from microbial development. Two of the amino acids that showed the greatest concentration change were alanine and glycine, known to have a key role in determining the individual taste of different fish species. The concentration of serine decreased during storage, as highlighted in the literature for frozen fish samples. Differences in the amino acids concentration trends were found to be related to the different storage temperatures from day 4 onwards. PMID:22822452

  20. Changes in the Cytoplasmic Composition of Amino Acids and Proteins Observed in Staphylococcus aureus during Growth under Variable Growth Conditions Representative of the Human Wound Site

    PubMed Central

    Alreshidi, Mousa M.; Dunstan, R. Hugh; Gottfries, Johan; Macdonald, Margaret M.; Crompton, Marcus J.; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a high proportion of nosocomial infections. This study was conducted to assess the bacterial responses in the cytoplasmic composition of amino acids and ribosomal proteins under various environmental conditions designed to mimic those on the human skin or within a wound site: pH6-8, temperature 35–37°C, and additional 0–5% NaCl. It was found that each set of environmental conditions elicited substantial adjustments in cytoplasmic levels of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, alanine and glycine (P< 0.05). These alterations generated characteristic amino acid profiles assessed by principle component analysis (PCA). Substantial alterations in cytoplasmic amino acid and protein composition occurred during growth under conditions of higher salinity stress implemented via additional levels of NaCl in the growth medium. The cells responded to additional NaCl at pH 6 by reducing levels of ribosomal proteins, whereas at pH 8 there was an upregulation of ribosomal proteins compared with the reference control. The levels of two ribosomal proteins, L32 and S19, remained constant across all experimental conditions. The data supported the hypothesis that the bacterium was continually responding to the dynamic environment by modifying the proteome and optimising metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27442022

  1. Changes in diet, body mass and fatty acid composition during pre-hibernation in a subtropical bat in relation to NPY and AgRP expression.

    PubMed

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Hefetz, Abraham; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, mammals accumulate large amounts of fat in their bodies. In temperate mammalian species, hibernation is improved by increasing the levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the body. The saturation of fatty acids (FA) in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and membrane phospholipids of mammals often reflects their diet composition. We found that the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) accumulates large amounts of fat at the end of summer by gradually shifting to a fat-rich diet (queen carpenter ants, Camponotus felah). PUFA are almost absent in this diet (<1 % of total FA), which contains a high fraction of saturated (SFA) and mono-unsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. We found similar low levels of PUFA in mouse-tailed bat WAT, but not in their heart total lipids. The expression of two appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) hypothalamic neuropeptides, AgRP and NPY, increased in parallel to the shift in diet and with fat gain in these bats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only documented example of specific pre-hibernation diet in bats, and one which reveals the most saturated FA composition ever documented in a mammal. We suggest that the increase in expression levels of NPY and AgRP may contribute to the observed diet shift and mass gain, and that the FA composition of the bat's specialized diet is adaptive in the relatively high temperatures we recorded in both their winter and summer roosts. PMID:22843120

  2. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  3. Chemical composition of acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Jacob, D.J.; Flagan, R.C.; Morgan, J.J.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1982-11-12

    Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation and evaporation of water vapor on preexisting aerosol and the scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid.

  4. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27315139

  5. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  6. Changes in the fatty acid composition and regulation of antioxidant enzymes and physiology of juvenile genetically improved farmed tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), subjected to short-term low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    He, J; Qiang, J; Yang, H; Xu, P; Zhu, Z X; Yang, R Q

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of cold shock on the fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzymes, and physiological responses of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT). Experimental GIFT tilapia, a warm-water teleost, were initially acclimated at 28°C and then transferred directly to 13°C. Stress responses were monitored for 120h. There was a significant change in all parameters in response to the cold stressor (P<0.05). Serum cortisol levels increased from 336.93ng/ml to a peak of 1165.31ng/ml 24h after the initial cold shock, and declined rapidly thereafter. Serum glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the low temperature group than the control group at 120h (P<0.05). Acute low temperature stress enhanced superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels in the liver of GIFT tilapia. The GIFT tilapia were able to selectively metabolize fatty acids for energy needs during the early period of exposure to low-temperature stress. During this time, they primarily used saturated fatty acids for energy. However as the duration of the stressor and loss of muscle fat increased, the fish began to metabolize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Increased malondialdehyde was produced by oxidation of these fatty acids leading to oxidative damage. Our results provide insight into the changes in fatty acid metabolism physiology that allow GIFT tilapia juveniles to adapt to short-term cold stress. PMID:26590460

  7. Abscisic Acid Deficiency Causes Changes in Cuticle Permeability and Pectin Composition That Influence Tomato Resistance to Botrytis cinerea1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Curvers, Katrien; Seifi, Hamed; Mouille, Grégory; de Rycke, Riet; Asselbergh, Bob; Van Hecke, Annelies; Vanderschaeghe, Dieter; Höfte, Herman; Callewaert, Nico; Van Breusegem, Frank; Höfte, Monica

    2010-01-01

    A mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with reduced abscisic acid (ABA) production (sitiens) exhibits increased resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. This resistance is correlated with a rapid and strong hydrogen peroxide-driven cell wall fortification response in epidermis cells that is absent in tomato with normal ABA production. Moreover, basal expression of defense genes is higher in the mutant compared with the wild-type tomato. Given the importance of this fast response in sitiens resistance, we investigated cell wall and cuticle properties of the mutant at the chemical, histological, and ultrastructural levels. We demonstrate that ABA deficiency in the mutant leads to increased cuticle permeability, which is positively correlated with disease resistance. Furthermore, perturbation of ABA levels affects pectin composition. sitiens plants have a relatively higher degree of pectin methylesterification and release different oligosaccharides upon inoculation with B. cinerea. These results show that endogenous plant ABA levels affect the composition of the tomato cuticle and cell wall and demonstrate the importance of cuticle and cell wall chemistry in shaping the outcome of this plant-fungus interaction. PMID:20709830

  8. Polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1991-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyolefin being thermally form stable; the composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  9. Changes in membrane fatty acid composition through proton-induced fabF mutation enhancing 1-butanol tolerance in E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Kim, Sun Hong; Han, Sang Soo; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Keun Chul

    2012-07-01

    While a rational approach based on genomic data has become the preferred method for microbial strain development, radiation-induced random mutagenesis is still a robust method for organisms such as plants whose genome or target gene information is unavailable. We previously reported on a combined approach that consists of proton irradiation and a long-term experimental evolution to enhance 1-butanol tolerance of the E. coli C strain so that it can be used as a basal strain for the production of 1-butanol, a potential biofuel along with ethanol. Genome sequencing of one randomly chosen clone (PKH5000) from the endpoint population revealed eleven mutations occurring in the coding regions, and we found that a mutation (F74C) in fabF gene encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthases II is associated with a twofold increase in the major unsaturated fatty acid, cis-vaccenic acid. The increase of cis-vaccenic acid by wild-type FabF, which is more active at low temperatures or in the presence of organic compounds, is considered to be a protective mechanism against cold stress. A structural analysis of the FabF protein suggests that the F74C mutation may affect the enzyme activity through a change in flexibility around the catalytic site. The expression of a plasmid that harbors mutant fabF gene in the fabF knockout strain enhanced growth in a medium containing butanol with a concomitant elevation of the cis-vaccenic acid level. Among the eight available Keio knockout strains for genes that have amino acid substitution in the PKH5000 strain, the fabF mutant showed the slowest growth in the presence of 0.7% butanol. We propose that fabF, as probably the gene most responsible for butanol tolerance in wild-type form, contributes further when converted into a F74C missense mutation, which is beneficial as it increases the level of cis-vaccenic acid.

  10. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  11. Modification of fillet composition and evidence of differential fatty acid turnover in sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis following change in dietary lipid source.

    PubMed

    Lane, Ryan L; Trushenski, Jesse T; Kohler, Christopher C

    2006-11-01

    Marine oil-based finishing diets have been used to restore fillet FA profile in several "medium-fat" fleshed aquaculture species, and a simple dilution model describing FA turnover has been established to predict and tailor final fillet composition. We evaluated finishing diet efficacy and suitability of the dilution model to describe patterns of FA change in a lean-fleshed model, sunshine bass. Two practical diets (45% crude protein, 15% crude lipid) were formulated, respectively containing corn oil (CO) or menhaden oil (MO) as the primary lipid sources. Sunshine bass (age 1 [approximately 14 mo], 347 +/- 8.6 g, mean individual weight +/- SEM) were stocked in a recirculating system and fed the diets according to different feeding regimens during the final 28 wk of the production cycle. Control groups were fed the CO or the MO feeds exclusively; whereas, the remaining treatment groups were transitioned from the CO diet to the MO diet at 4-, 8-, or 12-wk intervals. Upon completion of the feeding trial, fish were harvested, and production performance and fillet composition were assessed. Replacing MO with CO as the primary lipid source in sunshine bass diets yielded fillets with distinctly different FA profiles; however, finishing with a MO-based diet offered significant compensation for CO-associated reductions in fillet long-chain highly unsaturated FA (LC-HUFA). Although complete restoration was not observed, we achieved significant augmentation of endogenous n-3 FA within 4 wk of feeding the MO diet, and observed a significant increase in LC-HUFA and a beneficial shift in n-3:n-6 FA ratio after 8 weeks. Simple dilution accurately predicted tissue composition for most FA; however, deviations from the model were noted, suggesting selective retention of n-3, PUFA, and LC-HUFA and preferential catabolism of saturates. We conclude marine oil-based finishing diets can rapidly augment beneficial FA levels in sunshine bass fillets; however, simple dilution models do not

  12. Compositional changes during ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    Ion irradiation initiates several processes that can alter the composition of the target. This presentation provides an overview of our current understanding of these kinetics processes, which include implantation, sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion, and radiation-induced segregation. The latter two effects can alter the target composition to depths that are substantially greater than the projected ion range. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Biochemical passive reactors for treatment of acid mine drainage: Effect of hydraulic retention time on changes in efficiency, composition of reactive mixture, and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Yaneth; Escobar, Maria C; Neculita, Carmen M; Arbeli, Ziv; Roldan, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical passive treatment represents a promising option for the remediation of acid mine drainage. This study determined the effect of three hydraulic retention times (1, 2, and 4 days) on changes in system efficiency, reactive mixture, and microbial activity in bioreactors under upward flow conditions. Bioreactors were sacrificed in the weeks 8, 17 and 36, and the reactive mixture was sampled at the bottom, middle, and top layers. Physicochemical analyses were performed on reactive mixture post-treatment and correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria and cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity. All hydraulic retention times were efficient at increasing pH and alkalinity and removing sulfate (>60%) and metals (85-99% for Fe(2+) and 70-100% for Zn(2+)), except for Mn(2+). The longest hydraulic retention time (4 days) increased residual sulfides, deteriorated the quality of treated effluent and negatively impacted sulfate-reducing bacteria. Shortest hydraulic retention time (1 day) washed out biomass and increased input of dissolved oxygen in the reactors, leading to higher redox potential and decreasing metal removal efficiency. Concentrations of iron, zinc and metal sulfides were high in the bottom layer, especially with 2 day of hydraulic retention time. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity were higher in the middle layer at 4 days of hydraulic retention time. Hydraulic retention time had a strong influence on overall performance of passive reactors. PMID:27016821

  14. Analyzing the compositional changes in receivables.

    PubMed

    Loree, S W

    1986-12-01

    A technique is proposed that applies variance analysis to the aged trial balance to break down the total change in reserve requirement, from one balance sheet date to the next, into a volume variance, a composition variance, and a rate variance. This breakdown allows the accountant or auditor to focus on compositional changes in the trial balance that contribute to otherwise irreconcilable changes in the provision requirement. An assessment of the reasons behind these compositional changes may result in adjustments to the reservation rates or to the provision amount to help bring the asset valuation into line with the income statement adjustments to revenue. PMID:10279253

  15. Associations between a fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphism and blood arachidonic acid compositions in Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Sayaka; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Ishijima, Akiko; Minezaki, Takayuki; Baba, Mamiko; Kontai, Yoshiko; Horikawa, Chika; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism rs174547 (T/C) of the fatty acid desaturase-1 gene, FADS1, is associated with changes in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipid (PL) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition in elderly Japanese participants (n=124; 65 years or older; self-feeding and oral intake). The rs174547 C-allele carriers had significantly lower arachidonic acid (ARA; n-6 PUFA) and higher linoleic acid (LA, n-6 PUFA precursor) levels in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL (15% and 6% ARA reduction, respectively, per C-allele), suggesting a low LA to ARA conversion rate in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL of C-allele carriers. α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA precursor) levels were higher in the plasma PL of C-allele carriers, whereas levels of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were unchanged in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL. Thus, rs174547 genotypes were significantly associated with different ARA compositions of the blood of elderly Japanese. PMID:26869086

  16. The effect of diet on the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria and myelin in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, L.

    1965-01-01

    1. Three groups of female rats (8–12 weeks old) were maintained respectively on a linoleic acid-rich diet, a linoleic acid-poor predominantly saturated-fatty acid diet and a normal diet. Changes in the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin were observed. 2. Of the serum fatty acids, linoleic acid showed the greatest change in the percentage of the total acids in response to diet; the change in the proportion of oleic acid was considerable. The percentages of arachidonic acid in serum fatty acids in the groups on the linoleic acid-rich and linoleic acid-poor diets were similar, but higher than those in the normal group. 3. Changes in the proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid occurred in brain fatty acids that to some extent paralleled those occurring in the serum. Changes in the proportions of most other acids in the serum fatty acids were not accompanied by corresponding changes in the brain fatty acids. 4. The percentage fatty acid compositions of a mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin are given, and changes in the relative proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and possibly some docosapolyenoic acids were demonstrated to occur as a result of diet. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the possible aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:5881652

  17. Changes in composition and amino acid profile during dry grind ethanol processing from corn and estimation of yeast contribution toward DDGS proteins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn, yeast, intermediate masses and DDGS were collected from three commercial ethanol plants in Iowa. Samples were freeze-dried before chemical analysis. Compared to ground corn, there was slight increase in contents of protein, oil, ash, and amino acids (AA) before fermentati...

  18. Selection of acid compositions in well construction in difficult geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. V.; Kamartdinov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Within the scope of the current work we have presented an approach towards selecting and substantiation of acid composition in accordance with petrophysical characteristics of formations for acid treatment of bottom-hole formation zones. Article presents the results of lab tests of selected acid compositions, in conditions, which model thermobaric conditions of a payzone, combined with an evaluation of hydraulic permeability change, and this, in its turn, should allow us to evaluate the quality of impact of the acid composition recipe on the reservoir formation.

  19. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingzhi; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat. PMID:26761795

  20. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  1. Changes in tissue lipid and fatty acid composition of farmed rainbow trout in response to dietary camelina oil as a replacement of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil (CO) replaced 50 and 100 % of fish oil (FO) in diets for farmed rainbow trout (initial weight 44 ± 3 g fish(-1)). The oilseed is particularly unique due to its high lipid content (40 %) and high amount of 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) (30 %). Replacing 100 % of fish oil with camelina oil did not negatively affect growth of rainbow trout after a 12-week feeding trial (FO = 168 ± 32 g fish(-1); CO = 184 ± 35 g fish(-1)). Lipid and fatty acid profiles of muscle, viscera and skin were significantly affected by the addition of CO after 12 weeks of feeding. However, final 22:6n-3 [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and 20:5n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] amounts (563 mg) in a 75 g fillet (1 serving) were enough to satisfy daily DHA and EPA requirements (250 mg) set by the World Health Organization. Other health benefits include lower SFA and higher MUFA in filets fed CO versus FO. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) confirmed that the δ(13)C isotopic signature of DHA in CO fed trout shifted significantly compared to DHA in FO fed trout. The shift in DHA δ(13)C indicates mixing of a terrestrial isotopic signature compared to the isotopic signature of DHA in fish oil-fed tissue. These results suggest that ~27 % of DHA was synthesized from the terrestrial and isotopically lighter ALA in the CO diet rather than incorporation of DHA from fish meal in the CO diet. This was the first study to use CSIA in a feeding experiment to demonstrate synthesis of DHA in fish. PMID:24264359

  2. Amino acid composition of humic substances in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral amino acid fragments of humic and fulvic acid molecules from tundra soils have been identified and quantified. A significant weight fraction of amino acids has been found in humic acid preparations, which exceeds their content in fulvic acids. Features of the amino acid composition of humic substances along the soil profile and depending on the degree of hydromorphism and the proportions of different (neutral, basic, acidic, cyclic) groups in amino acids have been revealed. The molar ratio between the hydroxy and heterocyclic amino acids reflects the degree of humification of the soil.

  3. Sulfur deficiency changes mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) composition of Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937: a possible role of sulfur in MAA bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Klisch, Manfred; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation we show for the first time that bioconversion of a primary mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) into a secondary MAA is regulated by sulfur deficiency in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937. This cyanobacterium synthesizes the primary MAA shinorine (RT = 2.2 min, lambda(max) = 334 nm) under normal conditions (PAR + UV-A + UV-B); however, under sulfur deficiency, a secondary MAA palythine-serine (RT = 3.9 min, lambda(max) = 320 nm) appears. Addition of methionine to sulfur-deficient cultures resulted in the disappearance of palythine-serine, suggesting the role of primary MAAs under sulfur deficiency in recycling of methionine by donating the methyl group from the glycine subunit of shinorine to tetrahydrofolate to regenerate the methionine from homocysteine. This is also the first report for the synthesis of palythine-serine by cyanobacteria which has so far been reported only from corals. Addition of methionine also affected the conversion of mycosporine-glycine into shinorine, consequently, resulted in the appearance of mycosporine-glycine (RT = 3.6 min, lambda(max) = 310 nm). Our results also suggest that palythine-serine is synthesized from shinorine. Based on these results we propose that glycine decarboxylase is the potential enzyme that catalyzes the bioconversion of shinorine to palythine-serine by decarboxylation and demethylation of the glycine unit of shinorine. PMID:20456655

  4. Student Concept Changes in Acids and Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Renmin; Wells, Raymond R.

    This study focuses on student concept changes in acids and bases. Variables include field dependent level, personal independence level, interest in science or chemistry, teaching strategy, and student gender. This study of Grade 10 students (N=81) provides information relevant to secondary school chemistry learning, teaching, and concept change.…

  5. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal E.; Chiu, Simon; Cernovsky, Zack Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate) related to this increase. Patients and Methods: Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women). Results: Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05) increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI), % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions: Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health. PMID:27162765

  6. Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.

    2011-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced

  7. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The δ13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  8. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  9. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  10. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  11. Relatedness of acyl carrier proteins shown by amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Walker, T A; Ernst-Fonberg, M L

    1982-01-01

    1. Relatedness among the following carrier proteins was assessed on the basis of amino acid compositions: eight acyl carrier proteins (ACP's) associated with fatty acid synthesis, ACP's associated with citrate lyase and citramalate lyase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein and cytochrome 552. Two independent indices of amino acid composition were used. 2. The fatty acid synthesis-associated ACP's of many organisms and the lyase-associated ACP's show a high degree of relatedness among one another. 3. The ACP's show no relatedness to biotin carboxyl carrier protein or cytochrome 552. PMID:7128903

  12. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  13. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid induce changes in the physical properties of a lipid bilayer model membrane.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Morishita, Mariko; Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Tokiwa, Shinji; Takayama, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA, 18:0), oleic acid (OA, 18:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer by determining the phase transition temperature, fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), and detergent insolubility. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acid broadened and shifted the phase transitions of the DPPC bilayer to a lower temperature. The phase transition temperature and the value of fluorescence anisotropy of DPH at 37 degrees C decreased progressively with increasing treatment amounts of unsaturated fatty acid. A large amount of the DPPC bilayer treated with unsaturated fatty acid was dissolved in Triton X-100, obtaining a low level of detergent insolubility. These modifications of the bilayer physical properties were most pronounced with DHA and EPA treatment. These data show that unsaturated fatty acids, particularly DHA and EPA, induce a marked change in the lipid bilayer structure. The composition of fatty acids in the DPPC bilayer was similar after treatment with various unsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the different actions of unsaturated fatty acids are attributed to change in the molecular structure (e.g., kinked conformation by double bonds). We further explored the change in physical properties induced by fatty acids dispersed in a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion and found that unsaturated fatty acids acted efficiently on the DPPC bilayer, even when incorporated in emulsion form. PMID:16394552

  15. [Effect of organic composition of humic acids on Enterobacteria multiplication].

    PubMed

    Buzoleva, L S; Sidorenko, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enterobacteria have been found to be capable of active multiplication in humic acids isolated from bentonite clays containing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Humic acids fractions have been found to be heterogeneous by their molecular weight and organic composition; consequently, they have been found to produce different influence in the multiplication of bacteria. PMID:11548272

  16. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  17. Tropospheric Composition Change observed from Space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Leitao, J.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the troposphere is largely influenced by surface emissions of both natural and anthropogenic origins. These emissions change over time as result of human activities and natural variability, leading to varying atmospheric levels of primary and secondary pollutants. Satellite observations of sun light scattered back by the surface and the atmosphere can be used to retrieve information on atmospheric trace gases by application of optical absorption spectroscopy. In the UV and visible part of the spectrum, these measurements have good sensitivity to the lower troposphere providing information on relevant species such as O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO or glyoxal. Here, we report on recent results on tropospheric composition changes obtained from the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments which have a combined data record of nearly 15 years. The focus is on NO2 which shows an increasing trend over Asia and many large cities in countries with growing economies. At the same time, significant reductions are observed over the US and Europe, probably as result of changes in environmental legislation. SO2 signals have been decreasing over the US since 1996 while a strong upward trend was evident over China until recently when desulphurisation of power plant emissions came into effect. There also is evidence for increases in VOC levels over China which could be either of anthropogenic origin or from biogenic emissions.

  18. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  19. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  20. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with semen quality. In addition, the composition of fatty acids of spermatozoa has been shown to be important for their function. The aim of the study was to examine the association between BMI and the composition of spermatozoa fatty acids in men spanning a broad BMI range. We also analysed the relation between fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and semen characteristics, and the relationship between serum fatty acids and spermatozoa fatty acids. One hundred forty-four men with unknown fertility status were recruited from the general population, from couples with identified female infertility and from morbid obesity centres. Standard semen analysis (WHO) and sperm DNA integrity (DFI) analysis were performed. Fatty acid compositions were assessed by gas chromatography. When adjusted for possible confounders, BMI was negatively associated with levels of sperm docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p < 0.001) and palmitic acid (p < 0.001). The amount of sperm DHA correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.482), sperm concentration (r = 0.469), sperm vitality (r = 0.354), progressive sperm motility (r = 0.431) and normal sperm morphology (r = 0.265). A negative association was seen between DHA levels and DNA fragmentation index (r = -0.247). Levels of spermatozoa palmitic acid correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.227), while levels of linoleic acid correlated negatively (r = -0.254). When adjusted for possible confounders, only the levels of arachidonic acid showed positive correlation between spermatozoa and serum phospholipids (r = 0.262). Changes in the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa could be one of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between BMI and semen quality. The relationship between fatty acids of spermatozoa and serum phospholipids was minor, which indicates that BMI affects fatty acid composition of spermatozoa through regulation of fatty acid

  1. [Amino acid composition of rice grain proteins].

    PubMed

    Peruanskiĭ, Iu V; Savich, I M

    1976-01-01

    The composition of the major reserve proteins of rice grain--globulins, prolamines and glutelins--was examined in four rice varieties (Dubovsky 129, Kuban 3, Alakul, Ushtobinsky). Globulins proved to be most heterogeneous whereas glutelins appeared to be least heterogeneous. In regards to the ratio of components globulins showed high variability and glutelins displayed high stability. PMID:1005365

  2. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  3. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle. PMID:7070040

  4. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  5. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  6. Iron oxohydroxide-polyacrylic acid magnetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata-Zamora, M. E.; Arriola, H.; Nava, N.; Saniger, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    Powdered nanometer-sized precipitates of Fe(II)Fe(III) 2O x(OH) y were obtained by reacting solutions of ferrous-ferric salts with a Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio < 2, with an excess of ammonium hydroxide. These precipitates were then mixed at room temperature with a solution of polyacrylic acid (PAA) in order to obtain a composite material. The XRD analysis showed that the iron oxohydroxide precipitates, with an average size around 10 nm, were crystalline and had a spinel structure resembling to either magnetite or maghemite. The Mössbauer spectra of the iron oxohydroxide particles presented a major magnetic phase with the double Zeeman splitting characteristic of magnetite and a minor paramagnetic phase probably originated by the nanometer size of the particles. Its structure was found to correspond to a disordered spinel, as result of the analysis of the intrinsic magnetic field and its splitting parameters. The composite material PAA-Fe(II)Fe(III) 2O x(OH) y presented a diffractogram close to the original oxohydroxide, but its Mössbauer spectrum showed a major paramagnetic phase. This change was explained as a consequence of the chemical coordination of the nanometer sized iron oxohydroxides particles with the PAA carboxylate groups.

  7. Changes to Lignin Phenol and Hydroxy Alkanoic Acid yStable Carbon Isotope Composition and Concentration in ySoil Fractions from a Grassland/Woodland Conversion in ya Subtropical Savannay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T.; Gamblin, D.; Boutton, T.; Liao, J.; Jastrow, J.

    2005-12-01

    The response of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools to changes in land cover during woody yplant encroachment is an issue of great importance to soil carbon modeling as grassland ysoils represent a major Earth C stock. Bulk assessments of carbon turn over in soils can ybe obtained in systems where C4 plants are being replaced by C3 trees using stable yisotope modeling along a chronosequence. Few SOC studies, however, approach the yquestion of carbon storage and turn over at the compound specific level even though ybiopolymers turnover at vastly different rates and have selective affinities for long term ypreservation. Defining what compound classes represent relatively recalcitrant or labile ypools can be made in such systems where intrinsic differences in stable isotope ycomposition and molecular chemistry are very large. We quantified changes in lignin yphenol and hydroxyl alkanoic acid chemistry and stable carbon isotope composition of ysize and density fractionated soil from the Rio Grande Plains of Texas where C4 ygrasslands (δ13C = -14%) have undergone succession to subtropical thorn woodland ydominated by C3 trees/shrubs (δ13C = -27%) over an 80 year chronosequence. yComparison of the extant of conversion of the grassland SOM to C3 carbon by bulk SOC yisotope modeling to that obtained using compound specific isotope analysis of lignin yphenols in the microaggreagate (53-250 microns), macroaggregates (>250 microns), and ythe microaggregated particulate organic matter (<1.8 g/cc) demonstrates faster turn over yfor the average bulk pool than for lignin. Additionally, p-hyroxy lignin converts to C3 at yabout twice the rate as does vanillyl and syringyl lignin phenol pools reflecting both ydifferences in input rate and ease by which the different pools can be degraded by ymicrobes. The relative extent of turn over between the physical fractions remained the ysame in the two analyses with macroaggrgates>microaggregated pom>microaggregates. yThis work adds to a

  8. Properties of polylactic acid composites reinforced with oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Zakaria, Zainoha; Inuwa, I M; Islam, M S; Jawaid, M

    2013-10-15

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm biomass were successfully prepared through solution casting. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that there are no significant changes in the peak positions, suggesting that incorporation of MCC in PLA did not result in any significant change in chemical structure of PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on the samples. The T50 decomposition temperature improved with addition of MCC, showing increase in thermal stability of the composites. The synthesized composites were characterized in terms of tensile properties. The Young's modulus increased by about 30%, while the tensile strength and elongation at break for composites decreased with addition of MCC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites fractured surface shows that the MCC remained as aggregates of crystalline cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic image of the composite surfaces show clustering of MCC with uneven distribution. PMID:23987327

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  10. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Composition changes in refrigerant blends for automotive air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, J.J.; Delafield, F.R.; Ng, A.S.; Ratanaphruks, K.; Tufts, M.W.

    1999-07-01

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace the chlorofluorocarbon R-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in blend compositions caused no significant changes in refrigeration capacities. However, when recommended procedures were not followed, changes in compositions were relatively large. The amount of change in composition and the resulting effect on performance varied among the three refrigerant blends that were tested. Of the three blends, a quaternary blend containing hydrochlorofluorocarbon R-22 had the greatest changes in composition, while a binary blend containing hydrofluorocarbon R-134a had the smallest changes in composition.

  13. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  14. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  15. Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1990-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  16. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  17. Morphologic changes in livers of hamsters treated with high doses of ursodeoxycholic acid: correlation with bile acids in bile.

    PubMed

    Mamianetti, A; Konopka, H F; Lago, N; Vescina, C; Scarlato, E; Carducci, C N

    1994-01-01

    The effects of high doses of ursodeoxycholic acid on bile acid composition and the liver morphology was examined in 60 male Syrian golden hamsters. The animals were allocated to five groups: I, control; II and IV received 0.5 g and 1 g of ursodeoxycholic acid per 100 g of standard diet respectively over 30 days and III and V received 0.5 g and 1 g of ursodeoxycholic acid per 100 g of standard diet respectively over 60 days. Bile acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. In all treated groups there was a significant increase in chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acid in the bile. The mean glyco/tauro ratio was significantly higher than in the control group, reaching values > 1 for individual bile acids, except for lithocholic acid values which remained < 1. Under light microscopy, the livers of the hamsters showed damage which was dose/time related, namely portal inflammatory infiltrate, bile duct proliferation, cholestasis, fat infiltration and necrosis. Electron microscopy revealed pronounced changes starting with microvilli edema and extending to canalicular membrane destruction and necrosis. The changes observed in the relation glyco/tauro lithocholic acids, may be due to defence mechanisms to avoid hepatotoxicity. The hepatotoxicity resulting from ursodeoxycholic acid administration is presumed to be due primarily to lithocholic acid or some lithocholic acid metabolite. PMID:8058592

  18. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  19. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  20. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  1. [Influence of rations with various linoleic acid contents on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood platelets of rats].

    PubMed

    Atrokhov, V V; Markov, Kh M

    1987-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in platelets of Wistar-Kioto rats which received semisynthetic rations with varying content of linoleic acid, 1 week prenatally and 18 weeks postnatally. In ration I the level of 18:2n6 was lower than 0.1 cal%, ration II contained 9.0 cal%, and ration III -- 16.0 cal%. Ration III, as compared to ration II, induced an increase in the content of linoleic fatty acids, arachidonic fatty acid content being unchanged. Ration I, as compared to ration II induced a decrease in linoleic fatty acid content, and an increase in the content of oleic and linolenic fatty acids attended by the appearance of appreciable amounts of 20:3n9 and 20:5n3. Long-term linoleic acid deficiency induced no changes in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in platelet phospholipids of rats given ration I. This is an evidence of high reserve possibilities of the mechanisms regulating fatty acid metabolism in the mammals. PMID:2894094

  2. Electrochromism of electrochemically codeposited composites of phosphomolybdic acid and tungsten trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, B.H.; Lee, J.Y.

    1996-09-01

    The electrochromism of phosphomolybdic acid (PM) in solution and in a series of solid WO{sub 3}-PM composites is investigated. PM in solution changes color from light yellow to dark blue upon reduction whereas the composites show a change from light yellow to bluish brown under identical conditions. PM could not be deposited as a thin film by itself, and electrochemical codeposition was used to incorporate it into the WO{sub 3} matrix. The basic electrochromatic properties of WO{sub 3} are changed upon the incorporation of PM even in small quantities. The composites have a more intense color, a different cold spectrum, and a slower electrochromic response speed than that of WO{sub 3}. The composites, like WO{sub 3}, are also degraded by slow and continuous potential cycling.

  3. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  4. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  5. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  6. MATERNAL EFFECTS FOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOYBEAN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) oil accounts for nearly half of the edible vegetable oil production worldwide. The fatty acid composition of soybean seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand to produce soy...

  7. Maternal Effects on Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. The success of developing soybean lines with genetically altered seed oil is greatly determined by the rate of genetic gain through selection. Maternal effec...

  8. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  9. Method of preparing and using and composition for acidizing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-08-21

    A composition and method of acidizing or fracturing a subterranean formation comprises contacting the formation with a composition comprising an acid, urea, and a selected gelling agent. The urea is present in an amount sufficient to extend the viscous stability of the gelled acid composition in comparison to the acid and gelling agent alone.

  10. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  11. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  12. Mutations in p53 change phosphatidylinositol acyl chain composition

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Adam; Bencze, Gyula; Engle, Dannielle; Chio, Iok I. C.; Herzka, Tali; Watrud, Kaitlin; Bencze, Szilvia; Tuveson, David A.; Pappin, Darryl J; Trotman, Lloyd C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) second messengers relay extracellular growth cues through the phosphorylation status of the inositol sugar, a signal transduction system that is deregulated in cancer. In stark contrast to PIP inositol head group phosphorylation, changes in phosphatidylinositol (PI) lipid acyl chains in cancer have remained ill-defined. Here, we apply a mass spectrometry-based method capable of unbiased high-throughput identification and quantification of cellular PI acyl chain composition. Using this approach we find that PI lipid chains represent a cell-specific fingerprint and are unperturbed by serum-mediated signaling in contrast to the inositol head group. We find that mutation of Trp53 results in PIs containing reduced-length fatty acid moieties. Our results suggest that the anchoring tails of lipid second messengers form an additional layer of PIP signaling in cancer that operates independently of PTEN/PI3-Kinase activity, but is instead linked somehow to p53. PMID:25543136

  13. Amino acid nitrogen isotopic composition patterns in lacustrine sedimenting matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Dörte; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2013-11-01

    Amino acids (AAs) comprise a large fraction of organic nitrogen (N) in plankton and sedimenting matter. Aquatic studies of organic N compounds in general and of AAs in particular, mostly concentrate on marine environments. In order to study the cycling and fate of organic N and AAs in lakes, we measured the N isotopic composition (δ15N) of bulk organic matter (OM) and of single hydrolysable AAs in sediment trap and sediment samples from two Swiss lakes with contrasting trophic state: Lake Brienz, an oligotrophic lake with an oxic water column, and Lake Zug a eutrophic, meromictic lake. We also measured the N isotopic composition of water column nitrate, the likely inorganic N source during biosynthesis in both lakes. The δ15N-AA patterns found for the sediment trap material were consistent with published δ15N-AA data for marine plankton. The AA composition and primary δ15N-AA signatures are preserved until burial in the sediments. During early sedimentary diagenesis, the δ15N values of single AAs appear to increase, exceeding those of the bulk OM. This increase in δ15N-AA is paralleled by a decreased contribution of AAs to the total OM pool with progressed degradation, suggesting preferential AA degradation associated with a significant N isotope fractionation. Indicators for trophic level based on δ15N-AAs were determined, for the first time in lacustrine systems. In our samples, the trophic AAs were generally enriched in 15N compared to source AAs and higher trophic δ15N-AA values in Lake Zug were consistent with a higher trophic level of the bulk biomass compared to Lake Brienz. Especially the difference between average trophic δ15N-AAs and average source δ15N-AAs was sensitive to the trophic states of the two lakes. A proxy for total heterotrophic AA re-synthesis (ΣV), which is strongly associated with heterotrophic microbial reworking of the OM, was calculated based on δ15N values of trophic AAs. Higher ΣV in Lake Brienz indicate enhanced

  14. Acid rock drainage and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall events cause both increases and decreases in acid and metals concentrations and their loadings from mine wastes, and unmined mineralized areas, into receiving streams based on data from 3 mines sites in the United States and other sites outside the US. Gradual increases in concentrations occur during long dry spells and sudden large increases are observed during the rising limb of the discharge following dry spells (first flush). By the time the discharge peak has occurred, concentrations are usually decreased, often to levels below those of pre-storm conditions and then they slowly rise again during the next dry spell. These dynamic changes in concentrations and loadings are related to the dissolution of soluble salts and the flushing out of waters that were concentrated by evaporation. The underlying processes, pyrite oxidation and host rock dissolution, do not end until the pyrite is fully weathered, which can take hundreds to thousands of years. These observations can be generalized to predict future conditions caused by droughts related to El Ni??o and climate change associated with global warming. Already, the time period for dry summers is lengthening in the western US and rainstorms are further apart and more intense when they happen. Consequently, flushing of inactive or active mine sites and mineralized but unmined sites will cause larger sudden increases in concentrations that will be an ever increasing danger to aquatic life with climate change. Higher average concentrations will be observed during longer low-flow periods. Remediation efforts will have to increase the capacity of engineered designs to deal with more extreme conditions, not average conditions of previous years.

  15. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  16. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  17. Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, R; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-11-15

    The construction and performance of bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors for the selective determination of l- or d-amino acids is reported. D- or L-Amino acid oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and the mediator ferrocene were coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of a graphite-70% Teflon electrode matrix. Working conditions including amino acid oxidase loading and pH were optimized. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.00 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different biosensors illustrate the robustness of the bioelectrodes design. Calibration plots by both amperometry in stirred solutions and flow injection with amperometric detection were obtained for L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, D-leucine, D-methionine, D-serine, and D-valine. Differences in sensitivity were discussed in terms of the hydrophobicity of the substrate and of the electrode surface. The bienzyme composite electrode was applied to the determination of L- and D-amino acids in racemic samples, as well as to the estimation of the L-amino acids content in muscatel grapes. PMID:11700983

  18. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  19. Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

    1996-01-01

    One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes

  20. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  1. Nano composite phase change materials microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qingwen

    MicroPCMs with nano composite structures (NC-MicroPCMs) have been systematically studied. NC-MicroPCMs were fabricated by the in situ polymerization and addition of silver NPs into core-shell structures. A full factorial experiment was designed, including three factors of core/shell, molar ratio of formaldehyde/melamine and NPs addition. 12 MicroPCMs samples were prepared. The encapsulated efficiency is approximately 80% to 90%. The structural/morphological features of the NC-MicroPCMs were evaluated. The size was in a range of 3.4 mu m to 4.0 mu m. The coarse appearance is attributed to NPs and NPs are distributed on the surface, within the shell and core. The NC-MicroPCMs contain new chemical components and molecular groups, due to the formation of chemical bonds after the pretreatment of NPs. Extra X-ray diffraction peaks of silver were found indicating silver nano-particles were formed into an integral structure with the core/shell structure by means of chemical bonds and physical linkages. Extra functionalities were found, including: (1) enhancement of IR radiation properties; (2) depression of super-cooling, and (3) increase of thermal stabilities. The effects of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) arising from the silver nano-particles were observed. The Raman scattering intensity was magnified more than 100 times. These effects were also exhibited in macroscopic level in the fabric coatings as enhanced IR radiation properties were detected by the "Fabric Infrared Radiation Management Tester" (FRMT). "Degree of Crystallinity" (DOC) was measured and found the three factors have a strong influence on it. DOC is closely related to thermal stability and MicroPCMs with a higher DOC show better temperature resistance. The thermal regulating effects of the MicroPCMs coatings were studied. A "plateau regions" was detected around the temperature of phase change, showing the function of PCMs. Addition of silver nano-particles to the MicroPCMs has a positive

  2. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  3. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  4. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  5. A Phase-Change Composite for Use in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Ron S.

    1992-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop composite thermal insulations containing phase-change materials for use in the building envelope. The use of a phase-change insulation composite in the building envelope could result in a significant increase in energy efficiency. PhD Research provided candidate phase-change composites, and ORNL performed analytical and experimental evaluations of their thermal performance. The thermal resistance of the prototype panels was somewhat less than that of commercial products, although their thermal capacity was greater. Using these results, PhD Research has been working to modify the design and to produce practical building elements that incorporate phase-change material.

  6. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  7. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. PMID:26213005

  8. Melamine/Stearic Acid Composite Nanowires and Vesicles with an Intercalated Nanostructure Prepared through NCCM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Juan; Chen, Dao-yong

    2012-12-01

    A solvent-non-solvent method invented in our laboratory for preparing non-covalently connected micelles (NCCM) was used to intercalate melamine (MA) molecules into stearic acid (SA) bilayers to form the composite nanoparticles with an intercalated nanostructure in which a melamine bilayer is sandwiched between two stearic acid bilayers, NCCM method helps to sufficiently mix the two components in nanospace and meanwhile inhibits the strong tendency of self-crystallization of MA, leading to the intercalation. Although the nanoparticles have a regular inner structure, the primary MA/SA nanoparticles have an irregular morphology. Regular nanoparticles were obtained through annealing the suspension of the primary nanoparticles. Through annealing at different temperatures, the MA/SA composite nanowires and vesicles with an intercalated structure were prepared respectively. It is proposed that the morphological change results from the change in the intercalated structure.

  9. Fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Gomez Zavaglia, A; Disalvo, E A; De Antoni, G L

    2000-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance of eight strains of thermophilic lactobacilli were studied. Seven of these contained the same polar and neutral lipids, the five major components making up 90% of the cellular fatty acid pool being 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1 and C19 cyclopropane (cyc19:0). Strain comparison by means of cluster analysis based on the fatty acid ratios using the overlap coefficient revealed two well defined clusters. One was formed by three strains of species Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, the other included five strains of the species Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus and Lb. helveticus. Resistance of strains with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (66-70%) decreased with increasing cyc19:0 concentrations. In contrast, in strains with a low concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (42-49%), increasing cyc19:0 levels were associated with increased freeze-thaw resistance. PMID:10840678

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  11. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  12. Fatty acid composition analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao

    2003-04-01

    Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty acid content and composition have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1ω9) and oleic (18:1ω9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic acid (18:1ω11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.

  13. Composition of Humic Acids of the Lake Baikal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakova, O.; Chimitdorzhieva, G.; Andreeva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances are the final stage of the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter in the biosphere. Its natural compounds are found not only in soil, peat, coal, and sediments of basins. Chemical composition and properties of humic substances are determined by the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore the study of the unique Lake Baikal sediments can provide information about their genesis, as well as the processes of organic matter transformation. For this purpose, preparations of humic acids (HA) were isolated by alkaline extraction method. The composition of HA was investigated by the elemental analyzer CHNS/O PerkinElmer Series II. Various located sediments of the Lake Baikal were the objects of the study: 1 - Chivyrkuisky Bay, 2 - Kotovo Bay, 3 - Selenga river delta near Dubinino village, 4 - Selenga river delta near Murzino village. Data on the elemental composition of HA in terms of ash-free portion show that the carbon content (CC) is of 50-53% with a maximum value in a sample 3, and minimum - in a sample 2. Such values are characteristic also for the soils with low biochemical activity. The hydrogen content is of 4,2-5,3%, a maximum value is in a sample 1. Data recalculation to the atomic percentages identified following regularities. The CC of HA is of 35-39 at. %. Hydrogen content is of 37-43 at. %. According to the content of these elements investigated substances are clearly divided into two groups: HA of the sediments of the Lake Baikal and river Selenga delta. The magnitude of the atomic ratio H/C can be seen varying degrees of condensation of the molecules of humic acids. The high atomic ratio H/C in HA of the former group indicates the predominance of aliphatic structures in the molecules. Humic acids of the later group are characterized by a low value H/C (<1), suggesting a large proportion of aromatic components in HA composition. In sediments of the Selenga river delta there is an addition of organic matter of terrigenous

  14. Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Hedges, John I.

    2000-08-01

    Compositions and fluxes of amino acids and major chloropigments were measured in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean as part of the US JGOFS EqPac program. Fluxes decreased by several orders of magnitude, from 400 to 0.03 mg amino acid m -2 d -1 and from 9 mg to 0.0004 μg chloropigment m -2 d -1, between production in the surface waters and accumulation at the sea floor. Most rapid losses were in surface waters and at the sediment interface. Losses from the mid-water column were as great as those in surface waters or at the sediment interface, but occurred over a much greater depth range. Export flux estimates based on floating sediment traps were higher near the equator and decreased poleward, similar to primary production. Little meridional difference was apparent in composition of either amino acids or pigments in exported material over the 24° of latitude sampled in spite of the large (factor of 5-6) difference in fluxes. However, pigment composition changed dramatically with depth in the water column, and considerable diagenesis occurred before particles reached the sediment. Pigment compositions suggest that suspended particles were more degraded in the northern than in the southern hemisphere, possibly due to differences in food chain structure. Compositional changes in amino acids occurred in the water column, but were most noticeable at the sediment-seawater interface. Increases in the relative proportions of aspartic acid and glycine with depth were more consistent with preferential preservation within the particulate matrix than with any inherent stability of these compounds to heterotrophic consumption. The contribution of amino acids and pigments to total organic carbon clearly shows that selective degradation of organic matter occurs with depth; this is not evident from total organic carbon data alone. Amino acids contributed about a quarter of the total organic carbon (OC) in surface waters and 16% of the OC in sediment; pigments decreased from 1

  15. Lipid compositional changes during low-temperature pre-conditioning against SO sub 2 in coleus

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, H.A.; Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Short periods of temperature preconditioning at 13{degrees}C. were found to provide protection against SO{sub 2} injury in coleus. The present study was conducted to determine whether changes in lipid metabolism and membrane fluidity might contribute to this phytoprotection. After 5 days of hardening at 13{degrees}C, there were significant differences in polar lipid composition and free fatty acid (FA) levels between SO{sub 2}-sensitive cultivar Buckley Supreme and SO{sub 2}-insensitive Marty. Molecular species of chloroplast lipids in Marty contained increased levels of linolenic acid. Differences were also found in total FA pools. At 20{degrees}C, palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major components. After temperature hardening at 13{degrees}C, total FA levels decreased in Marty but increased in Buckley Supreme. These modifications in lipid composition suggest a possible mechanism for cultivar differences in response in SO{sub 2}.

  16. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  17. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  18. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%), stearic acid (6.36–7.73%), oleic acid (4.31–6.98%), arachidic acid (ND–3.48%), margaric acid (1.44–2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  19. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  20. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Particulate-Bound Fatty Acids From the California Borderland Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Campbell, B. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the hydrogen-isotopic composition of fatty acids associated with particulate organic matter (POM) from depth transects in three California Borderland stations. Our goals were to determine (1) the natural variability of δD values in POM-associated fatty acids and (2) the magnitude of isotopic fractionations associated with fatty acid degradation in the marine environment. Some differences in molecular abundance were observed between completely ventilated and occasionally suboxic sites, but no corresponding shifts in δD values were measured. Values of δD for specific fatty acids were generally consistent between stations. Saturated fatty acids (C14, C16, and C18) yielded δD values ranging from -230‰ to -132‰, with δD values generally decreasing with chain length. We found no evidence of extreme D-enrichment of the C18 fatty acid as has been observed in studies of isolated macroalgae (Chikaraishi, et al, 2004). The unsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids showed a similar trend while the polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6 was somewhat enriched in D (δD values ranging from -186‰ to -68‰) relative to 20:5 (-208‰ to -93‰). Unsaturated fatty acids tended to have more positive δD values than their saturated counterparts, opposite the trend observed in sediments from the same location. The bacterial fatty acid C15 showed even greater deuterium enrichment with δD values ranging from - 145‰ to -88‰. This offset can likely be attributed to differences in biosynthetic fractionation between bacteria and eukaryotes, to differences in hydrogen isotopic composition of the food sources of these organisms, or some combination of these two factors. Within the surface waters, fatty acids become enriched with depth by an average of 25‰. The C18:0 acid is a significant exception, becoming depleted by 48‰ over that same interval. Below 100 meters depth, all fatty acids tend to become slightly depleted in D with increasing depth. The difference in δD values

  1. Effects of heating on composition, degree of darkness, and stacking nanostructure of soil humic acids.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Koyo; Okazaki, Masanori

    2016-01-15

    Wildfires and prescribed burning can affect both the quality and the quantity of organic matter in soils. In this study, we investigated qualitative and quantitative changes of soil humic substances in two different soils (an Entisol from a paddy field and an Inceptisol from a cedar forest) under several controlled heating conditions. Soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, or 300 °C for 1, 3, 5, or 12h. The humic acid and fulvic acid contents of the soil samples prior to and after heating were determined. The degree of darkness, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of humic acids extracted from the soils before and after heating were measured. The proportion of humic acids in total carbon decreased with increasing heating time at high temperature (300 °C), but increased with increasing heating time at ≤ 250 °C. The degree of darkness of the humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. During darkening, the H/C atomic ratios, the proportion of aromatic C, and the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios increased, whereas the proportions of alkyl C and O-alkyl C decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis verified that a stacking nanostructure developed by heating. Changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids from the heated soils depended on the type of soil. The major structural components of the humic acids from the heated Entisol were aromatic C and carboxylic C, whereas aliphatic C, aromatic C, and carboxylic C structural components were found in the humic acids from the heated Inceptisol. These results suggest that the heat-induced changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids depended on the source plant. PMID:26398447

  2. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on bile acid composition in hamster bile.

    PubMed

    Matejka, M; Vescina, C; Carducci, C N; Alayón, A; Dios, A; Scarlatto, E; Mamianetti, A

    1990-01-01

    The modification in the composition of bile acids in hamster by the administration of high dose of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups: a control group, two groups that received 0.5 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days and another two groups that received 1 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days. After ether anaesthesia the gallbladder was removed and bile was immediately aspirated. Bile acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Taurolithocholic (TLCA) and glycolithocholic acids (GLCA) increased significantly in all treated groups. The glyco/tauro ratio of 0.69 in controls became more than 1 in treated animals except in the case of lithocholic acid (LCA) conjugates which remained less than 1. UDCA derivatives increased proportionally to the administered dose and the cholic/cheno ratio diminished significantly. A moderate increase of 3- and 7-keto derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was observed in all treated groups but the above mentioned increment was especially evident in 3-keto derivatives. A high percentage of UDCA administered in the hamster was likely transformed to CDCA and the glyco conjugates of the bile acids were the predominant species except for the LCA derivatives. PMID:2367280

  3. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  4. Compositional changes in RNA, DNA and proteins for bacterial adaptation to higher and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Ken

    2003-04-01

    It is known that in thermophiles the G+C content of ribosomal RNA linearly correlates with growth temperature, while that of genomic DNA does not. Although the G+C contents (singlet) of the genomic DNAs of thermophiles and methophiles do not differ significantly, the dinucleotide (doublet) compositions of the two bacterial groups clearly do. The average amino acid compositions of proteins of the two groups are also distinct. Based on these facts, we here analyzed the DNA and protein compositions of various bacteria in terms of the optimal growth temperature (OGT). Regression analyses of the sequence data for thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria revealed good linear relationships between OGT and the dinucleotide compositions of DNA, and between OGT and the amino acid compositions of proteins. Together with the above-mentioned linear relationship between ribosomal RNA and OGT, the DNA and protein compositions can be regarded as thermostability measures for RNA, DNA and proteins, covering a wide range of temperatures. Both the DNA and proteins of psychrophiles apparently exhibit characteristics diametrically opposite to those of thermophiles. The physicochemical parameters of dinucleotides suggested that supercoiling of DNA is relevant to its thermostability. Protein stability in thermophiles is realized primarily through global changes that increase charged residues (i.e., Glu, Arg, and Lys) on the molecular surface of all proteins. This kind of global change is attainable through a change in the amino acid composition coupled with alterations in the DNA base composition. The general strategies of thermophiles and psychrophiles for adaptation to higher and lower temperatures, respectively, that are suggested by the present study are discussed. PMID:12761299

  5. Adaptive modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and metabolic thermosuppression of brown adipose tissue in heat-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S. K.; Ohno, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    Thermogenesis, especially facultative thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), is less important in high ambient temperature and the heat-acclimated animals show a lower metabolic rate. Adaptive changes in the metabolic activity of BAT are generally found to be associated with a modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition. However, the effect of heat acclimation on membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition is as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the thermogenic activity and phospholipid fatty acid composition of interscapular BAT from heat-acclimated rats (control: 25+/-1°C, 50% relative humidity and heat acclimation: 32+/-0.5°C, 50% relative humidity). Basal thermogenesis and the total thermogenic capacity after noradrenaline stimulation, as estimated by in vitro oxygen consumption of BAT (measured polarographically using about 1-mm3 tissue blocks), were smaller in the heat-acclimated group than in the control group. There was no difference in the tissue content of phospholipids between the groups when expressed per microgram of DNA. The phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by a capillary gas chromatograph. The state of phospholipid unsaturation, as estimated by the number of double bonds per fatty acid molecule, was similar between the groups. The saturated fatty acid level was higher in the heat-acclimated group. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, heat acclimation decreased docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid levels, and increased the arachidonic acid level. The tissue level of docosahexaenoic acid correlated with the basal oxygen consumption of BAT (r=0.6, P<0.01) and noradrenaline-stimulated maximum values of oxygen consumption (r=0.5, P<0.05). Our results show that heat acclimation modifies the BAT phospholipid fatty acids, especially the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, which is possibly involved in the metabolic thermosuppression.

  6. Lactic acid based PEU/HA and PEU/BCP composites: Dynamic mechanical characterization of hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rich, Jaana; Tuominen, Jukka; Kylmä, Janne; Seppälä, Jukka; Nazhat, Showan N; Tanner, K Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid based poly(ester-urethane) (PEU-BDI) and its composites with 20 and 40 vol.% bioceramic filler were characterized prior to their use as biocompatible and bioabsorbable artificial bone materials. Morphological, dynamic mechanical properties, and degradation of these either hydroxyapatite or biphasic calcium phosphate containing composites were determined. Addition of particulate bioactive filler increased the composite stiffness and the glass transition temperature, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Materials were sterilized by gamma-irradiation, which reduced the average molecular weights by 30-40%. However, dynamic mechanical properties were not significantly affected by irradiation. Specimens were immersed in 0.85 w/v saline at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and changes in molecular weights, mass, water absorption, and dynamic mechanical properties were recorded. All the composite materials showed promising dynamic mechanical performance over the 5 weeks of hydrolysis. Average molecular weights of PEU-BDI and its composites did not change substantially during the test period. PEU-BDI retained its modulus values relatively well, and although the moduli of the composite materials were much higher, especially at high filler content, they exhibited faster loss of mechanical integrity. PMID:12115768

  7. Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Growth Medium on Lipid Composition and on Physicochemical Surface Properties of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, P.; Yang, B.; Kallio, H.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most probiotic lactobacilli adhere to intestinal surfaces, a phenomenon influenced by free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated whether free linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in the growth medium alters the fatty acid composition of lactobacilli and their physical characteristics. The most abundant bacterial fatty acids identified were oleic, vaccenic, and dihydrosterculic acids. PUFA, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and γ-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and α-linolenic acids, also were identified in lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with various free PUFA, the incorporation of a given PUFA into bacterial fatty acids was clearly observed. Moreover, PUFA supplementation also resulted in PUFA-dependent changes in the proportions of other fatty acids; major interconversions were seen in octadecanoic acids (18:1), their methylenated derivatives (19:cyc), and CLA. Intermittent changes in eicosapentaenoic acid proportions also were noted. These results were paralleled by minor changes in the hydrophilic or hydrophobic characteristics of lactobacilli, suggesting that PUFA interfere with microbial adhesion to intestinal surfaces through other mechanisms. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that free PUFA in the growth medium induce changes in bacterial fatty acids in relation to the regulation of the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, cyclization, and proportions of CLA and PUFA containing 20 to 22 carbons. The potential role of lactobacilli as regulators of PUFA absorption may represent another means by which probiotics could redirect the delicate balance of inflammatory mediators derived from PUFA within the inflamed intestine. PMID:14711634

  8. Ambient temperature and nutritional stress influence fatty acid composition of structural and fuel lipids in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2013-10-01

    In birds, fatty acids (FA) serve as the primary metabolic fuel during exercise and fasting, and their composition affects metabolic rate and thus energy requirements. To ascertain the relationship between FAs and metabolic rate, a distinction should be made between structural and fuel lipids. Indeed, increased unsaturation of structural lipid FAs brings about increased cell metabolism, and changes in the FA composition of fuel lipids affects metabolic rate through selective mobilization and increasing availability of specific FAs. We examined the effects of acclimation to a low ambient temperature (Ta: 12.7±3.0°C) and nutritional status (fed or unfed) on the FA composition of four tissues in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Differentiating between neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) lipids, we tested the hypothesis that both acclimation to low Ta and nutritional status modify FA composition of triglycerides and phospholipids. We found that both factors affect FA composition of triglycerides, but not the composition of phospholipids. We also found changes in liver triacylglyceride FA composition in the low-Ta acclimated quail, namely, the two FAs that differed, oleic acid (18:1) and arachidonic acid (20:4), were associated with thermoregulation. In addition, the FAs that changed with nutritional status were all reported to be involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, and thus we suggest that they also play a role in the response to fasting. PMID:23796822

  9. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods. PMID:26576657

  10. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  11. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  12. New type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane for gallic acid encapsulation and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Radu, G L

    2014-01-01

    A new type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of gallic acid. The morphology of the composite membrane was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas swelling gallic acid and release properties were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The release behavior with pH changes was also explored. The composite membrane based on chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with gallic acid included showed improved antioxidant capacities compared to plain chitosan membrane. The information obtained in this study will facilitate the design and preparation of composite membrane based on chitosan and could open a wide range of applications, particularly its use as an antioxidant in food, food packaging, biomedical (biodegradable soft porous scaffolds for enhance the surrounding tissue regeneration), pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:24664323

  13. The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Reverses Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pusceddu, Matteo M.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Green, Holly F.; Robertson, Ruairi C.; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone exerts cellular stress-induced toxic effects that have been associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Docosahexaenoic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been shown to be of benefit in stress-related disorders, putatively through protective action in neurons. Methods: We investigated the protective effect of docosahexaenoic acid against glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced cellular changes in cortical cell cultures containing both astrocytes and neurons. Results: We found that glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (100, 150, 200 μM) at different time points (48 and 72 hours) induced a dose- and time-dependent reduction in cellular viability as assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium. Moreover, glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (200 μM, 72 hours) decreased the percentage composition of neurons while increasing the percentage of astrocytes as assessed by βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. In contrast, docosahexaenoic acid treatment (6 μM) increased docosahexaenoic acid content and attenuated glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (200 μM)-induced cell death (72 hours) in cortical cultures. This translates into a capacity for docosahexaenoic acid to prevent neuronal death as well as astrocyte overgrowth following chronic exposure to glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone. Furthermore, docosahexaenoic acid (6 μM) reversed glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced neuronal apoptosis as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated nick-end labeling and attenuated glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced reductions in brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in these cultures. Finally, docosahexaenoic acid inhibited glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression on βIII- tubulin-positive neurons. Conclusions: This work

  14. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  15. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  16. Short communication: Changes in the composition of yak colostrum during the first week of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mi, J D; Zhou, J W; Ding, L M; Wang, L; Long, R J

    2016-01-01

    Although the great interest has been paid to colostrum utilization for calves, no systematic studies evaluating the compositional changes of yak colostrum during the first week after parturition have been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate such postpartum nutritional changes. Colostrum samples from 12 multiparous (2-7 lactations) yaks, grazed on alpine pasture, were collected at exactly 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h postpartum. Gross composition (fat, total solids, protein, and ash) were measured, as well as fat and water-soluble vitamins, fatty acid and mineral composition, and IgG. The colostrum, collected 1h postpartum, had the highest concentrations of crude protein, total solids, ash, vitamin A and E, β-carotene, and most minerals (Na, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe). These components decreased rapidly within 24h. Similarly, at 24h postpartum, IgG content decreased to 7.5% of the value (87.78 mg/mL) at 1h postpartum. In contrast, the concentration of vitamin C increased from 1 to 24h and then decreased consistently thereafter to the lowest value at 168 h. Phosphorus and Ca contents showed an increasing trend from 24 to 168 h after calving. Lactose content increased from 2.88% at 1h to 4.96% at 48 h postpartum and was steady to 168 h. Total n-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-3-to-n-6 fatty acid ratio were proportionally similar as a percentage of total fatty acid methyl esters during the first 168 h of milk production. However, the proportion of total n-6 fatty acid content to total fatty acid methyl esters decreased from 3.07% at 1h to 2.60% at 24h. In summary, experimental results indicate colostrum should be provided to yak calves as soon as possible after birth to provide nutrients and enhance passive immunity. PMID:26547651

  17. Effect of Ingested Liquids on Color Change of Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Malek Afzali, Beheshteh; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirani, Asrin; Akbarzade Baghban, Alireza; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Color change of composite restorations is well known to dentists. However, the effect of commonly consumed drinks on discoloration of composite resins has yet to be determined. This study sought to assess the color change of a nanofilled (Premise) and a flowable composite resin (Premise flowable) following simulated consumption of tea, cola, iron drops and multivitamin syrup. Materials and Methods: Forty disk-shaped specimens (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from each composite resin. The baseline color values were measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using digital imaging. The specimens of each restorative material were randomly divided into five groups (eight each) according to the storage media namely tea, cola, iron drops, multivitamin syrup or distilled water (control). The specimens were immersed in staining solutions for three hours daily over a 40-day test period. Following this, the color change values (ΔE*) were calculated. For statistical analyses, the color differences were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P< 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in ΔE* values between the two types of composite resins (P>0.05). In both composite materials, the difference among the solutions was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Under the tested experimental conditions, both restorative materials were susceptible to discoloration by all four staining solutions. The color change values were not related to the solution or the type of material used. PMID:27123017

  18. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  19. Morphology and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes from monkeys exposed to ozone for one year

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, E.C.; Goheen, S.C.; Rao, G.A.

    1983-12-01

    Monkeys (Macaca radiata) were exposed to a low dose (0.64 ppm) of ozone (O/sub 3/) for 8 hr each day over a 1-year period. Control monkeys were exposed to filtered air. The morphology of the red blood cell (RBC) from these monkeys was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Red cells from control monkeys had normal morphology with 69% having biconcave shape (discocytes). In O/sub 3/-exposed animals, blood contained only 35% discocytes. Knizocytes, stomatocytes, and spherocytes each have defined shape which are different from discocytes. The number of knizocytes and stomatocytes in O/sub 3/-exposed monkeys was that of controls. In addition, significant levels of spherocytes were observed while they were absent in the blood of controls. The fatty acid composition of RBC from control and O/sub 3/-exposed monkeys was the same. These were similar to that of human RBC. However, earlier reports of monkey RBC fatty acid composition differ from our results. These are discussed. The authors conclude that low-dose O/sub 3/ exposure changes the morphology, but not the fatty acid composition, of erthrocytes in vivo. 29 references.

  20. Imparting large macroscopic changes with small changes in polypeptide composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Michelle; McKinley, Gareth; Olsen, Bradley

    Block copolymers composed of polypeptides provide an excellent platform for exploring the underlying physics surrounding macroscopic associative network behavior. Previous work in our group has elucidated a difference in the mechanical properties of two nearly identical elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) endblocks. In poly(ELP)s, this substitution is known to result in tighter beta turns. These beta turns exhibit slower responses to changes in temperature within the material. Under shear, the modulus for the alanine-containing ELP triblock is almost three times higher than the glycine-containing ELP. Additionally, preliminary tensile tests show higher stress and strain at break for the alanine ELP triblock. We are able to explain the reasons for this behavior using a variety of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering indicate differences in ordering between the alanine and glycine containing ELP materials both in shear and in stagnant flow.

  1. 12 CFR 5.53 - Change in asset composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 U.S.C. 1818) or as part of a voluntary liquidation pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 181 and 182 and 12 CFR 5... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Change in asset composition. 5.53 Section 5.53... composition. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a, 1818. (b) Scope. This section requires a national bank to...

  2. 12 CFR 5.53 - Change in asset composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 U.S.C. 1818) or as part of a voluntary liquidation pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 181 and 182 and 12 CFR 5... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Change in asset composition. 5.53 Section 5.53... composition. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a, 1818. (b) Scope. This section requires a national bank to...

  3. 12 CFR 5.53 - Change in asset composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 U.S.C. 1818) or as part of a voluntary liquidation pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 181 and 182 and 12 CFR 5... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change in asset composition. 5.53 Section 5.53... composition. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a, 1818. (b) Scope. This section requires a national bank to...

  4. 12 CFR 5.53 - Change in asset composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 U.S.C. 1818) or as part of a voluntary liquidation pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 181 and 182 and 12 CFR 5... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Change in asset composition. 5.53 Section 5.53... composition. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a, 1818. (b) Scope. This section requires a national bank to...

  5. 12 CFR 5.53 - Change in asset composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 U.S.C. 1818) or as part of a voluntary liquidation pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 181 and 182 and 12 CFR 5... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Change in asset composition. 5.53 Section 5.53... composition. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a, 1818. (b) Scope. This section requires a national bank to...

  6. Adansonian Analysis and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1965-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 89:454–461. 1965.—A total of 33 strains of Serratia marcescens were subjected to Adansonian analysis for which more than 200 coded features for each of the organisms were included. In addition, the base composition [expressed as moles per cent guanine + cytosine (G + C)] of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prepared from each of the strains was determined. Except for four strains which were intermediate between Serratia and the Hafnia and Aerobacter group C of Edwards and Ewing, the S. marcescens species group proved to be extremely homogeneous, and the different strains showed high affinities for each other (mean similarity, ¯S = 77%). The G + C ratio of the DNA from the Serratia strains ranged from 56.2 to 58.4% G + C. Many species names have been listed for the genus, but only a single clustering of the strains was obtained at the species level, for which the species name S. marcescens was retained. S. kiliensis, S. indica, S. plymuthica, and S. marinorubra could not be distinguished from S. marcescens; it was concluded, therefore, that there is only a single species in the genus. The variety designation kiliensis does not appear to be valid, since no subspecies clustering of strains with negative Voges-Proskauer reactions could be detected. The characteristics of the species are listed, and a description of S. marcescens is presented. PMID:14255714

  7. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics. PMID:27083372

  8. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  9. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  10. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  11. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin Spatangus purpureus elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Barberá, C; Fernández-Jover, D; López Jiménez, J A; González Silvera, D; Hinz, H; Moranta, J

    2011-05-01

    Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments. In the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands S. purpureus occurs in soft red algal beds, and can reach high densities. The diet of S. purpureus is unknown and it is particularly difficult to analyze the stomach contents of this group; therefore, we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of the gonads and potential food resources in order to assess the trophic relationships of this species. The FA profiles of the gonads of S. purpureus agree well with the FA composition of the potential trophic resources (algae and sediment) and reveals changes between localities with different available resources. Three polyunsaturated FAs mainly contributes in the composition in the S. purpureus gonads: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), both abundant in the macroalgal material, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), which is characteristic of sediment samples. Trophic markers of bacterial input and carnivorous feeding were significantly more abundant in sea urchins caught on bottoms with less vegetation. The current study demonstrates that the FA content of S. purpureus gonads is a useful marker of diet, as differences in the profiles reflected the variations in detritus composition. The results of this study show that this species has omnivorous feeding behavior; however, viewed in conjunction with available abundance data the results suggest that phytodetritus found within algal beds is an important carbon source for this species. PMID:21334740

  12. Citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds enhance calvarial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4 mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  14. Tracing subsoil organic matter compositional changes by radiocarbon and plant leaf wax distributional changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Stephan; Angst, Gerrit; Mueller, Carsten W.; Heinze, Stefanie; Marschner, Bernd; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The carbon pool in subsoils is thought to be considerably larger than in the upper 30 cm. However, factors like turnover, stabilization and distribution of organic matter (OM) are less well understood than in topsoils. The investigation of changes in OM composition with depth enables a better understanding of the peculiarity of subsoil OM in contrast to the already extensively studied topsoil OM. Analysis of long chained n-alkanes and n-fatty acids in soil profiles sampled in high resolution, combined with radiocarbon data of bulk soil, is a tool to demonstrate spatial distribution and the degradation of plant leaf wax-derived material as a defined source of soil organic. We analysed the OM in 3.15 m long soil transects under an even aged European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest in Northern Germany (Grinderwald, Lower Saxony) for lipid and radiocarbon analysis. Samples were taken from a grid raster with eight sampling points increasing in distance to the main tree (45cm grid dimension) and from five depths (10, 35, 60, 85, 110 cm) resulting 40 samples per transect. Organic carbon contents in the podzolic Cambisol decrease from 1.69 % in the A-horizon to 0.02 % in the C-horizon at 110 cm depth. The distribution of organic carbon contents shows no significant trend with increasing distance to the beeches in all transects. We compare the distribution of long-chain n-alkanes (C27, C29 and C31) and n-fatty acids (>C20), known as components mainly derived from leaf waxes of higher plants, in the different transect/depth intervals. Distributional and quantitative changes in the transects, combined with bulk soil 14C-analyses, reflecting apparent mean residence time of OM, are used to identify how fast OM is degraded from surface to subsoil horizons. Furthermore, spatial OM heterogeneity in the transects is investigated. We expect a more significant heterogeneity in the lipid distribution and nearly similar decreasing contents for n-alkanes as well as n-fatty acids

  15. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  16. Morphology and Composition of Structured, Phase-Separated Behenic Acid-Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid Monolayer Films.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jeveria; Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; He, Anqiang; Paige, Matthew F

    2016-05-31

    The phase separation of immiscible surfactants in mixed monolayer films provides an approach to physically manipulate important properties of thin films, including surface morphology, microscale composition, and mechanical properties. In this work, we predict, based upon existing miscibility studies and their thermodynamic underpinnings described in the literature, the miscibility and film morphology of mixed monolayers comprised of behenic acid (C21H43COOH) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (C13F27COOH) in various molar ratios. Predictions are tested using a combination of experimental surface characterization methods for probing miscibility and film morphology at the solid/air and air/water interfaces. Film components were immiscible and phase-separated into chemically well-defined domains under a variety of experimental conditions, with monolayer morphology consistent with initial predictions. The extensibility of these basic predictions to other systems is discussed in the context of using these works for different perfluorinated surfactant molecules. PMID:27163482

  17. Diagenetic changes in the elemental composition of unrecrystallized mollusk shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, P.C.; Pilkey, O.H.; Blackwelder, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Mg, Sr, Mn, Fe, Na and K contents were determined for 230 apparently unrecrystallized mollusk shells (gastropods and bivalves) ranging in age from late Cretaceous to Holocene. Consistent differences between the Holocene and fossil shells with respect to concentrations of all these elements are attributed to postburial diagenetic changes. Fossil-Holocene shell comparisons are made on the intergeneric level, a more severe test of compositional differences than was previous work involved with few species. The observed differences re-emphasize the need for extreme caution in the use of the many geochemical tools which assume that no compositional changes have taken place prior to recrystallization of calcareous materials. ?? 1979.

  18. Poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites: Preparation and viscoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, L. D.; Fakirov, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) from petrochemical-derived polymers have been investigated for several years and the technique can result in significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared with the neat matrix material of the respective composite. The current work applies the technique to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers for potential applications in bioabsorbable medical devices. MFCs were prepared from melt blended poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) via cold drawing then compression molding of extruded yarn. These MFCs were shown to have higher Young's moduli than that of neat PLLA but for load-bearing applications the creep characteristics are of interest. The MFC sheets resulting from compression molding were subjected to tensile relaxation tests at 37°C in the fiber orientation direction. Specimens were also tested via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Neat PLLA specimens were subjected to the same tests for comparison. Results indicate that at 37°C PLLA/PGA MFCs exhibit lower creep resistance than that of neat PLLA due to the more rapid relaxation of stress observed. DMTA results elucidate the loss modulus changes in PLLA/PGA MFCs which occur as the material approaches the glass transition temperature of PGA (˜45°C).

  19. Modifications in membrane fatty acid composition of Salmonella typhimurium in response to growth conditions and their effect on heat resistance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; López, Mercedes; Arenas, Ricardo; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-04-30

    The effects of growth temperature (in the range 10-45 degrees C) and acidification up to pH 4.5 of the culture medium (Brain Heart Infusion, BHI) with different organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic) and hydrochloric acid on membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 were studied. The heat resistance was maximal in cells grown at 45 degrees C (cells grown in non-acidified BHI showed a D58-value of 0.90 min) and decreased with decreasing growth temperature up to 10 degrees C (D58-value of 0.09 min). The growth of cells in acidified media caused an increase in their heat resistance. In general, acid adapted cells showed D-values of between 1.5 and 2 times higher than the corresponding for non-acid adapted control cells. This cross-protection response, which has important implications in food processing, was not dependent on the pH value and the acid used to acidify the growth medium. A membrane adaptation corresponding to an increase in the unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (UFA/SFA) and membrane fluidity was observed at low growth temperature. Moreover, the acidification of the growth medium caused a decrease in UFA/SFA ratio and in the C18:1 relative concentration, and an increase in cyclopropane fatty acids (CFA) content mainly due to the increase in cyc19 relative concentration. Thus, acid adapted cells showed CFA levels 1.5 times higher than non-acid adapted control cells. A significant proportion of unsaturated fatty acids were converted to their cyclopropane derivatives during acid adaptation. These changes in membrane fatty acid composition result in cells with decreased membrane fluidity. A clear relation between membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance was observed. In general, D-values were maximum for cells with low UFA/SFA ratio, and, consequently, with low membrane fluidity. Moreover, CFA formation played a major role in protecting acid adapted cells from heat inactivation. However

  20. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the 'classical' (neutral) and 'alternative' (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. PMID:23391614

  1. Influence of oxidation on fulvic acids composition and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Kozyatnyk, Ivan; Świetlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, Ursula; Dąbrowska, Agata; Klymenko, Nataliya; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    Oxidation is well-known process of transforming natural organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. Chlorine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide are common oxidants used in water treatment technologies for this purpose. We studied the influence of different doses of these oxidants on by-products formation and changes in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of fulvic acids (FA) with different BDOC content. Chlorination did not significantly change the MWD of FA and disinfection by-products formation. However, higher molecular weight compounds, than those in the initial FA, were formed. It could be a result of chlorine substitution into the FA structure. Chlorine dioxide oxidized FA stronger than chlorine. During ozonation of FA, we found the highest increase of BDOD due to the formation of a high amount of organic acids and aldehydes. FA molecules were transformed into a more biodegradable form. Ozonation is the most preferable process among those observed for pre-treatment of FA before biofiltration. PMID:23746389

  2. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

  3. A Gradual Compositional Change from Samoan Shield to Rejuvenated Lavas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, J. G.; Jackson, M. G.; Koppers, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    trachytes erupted. A similar slope break is found in the canyon sampled on Savaii, and trachytes have previously been reported as cobbles in the draining river. Therefore, we infer that early shield volcanism in Savaii erupted extremely radiogenic Sr isotope compositions, and that by the end of shield building, compositions had changed to a composition similar to Upolu's Fagaloa. Some of the samples have Pb-Sr isotope compositions between Upolu and rejuvenated lavas, while their trace element compositions correspond to those of rejuvenated lavas. Thus, it appears that during the final stages of shield building, a shift to rejuvenated composition takes place. This contrasts with the definition of rejuvenated volcanism in Samoa, based on erosional contacts, and suggests rejuvenated source material may be sampled before the volcanic rejuvenation really occurs.

  4. Composite Higgs-mediated flavor-changing neutral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Contino, Roberto

    2009-10-01

    We discuss how, in the presence of higher-dimensional operators, the standard model fermion masses can be misaligned in flavor space with the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, even with only one Higgs doublet. Such misalignment results in flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs and hence flavor-changing neutral current processes from tree-level Higgs exchange. We perform a model-independent analysis of such an effect. Specializing to the framework of a composite Higgs with partially composite standard model gauge and fermion fields, we show that the constraints on the compositeness scale implied by γK can be generically as strong as those from the exchange of heavy spin-1 resonances if the Higgs is light and strongly coupled to the new states. In the special and well-motivated case of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs, we find that the shift symmetry acting on the Higgs forces an alignment of the fermion mass terms with their Yukawa couplings at leading order in the fermions’ degree of compositeness, thus implying much milder bounds. As a consequence of the flavor-violating Higgs couplings, we estimate BR(t→ch)˜10-4 and BR(h→tc)˜5×10-3 both for a pseudo-Goldstone (if tR is fully composite) and for a generic composite Higgs. By virtue of the AdS/CFT correspondence, our results directly apply to 5-dimensional Randall-Sundrum compactifications.

  5. Prediction of Protein Submitochondrial Locations by Incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's General Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khurshid; Waris, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrion is the key organelle of eukaryotic cell, which provides energy for cellular activities. Submitochondrial locations of proteins play crucial role in understanding different biological processes such as energy metabolism, program cell death, and ionic homeostasis. Prediction of submitochondrial locations through conventional methods are expensive and time consuming because of the large number of protein sequences generated in the last few decades. Therefore, it is intensively desired to establish an automated model for identification of submitochondrial locations of proteins. In this regard, the current study is initiated to develop a fast, reliable, and accurate computational model. Various feature extraction methods such as dipeptide composition (DPC), Split Amino Acid Composition, and Composition and Translation were utilized. In order to overcome the issue of biasness, oversampling technique SMOTE was applied to balance the datasets. Several classification learners including K-Nearest Neighbor, Probabilistic Neural Network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used. Jackknife test is applied to assess the performance of classification algorithms using two benchmark datasets. Among various classification algorithms, SVM achieved the highest success rates in conjunction with the condensed feature space of DPC, which are 95.20 % accuracy on dataset SML3-317 and 95.11 % on dataset SML3-983. The empirical results revealed that our proposed model obtained the highest results so far in the literatures. It is anticipated that our proposed model might be useful for future studies. PMID:26746980

  6. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  7. Modification of fatty acid composition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by expression of a borage delta6-desaturase.

    PubMed

    Cook, David; Grierson, Don; Jones, Craigh; Wallace, Andrew; West, Gill; Tucker, Greg

    2002-06-01

    The improvement of nutritional quality is one potential application for the genetic modification of plants. One possible target for such manipulation is the modification of fatty acid metabolism. In this work, expression of a borage delta6-desaturase cDNA in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) has been shown to produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:83 delta6,9,12) and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA; 18:4 delta6,9,12,15) in transgenic leaf and fruit tissue. This genetic modification has also, unexpectedly, resulted in a reduction in the percentage of linoleic acid (LA 18:2 delta9,12) and a concomitant increase in the percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 delta9,12,15) in fruit tissue. These changes in fatty acid composition are thought to be beneficial for human health. PMID:12059112

  8. Changing Composition of Michigan Households. Policy Report 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchik, Bettie Landauer

    2002-01-01

    This report on Michigan's demographics examines the changing composition of Michigan's households and the ramification for Michigan schools. The report states that between 1980 and 2000, Michigan's population grew by 7.3 percent, while the number of households grew by 590,448, or 18 percent. Households are growing faster than the population…

  9. Outgassing and dimensional changes of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites is described. Experimental results derived from a 'control' sample are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples.

  10. Changes in body composition of neonatal piglets during growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of neonatal piglet growth it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) provides precise and accurate measurements of total body fat mass, lean mass and total body water in non...

  11. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  12. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Plant Population Growth Rate and Community Composition Change

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiao-Rong; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on forest community composition are still not well known. Although directional trends in climate change and community composition change were reported in recent years, further quantitative analyses are urgently needed. Previous studies focused on measuring population growth rates in a single time period, neglecting the development of the populations. Here we aimed to compose a method for calculating the community composition change, and to testify the impacts of climate change on community composition change within a relatively short period (several decades) based on long-term monitoring data from two plots—Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China (DBR) and Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI)—that are located in tropical and subtropical regions. We proposed a relatively more concise index, Slnλ, which refers to an overall population growth rate based on the dominant species in a community. The results indicated that the population growth rate of a majority of populations has decreased over the past few decades. This decrease was mainly caused by population development. The increasing temperature had a positive effect on population growth rates and community change rates. Our results promote understanding and explaining variations in population growth rates and community composition rates, and are helpful to predict population dynamics and population responses to climate change. PMID:26039073

  14. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  15. Reinforced Poly(Propylene Carbonate) Composite with Enhanced and Tunable Characteristics, an Alternative for Poly(lactic Acid).

    PubMed

    Manavitehrani, Iman; Fathi, Ali; Wang, Yiwei; Maitz, Peter K; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-10-14

    The acidic nature of the degradation products of polyesters often leads to unpredictable clinical complications, such as necrosis of host tissues and massive immune cell invasions. In this study, poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) and starch composite is introduced with superior characteristics as an alternative to polyester-based polymers. The degradation products of PPC-starch composites are mainly carbon dioxide and water; hence, the associated risks to the acidic degradation of polyesters are minimized. Moreover, the compression strength of PPC-starch composites can be tuned over the range of 0.2±0.03 MPa to 33.9±1.51 MPa by changing the starch contents of composites to address different clinical needs. More importantly, the addition of 50 wt % starch enhances the thermal processing capacity of the composites by elevating their decomposition temperature from 245 to 276 °C. Therefore, thermal processing methods, such as extrusion and hot melt compression methods can be used to generate different shapes and structures from PPC-starch composites. We also demonstrated the cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of these composites by conducting in vitro and in vivo tests. For instance, the numbers of osteoblast cells were increased 2.5 fold after 7 days post culture. In addition, PPC composites in subcutaneous mice model resulted in mild inflammatory responses (e.g., the formation of fibrotic tissue) that were diminished from two to 4 weeks postimplantation. The long-term in vivo biodegradation of PPC composites are compared with poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The histochemical analysis revealed that after 8 weeks, the biodegradation of PLA leads to massive immune cell infusion and inflammation at the site, whereas the PPC composites are well-tolerated in vivo. All these results underline the favorable properties of PPC-starch composites as a benign biodegradable biomaterial for fabrication of biomedical implants. PMID:26376751

  16. Hydrothermal hexagonal SrFe12O19 ferrite powders: Phase composition, microstructure and acid washing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ailin; Hu, Xuzhao; Li, Diankai; Chen, Lu; Jin, Chuangui; Zuo, Conghua; Su, Shubing

    2014-03-01

    A series of hexagonal m-type SrFe12O19 ferrite powders were hydrothermally synthesized, and their phase composition, microstructure and magnetic properties before/after acid washing were studied. In the synthesis of these specimens, the atomic ratio of Fe/Sr ( R F/S ) in starting materials was set to 4, 5 and 12, respectively. When R F/S = 12, the specimen has morphology of round flat cakes, not typical hexagonal plate-like structure. The results of SEM images and XRD patterns indicate that the specimen with R F/S = 12 was mostly composed of Fe2O3. When R F/S = 4 or 5, the hexagonal plate-like SrFe12O19 ferrite powders were successfully synthesized with only a small quantity of Fe2O3 and SrCO3 impurities. It is also found that acid washing can eliminate the impurities in as-synthesized specimens effectively, and also change their topography, which enhances the saturation magnetization. However, the coercivity changed irregularly after acid washing, which is ascribed to the combination of the changed morphology, introduced stress and lattice defects.

  17. Effect of infused volatile fatty acids and caseinate on milk composition and coagulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Rulquin, H; Verite, R

    1993-10-01

    Milk protein secretion is changed by increasing the proportion of energy, mainly as propionic acid, or the availability of AA. Whether associative effects exist between energy nature and protein amounts is unknown. Therefore, ruminal isoenergetic infusions of low or high propionate mixtures were combined factorially with duodenal infusion of sodium caseinate or control. Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated Holstein cows were used. The diet was limited and consisted of 70% forage and 30% concentrate. Caseinate infusion increased milk yield and protein and casein contents and decreased milk fat content; curd yields and coagulation properties of milk were improved. The infusion of propionic acid caused a large increase in rumen propionate. Milk yield tended to decrease, and milk fat decreased, but protein, casein, and curd yields were unchanged; milk-coagulating properties were improved. No interaction existed between energy and protein amounts. Alteration of VFA had little effect on milk composition, but increasing the protein supply to the duodenum increased milk protein. PMID:8227627

  18. Differential stability of photosynthetic membranes and fatty acid composition at elevated temperature in Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Almeyda, E.; Thomé, P. E.; El Hafidi, M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.

    2011-03-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by increasing surface seawater temperatures resulting from climate change. Reef-building corals symbiotic with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium experience dramatic reductions in algal densities when exposed to temperatures above the long-term local summer average, leading to a phenomenon called coral bleaching. Although the temperature-dependent loss in photosynthetic function of the algal symbionts has been widely recognized as one of the early events leading to coral bleaching, there is considerable debate regarding the actual damage site. We have tested the relative thermal stability and composition of membranes in Symbiodinium exposed to high temperature. Our results show that melting curves of photosynthetic membranes from different symbiotic dinoflagellates substantiate a species-specific sensitivity to high temperature, while variations in fatty acid composition under high temperature rather suggest a complex process in which various modifications in lipid composition may be involved. Our results do not support the role of unsaturation of fatty acids of the thylakoid membrane as being mechanistically involved in bleaching nor as being a dependable tool for the diagnosis of thermal susceptibility of symbiotic reef corals.

  19. Impact of pore fluid composition changes on soil filter clogging

    SciTech Connect

    Reddi, L.N.; Bonala, M.V.S.

    1997-12-31

    Current design criteria for soil filters in geotechnical engineering are based on mechanical principles of straining alone without any physico-chemical considerations. Transport and deposition of colloid-size particles in the subsurface are influenced by pore fluid composition. It is essential to design filters in contaminated environment, such as those for leachate collection systems, with due considerations of the pore fluid composition. In this paper, the impact of changes in pore fluid composition on sod filter clogging is assessed with the help of a mathematical model. The role of pore fluid composition in soil filter clogging is studied by evaluating its effect on the erodibility of base soils, size of the migrating particles, and on the likelihood of particle deposition. The results suggest that pore fluid composition influences the deposition to the extent it can cause significant changes in pore clogging. In the cases where particles are generated from base soils, filter clogging increased at low salt concentrations but was limited by reduced erodibilities at high salt concentrations.

  20. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  1. Influence of the chemical composition on gamma ray attenuation by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bhandal, G S; Singh, K

    1992-04-01

    The dependence of gamma ray attenuation on the chemical composition of fatty acids is investigated in the energy range from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients (muF) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff) have been calculated for 27 different fatty acids. They show appreciable variation with the chemical composition of fatty acids in the region of gamma ray energies from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. PMID:1314792

  2. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  3. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  4. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  5. The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2015-05-01

    With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio <5) and those from summer (November) not. This study indicates that Egyptian goose meat does not only vary in nutritional composition but season may also have a substantial effect on the flavor profile and ultimate uniformity of the meat. The season and portion effects were, however, interlinked but the general tendency shows that the portions, especially the breast and thigh do differ concerning the major fatty acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product. PMID:25810407

  6. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  7. Influence of geography on fatty acid composition of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of 24 seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S. was measured to determine the influence of geography on fatty acid distribution. Seed oils were extracted with hexane utilizing the Soxhlet method and fatty acid...

  8. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  9. Genotyping and fatty acid composition analysis in segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (C18:1), a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid is an important seed quality trait in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) because it provides improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, a beneficial effect on human health, and increased shelf life for stored food products. Consequently, an...

  10. Perinatal Changes in Mitral and Aortic Valve Structure and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Post, Allison D.; Laucirica, Daniel R.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    At birth, the mechanical environment of valves changes radically as fetal shunts close and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances change. Given that valves are reported to be mechanosensitive, we investigated remodeling induced by perinatal changes by examining compositional and structural differences of aortic and mitral valves (AVs, MVs) between 2-day-old and 3rd fetal trimester porcine valves using immunohistochemistry and Movat pentachrome staining. Aortic valve composition changed more with birth than the MV, consistent with a greater change in AV hemodynamics. At 2 days, AV demonstrated a trend of greater versican and elastin (P = 0.055), as well as greater hyaluronan turnover (hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis, P = 0.049) compared with the 3rd-trimester samples. The AVs also demonstrated decreases in proteins related to collagen synthesis and fibrillogenesis with birth, including procollagen I, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, biglycan (all P ≤ 0.005), and decorin (P = 0.059, trend). Both AVs and MVs demonstrated greater delineation between the leaflet layers in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples, and AVs demonstrated greater saffron-staining collagen intensity, suggesting more mature collagen in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples (each P < 0.05). The proportion of saffron-staining collagen also increased in AV with birth (P < 0.05). The compositional and structural changes that occur with birth, as noted in this study, likely are important to proper neonatal valve function. Furthermore, normal perinatal changes in hemodynamics often do not occur in congenital valve disease; the corresponding perinatal matrix maturation may also be lacking and could contribute to poor function of congenitally malformed valves. PMID:20536360

  11. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  12. Seasonal variations of the composition of microbial biofilms in sandy tidal flats: Focus of fatty acids, pigments and exopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Claire; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Boeuf, Dominique; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Jeanthon, Christian; Hubas, Cédric

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms, or microbial mats, are common associations of microorganisms in tidal flats; they generally consist of a large diversity of organisms embedded in a matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). These molecules are mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins, but their detailed monomer compositions and seasonal variations are currently unknown. Yet this composition determines the numerous roles of biofilms in these systems. This study investigated the changes in composition of carbohydrates in intertidal microbial mats over a year to decipher seasonal variations in biofilms and in varying hydrodynamic conditions. This work also aimed to assess how these compositions are related to microbial assemblages. In this context, natural biofilms whose development was influenced or not by artificial structures mimicking polychaete tubes were sampled monthly for over a year in intertidal flats of the Chausey archipelago. Biofilms were compared through the analysis of their fatty acid and pigment contents, and the monosaccharide composition of their EPS carbohydrates. Carbohydrates from both colloidal and bound EPS contained mainly glucose and, to a lower extent, galactose and mannose but they showed significant differences in their detailed monosaccharide compositions. These two fractions displayed different seasonal evolution, even if glucose accumulated in both fractions in summer; bound EPS only were affected by artificial biogenic structures. Sediment composition in fatty acids and pigments showed that microbial communities were dominated by diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria. Their relative proportions, as well as those of other groups like cryptophytes, changed between times and treatments. The changes in EPS composition were not fully explained by modifications of microbial assemblages but also depended on the processes taking place in sediments and on environmental conditions. These variations of EPS compositions are likely to alter different

  13. Recombinant lactobacilli expressing linoleic acid isomerase can modulate the fatty acid composition of host adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva; Stanton, Catherine; O'Mahony, Liam; Wall, Rebecca; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2011-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oral administration of a metabolically active Bifidobacterium breve strain, with ability to form cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), resulted in modulation of the fatty acid composition of the host, including significantly elevated concentrations of c9, t11 CLA and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether a recombinant lactobacillus expressing linoleic acid isomerase (responsible for production of t10, c12 CLA) from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) could influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues in a mouse model. Linoleic-acid-supplemented diets (2 %, w/w) were fed in combination with either a recombinant t10, c12 CLA-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (Lb338), or an isogenic (vector-containing) control strain, to BALB/c mice for 8 weeks. A third group of mice received linoleic acid alone (2 %, w/w). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by GLC at the end of the trial. Ingestion of the strain expressing linoleic acid isomerase was associated with a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in t10, c12 CLA in adipose tissues of the mice when compared with mice that received the isogenic non-CLA-producing strain. The livers of the mice that received the recombinant CLA-producing Lb338 also contained a 2.5-fold (albeit not significantly) higher concentration of t10, c12 CLA, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that a single gene (encoding linoleic acid isomerase) expressed in an intestinal microbe can influence the fatty acid composition of host fat. PMID:21178166

  14. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  15. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  16. Proteolipidic Composition of Exosomes Changes during Reticulocyte Maturation*

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Kévin; Chaoui, Karima; Ronzier, Elsa; Lazar, Ikrame; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Balor, Stéphanie; Terce, François; Lopez, André; Salomé, Laurence; Joly, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    During the orchestrated process leading to mature erythrocytes, reticulocytes must synthesize large amounts of hemoglobin, while eliminating numerous cellular components. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that play an important role in this process of specific elimination. To understand the mechanisms of proteolipidic sorting leading to their biogenesis, we have explored changes in the composition of exosomes released by reticulocytes during their differentiation, in parallel to their physical properties. By combining proteomic and lipidomic approaches, we found dramatic alterations in the composition of the exosomes retrieved over the course of a 7-day in vitro differentiation protocol. Our data support a previously proposed model, whereby in reticulocytes the biogenesis of exosomes involves several distinct mechanisms for the preferential recruitment of particular proteins and lipids and suggest that the respective prominence of those pathways changes over the course of the differentiation process. PMID:21828046

  17. Effect of exercise training on the fatty acid composition of lipid classes in rat liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Anatoli; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Matsakas, Antonis; Schulz, Thorsten; Michna, Horst; Mougios, Vassilis

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of exercise training on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) in rat liver, skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius medialis), and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous fat). For this purpose, the relevant tissues of 11 trained rats were compared to those of 14 untrained ones. Training caused several significant differences of large effect size in the concentrations and percentages of individual fatty acids in the aforementioned lipid classes. The fatty acid composition of liver PL, in terms of both concentrations and percentages, changed with training. The TG content of muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased significantly with training. In contrast to the liver, where no significant differences in the fatty acid profile of TG were found, muscle underwent more significant differences in TG than PL, and adipose tissue only in TG. Most differences were in the same direction in muscle and adipose tissue TG, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. Estimated fatty acid elongase activity was significantly higher, whereas Delta(9)-desaturase activity was significantly lower in muscle and adipose tissue of the trained rats. In conclusion, exercise training modified the fatty acid composition of liver PL, muscle PL and TG, as well as adipose tissue TG. These findings may aid in delineating the effects of exercise on biological functions such as membrane properties, cell signaling, and gene expression. PMID:15682327

  18. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

  19. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  20. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1977-08-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  1. Changes in Membrane Lipid Composition during Saline Growth of the Fresh Water Cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311 1

    PubMed Central

    Huflejt, Margaret E.; Tremolieres, Antoine; Pineau, Bernard; Lang, Johanna K.; Hatheway, John; Packer, Lester

    1990-01-01

    Growth of Synechococcus 6311 in the presence of 0.5 molar NaCl is accompanied by significant changes in membrane lipid composition. Upon transfer of the cells from a `low salt' (0.015 molar NaCl) to `high salt' (0.5 molar NaCl) growth medium at different stages of growth, a rapid decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1Δ9) content was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the amount of the two C18:1 acids (C18:1Δ9, C18:1Δ11), with the higher increase in oleic acid C18:1Δ9 content. These changes began to occur within the first hour after the sudden elevation of NaCl and progressed for about 72 hours. The percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) remained almost unchanged in the same conditions. High salt-dependent changes within ratios of polar lipid classes also occurred within the first 72 hours of growth. The amount of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-destabilizing lipid) decreased and that of the digalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-stabilizing lipid) increased. Consequently, in the three day old cells, the ratio of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol to digalactosyl diacylglycerol in the membranes of high salt-grown cells was about half of that in the membranes of low salt-grown cells. The total content of anionic lipids (phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) was always higher in the isolated membranes and the whole cells from high salt-grown cultures compared to that in the cells and membranes from low salt-grown cultures. All the observed rearrangements in the lipid environment occurred in both thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Similar lipid composition changes, however, to a much lesser extent, were also observed in the aging, low salt-grown cultures. The observed changes in membrane fatty acids and lipids composition correlate with the alterations in electron and ion transport activities, and it is concluded that the rearrangement of the membrane lipid environment is an essential part of the process by which cells

  2. Changes in membrane lipid composition during saline growth of the fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huflejt, M. E.; Tremolieres, A.; Pineau, B.; Lang, J. K.; Hatheway, J.; Packer, L.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of Synechococcus 6311 in the presence of 0.5 molar NaCl is accompanied by significant changes in membrane lipid composition. Upon transfer of the cells from a low salt' (0.015 molar NaCl) to high salt' (0.5 molar NaCl) growth medium at different stages of growth, a rapid decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 delta 9) content was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the amount of the two C18:1 acids (C18:1 delta 9, C18:1 delta 11), with the higher increase in oleic acid C18:1 delta 9 content. These changes began to occur within the first hour after the sudden elevation of NaCl and progressed for about 72 hours. The percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) remained almost unchanged in the same conditions. High salt-dependent changes within ratios of polar lipid classes also occurred within the first 72 hours of growth. The amount of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-destabilizing lipid) decreased and that of the digalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-stabilizing lipid) increased. Consequently, in the three day old cells, the ratio of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol to digalactosyl diacylglycerol in the membranes of high salt-grown cells was about half of that in the membranes of low salt-grown cells. The total content of anionic lipids (phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) was always higher in the isolated membranes and the whole cells from high salt-grown cultures compared to that in the cells and membranes from low salt-grown cultures. All the observed rearrangements in the lipid environment occurred in both thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Similar lipid composition changes, however, to a much lesser extent, were also observed in the aging, low salt-grown cultures. The observed changes in membrane fatty acids and lipids composition correlate with the alterations in electron and ion transport activities, and it is concluded that the rearrangement of the membrane lipid environment is an essential part of the

  3. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  4. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  5. Ammonia Gas Sensing Behavior of Tanninsulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline-TiO2 Composite

    PubMed Central

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E.; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C.; Biris, Alexandru S.; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-01-01

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO2 composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO2 in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO2 and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO2 composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported. PMID:26501291

  6. Ammonia gas sensing behavior of tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite.

    PubMed

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C; Biris, Alexandru S; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-01-01

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO₂ in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO₂. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO₂ and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO₂ composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported. PMID:26501291

  7. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  8. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  9. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Baeza, Rosa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Krüger-Johnsen, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2015-05-01

    In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt, and on the percentage of motile sperm. Here, our results suggest that the total volume of extractable milt is a DHA-dependent process, as we found the diets with the highest DHA levels induced the most milt while the diet with the lowest DHA level induced the least amount of milt. The diet with the highest level of ARA induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel and this impacted sperm performance. PMID:25638567

  10. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndimba, R.; Grootboom, A. W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N. L.; Kossmann, J.; Barnabas, A. D.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  11. Valine entry into rat brain after diet-induced changes in plasma amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tews, J.K.; Greenwood, J.; Pratt, O.E.; Harper, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Passage of amino acids across the blood-brain barrier is assumed to be modified by amino acid composition of the blood. To gain a better understanding of the effects of protein intake on brain amino acid uptake, the authors examined associations among diet, plasma amino acid patterns, and the rate of entry of valine into the brain. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 18, or 50% casein before receiving one meal of a diet containing 0, 6, 18, or 50% casein. After 4-7 h, they were anesthetized and infused intravenously with (/sup 14/C)valine for 5 min before plasma and brain samples were taken for determination of radioactivity and content of individual amino acids. As protein content of the meal was increased from 0 to 50% casein, plasma and brain concentrations of valine and most other large neutral amino acid (LNAA) increased severalfold; also the ratio of (/sup 14/C)valine in brain to that in plasma decreased by >50%, and the rate of valine entry into the brain increased 3.5-fold. The increase in valine flux slowed as plasma levels of LNAA, competitors for valine transport, increased. The results were far more dependent on protein content of the final meal than on that of the adaptation diet; thus changes in protein intake, as reflected in altered plasma amino acid patterns, markedly altered valine entry into the brain.

  12. Acid Rain Affecting the Electrical Properties of Outdoor Composite Dielectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Kumagai, Seiji; Yoshimura, Noboru

    1998-12-01

    Acid rain is precipitation with acidity, i.e., pH, below 5.6. There is an increasing interest in the degradation of the electrical properties of outdoor composite dielectric materials under severe contaminant conditions such as acid rain. In this study, the degradation effects of acid rain on the outdoor composite dielectrics are investigated by accelerated aging due to artificial acid rain. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the composition of artificial acid rain is chosen to agree with the actual composition of precipitation. The surface potential, breakdown voltage, tracking resistance, and surface discharge current of dielectric materials are studied. Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of electrical properties of composite dielectrics are discussed by investigating the degradation of the chemical and physical microstructures of material surface using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction spectrum (XDS), and the metalloscope. Experimental results show that the outdoor polymeric dielectrics suffer severely and degrade due to acid rain so that their surface electrical properties deteriorate after aging. The erosion, by acid rain, of the energized dielectric materials is larger than that of outdoor materials used for other purposes.

  13. [Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids during embryonic development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L].

    PubMed

    Murzina, S A; Nefedova, Z A; Ripatti, P O; Nemova, N N; Markova, L V

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids was studied for freshwater salmon Salmo salar L. during its embryonic development from blastula (3 hours) up to hatching (108 days) as well as in unfertilized eggs. Stable amount of total and some saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of total lipids was observed during embryonic development. Considerable changes in fatty acid composition were observed at the stage of prelarvae hatching, i.e., significant decrease of (n-6) PUFA (18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6)) and (n-3) PUFA and increase of total and some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was registered. Change in saturation ratio of membrane lipids justifies the presence of the biochemical mechanism forwarded on regulation of cell membrane enzymes in accordance with the changes of internal physiological processes taking place in the organism and fluctuations of external environmental conditions or the preparation period (as reproduction). Data on peculiarities of transformation and utilization of fatty acids during salmon embryonic development may be used for understanding of their functional role in the developing organism as well as for assessing the quality of the caviar. PMID:22650081

  14. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  15. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  16. Light-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Profiles of Specific Lipid Classes in Several Freshwater Phytoplankton Species

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Alexander; Piepho, Maike; Harwood, John L.; Guschina, Irina A.; Arts, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the influence of two light intensities [40 and 300 μmol PAR / (m2s)] on the fatty acid composition of three distinct lipid classes in four freshwater phytoplankton species. We chose species of different taxonomic classes in order to detect potentially similar reaction characteristics that might also be present in natural phytoplankton communities. From samples of the bacillariophyte Asterionella formosa, the chrysophyte Chromulina sp., the cryptophyte Cryptomonas ovata and the zygnematophyte Cosmarium botrytis we first separated glycolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol), phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine) as well as non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols), before analyzing the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. High variation in the fatty acid composition existed among different species. Individual fatty acid compositions differed in their reaction to changing light intensities in the four species. Although no generalizations could be made for species across taxonomic classes, individual species showed clear but small responses in their ecologically-relevant omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in terms of proportions and of per tissue carbon quotas. Knowledge on how lipids like fatty acids change with environmental or culture conditions is of great interest in ecological food web studies, aquaculture, and biotechnology, since algal lipids are the most important sources of omega-3 long-chain PUFA for aquatic and terrestrial consumers, including humans. PMID:27014290

  17. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant. PMID:23148871

  18. Photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol on photocatalyst prepared by acid leaching of titanium oxide/hydroxyapatite composite

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Y.; Rachi, T.; Yokouchi, M.; Kamimoto, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Okada, K.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst powder was prepared by acid leaching of TiO{sub 2}/apatite composite. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated from in situ FT-IR study using ethanol. ► Apatite in the composite had positive effect for the photo-oxidation of ethanol. ► The enhanced oxidation rate was explained by the difference in deactivation rate. - Abstract: Highly active photocatalysts were synthesized by leaching of heat-treated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with hydrochloric acid at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mol/l, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated from in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study of photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol. By changing the acid concentration, the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite had different atomic ratios of Ca/Ti (0.0–2.8) and P/Ti (0.3–2.1). It was found that phosphate group remained on the surface of TiO{sub 2} particle even in the sample treated with concentrated acid (0.75 mol/l). These acid-treated samples showed higher rates for ethanol photo-oxidation than the commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, Degussa P25. The highest rate was obtained in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite treated with the dilute (0.25 mol/l) acid in spite of its low content of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the result that the deactivation with repeated injections of ethanol gas was suppressed in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composites compared with the TiO{sub 2} powders.

  19. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  20. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

  1. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  2. The role of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition in liver pathophysiology associated with NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Gentile, C L; Weir, T L; Cox-York, K A; Wei, Y; Wang, D; Reese, L; Moran, G; Estrada, A; Mulligan, C; Pagliassotti, M J; Foster, M T

    2015-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is associated with type-2-diabetes, inflammation, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas subcutaneous adiposity is not. We hypothesized that the link between visceral adiposity and liver pathophysiology involves inherent or diet-derived differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue to store and mobilize saturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to characterize the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglyceride and portal vein fatty acids in relation to indices of liver dysregulation. For 8 weeks rats had free access to control (CON; 12.9% corn/safflower oil; 3.6 Kcal/g), high saturated fat (SAT; 45.2% cocoa butter; 4.5 Kcal/g) or high polyunsaturated fat (PUFA; 45.2% safflower oil; 4.5 Kcal/g) diets. Outcome measures included glucose tolerance, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue triglyceride, liver phospholipids and plasma (portal and systemic) free fatty acid composition, indices of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the liver and adipose tissue depots and circulating adipo/cytokines. Hepatic triglycerides were significantly increased in both high fat diet groups compared to control and were significantly higher in PUFA compared to SAT. Although glucose tolerance was not different among diet groups, SAT increased markers of inflammation and ER stress in the liver and both adipose tissue depots. Fatty acid composition did not differ among adipose depots or portal blood in any dietary group. Overall, these data suggest that diets enriched in saturated fatty acids are associated with liver inflammation, ER stress and injury, but that any link between visceral adipose tissue and these liver indices does not involve selective changes to fatty acid composition in this depot or the portal vein. PMID:26167414

  3. The role of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition in liver pathophysiology associated with NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, CL; Weir, TL; Cox-York, KA; Wei, Y; Wang, D; Reese, L; Moran, G; Estrada, A; Mulligan, C; Pagliassotti, MJ; Foster, MT

    2015-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is associated with type-2-diabetes, inflammation, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas subcutaneous adiposity is not. We hypothesized that the link between visceral adiposity and liver pathophysiology involves inherent or diet-derived differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue to store and mobilize saturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to characterize the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglyceride and portal vein fatty acids in relation to indices of liver dysregulation. For 8 weeks rats had free access to control (CON; 12.9% corn/safflower oil; 3.6 Kcal/g), high saturated fat (SAT; 45.2% cocoa butter; 4.5 Kcal/g) or high polyunsaturated fat (PUFA; 45.2% safflower oil; 4.5 Kcal/g) diets. Outcome measures included glucose tolerance, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue triglyceride, liver phospholipids and plasma (portal and systemic) free fatty acid composition, indices of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the liver and adipose tissue depots and circulating adipo/cytokines. Hepatic triglycerides were significantly increased in both high fat diet groups compared to control and were significantly higher in PUFA compared to SAT. Although glucose tolerance was not different among diet groups, SAT increased markers of inflammation and ER stress in the liver and both adipose tissue depots. Fatty acid composition did not differ among adipose depots or portal blood in any dietary group. Overall, these data suggest that diets enriched in saturated fatty acids are associated with liver inflammation, ER stress and injury, but that any link between visceral adipose tissue and these liver indices does not involve selective changes to fatty acid composition in this depot or the portal vein. PMID:26167414

  4. RGB-NDVI colour composites for visualizing forest change dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, S. A.; Winne, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The study presents a simple and logical technique to display and quantify forest change using three dates of satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was computed for each date of imagery to define high and low vegetation biomass. Color composites were generated by combining each date of NDVI with either the red, green, or blue (RGB) image planes in an image display monitor. Harvest and regeneration areas were quantified by applying a modified parallelepiped classification creating an RGB-NDVI image with 27 classes that were grouped into nine major forest change categories. Aerial photographs and stand history maps are compared with the forest changes indicated by the RGB-NDVI image. The utility of the RGB-NDVI technique for supporting forest inventories and updating forest resource information systems are presented and discussed.

  5. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2008-11-15

    Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from 1.6 to 25.8g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.5g/kg dry matter). Quinic acid was the major compound (72.2%), followed by citric acid (13.6%). Significant differences were found in malic and quinic acids relative abundances and total organic acid contents according to collection time, which indicates a possible use of these compounds as maturity markers. Between June and August seems to be the best period to harvest quince leaves for preparation of decoctions or infusions, since organic acids total content is higher in this season. PMID:26047441

  6. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  7. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  8. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. PMID:16251790

  9. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Gonçalo S; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-01

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013-2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%-0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%-3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%-33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%-29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%-16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%-54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA's, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA's in general compared to traditional vegetables. PMID:26184241

  10. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

  11. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Gonçalo S.; Holdt, Susan L.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013–2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%–0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%–3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%–33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%–29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%–16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%–54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA’s, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA’s in general compared to traditional vegetables. PMID:26184241

  12. Influence of glyphosate on amino acid composition of Egyptian broomrape.

    PubMed

    Nandula, V K; Westwood, J H; Foster, J G; Foy, C L

    2001-03-01

    The parasitic plant broomrape is entirely dependent on its host for reduced carbon and nitrogen and is also susceptible to inhibition by glyphosate that is translocated to the parasite through a host. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of broomrape parasitism on amino acid concentrations of two hosts: common vetch that is tolerant of low levels of glyphosate and oilseed rape that has been genetically engineered for glyphosate resistance. The influence of glyphosate on the amino acid content of broomrape and the two hosts was also examined. Amino acid concentrations in leaves and roots of parasitized common vetch plants were generally similar to those of the corresponding tissues of nonparasitized plants. Amino acid concentrations in broomrape were lower than those of the parasitized common vetch root. For common vetch, glyphosate applied at rates that selectively inhibited broomrape growth did not alter individual amino acid concentrations in the leaves, but generally increased amino acid levels at 0.18 kg ha-1. Glyphosate application also increased the amino acid concentrations, with the exception of arginine, of broomrape growing on common vetch and did not generally influence concentrations in leaves or roots of common vetch. In oilseed rape, parasitization by broomrape generally led to higher amino acid concentrations in leaves but lower concentrations in roots of parasitized plants. Broomrape had higher amino acid concentrations than roots of the parasitized oilseed rape. Glyphosate applied at 0.25 and 0.5 kg ha-1 generally increased the amino acid concentrations in oilseed rape leaves, but the 0.75 kg ha-1 application caused the amino acid concentrations to decrease compared to those of untreated plants. In oilseed rape root the general trend was an increase in the concentration of amino acids at the two highest rates of glyphosate. Individual amino acid concentrations in broomrape attachments growing on oilseed rape were generally increased

  13. Amino acid composition of royal jelly harvested at different times after larval transfer.

    PubMed

    Jie, H; Li, P M; Zhao, G J; Feng, X L; Zeng, D J; Zhang, C L; Lei, M Y; Yu, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    The amino acids in royal jelly (RJ) have a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting functions in humans. Multiple studies on the amino acid quality and composition in RJ have investigated RJ harvested at 72 h after larval transfer. In contrast, the concentration of amino acids in RJ harvested before 72 h remains unknown. In this study, the concentration of free amino acids (FAAs) and total amino acids (TAAs) in RJ harvested at 13 time points between 24 and 72 h after transfer of ten Apis mellifera colonies were measured. Our results indicated that the most abundant FAAs were Pro, Phe, Lys, Glu, and Tyr, whereas the most abundant TAAs were Asp, Glu, Leu, Lys, and Val. The total FAA concentration in RJ increased with increasing harvest time, from 4.30 mg/g at 24 h to 9.48 mg/g at 72 h. In contrast, the variation in concentration of TAAs observed was a decrease-increase-decrease trend with 40 h (149.53 mg/g) and 52 h (169.62 mg/g) as inflection points. The highest and lowest concentrations of TAA were 197.96 and 121.32 mg/g at 24 and 72 h, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the concentration changes of FAAs and TAAs prior to 72 h after transfer. Our results will provide theoretical support to guide production practices of beekeeping, as well as elucidate the relationship between the harvest time point and RJ content. PMID:27525943

  14. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  15. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation. PMID:27107771

  16. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    eight amino acids or combinations of amino acids) is more uniform in the HMW of the four samples compared to lower-molecular-weight fractions. The greater "compositional stability" of the HMW indicates that it contains a residuum of macromolecules that have not been affected by the diagenetically driven changes observed in lower-molecular-weight fractions.

  17. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  18. Robustness of two-step acid hydrolysis procedure for composition analysis of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Nunez, Angelica; Wyman, Charles E; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-01

    The NREL standard procedure for lignocellulosic biomass composition has two steps: primary hydrolysis in 72% wt sulfuric acid at 30°C for 1h followed by secondary hydrolysis of the slurry in 4wt% acid at 121°C for 1h. Although pointed out in the NREL procedure, the impact of particle size on composition has never been shown. In addition, the effects of primary hydrolysis time and separation of solids prior to secondary hydrolysis on composition have never been shown. Using poplar, it was found that particle sizes less than 0.250mm significantly lowered the glucan content and increased the Klason lignin but did not affect xylan, acetate, or acid soluble lignin contents. Composition was unaffected for primary hydrolysis time between 30 and 90min. Moreover, separating solids prior to secondary hydrolysis had negligible effect on composition suggesting that lignin and polysaccharides are completely separated in the primary hydrolysis stage. PMID:27282557

  19. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  20. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  1. Dietary omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acyl composition and insulin binding in skeletal-muscle sarcolemma.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Baracos, V E; Quinney, H A; Clandinin, M T

    1994-05-01

    Feeding animals with diets high in saturated fat induces insulin resistance, and replacing saturated fat isocalorically with poly-unsaturated fat, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, will prevent the development of insulin resistance in skeletal-muscle tissue. To investigate the mechanism, rats were fed on high-fat (20%, w/w) semipurified diets for 6 weeks. Diets containing ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) fatty acid of 0.25 (low-P/S diet) and 1.0 (high-P/S diet) were used to study the effect of the level of saturated fat. To study the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, diets with a low-P/S ratio containing either 0 (low-omega-3 diet) or 3.3% (high-omega-3 diet) long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil were fed. Plasma membrane from skeletal muscle was purified. The content of fatty acids in sarcolemmal phospholipid was significantly related to the dietary composition. Insulin binding to intact sarcolemmal vesicles prepared from rats fed on diets high in omega-3 fatty acids increased 14-fold compared with animals fed on the low-omega-3 diet (P < 0.0001). Feeding rats on a diet with a high P/S ratio increased sarcolemmal insulin binding by 2.3-fold (P < 0.05). Increased insulin binding was due to increased receptor number at the low-affinity high-capacity binding site. Dietary effects on insulin binding were eliminated when studies were carried out on detergent-solubilized membranes, indicating the importance of the phospholipid fatty acyl composition for insulin binding. The results suggest that dietary omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids increase insulin binding to sarcolemma by changing the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid surrounding the insulin receptor, and this might be the mechanism by which dietary fatty acids modify insulin action. PMID:8192673

  2. Groundwater changes in evaporating basins using gypsum crystals' isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, E.; Bustos, D.; Allwood, A.; Coleman, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    While the dynamics of groundwater evaporation are well known, it is still challenging to reconstruct the water patterns in areas where water is not available anymore. We selected a specific location in White Sands National Monument (WSNM), New Mexico, to validate a method to extract information from hydrated minerals regarding past groundwater evaporation patterns in evaporitic basins. WSNM has gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) dunes and crystals precipitated from the evaporation of an ancient lake. Our approach aims to extract the water of crystallization of gypsum and measure its oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions, in order to reconstruct the groundwater history of the area. The idea is that as the mother brine evaporates its isotopic composition changes continuously, recorded as water of crystallization in successive growth zones of gypsum. To check if the isotopic composition of the salt could effectively differentiate between distinctive humidity conditions, the methodology was tested first on synthetic gypsum grown under controlled humidity and temperature conditions. T and RH% were maintained constant in a glove box and precipitated gypsum was harvested every 24 hours. d2H and d18O of water of crystallization from the synthetic gypsum was extracted using a specially developed technique on a TC/EA. The brine was measured using a Gas Bench II for d18O and an H-Device for d2H on a Thermo Finnigan MAT 253 mass spectrometer. With the method tested, we measured natural gypsum. In order to identify the growth zones we mapped the surface of the crystals using an experimental space flight XRF instrument. Crystals were then sampled for isotopic analyses. Preliminary results suggest that site-specific groundwater changes can be described by the isotopic variations. We will show that the methodology is a reliable and fast method to quantify hydrological changes in a targeted environment. The study is currently ongoing but the full dataset will be presented at the conference.

  3. Sharing is Winning: Cooperative Learning about Atmospheric Composition Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2010-09-01

    This contribution presents evolving good practice in disseminating the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists as established in ACCENT. The promotion of early-career scientists, and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues addressed by the "Training and Education" programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). Dissemination avenues include a virtual knowledge train carrying the wealth of high-quality scientific learning material developed with experts involved in the ACCENT network. Learning opportunities on current research in atmospheric composition change in Europe were also created during face-to-face training workshops. Real-life examples of pressing air quality issues were addressed in meetings with stakeholder groups that offered opportunities for mutual learning in inspiring partnerships. In order to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change across Europe, activities were organized with the general public (e.g., Café Scientifique), where the participating early-career scientists were confronted with questions from lay people. For interested teachers, didactic translations of compact overviews on air quality science topics developed in ACCENT offer links with the typical European science curriculum and go beyond school book content. Some of the educational events, methods and tools are described in a booklet published in 2009 ("We Care for Clean Air!", ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6). The electronic version and all training material can be downloaded from www.accent-network.org/portal/education - a valuable resource for teachers and learners around the globe.

  4. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  5. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  6. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  7. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  8. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

  9. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  10. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  11. Change in composition of high density lipoprotein during gemfibrozil therapy.

    PubMed

    Sorisky, A; Ooi, T C; Simo, I E; Meuffels, M; Hindmarsh, J T; Nair, R

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) response in 20 middle-aged males during a 12-week course of gemfibrozil. Three aspects of the increase in HDL-C (25%) were studied and our observations are as follows: (1) subfraction analysis showed that HDL3-C rose earlier and to a larger extent (28%) than HDL2-C (15%), (2) analysis of variance group--time interaction effect and correlation studies of HDL-C and total triglycerides suggest the increase in HDL-C was due to a direct effect of gemfibrozil on HDL metabolism, and (3) HDL-C was the only one of 4 HDL components to increase. Apoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and HDL-phospholipid (HDL-PL) did not change, and HDL-triglyceride (HDL-TG) decreased. This pattern is consistent with a change in composition of HDL, i.e. cholesterol enrichment and triglyceride depletion. PMID:3118893

  12. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  13. Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

  14. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  15. Land use change alters functional gene diversity, composition and abundance in Amazon forest soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Liyou; Mueller, Rebecca C; Mirza, Babur S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Deng, Ye; Tiedje, James M; Pellizari, Vivian H

    2014-06-01

    Land use change in the Amazon rainforest alters the taxonomic structure of soil microbial communities, but whether it alters their functional gene composition is unknown. We used the highly parallel microarray technology GeoChip 4.0, which contains 83,992 probes specific for genes linked nutrient cycling and other processes, to evaluate how the diversity, abundance and similarity of the targeted genes responded to forest-to-pasture conversion. We also evaluated whether these parameters were reestablished with secondary forest growth. A spatially nested scheme was employed to sample a primary forest, two pastures (6 and 38 years old) and a secondary forest. Both pastures had significantly lower microbial functional genes richness and diversity when compared to the primary forest. Gene composition and turnover were also significantly modified with land use change. Edaphic traits associated with soil acidity, iron availability, soil texture and organic matter concentration were correlated with these gene changes. Although primary and secondary forests showed similar functional gene richness and diversity, there were differences in gene composition and turnover, suggesting that community recovery was not complete in the secondary forest. Gene association analysis revealed that response to ecosystem conversion varied significantly across functional gene groups, with genes linked to carbon and nitrogen cycling mostly altered. This study indicates that diversity and abundance of numerous environmentally important genes respond to forest-to-pasture conversion and hence have the potential to affect the related processes at an ecosystem scale. PMID:24806276

  16. Allometric scaling of dietary linoleic acid on changes in tissue arachidonic acid using human equivalent diets in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that dietary linoleic acid (LA) promotes chronic and acute diseases in humans by enriching tissues with arachidonic acid (AA), its downstream metabolite, and dietary studies with rodents have been useful for validation. However, levels of LA in research diets of rodents, as published in the literature, are notoriously erratic making interspecies comparisons unreliable. Therefore, the ability to extrapolate the biological effects of dietary LA from experimental rodents to humans necessitates an allometric scaling model that is rooted within a human equivalent context. Methods To determine the physiological response of dietary LA on tissue AA, a mathematical model for extrapolating nutrients based on energy was used, as opposed to differences in body weight. C57BL/6J mice were divided into 9 groups fed a background diet equivalent to that of the US diet (% energy) with supplemental doses of LA or AA. Changes in the phospholipid fatty acid compositions were monitored in plasma and erythrocytes and compared to data from humans supplemented with equivalent doses of LA or AA. Results Increasing dietary LA had little effect on tissue AA, while supplementing diets with AA significantly increased tissue AA levels, importantly recapitulating results from human trials. Conclusions Thus, interspecies comparisons for dietary LA between rodents and humans can be achieved when rodents are provided human equivalent doses based on differences in metabolic activity as defined by energy consumption. PMID:21702942

  17. Thermal analysis of metal foam matrix composite phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiange

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, CPCM (Composite Phase Change Material) was manufactured with metal foam matrix used as filling material. The temperature curves were obtained by experiment. The performance of heat transfer was analyzed. The experimental results show that metal foam matrix can improve temperature uniformity in phase change thermal storage material and enhance heat conduction ability. The thermal performance of CPCM is significantly improved. The efficiency of temperature control can be obviously improved by adding metal foam in phase change material. CPCM is in solid-liquid two-phase region when temperature is close to phase change point of paraffin. An approximate plateau appears. The plateau can be considered as the temperature control zone of CPCM. Heat can be transferred from hot source and be uniformly spread in thermal storage material by using metal foam matrix since thermal storage material has the advantage of strong heat storage capacity and disadvantage of poor heat conduction ability. Natural convection promotes the melting of solid-liquid phase change material. Good thermal conductivity of foam metal accelerates heat conduction of solid-liquid phase change material. The interior temperature difference decreases and the whole temperature becomes more uniform. For the same porosity with a metal foam, melting time of solid-liquid phase change material decreases. Heat conduction is enhanced and natural convection is suppressed when pore size of metal foam is smaller. The thermal storage time decreases and heat absorption rate increases when the pore size of metal foam reduces. The research results can be used to guide fabricating the CPCM.

  18. Dietary fatty acids affect mitochondrial phospholipid compositions and mitochondrial gene expression of rainbow trout liver at different ages.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; De Santis, C; Rubio-Mejía, O L; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are among the first responders to various stressors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL), particularly cardiolipin (CL), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, liver mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, lipid peroxidation, and mtDNA gene expression were analyzed in rainbow trout fed three diets with the same base formulation but with lipid supplied either by fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), or high DHA oil (DHA) during 6 weeks. Specifically, two feeding trials were performed using fish from the same population of two ages (1 and 3 years), and PL class compositions of liver mitochondria, fatty acid composition of individual PL classes, TBARS content, and mtDNA expression were determined. Dietary fatty acid composition strongly affected mitochondrial membrane composition from trout liver but observed changes did not fully reflect the diet, particularly when it contained high DHA. The changes were PL specific, CL being particularly resistant to changes in DHA. Some significant differences observed in expression of mtDNA with diet may suggest long-term dietary effects in mitochondrial gene expression which could affect electron transport chain function. All the changes were influenced by fish age, which could be related to the different growth rates observed between 1- and 3-year-old trout but that could also indicate age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:25398637

  19. Composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seeds: phenolics, organic acids and free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2005-04-01

    Phenolic compounds, organic acids and free amino acids of quince seeds were determined by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/UV and GC/FID, respectively. Quince seeds presented a phenolic profile composed of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol. Six identified organic acids constituted the organic acid profile of quince seeds: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The free amino acid profile was composed of 21 identified free amino acids and the three most abundant were glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. PMID:15702641

  20. Changes in lipid composition of Escherichia coli resulting from growth with organic solvents and with food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, L O

    1977-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli contain an altered fatty acid and phospholipid composition when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of a variety of organic solvents and food additives. The diversity of compounds examined which caused these changes indicates that no single catabolic pathway is involved. Many of the observed changes are consistent with the hypothesis that cells adapt their membrane lipids to compensate for the presence of these compounds in the environment. Both sodium benzoate and calcium propionate caused the synthesis of unusual fatty acids. PMID:327934

  1. Water Deficit-Induced Changes in Concentrations in Proline and Some Other Amino Acids in the Phloem Sap of Alfalfa.

    PubMed Central

    Girousse, C.; Bournoville, R.; Bonnemain, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in amino acid composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) phloem sap were studies in response to a water deficit. Sap was collected by stylectomy. As the leaf water potential ([psi]) decreased from -0.4 to -2.0 MPa, there was significant increase of the total amino acid concentration, due to that of some amino acids: proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and threonine. Asparagine concentration, which is the main amino acid assayed in the phloem sap of alfalfa (it accounts for 70% of the total content), did not vary with the plant water status. The other amino acid concentrations remained stable as [psi] varied; in particular, [gamma]-amino butyric acid concentration remained unchanged, whereas it varied in response to wounding. The more striking change in the sieve tubes was the accumulation of proline, which was observed below a [psi] threshold value of about -0.9 MPa (concentration x60 for a decrease of [psi] from -0.9 to -2.0 MPa). The role of such changes in phloem sap amino acid concentration in osmotic adjustment of growing tissues is discussed. PMID:12226278

  2. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  3. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

  4. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  5. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  6. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Prasek, Jan; Huska, Dalibor; Jasek, Ondrej; Zajickova, Lenka; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  7. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. PMID:25186278

  8. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

    2016-01-12

    The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

  9. Composite Elastic Skins for Shape-Changing Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagle, Christopher M.; Schlecht, Robin W.

    2007-01-01

    Composite elastic skins having tailorable mechanical properties have been invented for covering shape-changing ( morphable ) structures. These skins are intended especially for use on advanced aircraft that change shapes in order to assume different aerodynamic properties. Many of the proposals for aircraft that could perform large aerodynamic shape changes require flexible skins that could follow shape changes of internal structures driven by actuators. Examples of such shape changes can include growth or shrinkage of bumps, conformal changes in wing planforms, cambers, twists, and bending of integrated leading- and trailing-edge flaps. Prior to this invention, there was no way of providing smooth aerodynamic surfaces capable of large deflections while maintaining smoothness and sufficient rigidity. Although latex rubber, silicone rubber, and similar conventional materials can be made into smooth coverings, they are not suitable for this purpose because, in order to impart required stiffness against out-of-plane bending, it would be necessary to make the coverings excessively thick, thereby necessitating the use of impractically large actuation forces. The basic idea of the invention is that of smoothly wrapping an underlying variable structure with a smooth skin that can be stretched or otherwise warped with low actuation force in one or both in-plane direction(s) and is relatively stiff against out-of-plane bending. It is envisioned that a skin according to the invention could be stretched as much as 20 percent in a desired direction. Because this basic idea admits of numerous variations, the following description is necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity.

  10. Variable Effects of Dispersal on Productivity of Bacterial Communities Due to Changes in Functional Trait Composition

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate – functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B) we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A). Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal – productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities’ ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal – productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment. PMID:24324633

  11. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition.

    PubMed

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate-functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B) we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A). Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment. PMID:24324633

  12. Postnatal changes of plasma amino acids in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Flynn, N E; Knabe, D A; Mallick, B K; Wu, G

    2000-09-01

    Amino acids, ammonia, urea, orotate, and nitrate plus nitrite (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide) were determined in plasma of 1- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained from pigs at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of age for analysis of plasma amino acids and metabolites by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Plasma concentrations of arginine and its immediate precursors (citrulline and ornithine) decreased (P < 0.01) progressively (20 to 41%) with increasing age from 3 to 14 d. Plasma concentrations of glutamine declined (P < 0.01) progressively (10 to 31%) during the 1st wk of life. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, threonine, and alanine decreased (P < 0.01) (5 to 12%) in 14- and 21-d-old pigs, compared with 1- and 3-d-old pigs. There were no postnatal changes (P > 0.05) in plasma concentrations of other amino acids. Plasma concentrations of ammonia increased (P < 0.01) by 18 and 46%, whereas those of nitrate plus nitrite decreased (P < 0.01) by 16 and 29%, in 7- and 14-d-old pigs, respectively, compared with 1- to 3-d-old pigs. Because arginine plays a crucial role in ammonia detoxification via the hepatic urea cycle and is the physiological substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, our results of the decreased plasma concentrations of arginine and nitrate plus nitrite, as well as the increased plasma ammonia concentration, indicate a hitherto unrecognized deficiency of arginine in 7- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Arginine is an essential amino acid for piglets and has a great potential to enhance neonatal growth; therefore, further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism responsible for arginine deficiency in sow-reared piglets and to identify hormonal and metabolic means for improving neonatal arginine nutrition and growth. PMID:10985412

  13. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  14. Effect of exercise on the content of lipids, cholesterol and on the composition of fatty acids in the adrenals of rats receiving rapeseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, B; Ziemlański, S

    1981-01-01

    The effect of different levels of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil in diet and exposure to graded exercise on the contents of total lipids and total cholesterol, and the composition of fatty acids, in total lipids and cholesterol ester fractions in the adrenals of Wistar rats was investigated. Presence of erucic acid in the diet produced greater changes in the characteristic composition of fatty acids in the fraction of cholesterol esters than in the total lipids in the adrenals. The intensity of changes in the composition of fatty acids was greater with higher amounts of rapeseed oil in the diet and longer administration of the diet. Exercise decreased the changes in fatty acid composition in the fraction of cholesterol esters in rats receiving 50% of calories from rapeseed oil. In the group receiving 30% of calories from rapeseed oil the trained rats accumulated more rapidly cholesterol in the adrenals than the untrained rats. Exercise load had no effect on the total lipid level in the adrenals. PMID:7304197

  15. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque. PMID:27545001

  16. Dietary essential fatty acids change the fatty acid profile of rat neural mitochondria over time.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J R; Greenwood, C E

    1991-10-01

    This experiment examined the time course over which the amount of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) affects brain mitochondrial fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed 20% (wt/wt) fat diets that contained either 4 or 15% (wt/wt of diet) EFA for 1, 2, 3 or 6 wk or a 10% EFA diet for 3 or 6 wk. The EFA ratio [18:2(n-6)/18:3(n-3)] of all diets was approximately 30. Fatty acid analysis of brain mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin revealed that the largest dietary effect was on 18:2(n-6), which was 30% higher in rats fed the 15 vs. 4% EFA diets after 1 wk. This difference increased to twofold by 3 wk and was still twofold after 6 wk. These results demonstrate several facts: 1) the response of 18:2(n-6) in cardiolipin to dietary EFA is very fast and large, relative to changes in other quantitatively major fatty acids observed in weanling rats; 2) the 18:2(n-6) level in neural cardiolipin stabilizes after 3 wk of feeding at a level dependent upon the amount of dietary EFA; and 3) at least one neural fatty acid, 18:2(n-6), is very sensitive to amounts of dietary EFA that are well above the animal's EFA requirement. PMID:1765818

  17. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of in-vitro embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Lunn, L A; Kwong, W Y; Wonnacott, K; Linforth, R S T; Craigon, J

    2008-06-01

    The value of using the amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of embryo development was assessed in a bovine model of in-vitro maturation (IVM), IVF and blastocyst culture (IVC). A total of 445 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) aspirated from visually healthy follicles underwent IVM and IVF singly (n = 138) or in groups (n = 307). Of these COC, 349 cleaved (78%) following IVF and 112 went on to form blastocysts (32% of cleaved) following IVC. Culture method (singly or in groups) had no effect on development. In contrast to fatty acids, which had no predictive value, the amino acid composition of follicular fluid was associated with morphological assessments of COC quality and with post-fertilization development to the blastocyst stage. Principal component analysis identified two amino acids (i.e. alanine and glycine) that had the highest value for predicting early post-fertilization development. The predictive value of these two amino acids, in terms of the percentage of oocytes that cleaved following IVF, was greatest for COC with the poorest morphological grades but, with respect to blastocyst yields, was independent of morphological grade, and so may serve as a useful additional non-invasive measure of COC quality. PMID:18549697

  18. Thermoformed protein based composites in presence of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World industrialization has generated substantial quantities of petroleum-based plastics over many years, which are non biodegradable. There is a growing demand for the use of renewable agricultural sources to develop eco-friendly biobased composites. Agriculture-sourced proteins and starches are b...

  19. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang'e-3 landing site.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source. PMID:26694712

  20. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang'e-3 landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-12-01

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source.

  1. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  2. Effects of ensiling processes and antioxidants on fatty acid concentrations and compositions in corn silages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn silage is the main dietary component used for ruminant breeding in China and is an important dietary source of fatty acids for these animals. However, little is known regarding effective means to protect the fatty acid (FA) contents in silages. In this study, we examined the changes in FA contents and compositions during corn ensiling and screened several antioxidants for their inhibition of lipid oxidation during corn ensiling. Methods We conducted two different experiments. In Experiment 1, corn was ensiled in 30 polyethylene bottles (bottle volume: 1 L, silage density: 600 g/dm3) and three bottles were opened at 0.5 d, 1 d, 1.5 d, 2 d, 2.5 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d after ensiling. In Experiment 2, corn was treated with various antioxidants: (1) No additives (CK); (2) BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole); (3) TBHQ (Tertiary butyl hydroquinone); (4) TPP (Tea polyphenols); and (5) VE (Vitamin E). These treatments were applied at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of fresh weight with each treatment replicated 3 times. Results During ensiling in Experiment 1, saturated fatty acids (SFA; C16:0 and C18:0) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents tended to increase, whereas unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) tended to decrease. However, these changes were only significant on the first 2 days of ensiling. In Experiment 2, all of the antioxidants tested affected the total FA contents and those of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) and MDA. The effects of TBHQ and TPP were greater than those of the other antioxidants. Conclusions The reduced total FA contents in corn silages were due to unsaturated fatty acids’ oxidation during the early stages of ensiling. Adding an antioxidant could prevent fatty acids’ oxidation in corn silages. PMID:24304647

  3. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  4. Temperature-mediated variations in cellular membrane fatty acid composition of Staphylococcus aureus in resistance to pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lang-Hong; Wang, Man-Sheng; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Effects of growth temperature on cell membrane fatty acid composition, fluidity and lethal and sublethal injury by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (S. aureus) in the stationary phase were investigated. Analysis of the membrane fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that branched chain fatty acids (iso C14:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0) and straight chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0 and C18:0) were primary constituents in the membrane. The S. aureus changed its membrane fatty acid composition and its overall fluidity when exposed to different temperatures. The PEF lethal and sublethal effects were assessed, and results suggested that the degree of inactivation depended on the cell membrane structure, electric field strength and treatment time. The PEF inactivation kinetics including lethal and sublethal injury fractions were fitted with non-linear Weibull distribution, suggesting that inactivation of the first log cycle of S. aureus population was significantly affected by growth temperature, and the membrane of cells became more fluid, and easier to induce electroportion in low temperatures. Moreover, the morphology of S. aureus cells were investigated by electron microscopy, showing that various temperature-modified cells were distorted to differing extents and some even collapsed due to deep irreversible electroporation after PEF treatment. PMID:27155566

  5. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    PubMed

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed. PMID:24171311

  6. Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekeli, Yener; Sezgin, Mehmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ozmen Guler, Gokalp; Aydin Sanda, Murad

    2010-12-01

    In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps and C. cariensis subsp. microlepis. Generally, C 18:2 ω6 linoleic acid, C 16:0 palmitic acid, C 18:3 ω3 linolenic acid and C 18:1 oleic acid were found to be the major fatty acids in all species. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in all species. PUFAs were determined at 55.10%, 50.25%, 51.41%, 41.02%, 46.18% and 58.80% in C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and C. iberica, respectively. PMID:21108113

  7. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    PubMed

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  8. Temperature independence of the composition of triglyceride fatty acids synthesized de novo by the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Van Handel, E

    1966-01-01

    The hypothesis that depot fat is more unsaturated when it is synthesized at lower temperatures was tested in the mosquito. Female mosquitoes (Aedes sollicitans) were starved until no triglycerides remained. A single dose of sugar was fed and the mosquitoes were maintained at different temperatures. Approximately the same amount of triglyceride was synthesized per mosquito at each temperature, although at different rates. Mosquitoes maintained at low temperatures did not synthesize more unsaturated triglycerides than those at higher temperatures: the fatty acid composition was essentially the same from 10 to 35 degrees. The triglycerides synthesized from sugar contained no poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Total amounts and composition of phospholipid fatty acids remained unaltered during sugar feeding. When deprived of food, the mosquitoes catabolized triglyceride fatty acids randomly; cold-exposure did not cause selective retention or utilization of any individual fatty acid. PMID:4378885

  9. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection associated with altered hepatic fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Ma, David W L; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Salit, Irving E; Wong, David K H; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2011-03-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition, especially a reduction in n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is common in HIV-infection.. In a cross-sectional study we compared hepatic FA composition between 20 HIV-infected men with NAFLD (HIV/NAFLD), 21 HIV-negative men with NAFLD (NAFLD), and 7 healthy controls. Within HIV/NAFLD we compared simple steatosis (HIV/SS) to steatohepatitis (HIV/NASH). FA composition in liver and erythrocytes, oxidative stress, diet, and exercise were assessed. Major findings (P<0.05) were: 1) higher hepatic n-6/n-3 ratio in HIV/NAFLD [median (range)] [8.08 (1.08-21.52)] compared to controls [5.83 (3.58-6.93)] and NAFLD [5.97 (1.46-10.40)], with higher n-6 PUFA in HIV/NAFLD compared to NAFLD; 2) lower n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes (mol%), a marker for dietary intake, in HIV/NAFLD [5.26 (1.04-11.75)] compared to controls [8.92 (4.79-12.67)]; 3) the ratios of long-chain PUFA products to essential FA precursors of the n-6 and n-3 series were lower in HIV/NAFLD and NAFLD compared to controls. In contrast, the ratio of oleic/stearic acid was higher in HIV/NAFLD compared to the other groups. These ratios are indirect markers of enzymatic FA desaturation and elongation. Hepatic PUFA, especially biologically active long-chain PUFA, were also lower in HIV/NASH compared to HIV/SS. Oxidative stress was not different among the groups. We conclude that HIV/NAFLD is associated with altered hepatic FA composition. Changes may be due to impaired FA metabolism or suboptimal n-3 PUFA intake. The potential role of n-3 PUFA (e.g. fish oil) to treat or prevent HIV/NAFLD warrants further investigation. PMID:21434863

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

  12. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  13. Phagocytosis of hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing oxidized dextrans conjugated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shkurupy, V A; Arkhipov, S A; Troitsky, A V; Luzgina, N G; Zaikovskaja, M V; Ufimceva, E G; Iljine, D A; Akhramenko, E S; Gulyaeva, E P; Bistrova, T N

    2009-12-01

    We studied phagocytic activity of macrophages towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions consisting of 150-800-nm nanoliposomes containing oxidized dextrans with a molecular weight of 35 and 60 kDa obtained by chemical ("permanganate") and radiochemical oxidation of dextran conjugated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (dextrazides, intracellular prolonged antituberculous drugs). Phagocytic activity of macrophages towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing dextrazides obtained by chemical oxidation of dextrans is higher than activity towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing dextrazides prepared by radiochemical oxidation and depends on the size of hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions and molecular weight of oxidized dextrans. PMID:21116494

  14. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Francis, George W.; Bui, Yen Thuy Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil. PMID:26161120

  15. Aluminum Foam-Phase Change Material Composites as Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-04-07

    The effects of geometric parameters of open-cell aluminum foams on the performance of aluminum foam-phase change material (PCM) composites as heat sinks are investigated by experiments. Three types of open-cell aluminum 6061 foams with similar relative densities and different cell sizes are used. Paraffin is selected as the PCM due to its excellent thermal stability and ease of handling. The experimental results show that the performance of the heat sink is significantly affected by the surface area density of the aluminum foam. In general, as the surface area density of the foam increases, the performance of the heat sink is improved regardless of the current phase of the PCM.

  16. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Francis, George W; Bui, Yen Thuy Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil. PMID:26161120

  17. Geochemical changes during biotechnological remediation of an acidic mining lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, E.; Frömmichen, R.; Koschorreck, M.; Wendt-Potthoff, K.

    2003-04-01

    Due to lignite mining and pyrite oxidation there are about 100 acidic mining lakes in Lower Lusatia (Germany). Research projects are dealing with the examination of the chemical and ecological state of such mining lakes to assess the possibilities for a natural or an artificial restoration. A biotechnological remediation which accelerates the microbial sulphate and iron reduction (tested by column-experiments) at the water-sediment interface started by addition of lime and straw (enclosure tests) in one of these lakes. Parameters like TRIS (Total reduced inorganic sulphide) and d34S-values indicate first changes in the treated lake sediments. The time dependent development and the stability of reaction products, as well as the interaction between the acidic lake water and the anoxic sediment layer are investigated. Neutralisation rates can be calculated by the amount of accumulated mineral sulphur species. A hydrogeochemical model (based on the code PHREEQC) combined with limnophysical characteristics of the lake is used to understand the geochemical behaviour in more detail and to predict the further development. But there are still some uncertainties (behaviour of littoral lake sediments, groundwater inflow, erosion of acidic dump sediments) in the remediation model.

  18. Changes in Lipid Composition During Manganese-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Corsetto, P A; Ferrara, G; Buratta, S; Urbanelli, L; Montorfano, G; Gambelunghe, A; Chiaradia, E; Magini, A; Roderi, P; Colombo, I; Rizzo, A M; Emiliani, C

    2016-02-01

    Lipid composition of membranes is fundamental to modulate signaling pathways relying on lipid metabolites and/or membrane proteins, thus resulting in the regulation of important cell processes such as apoptosis. In this case, membrane remodeling is an early event important for the activation of signaling leading to cell death and removal of apoptotic cells. In the present study, we analyzed phospholipid, cholesterol and fatty acid content during apoptosis induced by manganese in PC12 cells. Lipid analysis of whole cells and detergent-resistant membranes was carried out by HPLC/GC. Results showed that apoptosis is associated with changes in lipid composition detectable in whole cell extracts, namely cholesterol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine decreases. Noteworthy, phosphatidylserine level reduction was detectable before to the detection of apoptosis, in correlation with our previous study carried out by radioactive labelling. By contrast, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine changes were not detected in detergent resistant membranes, which instead showed an altered composition in phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in apoptotic cells. PMID:26671766

  19. Metabolomic profiling in tomato reveals diel compositional changes in fruit affected by source–sink relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Camille; Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoît; Osorio, Sonia; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Deborde, Catherine; Colombié, Sophie; Cabasson, Cécile; Jacob, Daniel; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Rolin, Dominique; Génard, Michel; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the diurnal compositional changes was performed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker) leaves and fruits. Plants were cultivated in a commercial greenhouse under two growth conditions: control and shaded. Expanding fruits and the closest mature leaves were harvested during two different day/night cycles (cloudy or sunny day). High-throughput robotized biochemical phenotyping of major compounds, as well as proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, were used to measure the contents of about 70 metabolites in the leaves and 60 metabolites in the fruits, in parallel with ecophysiological measurements. Metabolite data were processed using multivariate, univariate, or clustering analyses and correlation networks. The shaded carbon-limited plants adjusted their leaf area, decreased their sink carbon demand and showed subtle compositional modifications. For source leaves, several metabolites varied along a diel cycle, including those directly linked to photosynthesis and photorespiration. These metabolites peaked at midday in both conditions and diel cycles as expected. However, transitory carbon storage was limited in tomato leaves. In fruits, fewer metabolites showed diel fluctuations, which were also of lower amplitude. Several organic acids were among the fluctuating metabolites. Diel patterns observed in leaves and especially in fruits differed between the cloudy and sunny days, and between the two conditions. Relationships between compositional changes in leaves and fruits are in agreement with the fact that several metabolic processes of the fruit appeared linked to its momentary supply of sucrose. PMID:25873655

  20. Trans fatty acid content in Serbian margarines: Urgent need for legislative changes and consumer information.

    PubMed

    Vučić, Vesna; Arsić, Aleksandra; Petrović, Snježana; Milanović, Sandra; Gurinović, Mirjana; Glibetić, Maria

    2015-10-15

    This study examined the fatty acid (FA) composition of 13 (7 soft and 6 hard) Serbian margarines. Significantly higher amounts of trans fatty acids (TFA) were found in hard margarines (up to 28.84% of total FA), than in soft ones (0.17-6.89%). Saturated FA (SFA) were present with 22.76-51.17%. Oleic acid ranged from 26.78% to 43.78%. The proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) was 22.15-49.29% in soft margarines, but only 8.02-15.28% in hard margarines, probably due to the hydrogenisation process. The atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes (AI and TI, respectively) in soft margarines were relatively low (AI 0.23-0.63 and TI 0.44-0.97), but in hard margarines AI and particularly TI were high (1.03-1.67 and 1.96-3.04, respectively). These findings suggest that FA composition of Serbian margarines should be improved by replacing atherogenic TFA and SFA with beneficial ones, in order to avoid adverse effects on health. Therefore legislative changes and consumer information are urgently needed. PMID:25952890

  1. Surface Chemical Compositions and Dispersity of Starch Nanocrystals Formed by Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were −23.1 and −5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to −32.3 and −10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to −24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample. PMID:24586246

  2. Bacterial community compositions in sediment polluted by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using Illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yajun; Wang, Tieyu; Peng, Xiawei; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-06-01

    The characterization of bacterial community compositions and the change in perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along a natural river distribution system were explored in the present study. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to explore bacterial community diversity and structure in sediment polluted by PFAAs from the Xiaoqing River, the area with concentrated fluorochemical facilities in China. The concentration of PFAAs was in the range of 8.44-465.60 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFAA in all samples, which accounted for 94.2 % of total PFAAs. High-level PFOA could lead to an obvious increase in relative abundance of Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria, Thiobacillus, and Sulfurimonas and the decrease in relative abundance of other bacteria. Redundancy analysis revealed that PFOA played an important role in the formation of bacterial community, and PFOA at higher concentration could reduce the diversity of bacterial community. When the concentration of PFOA was below 100 ng/g dw in sediment, no significant effect on microbial community structure was observed. Thiobacillus and Sulfurimonas were positively correlated with the concentration of PFOA, suggesting that both genera were resistant to PFOA contamination. PMID:26780047

  3. Reversal of carbon tetrachloride induced changes in microviscosity and lipid composition of liver plasma membrane by colchicine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Herruzo, J A; De Gando, M; Ferrer, M P; Hernandez Muñoz, I; Fernandez-Boya, B; De la Torre, M P; Muñoz-Yague, M T

    1993-01-01

    Colchicine is beneficial in the treatment of cirrhotic patients, it prevents changes in plasma membrane bound enzymes induced by CCl4 intoxication. In this study, lipid composition and microviscosity were measured in liver plasma membranes isolated from rats given CCl4. Microviscosity values increased in rats given CCl4 for six weeks but fell considerably in those given CCl4 for 10 weeks. Both these changes were absent when colchicine was given with CCl4. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratios and lipid peroxide values increased but plasma membrane phospholipids, the length of fatty acyl chains, and the unsaturation index fell significantly after CCl4 intoxication. Colchicine treatment also prevented these changes. Changes in the lipid composition of liver plasma membranes were significantly correlated with lipid peroxidation. Colchicine prevents changes in the physicochemical properties of liver plasma membranes induced by longterm CCl4 treatment, probably by blocking peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:8244117

  4. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

  5. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  6. Fatty acid composition of twelve algae from the coastal zones of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Heiba, H I; Al-Easa, H S; Rizk, A F

    1997-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of twelve algal species from two different classes were determined. Three Chlorophyta species (Acetabularia calyculus, Cladophora sericoides and Dictyosphaeria cavernosa) and nine Phaeophyta species (Colpomenia sinuosa, Cystoseria trinodis, Dictyota cervicornis, Hormophysa triquetra, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum binderi, S. boveanum, S. denticulatum and S. heteromorpha) were investigated. Thirty-four fatty acids were identified. Myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, eicosodienic and lignoceric acids were predominant in all examined algal species. Branched saturated fatty acids were also found in all investigated species except Cladophora sericoides. PMID:9498691

  7. SURFACE DEGRADATION OF COMPOSITE RESINS BY ACIDIC MEDICINES AND pH-CYCLING

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; Neves, Beatriz Gonçalves; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic medicines (Dimetapp® and Claritin®), under pH-cycling conditions, on the surface degradation of four composite resins (microhybrid: TPH, Concept, Opallis and Nanofilled: Supreme). Thirty disc-shaped specimens (Ø = 5.0 mm / thickness = 2.0 mm) of each composite were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10): a control and two experimental groups, according to the acidic medicines evaluated. The specimens were finished and polished with aluminum oxide discs, and the surface roughness was measured by using a profilometer. After the specimens were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen and immersion in acidic medicines for 12 days, the surface roughness was measured again. Two specimens for each material and group were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after pH-cycling. Data were analyzed by the Student's-t test, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range test and paired t-test (α=0.05). Significant increase in roughness was found only for TPH in the control group and TPH and Supreme immersed in Claritin® (p<0.05). SEM analyses showed that the 4 composite resins underwent erosion and surface degradation after being subjected to the experimental conditions. In conclusion, although the roughness was slightly affected, the pH-cycling and acidic medicines caused surface degradation of the composite resins evaluated. Titratable acidity seemed to play a more crucial role on surface degradation of composite resins than pH. PMID:19089257

  8. Changes in Tobacco Cell Membrane Composition and Structure Caused by Cercosporin 1

    PubMed Central

    Daub, Margaret E.; Briggs, Steven P.

    1983-01-01

    Cercosporin, a toxin produced by Cercospora species, rapidly kills plant cells in the light. Previous work has shown that cercosporin treatment causes products of lipid peroxidation to be released. We have found that the unsaturated acyl chains of lipids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell membranes are destroyed when cells are treated with cercosporin. Concomitant with this change in composition is a change in structure of the membranes as detected by two different fatty acid spin labels, 2-(3-carboxypropyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-tridecyl-3-oxazolidinyloxyl (denoted I[12,3]) and 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxyl (denoted I[1,14]). Cercosporin causes the membranes to become more rigid at all temperatures tested and increases the membrane phase transformation temperature from 12.7°C to 20.8°C. PMID:16662903

  9. [Amino acid composition of the body of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Smirnova, T A; Dmitrieva, I A

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents data concerning the amino acid pool of rats flown on board Cosmos-1129 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous experiment. Certain changes in the amino acid pool of flight and synchronous rats have been found. The changes seem to be associated with the selective rate of incorporation of free amino acids into the biosynthetic processes during acute adaptation and with alterations in the protein synthesis rate. PMID:7289568

  10. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416518

  11. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  12. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  13. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  14. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites.

    PubMed

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a "blocking effect" between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1~114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  15. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  16. Thermally induced changes in lipid composition of raft and non-raft regions of hepatocyte plasma membranes of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Zehmer, John K; Hazel, Jeffrey R

    2005-11-01

    In poikilotherms, increases in plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol and an increase in the degree of lipid acyl chain saturation commonly accompany an increase in growth temperature. This has typically been interpreted in terms of membrane fluidity/order homeostasis, but these changes would also be expected to stabilize the structure of PM rafts against thermal perturbation. Rafts are microdomains that organize the molecules of many signaling cascades and are formed as a result of interactions between lipids with saturated acyl chains and cholesterol. No study to date has examined the thermally induced compositional changes of raft and non-raft regions of the PM separately. In this study we have measured the phospholipid class composition and fatty acid composition of raft-enriched (raft) and raft-depleted PM (RDPM) of hepatocytes from trout Oncorhynchus mykiss acclimated to 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. In the raft, warm acclimation was associated with a reduction in the proportion of phosphatidylcholine from 56% to 30% while phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol each increased from 8% to approximately 20% of the total phospholipid. Additionally, there were significantly fewer unsaturated fatty acids in the raft lipids from warm-acclimated (61%) than from the cold-acclimated trout (68%). In contrast, there were no significant changes in phospholipid class or acyl chain unsaturation in the RDPM. These data suggest that changes in raft lipid composition, rather than the PM as a whole, are particularly important during thermal acclimation. PMID:16272251

  17. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites. PMID:26405910

  18. Gibberellic Acid-induced Phase Change in Hedera helix as Studied by Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Ribonucleic Acid Hybridization 1

    PubMed Central

    Rogler, Charles E.; Dahmus, Michael E.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of gibberellic acid to the mature form of Hedera helix induce morphological reversions to the juvenile form of growth. The juvenile forms produced are stable with time and differ dramatically from the mature in phenotype. DNA-RNA hybridization techniques have been used to study the RNA populations of juvenile, mature and gibberellic acid-treated mature apices. Hybridization competition experiments using RNA extracted by a hot phenol technique and uniformly labeled in vitro with 3H dimethylsulfate show no qualitative differences between the species of RNA present in juvenile and mature apices. However, differences are observed in the frequency distribution of RNA species using both uniformly labeled or pulse-labeled RNA as a reference. RNA extracted from gibberellic acid-treated mature buds was a less effective competitor than control mature RNA and the difference observed was comparable to that observed between mature and juvenile RNA. These results indicate that at least part of the molecular basis of phase change and gibberellic acid action may involve an alteration in the rate of transcription of certain genes in the apices of the mature form. RNA extracted using the hot phenol procedure contained a fraction of rapidly labeled RNA which was not extractable with cold phenol. When RNA extracted only with cold phenol was used in competition experiments sequences unique to the juvenile were detected and sequences unique to the mature were not detected. Implications of these results in relation to possible post-transcriptional control mechanisms are discussed. PMID:16658844

  19. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Lukas; Ulrich, Andreas; Moreano, Matilde; Gessler, Arthur; E. Kayler, Zachary; Steger, Kristin; Zeller, Bernd; Rudolph, Kristin; Knezevic-Jaric, Jelena; Premke, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-desiccation cycles) on carbon turnover. 13C-labelled particulate organic carbon was used to trace and estimate carbon uptake into bacterial biomass (via phospholipid fatty acids) and respiration. Microbial community changes were monitored by combining DNA- and RNA-based real-time PCR quantification and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA. The shifting hydrological regimes in the sediment primarily caused two linked microbial effects: changes in the use of available organic carbon and community composition changes. Drying sediments yielded the highest CO2 emission rates, whereas hydrological shifts increased the uptake of allochthonous organic carbon for respiration. T-RFLP patterns demonstrated that only the most extreme hydrological changes induced a significant shift in the active and total bacterial communities. As current scenarios of climate change predict an increase of drought events, frequent variations of the hydrological regimes of many lake littoral zones in central Europe are anticipated. Based on the results of our study, this phenomenon may increase the intensity and amplitude in rates of allochthonous organic carbon uptake and CO2 emissions. PMID:26902802

  20. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Weise, Lukas; Ulrich, Andreas; Moreano, Matilde; Gessler, Arthur; Kayler, Zachary E; Steger, Kristin; Zeller, Bernd; Rudolph, Kristin; Knezevic-Jaric, Jelena; Premke, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-desiccation cycles) on carbon turnover. (13)C-labelled particulate organic carbon was used to trace and estimate carbon uptake into bacterial biomass (via phospholipid fatty acids) and respiration. Microbial community changes were monitored by combining DNA- and RNA-based real-time PCR quantification and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA. The shifting hydrological regimes in the sediment primarily caused two linked microbial effects: changes in the use of available organic carbon and community composition changes. Drying sediments yielded the highest CO2 emission rates, whereas hydrological shifts increased the uptake of allochthonous organic carbon for respiration. T-RFLP patterns demonstrated that only the most extreme hydrological changes induced a significant shift in the active and total bacterial communities. As current scenarios of climate change predict an increase of drought events, frequent variations of the hydrological regimes of many lake littoral zones in central Europe are anticipated. Based on the results of our study, this phenomenon may increase the intensity and amplitude in rates of allochthonous organic carbon uptake and CO2 emissions. PMID:26902802

  1. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  2. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  3. Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

    1995-01-01

    In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids. PMID:7784510

  4. Influencing fatty acid composition of yeasts by lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Kolouchova, Irena; Sigler, Karel; Zimola, Michal; Rezanka, Tomas; Matatkova, Olga; Masak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of microorganisms is affected by cultivation conditions, concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources and the presence of trace elements. One of the new possibilities of influencing the production of cell mass or lipids is the use of lanthanides. Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry and their concentration as environmental contaminants is therefore increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants but their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements or operate as potent blockers of Ca(2+) channels. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on traditional biotechnologically useful yeast species (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii), and species capable of high accumulation of lipids (Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp., Yarrowia lipolytica). Low concentrations of lanthanum and monazite were conducive to an increase in cell mass and lipids and also higher production of palmitoleic acid, commonly used in cosmetics and medicine, and ω6-linoleic acid which is a precursor of thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leucotrienes. PMID:27339307

  5. Comparison of the Morphology and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Composition of 27 Strains of Nitrifying Bacteria1

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Stanley W.; Mandel, Manley

    1971-01-01

    The gross morphology, fine structure, and per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) composition of deoxyribonucleic acid of 27 strains of nitrifying bacteria were compared. Based on morphological differences, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were separated into four genera. Nitrosomonas species and Nitrosocystis species formed one homogenous group, and Nitrosolobus species and Nitrosospira species formed a second homogenous group in respect to their deoxyribonucleic acid GC compositions. Similarly, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were separated into three genera based on their morphology. The members of two of these nitrite-oxidizing genera, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus, had similar GC compositions, but Nitrospina gracilis had a significantly lower GC composition than the members of the other two genera. Images PMID:4939767

  6. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  7. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  8. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products. PMID:27432239

  9. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  10. CDC group IIc: phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid composition, and isoprenoid quinone content.

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, D G; Moss, C W; Daneshvar, M I; Wallace-Shewmaker, P L

    1996-01-01

    Twenty strains of glucose-utilizing, small gram-negative slightly pleomorphic rods that grew well aerobically and that were isolated from clinical specimens formed a phenotypically similar group that was designated CDC group IIc. The phenotypic characteristics of CDC group IIc were most similar to those of CDC groups IIe and IIh, the major differences being that CDC group IIc produced acid from sucrose, hydrolyzed esculin, and usually reduced nitrate. The CDC group IIc strains were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for their cellular fatty acid compositions, and all contained relatively large amounts of isobranched hydroxy and nonhydroxy acids. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the quinone extract showed menaquinone-6 as the major component. Both the cellular fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone compositions were consistent with the profiles of CDC groups IIe and IIh. Thirty percent of the isolates were from human blood. PMID:8862612

  11. Identify Secretory Protein of Malaria Parasite with Modified Quadratic Discriminant Algorithm and Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-E

    2016-06-01

    Malaria parasite secretes various proteins in infected red blood cell for its growth and survival. Thus identification of these secretory proteins is important for developing vaccine or drug against malaria. In this study, the modified method of quadratic discriminant analysis is presented for predicting the secretory proteins. Firstly, 20 amino acids are divided into five types according to the physical and chemical characteristics of amino acids. Then, we used five types of amino acids compositions as inputs of the modified quadratic discriminant algorithm. Finally, the best prediction performance is obtained by using 20 amino acid compositions, the sensitivity of 96 %, the specificity of 92 % with 0.88 of Mathew's correlation coefficient in fivefold cross-validation test. The results are also compared with those of existing prediction methods. The compared results shown our method are prominent in the prediction of secretory proteins. PMID:26286010

  12. Protozoan, Bacterial, and Volatile Fatty Acid Changes Associated with Feeding Tylosin

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, N.; Purser, D. B.

    1967-01-01

    Tylosin was fed to two of six wethers for 79 days, to a second two for only 28 days, and not at all to a third pair (controls). The addition of tylosin to the daily feed resulted in a rapid twofold increase in protozoal concentration and a change in the composition or characteristics, or both, of the bacterial population. The results indicate that the bacterial population was modified to the extent of about 80%. Total acid concentrations were initially depressed but appeared to be greater than those in control animals at the termination of the experiment. Deletion of tylosin from the ration resulted in a rapid decrease in protozoal concentrations, whereas changes in the bacterial population did not occur for a further 30 days. PMID:16349756

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new composite materials based on poly(methacrylic acid) and hydroxyapatite with applications in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Cucuruz, Andrei Tiberiu; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ficai, Anton; Ilie, Andreia; Iordache, Florin

    2016-08-30

    The use of methacrylic acid (MAA) in medicine was poorly investigated in the past but can be of great importance because the incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) can lead to new composite materials with good properties due to the strong electrostatic interactions between carboxylate groups of polymer and Ca(2+) ions from HA. The scope of this study was to determine the potential of using composite materials based on poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and hydroxyapatite in dentistry. Two routes of synthesis were taken into account: i) HA was synthesised in situ and ii) commercial HA was used. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for compositional assessments. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the morphology and differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was used to study the thermal behaviour and to observe quantitative changes. In-vitro tests were also performed in order to evaluate the biocompatibility of both PMAA/HA composites by monitoring the development potential of human endothelial cells using MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy. PMID:26836709

  14. Seasonal Variations in Maternal Provisioning of Crepidula fornicata (Gastropoda): Fatty Acid Composition of Females, Embryos and Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Fanny; Meziane, Tarik; Riera, Pascal; Comtet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment success of marine invertebrate populations not only depends on the number of recruits but also on their quality which affects their survival. In species characterized by a mixed development (encapsulated embryonic development and release of planktotrophic larvae), the offspring quality depends on both maternal provisioning and larval feeding. Here, we investigated potential changes of maternal provisioning over the whole reproductive period in a gastropod with a mixed development: Crepidulafornicata. In its introduction area, C. fornicata reproduces from February to October, which implies that both adults and larvae are exposed to different food availabilities. Maternal provisioning was assessed by measuring the fatty acid (FA) composition of females, encapsulated embryos and larvae, in February, May, July and September 2009. FA are essential resources for the development of embryos and larvae, and are key biomarkers of offspring quality. Our results showed differences in FA composition between muscles, visceral masses, and encapsulated embryos. In particular, FA composition of embryos was similar to that of the visceral mass. Seasonal variations in FA composition were observed: in the middle of the reproductive season (May and July), female tissues and embryos showed a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially ω3, as compared to the beginning and end of the reproductive season (February and September). This showed that through maternal provisioning the quality of C. fornicata offspring was higher in the middle of the reproductive season. Whether this would result in an increase of recruitment success and juvenile performance would require further investigations. PMID:24086505

  15. Acidity and mineral composition of precipitation in Moscow: Influence of deicing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring data and analysis of the variation in acidity and mineral composition of atmospheric precipitation in Moscow in 2012 are presented. We have found that the chloride anions in the precipitation are largely caused by chlorides of deicing salts. Here, the chloride anions, along with metal chlorides (components of deicing salts), are partly caused by dissolved hydrogen chloride. The appearance of hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Moscow has been shown to result from heterophase chemical reactions involving deicing salts. We have obtained preliminary estimates for the scales of the effect of these salts on the mineral composition and acidity of precipitations in Moscow.

  16. Multifaceted chitin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite nanogels.

    PubMed

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Biswas, Raja; Chellan, Gopi; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    Cyto-compatible, 80nm sized chitin/PLGA composite nanogels (chit/PLGA-comp NGs) were prepared by regeneration method and characterized. The multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp NGs were surface modified with Au, Fe3O4, CdTe/ZnTe-QDs and umbelliferone, respectively. 185nm sized Au-chit/PLGA-comp NGs, 170nm sized QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 160nm sized Fe3O4-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs showed RF heating. The QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 180nm sized umb-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs were well uptaken by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The chit/PLGA-comp NGs could be useful for microbial monitoring and RF application for cancer therapy. The preliminary data showed that multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp-NGs could be useful for hyperthermia for cancer treatment and microbial labelling and imaging. PMID:24685461

  17. Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P < 0.05). Cattle with the LL genotype had higher palmitic acid (C16:1), triglycerides, and C16 index but lower stearic acid (C18:0) and SFA compared to those with the LS genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 84-bp indel of SREBP1 could be used as a genetic marker for selecting Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

  18. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  19. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

  20. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  1. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  2. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  3. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response. PMID:27162397

  4. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  5. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  6. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:25436961

  7. Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2013-04-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  8. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). PMID:23075272

  9. DSC evaluation of extra virgin olive oil stability under accelerated oxidative test: effect of fatty acid composition and phenol contents.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Vecchio, Stefano; Chiavaro, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Three extra virgin olive oils having different fatty acid compositions and total phenol contents were submitted to an accelerated storage test at 60°C for up to 21 weeks. Their oxidative status, evaluated by peroxide values and total phenolic content, was related to differential scanning calorimetry cooling profiles and thermal properties. Changes in crystallization profiles were consistent starting from 12 weeks for the two oil samples (B and C) that had a higher content of linoleic acid and medium/low amounts of phenols, respectively, whereas they became detectable at the end of the test for the remaining oil (sample A). Decrease of crystallization enthalpy and shift of transition towards lower temperature were also evident at 4 weeks of storage for samples B and C, whereas the same changes in the transition profile were noticeable at 12 weeks for sample A. Differential scanning calorimetry appears to be suitable for the discrimination of oxidative status of extra virgin olive oils with widely different fatty acid composition. PMID:22687775

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  11. Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Tang, Xiaoyan; Wilson, Stephen R; Zanis, Prodromos; Bais, Alkiviadis F

    2003-01-01

    Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone concentration can have a significant impact on human health and the environment. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) are produced by the atmospheric degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). TFA has been measured in rain, rivers, lakes, and oceans, the ultimate sink for these and related compounds. Significant anthropogenic sources of TFA other than degradation HCFCs and HFCs have been identified. Toxicity tests under field conditions indicate that the concentrations of TFA and CDFA currently produced by the atmospheric degradation of HFCs and HCFCs do not present a risk to human health and the environment. The impact of the interaction between ozone depletion and future climate change is complex and a significant area of current research. For air quality and tropospheric composition, a range of physical parameters such as temperature, cloudiness and atmospheric transport will modify the impact of UV-B. Changes in the

  12. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  13. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  14. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  15. Uric acid protects erythrocytes from ozone-induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.; Smith, R.C.

    1987-08-01

    Uric acid effectively reduced hemolysis and methemoglobin formation in bovine and swine erythrocytes bubbled with ozone in vitro. In bovine erythrocytes, formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material was inhibited by uric acid, but there was little immediate protection for the swine cells. Antioxidant protection was due to preferential degradation of the uric acid by ozone. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that in plasma, uric acid can provide antioxidant protection for erythrocytes.

  16. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, Doreen O.; Kondragunbta, Shobha; Osterman, Gregory; Pickering, Kenneth; Pinder, Robert W.; Prados, Ana I.; Szykman, James

    2009-01-01

    The satellite observations provide constraints on detailed atmospheric modeling, including emissions inventories, indications of transport, harmonized data over vast areas suitable for trends analysis, and a link between spatial scales ranging from local to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to interannual. 1 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) long-term commitments help provide these observations in cooperation with international meteorological organizations. NASA s long-term commitments will advance scientifically important observations as part of its Earth Science Program, and will assist the transition of the science measurements to applied analyses through the Applied Science Program. Both NASA and NOAA have begun to provide near realtime data and tools to visualize and analyze satellite data,2 while maintaining data quality, validation, and standards. Consequently, decision-makers can expect satellite data services to support air quality decision making now and in the future. The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System Report3 outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite measurements and models to integrate the observations into a four-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space and time) to support assessment and policy information needs. This plan is being carried out under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Demonstrations of such an integrated capability4 provide new understanding of the changing atmosphere and link policy decisions to benefits for society. In this article, we highlight the use of satellite data to constrain biomass burning emissions, to assess oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions, and to contribute to state implementation plans, as examples of the use of satellite observations for detecting and tracking changes in atmospheric composition.

  17. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzyme using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition in conjunction with probabilistic neural network model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer Ullah; Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Muazzam Ali

    2015-01-21

    Enzyme catalysis is one of the most essential and striking processes among of all the complex processes that have evolved in living organisms. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which play a significant role in industrial applications as well as in medical areas, due to profound specificity, selectivity and catalytic efficiency. Refining catalytic efficiency of enzymes has become the most challenging job of enzyme engineering, into acidic and alkaline. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzymes through experimental approaches is difficult, sometimes impossible due to lack of established structures. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a computational model for discriminating acidic and alkaline enzymes from primary sequences. In this study, we have developed a robust, accurate and high throughput computational model using two discrete sample representation methods Pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and split amino acid composition. Various classification algorithms including probabilistic neural network (PNN), K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machine are applied to predict acidic and alkaline with high accuracy. 10-fold cross validation test and several statistical measures namely, accuracy, F-measure, and area under ROC are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The performance of the model is examined using two benchmark datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The empirical results show that the performance of PNN in conjunction with PseAAC is quite promising compared to existing approaches in the literature so for. It has achieved 96.3% accuracy on dataset1 and 99.2% on dataset2. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be useful for basic research and drug related application areas. PMID:25452135

  18. Controllable Thermal Rectification Realized in Binary Phase Change Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Cui, Yalong; Tian, He; Yao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhenpu; Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-03-01

    Phase transition is a natural phenomenon happened around our daily life, represented by the process from ice to water. While melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, a high heat of fusion is accompanied, classified as the latent heat. Phase change material (PCM) has been widely applied to store and release large amount of energy attributed to the distinctive thermal behavior. Here, with the help of nanoporous materials, we introduce a general strategy to achieve the binary eicosane/PEG4000 stuffed reduced graphene oxide aerogels, which has two ends with different melting points. It's successfully demonstrated this binary PCM composites exhibits thermal rectification characteristic. Partial phase transitions within porous networks instantaneously result in one end of the thermal conductivity saltation at a critical temperature, and therefore switch on or off the thermal rectification with the coefficient up to 1.23. This value can be further raised by adjusting the loading content of PCM. The uniqueness of this device lies in its performance as a normal thermal conductor at low temperature, only exhibiting rectification phenomenon when temperature is higher than a critical value. The stated technology has broad applications for thermal energy control in macroscopic scale such as energy-efficiency building or nanodevice thermal management.

  19. Controllable Thermal Rectification Realized in Binary Phase Change Composites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Renjie; Cui, Yalong; Tian, He; Yao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhenpu; Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phase transition is a natural phenomenon happened around our daily life, represented by the process from ice to water. While melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, a high heat of fusion is accompanied, classified as the latent heat. Phase change material (PCM) has been widely applied to store and release large amount of energy attributed to the distinctive thermal behavior. Here, with the help of nanoporous materials, we introduce a general strategy to achieve the binary eicosane/PEG4000 stuffed reduced graphene oxide aerogels, which has two ends with different melting points. It's successfully demonstrated this binary PCM composites exhibits thermal rectification characteristic. Partial phase transitions within porous networks instantaneously result in one end of the thermal conductivity saltation at a critical temperature, and therefore switch on or off the thermal rectification with the coefficient up to 1.23. This value can be further raised by adjusting the loading content of PCM. The uniqueness of this device lies in its performance as a normal thermal conductor at low temperature, only exhibiting rectification phenomenon when temperature is higher than a critical value. The stated technology has broad applications for thermal energy control in macroscopic scale such as energy-efficiency building or nanodevice thermal management. PMID:25748640

  20. Controllable thermal rectification realized in binary phase change composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cui, Yalong; Tian, He; Yao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhenpu; Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phase transition is a natural phenomenon happened around our daily life, represented by the process from ice to water. While melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, a high heat of fusion is accompanied, classified as the latent heat. Phase change material (PCM) has been widely applied to store and release large amount of energy attributed to the distinctive thermal behavior. Here, with the help of nanoporous materials, we introduce a general strategy to achieve the binary eicosane/PEG4000 stuffed reduced graphene oxide aerogels, which has two ends with different melting points. It's successfully demonstrated this binary PCM composites exhibits thermal rectification characteristic. Partial phase transitions within porous networks instantaneously result in one end of the thermal conductivity saltation at a critical temperature, and therefore switch on or off the thermal rectification with the coefficient up to 1.23. This value can be further raised by adjusting the loading content of PCM. The uniqueness of this device lies in its performance as a normal thermal conductor at low temperature, only exhibiting rectification phenomenon when temperature is higher than a critical value. The stated technology has broad applications for thermal energy control in macroscopic scale such as energy-efficiency building or nanodevice thermal management. PMID:25748640

  1. Beta-galactosidase and selective neutrality. [amino acid composition of proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three hypotheses to explain the amino acid composition of proteins are inconsistent (about 10 to the minus 9th) with the experimental data for beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The exceptional length of this protein, 1021 residues, permits rigorous tests of these hypotheses without complication from statistical artifacts. Either this protein is not at compositional equilibrium, which is unlikely from knowledge about other proteins, or the evolution of this protein and its coding gene have not been selectively neutral. However, the composition of approximately 60% of the molecule is consistent with either a selectively neutral or nonneutral evolutionary process.

  2. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  3. Response of microbial community composition and function to soil climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil microbial communities mediate critical ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles. How microbial communities will respond to changes in vegetation and climate, however, are not well understood. We reciprocally transplanted soil cores from under oak canopies and adjacent open grasslands in a California oak-grassland ecosystem to determine how microbial communities respond to changes in the soil environment and the potential consequences for the cycling of carbon. Every 3 months for up to 2 years, we monitored microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), microbial biomass, respiration rates, microbial enzyme activities, and the activity of microbial groups by quantifying 13C uptake from a universal substrate (pyruvate) into PLFA biomarkers. Soil in the open grassland experienced higher maximum temperatures and lower soil water content than soil under the oak canopies. Soil microbial communities in soil under oak canopies were more sensitive to environmental change than those in adjacent soil from the open grassland. Oak canopy soil communities changed rapidly when cores were transplanted into the open grassland soil environment, but grassland soil communities did not change when transplanted into the oak canopy environment. Similarly, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and microbial respiration decreased when microbial communities were transplanted from the oak canopy soils to the grassland environment, but not when the grassland communities were transplanted to the oak canopy environment. These data support the hypothesis that microbial community composition and function is altered when microbes are exposed to new extremes in environmental conditions; that is, environmental conditions outside of their "life history" envelopes. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  4. Hydrochloric acid: an overlooked driver of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Evans, Chris D; Monteith, Don T; Fowler, David; Cape, J Neil; Brayshaw, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Research on the ecosystem impacts of acidifying pollutants, and measures to control them, has focused almost exclusively on sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), although emitted by coal burning, has been overlooked as a driver of ecosystem change because most of it was considered to redeposit close to emission sources rather than in remote natural ecosystems. Despite receiving little regulatory attention, measures to reduce S emissions, and changes in energy supply, have led to a 95% reduction in United Kingdom HCl emissions within 20 years. Long-term precipitation, surface water, and soil solution data suggest that the near-disappearance of HCl from deposition could account for 30-40% of chemical recovery from acidification during this time, affecting both near-source and remote areas. Because HCl is highly mobile in reducing environments, it is a more potent acidifier of wetlands than S or N, and HCl may have been the major driver of past peatland acidification. Reduced HCl loadings could therefore have affected the peatland carbon cycle, contributing to increases in dissolved organic carbon leaching to surface waters. With many regions increasingly reliant on coal for power generation, HCl should be recognized as a potentially significant constituent of resulting emissions, with distinctive ecosystem impacts. PMID:21288016

  5. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  6. Changes in PTGS1 and ALOX12 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Associated with Changes in Arachidonic Acid, Oxylipins, and Oxylipin/Fatty Acid Ratios in Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Claire C.; Kamita, Shizuo George; Sacchi, Romina; Yang, Jun; Nording, Malin L.; Georgi, Katrin; Hegedus Karbowski, Christine; German, J. Bruce; Weiss, Robert H.; Hogg, Ronald J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a high degree of inter-individual variability among people in response to intervention with omega-3 fatty acids (FA), which may partly explain conflicting results on the effectiveness of omega-3 FA for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study we sought to evaluate whether part of this inter-individual variability in response is related to the regulation of key oxylipin metabolic genes in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Methods Plasma FA and oxylipin profiles from 12 healthy individuals were compared to PBMC gene expression profiles following six weeks of supplementation with fish oil, which delivered 1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fold changes in gene expression were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Healthy individuals supplemented with omega-3 FA had differential responses in prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) gene expression in isolated PBMCs. In those individuals for whom plasma arachidonic acid (ARA) in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid class decreased in response to omega-3 intervention, there was a corresponding decrease in gene expression for PTGS1 and ALOX12. Several oxylipin product/FA precursor ratios (e.g. prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/ARA for PTGS1 and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE)/ARA for ALOX12) were also associated with fold change in gene expression, suggesting an association between enzyme activity and gene expression. The fold-change in PTGS1 gene expression was highly positively correlated with ALOX12 gene expression but not with PTGS2, whereas IL-8 and PTGS2 were positively correlated. Conclusions The regulation of important oxylipin metabolic genes in PBMCs varied with the extent of change in ARA concentrations in the case of PTGS1 and ALOX12

  7. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  8. Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Mann, Neil; Pirotta, Yvonne; O'Connell, Stella; Li, Duo; Kelly, Fiona; Sinclair, Andy

    2006-07-01

    High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health. PMID:17069347

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

    2009-01-01

    Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL

  10. Experimental investigation of interfaces in hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid/polycaprolactone composites using photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-04-01

    Molecular interactions in hydroxyapatite (HAP) polymer composites have been studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. HAP is mineralized by wet precipitation under two conditions: first is in the absence of polyacrylic acid (PAAc) (ex-situ HAP) and second in the presence of PAAc (in-situ HAP). Porous and solid composites of ex-situ and in-situ HAP with polycaprolactone (PCL) have also been made to evaluate their applicability as bone scaffolds. Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy studies indicate that both in-situ and ex-situ HAP have HPO4 (2-) in their structure, which leads to Ca2+ deficiency. During crystallization of in-situ HAP, PAAc dissociates to form carboxylate ions, which binds to calcium ions and act as suitable site for nucleation for HAP crystallization. PA-FTIR spectra of porous and solid composites indicate that porous composites adsorb more water, which is hydrogen bonded with carbonyl of PCL. Mechanical tests on solid samples indicate that ex-situ HAP/PCL composites have higher elastic modulus than in-situ HAP/PCL composites. However, in case of porous composites, in-situ HAP/PCL composites are found to have higher elastic modulus. In-situ HAP is chemically and structurally different from ex-situ HAP. This modified HAP causes variation in microstructure of porous composite and hence alteration of its load transfer mechanisms and hence mechanical properties. PMID:16355408

  11. Stability and changes in astaxanthin ester composition from Haematococcus pluvialis during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zuo, Jincheng; Li, Yeguang

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of temperature, oxygen, antioxidants, and corn germ oil on the stability of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis under different storage conditions, and changes in the composition of astaxanthin esters during storage using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Oxygen and high temperatures (22-25°C) significantly reduced the stability of astaxanthin esters. Corn germ oil and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and vitamin E) failed to protect astaxanthin from oxidation, and actually significantly increased the instability of astaxanthin. A change in the relative composition of astaxanthin esters was observed after 96 weeks of long-term storage. During storage, the relative amounts of free astaxanthin and astaxanthin monoesters declined, while the relative amount of astaxanthin diesters increased. Thus, the ratio of astaxanthin diester to monoester increased, and this ratio could be used to indicate if astaxanthin esters have been properly preserved. If the ratio is greater than 0.2, it suggests that the decrease in astaxanthin content could be higher than 20%. Our results show that storing algal powder from H. pluvialis or other natural astaxanthin products under vacuum and in the dark below 4°C is the most economical and applicable storage method for the large-scale production of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. This storage method can produce an astaxanthin preservation rate of at least 80% after 96 weeks of storage.

  12. Identification of Novel Genetic Determinants of Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition among Greenlanders

    PubMed Central

    Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Færgeman, Nils Joakim; Bjerregaard, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf; Moltke, Ida; Hansen, Torben; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in cellular processes important for normal body function, and perturbation of FA balance has been linked to metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes. An individual’s level of FAs is affected by diet, lifestyle, and genetic variation. We aimed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in regulation of FA tissue levels, by identifying genetic loci associated with inter-individual differences in erythrocyte membrane FA levels. We assessed the levels of 22 FAs in the phospholipid fraction of erythrocyte membranes from 2,626 Greenlanders in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on the MetaboChip or imputed. We identified six independent association signals. Novel loci were identified on chromosomes 5 and 11 showing strongest association with oleic acid (rs76430747 in ACSL6, beta (SE): -0.386% (0.034), p = 1.8x10-28) and docosahexaenoic acid (rs6035106 in DTD1, 0.137% (0.025), p = 6.4x10-8), respectively. For a missense variant (rs80356779) in CPT1A, we identified a number of novel FA associations, the strongest with 11-eicosenoic acid (0.473% (0.035), p = 2.6x10-38), and for variants in FADS2 (rs174570), LPCAT3 (rs2110073), and CERS4 (rs11881630) we replicated known FA associations. Moreover, we observed metabolic implications of the ACSL6 (rs76430747) and CPT1A (rs80356779) variants, which both were associated with altered HbA1c (0.051% (0.013), p = 5.6x10-6 and -0.034% (0.016), p = 3.1x10-4, respectively). The latter variant was also associated with reduced insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.193 (0.050), p = 3.8x10-6), as well as measures of smaller body size, including weight (-2.676 kg (0.523), p = 2.4x10-7), lean mass (-1.200 kg (0.271), p = 1.7x10-6), height (-0.966 cm (0.230), p = 2.0x10-5), and BMI (-0.638 kg/m2 (0.181), p = 2.8x10-4). In conclusion, we have identified novel genetic determinants of FA composition in phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes, and have shown examples of

  13. Identification of Novel Genetic Determinants of Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition among Greenlanders.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Jørsboe, Emil; Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Færgeman, Nils Joakim; Bjerregaard, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf; Moltke, Ida; Hansen, Torben; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in cellular processes important for normal body function, and perturbation of FA balance has been linked to metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes. An individual's level of FAs is affected by diet, lifestyle, and genetic variation. We aimed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in regulation of FA tissue levels, by identifying genetic loci associated with inter-individual differences in erythrocyte membrane FA levels. We assessed the levels of 22 FAs in the phospholipid fraction of erythrocyte membranes from 2,626 Greenlanders in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on the MetaboChip or imputed. We identified six independent association signals. Novel loci were identified on chromosomes 5 and 11 showing strongest association with oleic acid (rs76430747 in ACSL6, beta (SE): -0.386% (0.034), p = 1.8x10-28) and docosahexaenoic acid (rs6035106 in DTD1, 0.137% (0.025), p = 6.4x10-8), respectively. For a missense variant (rs80356779) in CPT1A, we identified a number of novel FA associations, the strongest with 11-eicosenoic acid (0.473% (0.035), p = 2.6x10-38), and for variants in FADS2 (rs174570), LPCAT3 (rs2110073), and CERS4 (rs11881630) we replicated known FA associations. Moreover, we observed metabolic implications of the ACSL6 (rs76430747) and CPT1A (rs80356779) variants, which both were associated with altered HbA1c (0.051% (0.013), p = 5.6x10-6 and -0.034% (0.016), p = 3.1x10-4, respectively). The latter variant was also associated with reduced insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.193 (0.050), p = 3.8x10-6), as well as measures of smaller body size, including weight (-2.676 kg (0.523), p = 2.4x10-7), lean mass (-1.200 kg (0.271), p = 1.7x10-6), height (-0.966 cm (0.230), p = 2.0x10-5), and BMI (-0.638 kg/m2 (0.181), p = 2.8x10-4). In conclusion, we have identified novel genetic determinants of FA composition in phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes, and have shown examples of

  14. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  15. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot-finished beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven Angus crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on pasture- vs. feedlot-finishing beef steers on fatty acid (FA) composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A completely randomized design with repeated measures was used with steers arranged into 3 treatments...

  16. Hepatic fatty acid composition differs between chronic hepatitis C patients with and without steatosis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Prayitno, Nita R; Ma, David W L; Nguyen, Augustin; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition may influence steatosis development in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In a cross-sectional study, we compared the hepatic FA profile in hepatitis C patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 33) steatosis (> or =5% of hepatocytes involved). FA composition of hepatic and RBC total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and plasma, blood biochemistry, and nutritional status were also assessed. Patients with steatosis had more fibrosis, higher necroinflammatory activity of their hepatitis C infection, were more often infected with genotype 3, and had lower serum cholesterol. Monounsaturated FA in the liver were higher and trans FA were lower in patients with steatosis. Lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid in hepatic total lipids suggested higher Delta9-desaturase activity. alpha-Linolenic acid in the liver was higher and the ratios of long-chain PUFA:essential FA precursors were lower for (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA. Plasma vitamin C was lower in steatosis, but RBC FA composition and other parameters did not differ. We conclude that hepatic FA composition is altered in patients with hepatitis C and steatosis, probably due to modulation of enzymatic elongation and desaturation. Oxidative stress or nutritional status does not seem to play a predominant role for development of steatosis in CHC. PMID:19211827

  17. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  18. COMPOSITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF HUMIC ACIDS FROM ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND AMENDED SOILS IN MINNESOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of organic amendments requires an adequate control of the chemical quality of their humic acid (HA)-like fractions and of the effects that these materials may have on the status, quality, chemistry and functions of native soil HAs. In this work, the compositional, functional and structural p...

  19. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  20. Different Oilseed Supplements Alter Fatty Acid Composition of Different Adipose Tissues of Adult Ewes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lamb and mutton are important dietary components in human diets in northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor and flavor and nutritional value of fat for human consumption. Twenty-f...

  1. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  3. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) and pectin composite films intended for application in antimicrobial packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composite films of pectin and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded by extrusion. A model antimicrobial polypeptide, nisin, was loaded into the film by diffusion. The incorporation of pectin into PLA resulted in a heterogeneous biphasic structure as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy, co...

  4. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  5. Gibberellic acid (GA3) effects on late season grapefruit peel oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is commonly applied to citrus fruit in the late summer/early autumn to delay peel maturation and extend late season quality. The effect of August/September GA3 application on oil gland composition of "Marsh" white grapefruit harvested in March 18 and April 16 from three groves...

  6. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  7. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  8. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax. PMID:24871199

  9. Polyaniline/poly acid acrylic thin film composites: a new gamma radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lima Pacheco, Ana P.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a new and straightforward route to prepare polyaniline/poly acid acrylic (PAA) thin film composites in large areas and on almost any surface. This method was developed to improve the mechanical and adherence properties of polyaniline devices used as ionization radiation sensors. The route consists of the combination of the metal oxidant with polymer acid to form a highly homogeneous and viscous paste, which can be easily spread over any surface. In the second step, an aniline acid solution is brought in contact with the dried paste where polymerization occurs, yielding a high homogeneous and conducting polymer composite. The UV-visible absorption and infrared analysis confirm that a polyaniline/PAA complex is obtained. The four-point conductivity measurements show that the composite conductivity {rho} is the order of 5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Preliminary gamma radiation interaction with the composite shows that the doped composite exhibits a linear response that can be used in the development of real-time radiation sensors for the dose range from 0 to 5000 Gy.

  10. Compositional and Temperature Effects of Phosphoric Acid Fractionation on Δ47 Analysis and Implications for Discrepant Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defliese, W.; Hren, M. T.; Lohmann, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    An essential procedure to increase the analytical efficiency of Δ47 measurements requires raising the temperature of phosphoric acid digestion for carbonate materials. This temperature change introduces a fractionation offset in Δ47 that must be accounted for prior to calculation of temperatures of carbonate formation and to allow interlaboratory comparison of results. We measured the phosphoric acid fractionation factor relative to reaction at 25 °C for calcite, aragonite, and dolomite across a temperature range from 25-90 °C. Significantly, all three minerals behave similarly during phosphoric acid digestion, allowing for a single temperature dependent acid fractionation relationship: 1000ln∝𝐶𝑂2(𝐴𝑐𝑖𝑑)-𝛥47=(0.022434±0.001490)∗10^6 𝑇2 -(0.2524±0.0168) where α is the phosphoric acid fractionation factor, and T is in degrees Kelvin. Mineralogical or isotopic compositional effects on the fractionation factor were not observed, suggesting that this acid fractionation factor may be valid for all carbonate minerals. We also present inorganic temperature calibrations for both calcite and aragonite at low temperatures (5-70 °C) and find them to agree with prior published data. Using the new acid fractionation factor, published Δ47-temperature calibrations are recalculated. This analysis confirms a statistically significant Δ47-temperature calibration difference between data analyzed at 25 °C versus higher temperatures. The origin of the discrepancy remains unknown, but it appears that the acid fractionation factor is not the cause.

  11. Survey of Extreme Solvent Tolerance in Gram-Positive Cocci: Membrane Fatty Acid Changes in Staphylococcus haemolyticus Grown in Toluene

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Lindsey E.; Kadavy, Dana R.; Rajagopal, Soumitra; Drijber, Rhae; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2005-01-01

    We exploited the unique ecological niche of oil fly larval guts to isolate a strain of Staphylococcus haemolyticus which may be the most solvent-tolerant gram-positive bacterium yet described. This organism is able to tolerate 100% toluene, benzene, and p-xylene on plate overlays and saturating levels of these solvents in monophasic liquid cultures. A comparison of membrane fatty acids by gas chromatography after growth in liquid media with and without toluene showed that in cells continuously exposed to solvent the proportion of anteiso fatty acids increased from 25.8 to 33.7% while the proportion of 20:0 straight-chain fatty acids decreased from 19.3 to 10.1%. No changes in the membrane phospholipid composition were noted. Thus, S. haemolyticus alters its membrane fluidity via fatty acid composition to become more fluid when it is exposed to solvent. This response is opposite that commonly found in gram-negative bacteria, which change their fatty acids so that the cytoplasmic membrane is less fluid. Extreme solvent tolerance in S. haemolyticus is not accompanied by abnormal resistance to anionic or cationic detergents. Finally, six strains of Staphylococcus aureus and five strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, which were not obtained by solvent selection, also exhibited exceptional solvent tolerance. PMID:16151101

  12. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  13. Dynamics of lipid and fatty acid composition of shallow-water corals under thermal stress: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbs, A. B.; Yakovleva, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    Coral bleaching induces changes in lipid and fatty acid composition that result in low lipid content, reducing the likelihood of coral survival. Species-specific differences in the metabolism of lipid reserves may contribute to the differential resistance of corals under acute heat exposures. Here, we examined the dynamics of lipids and fatty acid abundance in corals subjected to short-term heat stress. The stony corals Acropora intermedia, Montipora digitata, and the soft coral Sinularia capitalis all showed a 60-75% decline in both storage and structural lipids. However, S. capitalis and M. digitata exhibited no significant change in the percentages of structural lipids (i.e., polar lipids and sterols) until they had lost 90-95% of their endosymbionts, whereas A. intermedia showed a rapid decline in structural lipids after a 50% loss of symbionts. After a 90-95% loss of symbionts under heat stress, all three corals showed a relative depletion of polyunsaturated fatty acids that had symbiont biomarkers, suggesting that polyunsaturated fatty acids were translocated from the symbiont to the coral host tissue.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  15. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  16. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

  17. Lactic acid fermentation by cells immobilised on various porous cellulosic materials and their alginate/poly-lactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mrinal Nishant; Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Masson, Jean Bernard; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Porous delignified cellulose (or tubular cellulose, abbr. TC) from Indian Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta) wood and Rice husk, and TC/Ca-alginate/polylactic acid composites, were used as Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilisation carriers leading to improvements in lactic acid fermentation of cheese whey and synthetic lactose media, compared to free cells. Specifically, shorter fermentation rates, higher lactic acid yields (g/g sugar utilised) and productivities (g/Ld), and higher amounts of volatile by-products were achieved, while no significant differences were observed on the performance of the different immobilised biocatalysts. The proposed biocatalysts are of food grade purity, cheap and easy to prepare, and they are attractive for bioprocess development based on immobilised cells. Such composite biocatalysts may be used for the co-immobilisation of different microorganisms or enzymes (in separate layers of the biocatalyst), to efficiently conduct different types of fermentations in the same bioreactor, avoiding inhibition problems of chemical or biological (competition) nature. PMID:24690466

  18. Composition, physiochemical properties, nitrogen fraction distribution, and amino acid profile of donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Pang, K; Zhang, X Y; Zhao, L; Chen, S W; Dong, M L; Ren, F Z

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, and AA profile of milk samples obtained during lactation from the Jiangyue breed of donkey in Northwest China. Results showed that donkey milk contained 9.53% total solids, 1.57% protein, 1.16% fat, 6.33% lactose, and 0.4% ash on average, which is more similar to mare and human milk than to the milk of other mammals. Throughout the lactation investigated, pH and density were constant, protein and ash content showed an apparent negative trend (an increase in lactose content during 120 d postpartum, followed by a decrease), fat content exhibited wide variability, and variations in the content and percentage of whey protein, casein, and AA were small. The casein to whey protein ratio of 52:37 was between the lower value of human milk and the higher value of cow milk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE results demonstrated that donkey milk is rich in beta-lactoglobulin and lysozyme. The percentages of 8 essential AA in protein of donkey milk were 38.2%, higher than those of mare and cow milk; donkey milk also had higher levels of serine (6.2%), glutamic acid (22.8%), arginine (4.6%), and valine (6.5%) and a lower level of cystine (0.4%). PMID:17369203

  19. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). PMID:22980905

  20. Effect of organic acids in dental biofilm on microhardness of a silorane-based composite

    PubMed Central

    Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Talebi, Mohammad; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the microhardness of a silorane-based composite compared to two methacrylate-based composite resins. Materials and Methods Thirty disc-shaped specimens each were fabricated of Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT. After measuring of Vickers microhardness, they were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) and immersed in lactic acid, acetic acid or distilled water. Microhardness was measured after 48 hr and 7 day of immersion. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). The surfaces of two additional specimens were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after immersion. Results All groups showed a reduction in microhardness after 7 day of immersion (p < 0.001). At baseline and 7 day, the microhardness of Z250 was the greatest, followed by Z350 and P90 (p < 0.001). At 48 hr, the microhardness values of Z250 and Z350 were greater than P90 (p < 0.001 for both), but those of Z250 and Z350 were not significantly different (p = 0.095). Also, the effect of storage media on microhardness was not significant at baseline, but significant at 48 hr and after 7 day (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Lactic acid had the greatest effect. Conclusions The microhardness of composites decreased after 7 day of immersion. The microhardness of P90 was lower than that of other composites. Lactic acid caused a greater reduction in microhardness compared to other solutions. PMID:26295021

  1. Seasonal changes in dominant bacterial taxa from acidic peatlands of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Etto, Rafael Mazer; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Galvão, Franklin; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Reynaud Steffens, Maria Berenice

    2014-09-01

    The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are essential for maintenance of the Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. While these ecosystems are closely linked to conservation issues, their microbial community ecology and composition remain unknown. In this work, histosol samples were collected from three acidic peatland regions during dry and rainy seasons and their chemical and microbial characteristics were evaluated. Culturing and culture-independent approaches based on SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing were used to survey the bacterial community and to identify environmental factors affecting the biodiversity and microbial metabolic potential of the Brazilian peatlands. All acidic peatlands were dominated by the Acidobacteria phylum (56-22%) followed by Proteobacteria (28-12%). The OTU richness of these phyla and the abundance of their Gp1, Gp2, Gp3, Gp13, Rhodospirillales and Caulobacteriales members varied according to the period of collection and significantly correlated with the rainy season. However, despite changes in acidobacterial and proteobacterial communities, rainfall did not affect the microbial metabolic potential of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest peatlands, as judged by the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community. PMID:24893336

  2. Active Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 or Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 administration positively influences liver fatty acid composition in mice on a HFD regime.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Djuricic, Ivana; Radojevic Skodric, Sanja; Zivkovic, Irena; Sobajic, Sladjana; Djordjevic, Brizita

    2016-06-15

    Western life style, and high calorie diet in particular is causing major health problems such as insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and heart disease in the modern age. High fat diet (HFD) induces similar changes in mice, such as increased body weight, hypercholesterolemia and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. These changes can be ameliorated by the administration of some Lactobacillus species. The focus of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content of liver, heart and brain tissues of mice fed HFD and administered with either Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68, and to analyze the fatty acid content of these organs after a two months washout period. The fatty acid composition of mouse liver tissue changed significantly due to probiotic administration during a 12 weeks HFD regime and active Lactobacillus administration had a slightly reversing effect toward the standard mouse diet group, but after the washout period these changes disappeared. The fatty acid composition of the heart and brain tissues was significantly changed in the HFD regime but probiotic administration had no significant influence on the fatty acid profile of these two organs. Upon the 8 weeks washout period the only remaining beneficial effect was the significantly lower mouse weight in the supplemented groups compared to the HFD group. PMID:27231730

  3. Free volume of poly(perfluorosulfonic acid)/SiO 2 composite proton exchange membranes by 129Xe NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utiu, Lavinia; Filipoi, Carmen; Demco, Dan E.; Zhu, Xiaomin; Vinokur, Rostislav; Conradi, Oliver; Graichen, Andreas; Blümich, Bernhard; Möller, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Poly(perfluorosulfonic acid)/silica (PFSA/SiO2) composites were investigated by 129Xe NMR spectroscopy and relaxometry. 129Xe chemical shift extrapolated to zero pressure was used for calculation of average free volume hole size. This quantity reaches a maximum at 2 wt.% SiO2 that could be correlated to the performance of composites proton exchange membrane. 129Xe longitudinal magnetization relaxation revealed a bimodal distribution of the free volume that was explained by the presence of xenon atoms in the backbone and pendant-chain domains. Thus, the free volume is heterogeneous and depends on the content of SiO2. Implications of the free volume changes for the hydrogen crossover through PFSA/SiO2 membranes are also discussed.

  4. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  5. Dietary fatty acid composition and the homeostatic regulation of mitochondrial phospholipid classes in red muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas; Kraffe, Edouard; Le Grand, Fabienne; Marty, Yanic; Bureau, Dominique P; Guderley, Helga

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary lipid quality markedly affects fatty acid (FA) composition of mitochondrial membranes from rainbow trout red muscle (Oncorhynchus mykiss), mitochondrial processes are relatively unchanged. As certain classes of phospholipids interact more intimately with membrane proteins than others, we examined whether specific phospholipid classes from these muscle mitochondria were more affected by dietary FA composition than others. To test this hypothesis, we fed trout with two diets differing only in their FA composition: Diet 1 had higher levels of 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 than Diet 2, while 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 were virtually absent from Diet 1 and high in Diet 2. After 5 months, trout fed Diet 2 had higher proportions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and less phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mitochondrial membranes than those fed Diet 1. The FA composition of PC, PE and cardiolipin (CL) showed clear evidence of regulated incorporation of dietary FA. For trout fed Diet 2, 22:6n-3 was the most abundant FA in PC, PE and CL. The n-6 FA were consistently higher in all phospholipid classes of trout fed Diet 1, with shorter n-6 FA being favoured in CL than in PC and PE. Despite these marked changes in individual FA levels with diet, general characteristics such as total polyunsaturated FA, total monounsaturated FA and total saturated FA were conserved in PE and CL, confirming differential regulation of the FA composition of PC, PE and CL. The regulated changes of phospholipid classes presumably maintain critical membrane characteristics despite varying nutritional quality. We postulate that these changes aim to protect mitochondrial function. PMID:25418791

  6. Cellular fatty acid composition of cyanobacteria assigned to subsection II, order Pleurocapsales.

    PubMed

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M; Butterfield, J E

    2000-05-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of five of the six genera of unicellular cyanobacteria in subsection II, Pleurocapsales (Dermocarpa, Xenococcus, Dermocarpella, Myxosarcina and the Pleurocapsa assemblage) contained high proportions of saturated straight-chain fatty acids (26-41% of the total) and unsaturated straight chains (40-67%). Isomers of 16:1 were the main monounsaturated acid component (11-59%). Polyunsaturated acids were present at trace levels (0-1% or less) in Xenococcus and Myxosarcina, at concentrations of less than 7% in Dermocarpa, Dermocarpella, Pleurocapsa and CCMP 1489, and at high concentrations (35% or more) in Chroococcidiopsis. Chroococcidiopsis was also different in terms of the percentage of 16:1 isomers (10-12%) compared to other genera (30-59%), and in terms of total 16-carbon and 18-carbon fatty acids. In general, the composition and heterogeneity of fatty acids in the order Pleurocapsales was similar to that reported for the unicellular cyanobacteria of subsection I, order Chroococcales. PMID:10843042

  7. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  8. Micro-sized erosions in a nanofilled composite after repeated acidic beverage exposures: consequences of clusters dislodgments

    PubMed Central

    SVIZERO, Nádia da Rocha; de GÓES, Adriana Regina Cruz Grando; BUENO, Tamires de Luccas; DI HIPÓLITO, Vinicius; WANG, Linda; D'ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hardness (KHN), color stability (DE), and superficial micromorphology of two categories of composites after immersion in either distilled water or grape juice for up to 45 days. Material and Methods Cylindrical specimens (6 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) were obtained according to the factors: composite [Opallis (FGM) and Filtek Z350XT (3M ESPE)]; immersion solution (distilled water and grape juice); and evaluation time: 24 h and 7, 14, 21, 28, and 45 days. After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24 h. KHN (50 g/15 s) and ΔE were then repeatedly assessed according to the immersion solutions. Data were analyzed (three-way ANOVA/Tukey's test). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) topographic analysis was also performed. Results In general, KHN of both composites reduced after 24 h, irrespective of the immersion solution and time. A significantly lower KHN was noted for Opallis compared with Filtek Z350XT in all parameters. An increase in ΔE over time was noted for both composites, irrespective of the immersion solution. Significantly higher ΔE was noted for Filtek Z350XT immersed in grape juice compared with Opallis, regardless of the evaluation time. The grape juice caused significantly higher DE compared with water in all periods. SEM analysis showed eroded areas for Filtek Z350XT but not for Opallis. Conclusions The compositions and immersion solutions influence the composite hardness and the color stability. In spite of the higher hardness, the nanofilled composite is more susceptible to color change than the microhybrid when immersed in an acidic dyed solution. PMID:25004054

  9. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  10. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.

  11. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  12. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP) -to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Methods Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. Results We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significance For the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified. PMID:25082155

  13. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  14. Amino acid composition and crude protein values of some Cyanobacteria from Çanakkale (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgül, Rıza; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Akgül, Füsun; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) form an important component of integrated nutrient managements in agriculture and are exploited in commercial biotechnological ventures. In this study, Rivularia bullata (Poir) Berkeley ex Bornet & Flahault, Nostocs pongiaeforme C. Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault were researched for their amino acid composition and crude protein values. R. bullata was collected from coastal zones of the Gulf of Saros and N. spongiaeforme from the Ayazma Stream. The levels of amino acids were measured in algae samples using EZ: fast kits (EZ: fast GC/FID Protein Hydrolysate Amino Acid Kit) by gas chromatography. The crude proteins of samples were determined by the Kjeldahl method and were calculated using a nitrogen conversion factor of 6.25. Thirty-two amino acids were investigated, for N. spongiaeforme eight free essential amino acids (EAA), eight free non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and eleven other amino acids (OAA); for R. bullata eight EAA, eight NEAA and eight OAA were detected. Aspartic acid is the major constituent for both species. The total protein percents were determined for N. spongiaeforme as % 19.83 and for R. bullata as % 6.15. When considering the increasing world population and reducing natural products; Cyanobacteria will benew feed sources for all living. PMID:26408895

  15. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs. PMID:27166662

  16. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  17. Thermal Conductivity Changes in Titanium-Graphene Composite upon Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2016-02-01

    Ti-graphene composite films were prepared on polished Ti substrates by deposition of graphene platelets from suspension followed by deposition of Ti by magnetron sputtering. The films were annealed at different temperatures up to 1073 K (800 °C) and different time periods in argon atmosphere. The annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction for phase identification, scanning electron microscopy for microstructure, energy-dispersive spectrometry for chemical analysis, atomic force microscopy for surface roughness, and transient thermoreflectance for thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The results showed that the interface between the composite film and Ti substrate remained continuous with the absence of voids. Oxygen concentration in the composite films has increased for higher temperature and time of annealing. TiO2 and TiC phases are formed only in the film annealed at 1073 K (800 °C). The thermal conductivity of the composite film decreased with increasing oxygen concentration. The effective thermal conductance of the film annealed at 1073 K (800 °C) was significantly lower. The interface thermal conductance between the composite film and the Ti substrate is also reduced for higher oxygen concentration. Formation of microscopic TiO2 phase bound by interface boundaries and oxygen incorporation is considered responsible for the lower thermal conductance of the Ti-graphene composite annealed at 1073 K (800 °C).

  18. Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats.

    PubMed

    Teległów, Aneta; Dabrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Bilski, Jan; Jaśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Głodzik, Jacek; Lizak, Dorota; Kepińska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the effects of a single bout of swimming to exhaustion in cold water on rat erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in body temperature of experimental rats swimming in water at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C when compared to the control. Erythrocyte aggregation indices did not change after swimming in water at 4 degrees C whereas erythrocyte deformability increased at shear stress 1,13 [Pa] and 15,96 [Pa]. Physical effort performed in water at 4 degrees C when compared to the control group resulted in an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes that influenced the increase in their fluidity and permeability even though that of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids decreased. Physical effort performed in 25 degrees C water resulted in an increase in saturated fatty acid content and a decrease in all polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids when compared to the control group. Swimming of untrained old rats in cold water affected rheological properties oferythrocytes in a negligible way while changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes were more pronounced. PMID:22195477

  19. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947

  20. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  1. The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino acids. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino acid balance close to that required for egg protein formation laid significantly larger clutches (18% greater) than control birds, whereas birds receiving an otherwise identical supplementary diet but without a favourable amino acid balance did not increase egg production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary amino acid composition may limit egg production in free-living birds.

  2. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  3. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Owen J; Bramble, Judith E; Heisler, I Lorraine; Phillips, Christopher A; Cox, David L

    2005-10-01

    Most snakes and lizards produce eggs with flexible shells that interact with the environment to maintain water balance. Geckos produce rigid eggshells that are independent of an external source of water and can be oviposited in more open, dryer locations. In this study, we analyzed and compared the amino acid composition of 24 lizard species, six snake species, and four outgroups (including avian and reptilian elastin and chicken eggshell). Rigid Gecko eggshells had significantly lower levels of seven of the 17 amino acids evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that proline was the most important amino acid in distinguishing between these two groups of eggshells, occurring at significantly higher levels in flexible eggshells. High levels of proline have also been observed in the eggshells of other species. Proline and other amino acids are associated with the alleviation of water and salt stress in plants. PMID:16195850

  4. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  5. Protein location prediction using atomic composition and global features of the amino acid sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Cherian, Betsy Sheena; Nair, Achuthsankar S.

    2010-01-22

    Subcellular location of protein is constructive information in determining its function, screening for drug candidates, vaccine design, annotation of gene products and in selecting relevant proteins for further studies. Computational prediction of subcellular localization deals with predicting the location of a protein from its amino acid sequence. For a computational localization prediction method to be more accurate, it should exploit all possible relevant biological features that contribute to the subcellular localization. In this work, we extracted the biological features from the full length protein sequence to incorporate more biological information. A new biological feature, distribution of atomic composition is effectively used with, multiple physiochemical properties, amino acid composition, three part amino acid composition, and sequence similarity for predicting the subcellular location of the protein. Support Vector Machines are designed for four modules and prediction is made by a weighted voting system. Our system makes prediction with an accuracy of 100, 82.47, 88.81 for self-consistency test, jackknife test and independent data test respectively. Our results provide evidence that the prediction based on the biological features derived from the full length amino acid sequence gives better accuracy than those derived from N-terminal alone. Considering the features as a distribution within the entire sequence will bring out underlying property distribution to a greater detail to enhance the prediction accuracy.

  6. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines. PMID:26041211

  7. Yearly Changes in the Body Composition and Muscular Strength of High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Changes in body composition as well as absolute and relative isokinetic forearm flexion and extension strength of high school wrestlers were studied. Increase in weight and improved wrestling performance were found to be, in part, a function of yearly changes in body composition and muscular strength. (JD)

  8. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  9. Changes in Cohort Composition. Data Notes. Volume 2, Number 3, September/October 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue; Topper, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue looks at changes in cohort composition. The analysis addresses the changing composition of the Achieving the Dream student cohorts from 2002 to 2005. The data show that at Achieving the Dream colleges, the percentage of Hispanic students increased over the four cohorts…

  10. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed. PMID:25532360

  11. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  12. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Bernhoft, Aksel; Wold, Jens P; Hetland, Harald; Christophersen, Olav A; Sogn, Trine

    2007-01-01

    Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form) per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle). The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5), DPA (22:5) and DHA (22:6), thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form) may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle. PMID:17967172

  13. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  14. Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, N.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D. M.

    2009-02-02

    The development of effective emissions control policies that are beneficial to both climate and air quality requires a detailed understanding of all the feedbacks in the atmospheric composition and climate system. We perform sensitivity studies with a global atmospheric composition-climate model to assess the impact of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry through their modification on clouds, aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The model includes coupling between both tropospheric gas-phase and aerosol chemistry and aerosols and liquid-phase clouds. We investigate past impacts from preindustrial (PI) to present day (PD) and future impacts from PD to 2050 (for the moderate IPCC A1B scenario) that embrace a wide spectrum of precursor emission changes and consequential ACI. The aerosol indirect effect (AIE) is estimated to be -2.0 Wm{sup -2} for PD-PI and -0.6 Wm{sup -2} for 2050-PD, at the high end of current estimates. Inclusion of ACI substantially impacts changes in global mean methane lifetime across both time periods, enhancing the past and future increases by 10% and 30%, respectively. In regions where pollution emissions increase, inclusion of ACI leads to 20% enhancements in in-cloud sulfate production and {approx}10% enhancements in sulfate wet deposition that is displaced away from the immediate source regions. The enhanced in-cloud sulfate formation leads to larger increases in surface sulfate across polluted regions ({approx}10-30%). Nitric acid wet deposition is dampened by 15-20% across the industrialized regions due to ACI allowing additional re-release of reactive nitrogen that contributes to 1-2 ppbv increases in surface ozone in outflow regions. Our model findings indicate that ACI must be considered in studies of methane trends and projections of future changes to particulate matter air quality.

  15. Alterations in juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition: Effects of chlorpyrifos and butachlor exposures.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Karbalaei, Samaneh; Zad Bagher, Fariba; Ismail, Amin; Simpson, Stuart L; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-08-01

    Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure. PMID:27182978

  16. Single-crystalline ceramic whisker-reinforced carboxylic acid-resin composites with fluoride release.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Eichmiller, F C; Antonucci, J M; Flaim, G M

    2000-01-01

    Currently available glass-ionomer, resin-modified glass-ionomer, and compomer materials have relatively low strength and toughness and, therefore, are inadequate for use in large stress-bearing posterior restorations. In the present study, ceramic single-crystalline whiskers were mixed with fluorosilicate glass particles and used as fillers to reinforce experimental carboxylic acid-resin composites. The carboxylic acid was a monofunctional methacryloxyethyl phthalate (MEP). Five mass fractions of whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass), and corresponding resin (resin + MEP), were evaluated. Four control materials were also tested for comparison: a glass ionomer, a resin-modified glass ionomer, a compomer, and a hybrid composite resin. Flexural specimens were fabricated to measure the flexural strength, elastic modulus, and work-of-fracture (an indication of toughness). Fluoride release was measured by using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The properties of whisker composites depended on the whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass) mass fraction. At a mass fraction of 0.8, the whisker composite had a flexural strength in MPa (mean +/- sd; n = 6) of 150 +/- 16, significantly higher than that of a glass ionomer (15 +/- 7) or a compomer control (89 +/- 18) (Tukey's multiple comparison test; family confidence coefficient = 0.95). Depending on the ratio of whisker:fluorosilicate glass, the whisker composites had a cumulative fluoride release up to 60% of that of a traditional glass ionomer. To conclude, combining ceramic whiskers and fluorosilicate glass in a carboxylic acid-resin matrix can result in fluoride-releasing composites with significantly improved mechanical properties. PMID:11203805

  17. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair. PMID:20683132

  18. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by panning. Panning increased (P < 0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, and methyl salicylate. The GC-O study also showed an increase of aroma active compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  19. Changes in scattering and absorption during curing of denta-resin composites: silorane and nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Pérez, Maria; Ghinea, Razvan; Ionescu, Ana-Maria; de la Cruz Cardona, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Photocured polymers are widely used in dental applications. The optical properties of the dental composites change during curing; the appearance of the composites also changes. Recently, a new silorane-based composite resin and dental nanocomposite have been introduced. However, research regarding the effect of the silorane monomers or the size filler on appearance after curing of the resin composite is limited. This work aims to examine the optical properties of silorane-based composite and nanocomposite, in terms of scattering and absorption during curing. Six dimethacrylate-based dental resin composite (five universal and one nanocomposite) and one silorane-based dental resin composite (all shades A2 and T) were studied. The curing irradiance was 1100mW/cm2. The spectral reflectance of 1mm thick composite samples against white and black backgrounds were measured both before and after curing, and were converted to scattering and absorption coefficients using the Kubelka-Munk Theory. Both for pre and post-curing dental resin composites, the Albedo coefficient (K/S) shows that absorption prevails over the scattering for short wavelengths while for medium and large wavelengths, the scattering becomes more important, except for the T shade of the nanocomposite. After curing, the scattering and absorption values decreased for both types of materials. Changes in the absorption coefficient values should be caused by changes in the camphorquinone (CQ) absorption, whereas the scattering changes found should be directly attributable to index of refraction changes of the resin during curing.

  20. Interaction of fatty acid genotype and diet on changes in colonic fatty acids in a Mediterranean diet intervention study.

    PubMed

    Porenta, Shannon R; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

    2013-11-01

    A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after six months. Each individual was genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype, and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6) but serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations were not significantly associated with genotype. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for arachidonic acid concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon after six months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon. PMID:24022589

  1. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  2. Dietary fat in relation to erythrocyte fatty acid composition in men.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, Markus; Agren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition is used in the validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the evaluation of dietary fat quality. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate associations of diet with EMFA. Altogether, 1,033 randomly selected Finnish men, aged from 47 to 75 years filled in a FFQ and their EMFA composition was analyzed. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake correlated positively with erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (r(s) = 0.415 and r(s) = 0.340, respectively, P < 0.001) and inversely with all n-6 PUFA analyzed (P < 0.001). PUFA intake from spreads and cooking fats correlated positively with alpha-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LNA) and nervonic acids (r(s) = 0.229, r(s) = 0.160 and r(s) = 0.143, respectively, P < 0.001). Milk fat intake was associated with myristic and behenic acids (r(s) = 0.186 and r(s) = 0.132, respectively P < 0.001). Butter users had lower ALA and LNA proportions (mol%) than non-users (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05, P < 0.001 and 7.77 ± 1.02 vs. 8.12 ± 1.11, P = 0.001). Higher PUFA intake from meat was related to decreased long-chain n-3 (P < 0.001) and increased n-6 PUFA (P < 0.001) proportions. In conclusion, EMFA composition reflects particularly well the intakes of n-3 PUFA, whereas other associations remained lower. Yet, all main sources of dietary fat were related with EMFA. The dietary effect on the nervonic acid proportion was confirmed. PMID:23975575

  3. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  4. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  5. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  6. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  7. Tartaric Acid-Assisted Self-Assembly of Hybrid Block Copolymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Lin, Ying; Watkins, James

    2014-03-01

    Enantiopure tartaric acid was used as an additive to increase the segregation strength of poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) copolymers through strong, selective interactions with one of the polymer chain segments. Addition of tartaric acid to PEO-b-PtBA exhibiting cylindrical morphologies resulted in the formation of helical superstructures as observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was also found that this small acid additive can also enable phase-selective ultra-high loading of nanoparticles (NPs) into target domains of the block copolymer composites. The loading of tartaric acid can increase enthalpically favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the host domain and mitigate entropic penalties associated with NP incorporation into the target domain. A metal content of over 40 weight percent by mass of the resulting well ordered composites was achieved as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis in PEO-b-PtBA/tartaric acid/4-hydroxythiophenol functionalized Au NP hybrid system. Funding from Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CHM); Facility support from Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at UMass Amherst.

  8. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  9. Changes in organic aerosol composition with aging inferred from aerosol mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Chhabra, P. S.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2011-07-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) can be separated with factor analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data into hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA). We develop a new method to parameterize H:C of OOA in terms of f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to total signal in the component mass spectrum). Such parameterization allows for the transformation of large database of ambient OOA components from the f44 (mostly CO2+, likely from acid groups) vs. f43 space ("triangle plot") (Ng et al., 2010) into the Van Krevelen diagram (H:C vs. O:C) (Van Krevelen, 1950). Heald et al. (2010) examined the evolution of total OA in the Van Krevelen diagram. In this work total OA is deconvolved into components that correspond to primary (HOA and others) and secondary (OOA) organic aerosols. By deconvolving total OA into different components, we remove physical mixing effects between secondary and primary aerosols which allows for examination of the evolution of OOA components alone in the Van Krevelen space. This provides a unique means of following ambient secondary OA evolution that is analogous to and can be compared with trends observed in chamber studies of secondary organic aerosol formation. The triangle plot in Ng et al. (2010) indicates that f44 of OOA components increases with photochemical age, suggesting the importance of acid formation in OOA evolution. Once they are transformed with the new parameterization, the triangle plot of the OOA components from all sites occupy an area in Van Krevelen space which follows a ΔH:C/ΔO:C slope of ~ -0.5. This slope suggests that ambient OOA aging results in net changes in chemical composition that are equivalent to the addition of both acid and alcohol/peroxide functional groups without fragmentation (i.e. C-C bond breakage), and/or the addition of acid groups with fragmentation. These results provide a framework for linking the bulk aerosol chemical composition evolution to molecular-level studies.

  10. Characterizing the