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Sample records for acid composition dietary

  1. The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino acids. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino acid balance close to that required for egg protein formation laid significantly larger clutches (18% greater) than control birds, whereas birds receiving an otherwise identical supplementary diet but without a favourable amino acid balance did not increase egg production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary amino acid composition may limit egg production in free-living birds.

  2. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Bernhoft, Aksel; Wold, Jens P; Hetland, Harald; Christophersen, Olav A; Sogn, Trine

    2007-01-01

    Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form) per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle). The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5), DPA (22:5) and DHA (22:6), thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form) may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle. PMID:17967172

  3. Dietary fat in relation to erythrocyte fatty acid composition in men.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, Markus; Agren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition is used in the validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the evaluation of dietary fat quality. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate associations of diet with EMFA. Altogether, 1,033 randomly selected Finnish men, aged from 47 to 75 years filled in a FFQ and their EMFA composition was analyzed. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake correlated positively with erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (r(s) = 0.415 and r(s) = 0.340, respectively, P < 0.001) and inversely with all n-6 PUFA analyzed (P < 0.001). PUFA intake from spreads and cooking fats correlated positively with alpha-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LNA) and nervonic acids (r(s) = 0.229, r(s) = 0.160 and r(s) = 0.143, respectively, P < 0.001). Milk fat intake was associated with myristic and behenic acids (r(s) = 0.186 and r(s) = 0.132, respectively P < 0.001). Butter users had lower ALA and LNA proportions (mol%) than non-users (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05, P < 0.001 and 7.77 ± 1.02 vs. 8.12 ± 1.11, P = 0.001). Higher PUFA intake from meat was related to decreased long-chain n-3 (P < 0.001) and increased n-6 PUFA (P < 0.001) proportions. In conclusion, EMFA composition reflects particularly well the intakes of n-3 PUFA, whereas other associations remained lower. Yet, all main sources of dietary fat were related with EMFA. The dietary effect on the nervonic acid proportion was confirmed. PMID:23975575

  4. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Baeza, Rosa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Krüger-Johnsen, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2015-05-01

    In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt, and on the percentage of motile sperm. Here, our results suggest that the total volume of extractable milt is a DHA-dependent process, as we found the diets with the highest DHA levels induced the most milt while the diet with the lowest DHA level induced the least amount of milt. The diet with the highest level of ARA induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel and this impacted sperm performance. PMID:25638567

  5. Dietary fatty acid composition changes mitochondrial phospholipids and oxidative capacities in rainbow trout red muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Kraffe, E; Bureau, W; Bureau, D P

    2008-03-01

    Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups differed markedly in FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids, with significant dietary effects for virtually all FA. Mean mitochondrial DHA levels were 19, 40 and 33% in trout fed Diets 1, 2 and 3. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities changed with diet, while mitochondrial concentrations of cytochromes and of the adenylate nucleotide translocase (nmol mg(1) protein) did not. Mitochondria from fish fed Diet 1 had higher non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates at 5 degrees C than those fed other diets. When phosphorylating (state 3) rates differed between dietary groups, rates at 5 and 15 degrees C were higher for fish fed the more unsaturated diets. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that FA composition could explain much (42-70%) of the variability of state 4 rates, particularly at 5 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, FA composition explained 16-42% of the variability of states 3 and 4 rates. Similar conclusions were obtained for the complete data set (trout fed diets 1, 2 and 3) and for the data from trout achieving similar growth rates (e.g. those fed Diets 1 and 2). Neither general characteristics of membrane FA, such as % saturates, unsaturation index, n-3, n-6 or n-3/n-6 nor levels of abundant unsaturated FA such as DHA or 18:1(n-9 + n-7), were systematically correlated with mitochondrial capacities even though they differed considerably between trout fed the different diets. Relatively minor FA (20:5n-3, 20:0, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:0 and 15:0) showed better correlations with mitochondrial oxidative capacities. This supports the concept that acyl chain composition modulates mitochondrial

  6. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  7. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  8. Experimental evaluation of fatty acid profiles as a technique to determine dietary composition in benthic elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Crystal L; Mitchell, James G; Seuront, Laurent; Stone, David A J; Huveneers, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that complements traditional stomach content analyses. Controlled feeding experiments were used to determine the extent to which the FA composition of diet is reflected in the liver and muscle tissue of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Over 10 wk, two groups of sharks were fed prawns or squid, which have distinct FA profiles. The percentage of total FA was significantly different for shark liver and muscle tissue when comparing controls with prawn- and squid-fed sharks. Compared with experimentally fed sharks, control shark muscle and liver had higher levels of 18:1n-9 and 20:2n-9. When comparing prawn- and squid-fed sharks, only liver tissue showed a significant difference in FA profiles. The livers of prawn-fed sharks were comparatively higher in 18:1n-7, 22:5n-3, 20:0, and 18:1n-9, while the squid-fed sharks had higher levels of 16:0 and 22:6n-3. These FAs in shark liver tissue were all reflective of higher amounts in their respective dietary items, demonstrating the conservative transfer of FA from diet to liver tissue. This study shows that liver and muscle FA profiles can be used as indicators of dietary change through the comparison of controls and fed sharks. The timescale of this study may not have been sufficient for capturing the integration of FA into muscle tissue because only liver FA profiles were useful to distinguish between sharks fed different diets. These findings have important implications for sampling design where FA profiles are used to infer dietary preferences. PMID:23434786

  9. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  10. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  11. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  12. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  13. Effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance and tissue fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Jiteng; Hu, Shuixin; Li, Xinyu; Jiang, Yudong; Wang, Chunlin

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated to contain four separate lipid sources, including fish, soybean, rapeseed, and linseed oils (FO, SO, RO, and LO, respectively). With three replicates of 18 crabs each for each diet, crabs (initial body weight, 17.00±0.09 g) were fed twice daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences among these groups in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and hepatosomatic index. However, the RO groups' survival rate was significantly lower than FO groups. The feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios of RO groups were poorer than other groups. The proximate compositions of whole body and hepatopancreas were significantly affected by these dietary treatments. Tissue fatty acid composition mainly reflected dietary fatty acid compositions. Crabs fed FO diets exhibited significantly higher arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid contents in muscle and hepatopancreas compared with VO crabs. Linoleic, oleic, and linolenic acids in muscle and hepatopancreas were the highest in the SO, RO, and LO groups, respectively. The present study suggested that SO and LO could substitute for FO in fishmeal-based diets for swimming crabs, without affecting growth performance and survival.

  14. Dietary omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acyl composition and insulin binding in skeletal-muscle sarcolemma.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Baracos, V E; Quinney, H A; Clandinin, M T

    1994-05-01

    Feeding animals with diets high in saturated fat induces insulin resistance, and replacing saturated fat isocalorically with poly-unsaturated fat, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, will prevent the development of insulin resistance in skeletal-muscle tissue. To investigate the mechanism, rats were fed on high-fat (20%, w/w) semipurified diets for 6 weeks. Diets containing ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) fatty acid of 0.25 (low-P/S diet) and 1.0 (high-P/S diet) were used to study the effect of the level of saturated fat. To study the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, diets with a low-P/S ratio containing either 0 (low-omega-3 diet) or 3.3% (high-omega-3 diet) long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil were fed. Plasma membrane from skeletal muscle was purified. The content of fatty acids in sarcolemmal phospholipid was significantly related to the dietary composition. Insulin binding to intact sarcolemmal vesicles prepared from rats fed on diets high in omega-3 fatty acids increased 14-fold compared with animals fed on the low-omega-3 diet (P < 0.0001). Feeding rats on a diet with a high P/S ratio increased sarcolemmal insulin binding by 2.3-fold (P < 0.05). Increased insulin binding was due to increased receptor number at the low-affinity high-capacity binding site. Dietary effects on insulin binding were eliminated when studies were carried out on detergent-solubilized membranes, indicating the importance of the phospholipid fatty acyl composition for insulin binding. The results suggest that dietary omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids increase insulin binding to sarcolemma by changing the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid surrounding the insulin receptor, and this might be the mechanism by which dietary fatty acids modify insulin action. PMID:8192673

  15. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  16. Effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on the tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and the synthesis of eicosanoids in rats.

    PubMed

    Quoc, K P; Pascaud, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and the synthesis of eicosanoids in growing rats. The supplementation with different oils rich in GLA (borage oil, evening primrose oil, or Spirulina oil) and poor in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or biomass of Spirulina results in a significant dose-related increase of GLA and dihomo-GLA in liver, erythrocyte, and aorta phospholipids in rats fed during 6 weeks different levels of GLA. The arachidonic acid (AA)/dihomo-GLA ratios decreased with increasing intake of dietary GLA, but the AA proportions remained stable. The dietary administration of GLA increased the in vitro production by the aorta of prostaglandin E1 derived from dihomo-GLA, but did not significantly influence the production of prostaglandin E2 derived from AA by the aorta and the thromboxane B2 level in serum. PMID:8773734

  17. Influence of dietary partially hydrogenated fat high in trans fatty acids on lipid composition and function of intestinal brush border membrane in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa, S A.I.

    2001-02-01

    The effect of dietary hydrogenated fat (Indian vanaspati) high in trans fatty acids (6 en%) on lipid composition, fluidity and function of rat intestinal brush border membrane was studied at 2 and 8 en% of linoleic acid. Three groups of weanling rats were fed rice-pulse based diet containing 10% fat over a ten week period: Group I (groundnut oil), Group II (vanaspati), Group III (vanaspati + safflower oil). The functionality of the brush border membrane was assessed by the activity of membrane bound enzymes and transport of D-glucose and L-leucine. The levels of total cholesterol and phospholipids were similar in all groups. The data on fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids showed that, at 2 en% of linoleic acid in the diet, trans fatty acids lowered arachidonic acid and increased linoleic acid contents indicating altered polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased while the activities of sucrase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and transport of D-glucose and L-leucine were not altered by dietary trans fatty acids. However at higher intake of linoleic acid in the diet, trans fatty acids have no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal brush border membrane. These data suggest that feeding dietary fat high in trans fatty acids is associated with alteration in intestinal brush border membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and alkaline phosphatase activity only when the dietary linoleic acid is low. PMID:11182555

  18. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  19. Dietary Fatty Acid Composition Alters Magnesium Metabolism, Distribution, and Marginal Deficiency Response in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on dietary intake recommendations, magnesium deficiency commonly occurs throughout the world. However, widespread pathological conditions induced by dietary magnesium deficiency have not been identified. This discrepancy may be caused by other dietary factors ameliorating or exacerbating the r...

  20. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Zhou, Y F; Duan, R J; Wei, H K; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio and vitamin E on the semen quality, FA composition and antioxidant status of boars. Forty-eight Landrace boars were randomly distributed in a 3×2 factorial design with three n-6:n-3 FA ratios (14.4, 6.6 and 2.2) by the inclusion of three oil sources (soybean, fish/soybean, fish) and two vitamin E levels (200 and 400mg/kg). During the 8 weeks of treatment, semen parameters were evaluated. Serum, sperm and seminal plasma samples were taken at 0 and 8 weeks to monitor the FA composition and antioxidant status. Results showed that the 6.6 and 2.2 dietary ratios very effectively increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and n-6:n-3 ratio in spermatozoa. The 6.6 dietary ratio contributed to a greater progressive sperm motility (P<0.05) than the 14.4 and 2.2 dietary ratio, and this ratio also enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P<0.05) in seminal plasma more significantly than the other two ratios at week 8. Compared with 200mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E, 400mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E increased the progressive sperm motility, SOD of sperm, TAC and SOD of seminal plasma and serum, and decreased sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the 6.6 dietary ratio and 400mg/kg vitamin E supplementation improve progressive sperm motility by modifying the sperm FA composition and antioxidant status. PMID:26417649

  1. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on growth, fatty acid composition and hepatic lipogenesis in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)* §

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhan-yu; Wu, Tian-xing; Tang, Hong-gang; Zhang, Ji-ze

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth, fatty acid composition and enzyme activity of fatty acid oxidation in the liver of large yellow croaker. We divided 1600 fish (average initial weight 150 g) into 4 groups and reared them in 8 cages. Four dietary treatments were formulated to contain 0%, 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w) CLA, respectively. The fish were fed for 10 weeks ad libitum twice daily. We found that the dietary CLA had no effect on growth, biometric parameters and whole body proximate (P>0.05), but showed some significant effects on the fatty acid composition in both muscle and the liver. The activities of lipogenic enzymes were slightly depressed in fish fed with increasing levels of CLA when compared with control (P>0.05). Dietary CLA supplementation had no effects on liver lipid content, but significantly increased the contents of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in both muscle and the liver. Dietary CLA inclusion resulted in significant increases of the biologically active cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers in both tissues (P<0.05). The total accumulation of CLA was higher in the liver (3.83%, w/w) than in muscle (3.77%, w/w) when fed with 4% (w/w) CLA. This study demonstrates that large yellow croakers are capable of absorbing and depositing CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in the liver and muscle, showing that this species fed with CLA could be an important human food source for these healthful fatty acids. PMID:18763301

  2. Body composition, dietary carbohydrates and fatty acids determine post-fertilisation development of bovine oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, S J; Powell, K; Rooke, J A; Webb, R; Sinclair, K D

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed the interactive effects of carbohydrate type (fibre vs starch) and fatty acid (FA) supplementation (0% vs 6% calcium soaps of palm oil FA) on the post-fertilisation development of oocytes recovered from low and moderate body condition score (BCS) heifers. A secondary objective was to compare the FA composition of plasma to that of granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from these animals, and to relate these findings to the developmental potential of oocytes. Plasma, GCs and COCs were recovered from 32 heifers on day 5 of a synchronised oestrous cycle for FA analyses. Oocytes were also recovered on days 10 and 15 of the same cycle after short-term ovarian stimulation (FSH + GnRH), and matured, fertilised and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro. High levels of dietary starch increased (P < 0.01) plasma insulin but, together with dietary FA, reduced (P < 0.05) blastocyst yields in low, but not in moderate, BCS heifers. Diet-induced alterations to the FA content of plasma were less apparent in GCs and COCs. In summary, although dietary lipids increased the FA content of COCs, the selective uptake of saturated FAs at the expense of mainly polyunsaturated FAs within the follicular compartment ensured that the FA composition of COCs was largely unaffected by diet. However, the concentration of saturated FAs within COCs was inherently high, and so further increases in FA content may have impaired post-fertilisation development. The data establish a robust nutritional framework for more detailed studies into the mechanistic effects of dietary composition on the post-fertilisation developmental potential of oocytes. PMID:16452718

  3. Dietary fatty acid composition and the homeostatic regulation of mitochondrial phospholipid classes in red muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas; Kraffe, Edouard; Le Grand, Fabienne; Marty, Yanic; Bureau, Dominique P; Guderley, Helga

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary lipid quality markedly affects fatty acid (FA) composition of mitochondrial membranes from rainbow trout red muscle (Oncorhynchus mykiss), mitochondrial processes are relatively unchanged. As certain classes of phospholipids interact more intimately with membrane proteins than others, we examined whether specific phospholipid classes from these muscle mitochondria were more affected by dietary FA composition than others. To test this hypothesis, we fed trout with two diets differing only in their FA composition: Diet 1 had higher levels of 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 than Diet 2, while 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 were virtually absent from Diet 1 and high in Diet 2. After 5 months, trout fed Diet 2 had higher proportions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and less phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mitochondrial membranes than those fed Diet 1. The FA composition of PC, PE and cardiolipin (CL) showed clear evidence of regulated incorporation of dietary FA. For trout fed Diet 2, 22:6n-3 was the most abundant FA in PC, PE and CL. The n-6 FA were consistently higher in all phospholipid classes of trout fed Diet 1, with shorter n-6 FA being favoured in CL than in PC and PE. Despite these marked changes in individual FA levels with diet, general characteristics such as total polyunsaturated FA, total monounsaturated FA and total saturated FA were conserved in PE and CL, confirming differential regulation of the FA composition of PC, PE and CL. The regulated changes of phospholipid classes presumably maintain critical membrane characteristics despite varying nutritional quality. We postulate that these changes aim to protect mitochondrial function. PMID:25418791

  4. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  5. Dietary fatty acids affect mitochondrial phospholipid compositions and mitochondrial gene expression of rainbow trout liver at different ages.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; De Santis, C; Rubio-Mejía, O L; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are among the first responders to various stressors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL), particularly cardiolipin (CL), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, liver mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, lipid peroxidation, and mtDNA gene expression were analyzed in rainbow trout fed three diets with the same base formulation but with lipid supplied either by fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), or high DHA oil (DHA) during 6 weeks. Specifically, two feeding trials were performed using fish from the same population of two ages (1 and 3 years), and PL class compositions of liver mitochondria, fatty acid composition of individual PL classes, TBARS content, and mtDNA expression were determined. Dietary fatty acid composition strongly affected mitochondrial membrane composition from trout liver but observed changes did not fully reflect the diet, particularly when it contained high DHA. The changes were PL specific, CL being particularly resistant to changes in DHA. Some significant differences observed in expression of mtDNA with diet may suggest long-term dietary effects in mitochondrial gene expression which could affect electron transport chain function. All the changes were influenced by fish age, which could be related to the different growth rates observed between 1- and 3-year-old trout but that could also indicate age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:25398637

  6. Dietary fat in relation to fatty acid composition of red cells and adipose tissue in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Clayton, H.; Heagerty, A. M.; Nicholson, M. J.; Johnson, B.; Mason, J.; Manson, K.; James, R. F.; Bell, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Fatty acids were determined in erthrocytes in 49 patients with colorectal cancer and compared with age and sex-matched controls. Marginally increased levels of stearic acid (P = 0.057) and oleic acid (P = 0.064) and decreased arachidonic acid (P = 0.043) occurred in cancer patients. There was no difference in the stearic to oleic acid ratio between the two groups. Dietary intake, assessed by dietary recall and adipose tissue analysis was also not different. In control subjects the polyunsaturated:saturated (P:S) fatty acid ratio correlated between diet and adipose tissue (P less than 0.01, at least). In contrast cancer patients showed different correlations; in particular dietary and erythrocyte P:S fatty acid ratios correlated (P less than 0.01). These findings may indicate disturbed fat metabolism in cancer patients. The erythrocyte stearic to oleic acid ratio is of no diagnostic value. PMID:3219267

  7. Effect of replacing dietary menhaden oil with pollock or soybean oil on muscle fatty acid composition and growth performance of juvenile pacific threadfin (polyactylus sexfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the nutritional values of menhaden fish oil and pollock oil; and studied the potential of replacing dietary pollock oil by soybean oil based on the effect of pollock oil on growth performance, body composition, and muscle fatty acid profiles of juvenile Pacific threadfin. All te...

  8. Impact of exercise and dietary fatty acid composition from a high-fat diet on markers of hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Paton, C M; Wegner, F H; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2011-02-01

    To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO(2)max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood samples were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs. sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition. PMID:21035513

  9. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. PMID:22459498

  10. Influence of dietary fatty acid composition and exercise on changes in fat oxidation from a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Shriver, T; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2010-10-01

    Acute high-fat (HF) diets can lead to short-term positive fat balances until the body increases fat oxidation to match intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a HF diet, rich in either mono-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and exercise, on the rate at which the body adapts to a HF diet.(13)C-labeled oleate and (2)H-labeled palmitate were also given to determine the contribution of exogenous vs. global fat oxidation. Eight healthy men (age of 18-45 yr; body mass index of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were a high saturated fat diet with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions and a high monounsaturated fat diet with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Subjects stayed for 5 days in a metabolic chamber. All meals were provided. On day 1, 30% of energy intake was from fat, whereas days 2-5 had 50% of energy as fat. Subjects exercised on a stationary cycle at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were collected to calculate fat oxidation. Change from day 1 to day 5 showed both exercise treatments increased fat oxidation (SE: 76 ± 30 g, P = 0.001; UE: 118 ± 31 g, P < 0.001), whereas neither sedentary condition changed fat oxidation (SS: -10 ± 33 g, P = not significant; US: 41 ± 14 g, P = 0.07). No differences for dietary FA composition were found. Exercise led to a faster adaptation to a HF diet by increasing fat oxidation and achieving fat balance by day 5. Dietary FA composition did not differentially affect 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:20651220

  11. Impact of dietary lipids on sow milk composition and balance of essential fatty acids during lactation in prolific sows.

    PubMed

    Rosero, D S; Odle, J; Mendoza, S M; Boyd, R D; Fellner, V; van Heugten, E

    2015-06-01

    .15% and 0.45% α-linolenic acid, respectively), but not linoleic acid (P = 0.14; -3.4 and 10.0 g/d for 2.1% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). In conclusion, lipid supplementation to sow lactation diets improved milk fat secretion. The fatty acid composition of milk fat reflected the dietary supplementation of EFA. The net effect of supplemental EFA was to create a positive balance during lactation, which may prove to be beneficial for the development of nursing piglets and the subsequent reproduction of sows. PMID:26115280

  12. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on 24-h energy expenditure and chronic disease risk factors in men123

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jamie A; Watras, Abigail C; Adams, Alexandra K; Schoeller, Dale A

    2009-01-01

    Background: A high-fat (HF) diet and sedentary lifestyle are implicated in the development of obesity. Controlled feeding studies and measures of short-term resting energy expenditure (REE) have suggested that the type of dietary fat may alter energy expenditure (EE). Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of an HF diet rich in either monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and of exercise on EE and chronic disease risk factors. Design: Eight healthy men [age: 18–45 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 22 ± 3] were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 crossover design to 1 of 4 treatments: HF diet (50% of energy) with a high amount of saturated fat (22% of energy) plus exercise (SE) or a sedentary (SS) condition or a diet high in monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) plus exercise (UE) or a sedentary (US) condition. The subjects spent 5 d in a metabolic chamber and cycled at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day during the exercise visits. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were measured to determine 24-h EE. Resting metabolic rate was measured on days 2, 4, and 6. Results: Average 24-h EE was not different with respect to dietary FA composition (3202 ± 146, 3208 ± 151, 2240 ± 82, and 2270 ± 104 for SE, UE, SS, and US, respectively). Total and LDL cholesterol and blood pressure were significantly greater after the SE and SS treatments than after the UE and US treatments. Conclusion: Resting metabolic rate and 24-h EE were not significantly different after short-term exposure to an HF diet rich in monounsaturated FAs or after exposure to a diet rich in saturated FAs in healthy, nonobese men. PMID:19321562

  13. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  14. Effects of different dietary phospholipid levels on growth performance, fatty acid composition, PPAR gene expressions and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Gao, Jian; Huang, Songqian

    2015-04-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary phospholipid (PL) from soybean lecithin on growth performance, liver fatty acid composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression levels and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream fingerlings. Fish (average initial weight 0.35 ± 0.01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing the following inclusion levels of PL: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Results showed that final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as dietary PL level increased from 0 to 6%, meanwhile the survival was not affected by dietary PL supplementation. Increasing dietary PL level significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 20:4n-6 content in neutral lipid of liver, indicating fish had the capacity to convert C18 to C20 and C22 by elongation and desaturation. The expression levels of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in liver were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was decreased with dietary PL supplementation up to 6% compared with the control. Therefore, it was concluded that supplementation of 6% (18.8 g kg(-1), polar lipid of diet) PL could improve growth performance of blunt snout bream fingerlings. PMID:25261016

  15. Interactions of Dietary Fats and Proteins on Fatty Acid Composition of Immune Cells and LTB4 Production by Peritoneal Exudate Cells of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaku, S; Yunoki, S; Ohkura, K; Sugano, M; Nonaka, M; Tachibana, H; Yamada, K

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of dietary fats and proteins on lipid parameters of rats was studied using safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich), borage oil (γ-linolenic acid-rich) or perilla oil (α-linolenic acid-rich) in combination with casein or soybean protein. The experiment was focused on the fatty acid composition of immune cells and the leukotriene B4 production by peritoneal exudate cells. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels were low in perilla oil-fed or soybean protein-fed rats. Fatty acid compositions of serum and liver phospholipids reflected those of dietary fats. However, feeding borage oil resulted in a marked increase in the proportion of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in phospholipids of peritoneal exudate cells, spleen lymphocytes, and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes in relation to those of liver and serum. It is suggested that activities of metabolic n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are different between immune and other tissues. In addition, the magnitude of the reduction of the proportion of linoleic acid of perilla oil in immune cells was considerably more moderate than serum and liver, indicating a different degree of interference of α-linolenic acid with linoleic acid metabolism. Leukotriene B4 release from peritoneal exudate cells was in the order of safflower oil>borage oil>perilla oil groups as reflecting the proportion of arachidonic acid, and tended to be lower in soybean protein-fed groups. These suggest an anti-inflammatory property of γ-linolenic acid as well as α-linolenic acid tended to be strengthened when they were combined with soybean protein than with casein. PMID:27374271

  16. Interactions of dietary fats and proteins on fatty acid composition of immune cells and LTB4 production by peritoneal exudate cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Kaku, S; Yunoki, S; Ohkura, K; Sugano, M; Nonaka, M; Tachibana, H; Yamada, K

    2001-02-01

    The interaction of dietary fats and proteins on lipid parameters of rats was studied using safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich), borage oil (gamma-linolenic acid-rich) or perilla oil (alpha-linolenic acid-rich) in combination with casein or soybean protein. The experiment was focused on the fatty acid composition of immune cells and the leukotriene B4 production by peritoneal exudate cells. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels were low in perilla oil-fed or soybean protein-fed rats. Fatty acid compositions of serum and liver phospholipids reflected those of dietary fats. However, feeding borage oil resulted in a marked increase in the proportion of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid in phospholipids of peritoneal exudate cells, spleen lymphocytes, and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes in relation to those of liver and serum. It is suggested that activities of metabolic n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are different between immune and other tissues. In addition, the magnitude of the reduction of the proportion of linoleic acid of perilla oil in immune cells was considerably more moderate than serum and liver, indicating a different degree of interference of alpha-linolenic acid with linoleic acid metabolism. Leukotriene release from peritoneal exudate cells was in the order of safflower oil > borage oil > perilla oil groups as reflecting the proportion of arachidonic acid, and tended to be lower in soybean protein-fed groups. These suggest an anti-inflammatory property of gamma-linolenic acid as well as alpha-linolenic acid tended to be strengthened when they were combined with soybean protein than with casein. PMID:11302164

  17. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  18. The effect of dietary amino acid abundance and isotopic composition on the growth rate, metabolism and tissue δ13C of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; McCullagh, James S O; Focken, Ulfert

    2011-06-28

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the dietary non-essential/conditionally essential amino acid composition has an effect on growth and protein utilisation and on δ13C of individual amino acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were reared on six purified diets containing only synthetic amino acids in place of protein. Diet 1 mimicked the amino acid composition of fishmeal, in diet 2, cysteine (Cys), glycine (Gly), proline (Pro) and tyrosine (Tyr) were isonitrogenously replaced by their precursor amino acids serine (Ser), glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe), and in diet 3, alanine (Ala), asparagine and aspartate, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr were isonitrogenously replaced by Glu. Diets 4, 5 and 6 resembled diets 1, 2 and 3 except that Glu contained 0·1 % 13C-enriched Glu. A control group was reared on a fishmeal-based diet. A total of forty-two trout (4·7 (sd 0·57) g) were fed one of the diets at a level of 3·5 % body mass for 10 weeks in a flow-through system. Dietary non-essential amino acid composition significantly influenced protein gain (P < 0·025) and δ13C of Ala, arginine (Arg), Gly, histidine (His), Phe and Tyr. Non-enriched Glu was predominantly found in trout fed 13C-enriched Glu, which is consistent with the fact that Glu has been shown to be used extensively in the gut as an energy source but is less consistent with the enrichment of Pro in fish fed diet 6 compared with fish fed diet 3. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms that lead to the alteration of amino acid δ13C between diet and body tissues. PMID:21418707

  19. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  20. The effects of dietary lipid and strain difference on polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and conversion in anadromous and landlocked salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Xavier; Peng, Jinglan; Pham, Diep; Ackman, Robert G; Larondelle, Yvan

    2003-02-01

    Five experimental diets containing different proportions of olive, sunflower and linseed oils were used in a 55-day feeding trial on both anadromous and landlocked parr of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of the same age, in order to study the effects of diet and strain on growth and fatty acid composition and absolute gains in fish whole body triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL). Growth rate was higher in landlocked than in anadromous parr, but not between the different diets. By contrast, the effect of diet on whole body fatty acid composition was much more pronounced than that of strain difference. The fatty acids deposition results establish significant (P<0.05) positive correlations and linear relationships between the percentage of several fatty acids (18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3) in dietary lipids and their absolute gains in whole body TAG and PL of both stocks. They also indicate the selective deposition of 18:1n-9 compared with linoleic acid (LLA) and linolenic acid (LNA). Finally, the results suggest the occurrence of the conversion of LLA and LNA to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, its stimulation by increased substrate availability, a significantly higher n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids conversion capacity in landlocked than in anadromous parr and a strong genetic influence on docosahexaenoic acid content in salmon parr PL. PMID:12568812

  1. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0

  2. Effects of various dietary lipid additives on lamb performance, carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; Guan, L L; McAllister, T A

    2015-06-01

    Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum; TA) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO), and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue in skirt muscle (SM), subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, and wool production and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (n = 14 per treatment). Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet containing either TA, CO, FO, or SO (2% of dietary DM). Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg BW. Carcass characteristics, rumen pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm2 shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micrometer and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. No effects were observed on intake, growth, or carcass characteristics. A greater (P = 0.02) staple strength of lambs fed CO was the only effect observed in wool. Flax oil increased total n-3 and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in tissue FA profiles (P < 0.001) in comparison to other diets. Tasco increased (P ≤ 0.001) SFA/PUFA in all tissues, whereas concentrations of CLA c-9, t-11 were greatest with SO in all tissues (P ≤ 0.02), compared to other diets. These results suggest Tasco supplementation did not improve the n-3/n-6 or SFA/PUFA ratios of lamb adipose tissues compared to other dietary lipid additives. PMID:26115297

  3. Dietary vitamin A restriction affects adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, M; Óvilo, C; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rey, A I; Daza, A; Fenández, A; González-Bulnes, A; López-Bote, C J; Isabel, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary vitamin A level is associated with differences in adipocyte differentiation or lipid accumulation in Iberian pigs at early growing (35.8kg live weight) and at finishing (158kg live weight). Iberian pigs of 16.3kg live weight were allocated to two feeding groups, one group received 10,000IU of vitamin A/kg diet (control); the other group received a diet with 0IU of vitamin A (var) for the whole experimental period. The dietary vitamin A level had no effect on growth performance and carcass traits. The early suppression of vitamin A increased the preadipocyte number in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in the early growth period (P<0.001) and the neutral lipid content and composition (higher MUFA and lower SFA content) at the end of the finishing period (P<0.05). Vitamin A restriction in young pigs increases their lipogenic potential without affecting carcass traits. PMID:26005912

  4. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, G. P.; Ghosh, T. K.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid (FA) on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate). Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21) and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39) phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001) for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05) for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05) for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05) for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products. PMID:25358321

  5. Effects of dietary fatty acids on mitochondrial phospholipid compositions, oxidative status and mitochondrial gene expression of zebrafish at different ages.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Almaida-Pagán, P F; Hernández, A; Tocher, D R

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL) and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, oxidative status (TBARS content and SOD activity) and mtDNA gene expression of muscle and liver were analyzed in zebrafish fed two diets with lipid supplied either by rapeseed oil (RO) or a blend 60:40 of RO and DHA500 TG oil (DHA). Two feeding trials were performed using zebrafish from the same population of two ages (8 and 21 months). Dietary FA composition affected fish growth in 8-month-old animals, which could be related to an increase in stress promoted by diet composition. Lipid peroxidation was considerably higher in mitochondria of 8-month-old zebrafish fed the DHA diet than in animals fed the RO diet. This could indicate higher oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, very likely due to increased incorporation of DHA in PL of mitochondrial membranes. Lipids would be among the first molecules affected by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation could propagate oxidative reactions that would damage other molecules, including mtDNA. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and gene expression of 21-month-old fish showed lower responsiveness to diet composition than those of younger fish. Differences found in the effect of diet composition on mitochondrial lipids between the two age groups could be indicating age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:26156499

  6. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  7. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

  8. Dietary fatty acid composition alters 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vara Prasad, Sakamuri S S; Jeya Kumar, Shanmugam S; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid action by converting inactive glucocorticoids to their active forms in vivo. Adipose-specific overexpression of 11β-HSD1 induces metabolic syndrome in mice, whereas 11β-HSD1 null mice are resistant to it. Dietary trans and saturated fatty acids (TFAs and SFAs) are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) offer protection against this. Here, we report the effects of chronic feeding of different diets containing vanaspati (TFA rich), palm oil (SFA rich) and sunflower oil (PUFA rich) at 10%level on 11β-HSD1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 gene expression was significantly higher in TFA rich diet-fed rats compared to SFA rich diet-fed rats, which in turn was significantly higher than PUFA rich diet-fed rats. Similar trend was observed in the expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), the main transcription factor required for the expression of 11β-HSD1. We propose that TFAs and SFAs increase local amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue by upregulating 11β-HSD1 by altering C/EBP-α-gene expression. The increased levels of glucocorticoids in adipose tissue may lead to development of obesity and insulin resistance, thereby increasing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. PMID:20932307

  9. Feeding into old age: long-term effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on tissue composition and life span in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Smaller mammals, such as mice, possess tissues containing more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than larger mammals, while at the same time live shorter lives. These relationships have been combined in the ‘membrane pacemaker hypothesis of aging’. It suggests that membrane PUFA content might determine an animal’s life span. PUFAs in general and certain long-chain PUFAs in particular, are highly prone to lipid peroxidation which brings about a high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of either n-3 or n-6 PUFAs might affect (1) membrane phospholipid composition of heart and liver tissues and (2) life span of the animals due to the altered membrane composition, and subsequent effects on lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we kept female laboratory mice from the C57BL/6 strain on three diets (n-3 PUFA rich, n-6 PUFA rich, control) and assessed body weights, life span, heart, and liver phospholipid composition after the animals had died. We found that while membrane phospholipid composition clearly differed between feeding groups, life span was not directly affected. However, we were able to observe a positive correlation between monounsaturated fatty acids in cardiac muscle and life span. PMID:20981551

  10. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  11. In vitro characterization of the impact of selected dietary fibers on fecal microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Martínez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rose, Devin J

    2013-10-01

    The effects of six dietary fibers [pectin, guar gum, inulin, arabinoxylan, β-glucan, and resistant starch] on the human fecal microbiota during in vitro fermentation were determined. Bifidobacterium increased almost 25% on pectin compared with the control; a significant increase in Bifidobacterium adolescentis type-2 was observed on resistant starch. Bacteroides exhibited a positive correlation with propionate/short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), while Ruminococcaceae and Faecalibacterium displayed positive correlations with butyrate/SCFA production (r = 0.39, 0.54, p < 0.01). A negative correlation was detected between inulin utilization and Subdoligranulum (r = -0.73, p ≤ 0.01), while strong positive relationships were found between β-glucan utilization and Firmicutes (r = 0.73, p ≤ 0.01) and resistant starch utilization and Blautia wexlerae (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). Dietary fibers have specific and unique impacts on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. These findings provide a rationale for the development of functional ingredients targeted towards a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota. PMID:23831725

  12. Effect of linseed oil dietary supplementation on fatty acid composition and gene expression in adipose tissue of growing goats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, M; Rajion, M A; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q; Schonewille, J T

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α -linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α , PPAR- γ , and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR- γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA). PMID:23484090

  13. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, M.; Rajion, M. A.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.; Schonewille, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPAR-γ, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA). PMID:23484090

  14. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  15. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system. PMID:26851305

  16. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  17. Effects of dietary sunflower seeds and tylosin phosphate on production variables, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and liver abscess incidence in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Mir, P S; Dugan, M E R; He, M L; Entz, T; Yip, B

    2008-11-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment with 48 crossbred steers (with Hereford, Angus, and Charolais genetics, and an initial BW of 373 +/- 8.4 kg) was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary sunflower seeds (SS) and tylosin phosphate (TP) on production factors, carcass characteristics, liver abscess incidence, and fatty acid composition of the muscle (pars costalis diaphragmatis; PCD) and subcutaneous fat. Individually penned steers were fed either a control diet of 84.5% rolled barley, 14% barley silage, and 1.5% mineral and vitamin mix on a DM basis, or an SS diet, in which SS replaced 15% of the diet. Half the animals fed each diet received TP at 11 mg/kg of DM as a top dressing. Interactions were significant for all production factors. A reduction (P = 0.008) in DMI was observed from 10.1 +/- 0.4 kg/d, in steers fed the control diet, to 8.9 +/- 0.3 and 8.6 +/- 0.3 kg/d, in steers fed the SS and SS + TP diets, respectively. Greater (P = 0.014) ADG was observed for steers fed the control diet than for those fed the SS or SS + TP diet (1.4 vs. 1.1 and 1.2, SE = 0.1 kg/d, respectively); however, G:F ratios were greater (P = 0.011) in steers fed the control diets than in those fed the SS diets. Steers fed the control and SS diets had the heaviest and lightest HCW (347 +/- 6.9 vs. 325 +/- 8.4 kg; P = 0.025), respectively. Lean meat yield (%) of steers fed SS was greater (P = 0.117) than in steers fed the control diets, whereas total lean yield [(HCW x lean meat yield)/100] was similar (P = 0.755). Provision of the SS or SS + TP diet eliminated (P = 0.08 for interaction) liver abscesses compared with the 36 and 9% incidence in steers fed the control or control + TP diet, respectively. Fatty acid weight percentages (wt%) followed similar patterns in PCD and subcutaneous fat. Feeding the SS diets led to greater (P = 0.001) wt% of 18:0 and 18:2n-6, but reduced the wt% of 16:0, 9-cis (c)-18:1, and 18:3n-3 in PCD compared with that in steers fed the control diets, but the wt

  18. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. PMID:27269709

  19. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  20. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  1. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  2. Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26–29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P < 0.10). Litter weight gain (1.77 kg/d) from d 0 to d 14 was tended to increase in 9:1 groups compared with the other two treatments (P < 0.10). A significant difference was observed for the content of α -linolenic acid, total n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in the colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P < 0.01). The effects of different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA in sow diets on colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P < 0.01) concentrations in piglet plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P < 0.05) was observed at d14. Furthermore, at d 21 of lactation, piglet plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01). In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average

  3. Milk fat depression induced by dietary marine algae in dairy ewes: persistency of milk fatty acid composition and animal performance responses.

    PubMed

    Bichi, E; Hervás, G; Toral, P G; Loor, J J; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Addition of marine algae (MA) to the diet of dairy ruminants has proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the milk content of some bioactive lipids, but it has also been associated with the syndrome of milk fat depression. Little is known, however, about the persistency of the response to dietary MA in sheep. Based on previous experiments with dairy ewes fed sunflower oil plus MA, it was hypothesized that the response might be mediated by time-dependent adaptations of the rumen microbiota, which could be evaluated indirectly through milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Animal performance and milk FA composition in response to MA in the diet were studied using 36 Assaf ewes distributed in 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment) consisting of a total mixed ration (40:60 forage:concentrate ratio) supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil (SO)/kg of dry matter plus 0 (SO; control diet) or 8 g of MA/kg of dry matter (SOMA diet). Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 34, 44, and 54 of treatment. Diet supplementation with MA did not affect milk yield but did decrease milk fat content. Differences in the latter were detected from d 18 onward and reached -17% at the end of the experiment (i.e., on d 54). Compared with the control diet, the SOMA diet caused a reduction in milk 18:0 and its desaturation product (cis-9 18:1) that lasted for the whole experimental period. This decrease, together with the progressive increase in some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, especially trans-10 18:1, was related to the persistency of milk fat depression in lactating ewes fed MA. Additionally, inclusion of MA in the diet enhanced the milk content of trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and C20-22 n-3 polyunsaturated FA, mainly 22:6 n-3. Overall, the persistency of the responses observed suggests that the ruminal microbiota did not adapt to the dietary supply of very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID

  4. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  5. Effects of dietary glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on meat colour, pH, composition, and water-holding characteristic in broilers under cyclic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Gao, F; Xu, X L; Zhang, W H; Song, S X; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on raw breast meat colour, pH, composition and water-holding characteristic of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS). 2. A total of 360 21-d-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 birds per cage). The positive control (PC) broilers were kept in a thermoneutral chamber (22-24°C) and fed on the basal diet. The other 4 groups were kept in a cyclic HS chamber (30-34°C) for 9 h (from 09:00 to 18:00). 3. A significant increase was observed in breast meat lightness at 28, 35 and 42 d; and pH values at 28, 35 and 42 d; while a significant decrease was observed in breast meat cooking loss (CL) and contents of moisture, crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF) and crude ash (CA) due to HS. 4. The supplementation with 0·5 g Gln/kg decreased lightness at 28, 35 and 42 d; while increasing redness at 28 d, yellowness at 35 d, contents of CP, CF and CA, thawing loss (TL) and drip loss (DL). The addition of 100 mg GABA/kg decreased lightness at 28 and 35 d, pH value at 28, 35 and 42 d, and TL; while increasing redness at 28 d, 35 and 42 d, contents of moisture, CP and CF. 5. The lightness, redness, and pH value; contents of moisture, CP, CF and CA; and TL, DL and CL of breast meat of broilers fed with the mixture of Gln and GABA under cyclic HS were similar to those of the broilers in the PC group. 6. Significant interactions were found between Gln and GABA for yellowness at 28 and 35 d; pH at 28, 35 and 42 d; moisture content, CP content, water-holding capacity and TL. 7. These results demonstrated that dietary Gln and GABA offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent cyclic HS-related depression in broiler meat chemical composition and quality. PMID:23130582

  6. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G.; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M.

    2014-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomized controlled crossover design, 36 hypercholesterolemic participants consumed three isoenergetic diets for 28 days, each containing 36% energy from fat, of which 70% was HOCO, FXCO, or WD. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to measure plasma NAE levels and indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. After 28 days, compared with WD, plasma oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) levels were significantly increased in response to HOCO and FXCO (P = 0.002, P < 0.001), respectively. Correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between plasma OEA levels and percent body fat (r = −0.21, P = 0.04), and a positive association was observed between the plasma arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)/OEA ratio and android:gynoid fat (r = 0.23, P = 0.02), respectively. Results suggest that plasma NAE levels are upregulated via their dietary lipid substrates and may modulate regional and total fat mass through lipid-signaling mechanisms. PMID:25262934

  7. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M

    2014-12-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomized controlled crossover design, 36 hypercholesterolemic participants consumed three isoenergetic diets for 28 days, each containing 36% energy from fat, of which 70% was HOCO, FXCO, or WD. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to measure plasma NAE levels and indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. After 28 days, compared with WD, plasma oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) levels were significantly increased in response to HOCO and FXCO (P = 0.002, P < 0.001), respectively. Correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between plasma OEA levels and percent body fat (r = -0.21, P = 0.04), and a positive association was observed between the plasma arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)/OEA ratio and android:gynoid fat (r = 0.23, P = 0.02), respectively. Results suggest that plasma NAE levels are upregulated via their dietary lipid substrates and may modulate regional and total fat mass through lipid-signaling mechanisms. PMID:25262934

  8. Dietary omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the composition and development of sheep granulosa cells, oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Wonnacott, K E; Kwong, W Y; Hughes, J; Salter, A M; Lea, R G; Garnsworthy, P C; Sinclair, K D

    2010-01-01

    The evidence that omega-3 (n-3) and -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have differential effects on ovarian function, oocytes and embryo quality is inconsistent. We report on the effects of n-3 versus n-6 PUFA-enriched diets fed to 36 ewes over a 6-week period, prior to ovarian stimulation and follicular aspiration, on ovarian steroidogenic parameters and embryo quality. Follicle number and size were unaltered by diet, but follicular-fluid progesterone concentrations were greater in n-3 PUFA-fed ewes than in n-6 PUFA-fed ewes. The percentage of saturated FAs (mostly stearic acid) was greater in oocytes than in either granulosa cells or plasma, indicating selective uptake and/or de novo synthesis of saturated FAs at the expense of PUFAs by oocytes. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) fractionated from sera of these ewes increased granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis relative to the FA-free BSA control during culture, but there was no differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on either oestradiol or progesterone production. HDL was ineffective in delivering FAs to embryos during culture, although n-6 PUFA HDL reduced embryo development. All blastocysts, irrespective of the treatment, contained high levels of unsaturated FAs, in particular linoleic acid. Transcripts for HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (SCARB1 and LDLR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) are reported in sheep embryos. HDL reduced the expression of transcripts for LDLR and SCD relative to the BSA control. The data support a differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on ovarian steroidogenesis and pre-implantation development, the latter in the absence of a net uptake of FAs. PMID:19789173

  9. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  10. Effects of dietary calcium soaps of unsaturated fatty acids on digestion, milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1997-05-01

    Dairy cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were utilized to investigate the effects of feeding with Ca soaps (CaS) of palm fatty acids (FA) and rapeseed FA. Diets compared were control diet based on maize silage and concentrate, and two diets with 40 g CaS of palm oil FA or rapeseed oil FA/kg diet, replacing part of the concentrates of the control diet. Total digestibilities of dry matter, fibre and fat, and ruminal fermentation were not significantly altered by giving CaS; the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation of total unsaturated C18 FA was significantly reduced by both CaS diets. Apparent intestinal digestibility of FA was not different among diets, although the amount of FA absorbed with the CaS diets was twice that with the control diet. No difference among diets was observed for milk production, or fat and protein contents. Giving CaS diets decreased the proportions of 4:0 to 14:0 FA in milk fat, and increased cis-18:1n-9, compared with control diet. The rapeseed diet lowered the content of 16:0, and increased the contents of 18:0 and trans-18:1n-7. CaS diets did not result in a marked increase of polyunsaturated FA content in milk fat. Butter from cows fed on the CaS diets contained more liquid fat at 6 and 14 degrees C than butter from the cows fed on the control diet. Incorporating CaS, particularly those from rapeseed, in dairy cows' diets increased C18 FA in milk and improved butter spreadability. PMID:9161912

  11. Dietary sunflower oil modulates milk fatty acid composition without major changes in adipose and mammary tissue fatty acid profile or related gene mRNA abundance in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castro-Carrera, T; Frutos, P; Leroux, C; Chilliard, Y; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bernard, L; Toral, P G

    2015-04-01

    There are very few studies in ruminants characterizing mammary and adipose tissue (AT) expression of genes and gene networks for diets causing variations in milk fatty acid (FA) composition without altering milk fat secretion, and even less complementing this information with data on tissue FA profiles. This work was conducted in sheep in order to investigate the response of the mammary gland and the subcutaneous and perirenal AT, in terms of FA profile and mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, to a diet known to modify milk FA composition. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (60 : 40) supplemented with 0 (control diet) or 25 (SO diet) g of sunflower oil/kg of diet dry matter for 7 weeks. Milk composition, including FA profile, was analysed after 48 days on treatments. On day 49, the animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected to analyse FA and mRNA abundance of 16 candidate genes. Feeding SO did not affect animal performance but modified milk FA composition. Major changes included decreases in the concentration of FA derived from de novo synthesis (e.g. 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increases in that of long-chain FA (e.g. 18:0, c9-18:1, trans-18:1 isomers and c9,t11-CLA); however, they were not accompanied by significant variations in the mRNA abundance of the studied lipogenic genes (i.e. ACACA, FASN, LPL, CD36, FABP3, SCD1 and SCD5) and transcription factors (SREBF1 and PPARG), or in the constituent FA of mammary tissue. Regarding the FA composition of AT, the little influence of SO did not appear to be linked to changes in gene mRNA abundance (decreases of GPAM and SREBF1 in both tissues, and of PPARG in the subcutaneous depot). Similarly, the great variation between AT (higher contents of saturated FA and trans-18:1 isomers in the perirenal, and of cis-18:1, c9,t11-CLA and n-3 PUFA in the subcutaneous AT) could not be related to

  12. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P < 0.001) in birds fed the PO diets compared with birds fed the SO diets. The diets containing PO increased abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat

  13. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Upadhaya, S. D.; Kim, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) brown layers (40 wks of age) were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP) on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON (basal diet), ii) 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder), and iii) 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder). From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034); however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05). Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively). Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044). Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05). Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. PMID:25656210

  14. Relationship between Fecal Content of Fatty Acids and Cyclooxygenase mRNA Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Duodenal Biopsies, Serum Lipoproteins, and Dietary Fat in Colectomized Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almendingen, K.; Høstmark, A. T.; Larsen, L. N.; Fausa, O.; Bratlie, J.; Aabakken, L.

    2010-01-01

    A few familial adenomatous polyposis studies have focused upon faecal sterols and bile acids but none has analysed the fecal content of fatty acids. We report here findings of an observational study on 29 colectomized familial adenomatous polyposis patients that describe the fecal content of fatty acids, and relate this to the proportions of fatty acids and levels of cyclooxygenase mRNA expression in duodenal biopsies, levels of serum lipoproteins, and diet. In the ileostomy group separately (n = 12), the fecal content of arachidonic acid was correlated negatively to the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Total serum-cholesterol was negatively correlated to the fecal content of saturates and monounsaturates. The fecal palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid ratio was positively correlated to the levels of cyclooxygease-2 expression in duodenal biopsies.In the ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis group separately (n = 17), significant correlations were found between the fecal contents of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, and the proportions of myristic acid, oleic acid and eicosaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Dietary monounsaturates were positively correlated to different fecal fatty acids. Future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms relevant to fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in addition to nutrition. PMID:21052495

  15. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs. PMID:17254747

  16. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the "case" of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models. PMID:24587652

  17. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids and vitamin C on semen characteristics, lipid composition of sperm and blood metabolites in fat-tailed Moghani rams.

    PubMed

    Jafaroghli, M; Abdi-Benemar, H; Zamiri, M J; Khalili, B; Farshad, A; Shadparvar, A A

    2014-06-10

    Sixteen fertile rams were randomly allotted to four groups and fed either of the four diets for 14 weeks: (1) control diet (COD) without fish oil (FO) and vitamin C (VC), (2) diet containing 2.5% FO (FOD), (3) diet containing 300 mg/kg DM VC (VCD), and (4) diet containing 2.5% FO and 300 mg/kg DM VC (FCD). Semen was collected at 14-d intervals from 1 April to 10 July (out of the physiologic breeding season in Iran). Semen volume and percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm were increased by FO and VC feeding. A significant interaction was also found between FOD and VCD on motility and progressive motility percentage (P<0.05). HOS-test and percentage of sperm with normal acrosome improved significantly by FO and VC. Rams fed FCD had better HOS-test and higher proportion of sperm with normal acrosome than rams in other groups (82.4 and 93.6%, respectively). Diets containing FO and FO and VC increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm (P<0.05). The activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal fluid was significantly affected by VC and the interaction between FO and VC (P<0.05). Blood metabolites, except glucose, were affected positively by FO. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FO and VC improved seminal quality and may have beneficial effects on fertility in Moghani rams. PMID:24745668

  18. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  19. Dietary composition and weight loss: can we individualize dietary prescriptions according to insulin sensitivity or secretion status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable uncertainty over whether any one dietary pattern broadly facilitates weight loss or maintenance of weight loss, and current dietary guidelines recommend a spectrum of dietary composition for the general population. However, emerging evidence suggests that specific dietary compo...

  20. The impact of dietary sugarcane addition to finishing diets on performance, apparent digestibility, and fatty acid composition of Holstein × Zebu bulls.

    PubMed

    Rotta, P P; Filho, S C Valadares; Engle, T E; Costa E Silva, L F; Sathler, D F T; Prado, I N; Bonafé, E G; Zawadzki, F; Visentainer, J V

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of corn silage (CS) or sugarcane (SC) additions to finishing diets on voluntary intake, apparent digestibility, animal performance, and LM fatty acid (FA) composition in crossbred Holstein × Zebu bulls. Forty-two bulls (initial BW 328 ± 39.2 kg and an initial age of 23.5 mo) were used in this experiment. A completely randomized design was used to examine roughage source (CS vs. SC) and ratio of concentrate (CO) on nutrient utilization and production. The experimental diets consisted of 1) 60% CS and 40% CO on DM basis fed for 84 d (CS60:40), 2) 60% CS and 40% CO on DM basis fed for 42 d and 40% CS and 60% CO on DM basis fed for 42 d (CS reverse diet [CSR]), 3) 40% CS and 60% CO on DM basis fed for 84 d (CS40:60), 4) 60% SC and 40% CO on DM basis fed for 84 d (SC60:40), 5) 60% SC and 40% CO on DM basis fed for 42 d and 40% SC and 60% CO on DM basis fed for 42 d (SC reverse diet [SCR]), and 6) 40% SC and 60% CO on DM basis fed for 84 d (SC40:60). Dry matter and NDF intakes were greater (P < 0.01) in bulls fed CS-based diets than bulls fed SC-based diets. The greatest (P < 0.01) DM and CP digestibility were observed in bulls fed SC-based diets. Bulls fed CSR and CS40:60 had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than bulls fed SC-based diets. However, ADG was similar (P = 0.52) in bulls fed CS60:40, CSR, and SC40:60 diets. The percentage of C18:3 n-3 and C20:5 n-3 were greater (P < 0.01) in LM of bulls fed SC-based diets. The percentage of CLA was greater (P < 0.01) in LM of bulls fed SC60:40 than those fed CS-based diets. The findings of the present study indicate that SC40:60 can replace CS60:40 and CSR in finishing diets and, moreover, roughage source significantly altered the FA composition of crossbred Holstein × Zebu bulls LM. PMID:24713164

  1. Effect of dietary Fatty acids on human lipoprotein metabolism: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Esther M M; Watts, Gerald F; Ng, Theodore W K; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids. PMID:26043038

  2. Effect of Dietary Levels of Menhaden Fish Oil and Feeding Duration on Growth Performance, and Proximate and Fatty Acid Composition of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA n-3), which consist mainly of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3), plays vital roles in human nutrition, disease prevention and health promotion. As the general public becomes aware of the health benefits of cons...

  3. Dietary Fatty Acids: Is it Time to Change the Recommendations?

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Joyce A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mensink, Ronald P; Schwab, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the saturated fatty acid (SAFA) consumption forms the basis of dietary fat recommendations for heart health, despite several meta-analyses demonstrating no link between dietary SAFA and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Three experts on dietary fat and health discussed the evidence of reducing SAFA intake at a symposium of the Federation of European Nutrition Societies in Berlin, Germany, October 23, 2015. Ronald P. Mensink, Maastricht University, the Netherlands, discussed the evidence linking dietary fatty acids and CVD risk. He emphasized the importance of the replacement nutrient(s) when SAFA intake is reduced. Julie Lovegrove, University of Reading, UK, addressed the question of whether higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids are beneficial. She discussed the replacement of SAFA by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), noting the reduction in CVD risk with PUFA replacement and in CVD risk markers with MUFA replacement of SAFA. Ursula Schwab, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, discussed the importance of dietary patterns in achieving reduced risk of CVD, observing that several dietary patterns following the principles of a health-promoting diet and adapted to local customs, food preferences and seasonality are effective in reducing the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. This paper summarizes the symposium presentations. PMID:27251664

  4. Allometric scaling of dietary linoleic acid on changes in tissue arachidonic acid using human equivalent diets in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that dietary linoleic acid (LA) promotes chronic and acute diseases in humans by enriching tissues with arachidonic acid (AA), its downstream metabolite, and dietary studies with rodents have been useful for validation. However, levels of LA in research diets of rodents, as published in the literature, are notoriously erratic making interspecies comparisons unreliable. Therefore, the ability to extrapolate the biological effects of dietary LA from experimental rodents to humans necessitates an allometric scaling model that is rooted within a human equivalent context. Methods To determine the physiological response of dietary LA on tissue AA, a mathematical model for extrapolating nutrients based on energy was used, as opposed to differences in body weight. C57BL/6J mice were divided into 9 groups fed a background diet equivalent to that of the US diet (% energy) with supplemental doses of LA or AA. Changes in the phospholipid fatty acid compositions were monitored in plasma and erythrocytes and compared to data from humans supplemented with equivalent doses of LA or AA. Results Increasing dietary LA had little effect on tissue AA, while supplementing diets with AA significantly increased tissue AA levels, importantly recapitulating results from human trials. Conclusions Thus, interspecies comparisons for dietary LA between rodents and humans can be achieved when rodents are provided human equivalent doses based on differences in metabolic activity as defined by energy consumption. PMID:21702942

  5. The effects of increasing dietary levels of amino acid-supplemented soy protein concentrate and constant dietary supplementation of phosphorus on growth, composition and immune responses of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Metochis, C; Crampton, V O; Ruohonen, K; Bell, J G; Adams, A; Thompson, K D

    2016-06-01

    Diets with 50 (SPC50), 65 (SPC65) and 80 % (SPC80) substitution of prime fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) were evaluated against a commercial type control feed with 35 % FM replacement with SPC. Increases in dietary SPC were combined with appropriate increases in methionine, lysine and threonine supplementation, whereas added phosphorus was constant among treatments. Diets were administered to quadruplicate groups of 29 g juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to constant light, for 97 days. On Day 63 salmon were subjected to vaccination. Significant weight reductions in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon were observed by Day 97. Linear reductions in body cross-sectional ash, Ca/P ratios, and Ca, P, Mn and Zn were observed at Days 63 (prior vaccination) and 97 (34 days post-vaccination), while Mg presented a decrease at Day 63, in salmon fed increasing dietary SPC. Significant reductions in Zn, Ca, P and Ca/P ratios persisted in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon at Day 97. Significant haematocrit reductions in SPC50, SPC65 and SPC80 salmon were observed at Days 63, 70 and 97. Enhanced plasma haemolytic activity, increased total IgM, and a rise in thrombocytes were demonstrated in SPC50 and SPC65 salmon on Day 97, while increased lysozyme activity was demonstrated for these groups on Days 63, 70 and 97. Leucocyte and lymphocyte counts revealed enhanced immunostimulation in salmon fed with increasing dietary SPC at Day 97. High SPC inclusion diets did not compromise the immune responses of salmon, while SPC50 diet also supported good growth without compromising elemental concentrations. PMID:26781956

  6. Endogenous flow of amino acids in the avian ileum as influenced by increasing dietary peptide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Velmurugu; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Thomas, Donald V

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether feeding broiler chickens with diets containing increasing dietary peptide concentrations would cause increases in ileal endogenous amino acid flow. The flow of N and most amino acids increased quadratically (P < 0.05 to 0.001) with increasing dietary concentrations of peptides. The exceptions were the flow of threonine, serine, glycine, tyrosine and cystine, which increased linearly (P < 0.001) with dietary peptide levels. Another notable exception to the general trend was the flow of proline, which was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed the protein-free diet. The amino acid profile of endogenous protein, expressed as proportion of crude protein, indicated that the ratios of threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, leucine, histidine, arginine and cystine were influenced (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. In general, compared with the protein-free diet, the ratios of threonine and arginine in endogenous protein were lower (P < 0.05) and those of glutamic acid, glycine and histidine were greater (P < 0.05) in diets with high concentrations of peptides. The ratio of proline was found to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. These changes in the amino acid profile of endogenous protein are probably reflective of changes in the output of one or more of the components of endogenous protein. Overall, the present results demonstrated that increasing dietary peptide concentrations increased the flow of endogenous amino acid flow at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner and also caused changes in the composition of endogenous protein. The observed changes in endogenous amino flow will influence the maintenance requirements for amino acids and also have implications for the calculation of true digestibility coefficient of feedstuffs. PMID:18662428

  7. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  8. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, Ricardo; Coates, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 deaths yearly. Early data showing the benefits n-3 fatty acids provide in preventing CHD disease were obtained using 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids derived from fish. Recently, however, it has been shown that reduced risks of CHD and other cardiovascular diseases are found with 18:3n-3 fatty acid as well. To determine if 18:3n-3 fatty acids positively influence plasma composition, 32 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum four isocaloric diets with the energy derived from corn oil (T(1)), whole chia seed (T(2)), ground chia seed (T(3)), or chia oil (T(4)) for 30 days. At the end of the feeding period the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were analyzed to determine serum CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG content, hemogram, and fatty acid composition. Chia decreased serum TG content and increased HDL content. Only with the T(2) diet was TG significantly (p < 0.05) lower, and only with the T(3) diet was HDL significantly (p < 0.05) higher, than the control diet. Chia significantly (p < 0.05) increased the 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 plasma contents compared to the control diet, with no significant (p < 0.05) difference among chia diets detected. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was observed for all chia diets when compared to the control. PMID:17356263

  9. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted with lactating Angus X Gelbvieh beef cows to determine the effects of postpartum lipid supplementation, BCS at parturition, and day of lactation on fatty acid profiles in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk. In Exp. 1, 36 primiparous cows (488 +/- 10 kg of initial BW; 5.5...

  10. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  11. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Sara L; Väremo, Leif; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  12. Changes in tissue lipid and fatty acid composition of farmed rainbow trout in response to dietary camelina oil as a replacement of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil (CO) replaced 50 and 100 % of fish oil (FO) in diets for farmed rainbow trout (initial weight 44 ± 3 g fish(-1)). The oilseed is particularly unique due to its high lipid content (40 %) and high amount of 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) (30 %). Replacing 100 % of fish oil with camelina oil did not negatively affect growth of rainbow trout after a 12-week feeding trial (FO = 168 ± 32 g fish(-1); CO = 184 ± 35 g fish(-1)). Lipid and fatty acid profiles of muscle, viscera and skin were significantly affected by the addition of CO after 12 weeks of feeding. However, final 22:6n-3 [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and 20:5n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] amounts (563 mg) in a 75 g fillet (1 serving) were enough to satisfy daily DHA and EPA requirements (250 mg) set by the World Health Organization. Other health benefits include lower SFA and higher MUFA in filets fed CO versus FO. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) confirmed that the δ(13)C isotopic signature of DHA in CO fed trout shifted significantly compared to DHA in FO fed trout. The shift in DHA δ(13)C indicates mixing of a terrestrial isotopic signature compared to the isotopic signature of DHA in fish oil-fed tissue. These results suggest that ~27 % of DHA was synthesized from the terrestrial and isotopically lighter ALA in the CO diet rather than incorporation of DHA from fish meal in the CO diet. This was the first study to use CSIA in a feeding experiment to demonstrate synthesis of DHA in fish. PMID:24264359

  13. DETERMINATION OF PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts aggregate exposure studies for determining an individual's exposure to a broad range of target analytes in composite dietary samples. The objective of this work is to develop an anal...

  14. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations. PMID:27010419

  15. Dietary supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids and resulting maternal effects influence host – parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interactions between hosts and parasites can be substantially modulated by host nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients; they are indispensable as structural components of cell membranes and as precursors for eicosanoids, signalling molecules which act on reproduction and immunity. Here, we explored the potential of dietary PUFAs to affect the course of parasitic infections using a well-established invertebrate host – parasite system, the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results Using natural food sources differing in their PUFA composition and by experimentally modifying the availability of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) we examined PUFA-mediated effects resulting from direct consumption as well as maternal effects on offspring of treated mothers. We found that both host and parasite were affected by food quality. Feeding on C20 PUFA-containing food sources resulted in higher offspring production of hosts and these effects were conveyed to a great extent to the next generation. While feeding on a diet containing high PUFA concentrations significantly reduced the likelihood of becoming infected, the infection success in the next generation increased whenever the maternal diet contained PUFAs. We suggest that this opposing effect was caused by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in the second generation. Conclusions Considering the direct and maternal effects of dietary PUFAs on host and parasite we propose that host – parasite interactions and thus disease dynamics under natural conditions are subject to the availability of dietary PUFAs. PMID:24175981

  16. Modification of fillet composition and evidence of differential fatty acid turnover in sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis following change in dietary lipid source.

    PubMed

    Lane, Ryan L; Trushenski, Jesse T; Kohler, Christopher C

    2006-11-01

    Marine oil-based finishing diets have been used to restore fillet FA profile in several "medium-fat" fleshed aquaculture species, and a simple dilution model describing FA turnover has been established to predict and tailor final fillet composition. We evaluated finishing diet efficacy and suitability of the dilution model to describe patterns of FA change in a lean-fleshed model, sunshine bass. Two practical diets (45% crude protein, 15% crude lipid) were formulated, respectively containing corn oil (CO) or menhaden oil (MO) as the primary lipid sources. Sunshine bass (age 1 [approximately 14 mo], 347 +/- 8.6 g, mean individual weight +/- SEM) were stocked in a recirculating system and fed the diets according to different feeding regimens during the final 28 wk of the production cycle. Control groups were fed the CO or the MO feeds exclusively; whereas, the remaining treatment groups were transitioned from the CO diet to the MO diet at 4-, 8-, or 12-wk intervals. Upon completion of the feeding trial, fish were harvested, and production performance and fillet composition were assessed. Replacing MO with CO as the primary lipid source in sunshine bass diets yielded fillets with distinctly different FA profiles; however, finishing with a MO-based diet offered significant compensation for CO-associated reductions in fillet long-chain highly unsaturated FA (LC-HUFA). Although complete restoration was not observed, we achieved significant augmentation of endogenous n-3 FA within 4 wk of feeding the MO diet, and observed a significant increase in LC-HUFA and a beneficial shift in n-3:n-6 FA ratio after 8 weeks. Simple dilution accurately predicted tissue composition for most FA; however, deviations from the model were noted, suggesting selective retention of n-3, PUFA, and LC-HUFA and preferential catabolism of saturates. We conclude marine oil-based finishing diets can rapidly augment beneficial FA levels in sunshine bass fillets; however, simple dilution models do not

  17. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. The influence of dietary lipid composition on skeletal muscle mitochondria from mice following eight months of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Hagopian, K; Bibus, D; Villalba, J M; López-Lluch, G; Navas, P; Kim, K; Ramsey, J J

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and retard aging in a variety of species. It has been proposed that alterations in membrane saturation are central to these actions of CR. As a step towards testing this theory, mice were assigned to 4 dietary groups (control and 3 CR groups) and fed AIN-93G diets at 95 % (control) or 60 % (CR) of ad libitum for 8 months. To manipulate membrane composition, the primary dietary fats for the CR groups were soybean oil (also used in the control diet), fish oil or lard. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial lipid composition, proton leak, and H(2)O(2) production were measured. Phospholipid fatty acid composition in CR mice was altered in a manner that reflected the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid profiles of their respective dietary lipid sources. Dietary lipid composition did not alter proton leak kinetics between the CR groups. However, the capacity of mitochondrial complex III to produce ROS was decreased in the CR lard compared to the other CR groups. The results of this study indicate that dietary lipid composition can influence ROS production in muscle mitochondria of CR mice. It remains to be determined if lard or other dietary oils can maximize the CR-induced decreases in ROS production. PMID:24182343

  19. Dietary protein ingested before and during short photoperiods makes an impact on affect-related behaviours and plasma composition of amino acids in mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Goda, Ryosei; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Shibata, Satomi; Oka, Yoshiaki; Mizunoya, Wataru; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-11-28

    In mammals, short photoperiod is associated with high depression- and anxiety-like behaviours with low levels of the brain serotonin and its precursor tryptophan (Trp). Because the brain Trp levels are regulated by its ratio to large neutral amino acids (Trp:LNAA) in circulation, this study elucidated whether diets of various protein sources that contain different Trp:LNAA affect depression- and anxiety-like behaviours in C57BL/6J mice under short-day conditions (SD). In the control mice on a casein diet, time spent in the central area in the open field test (OFT) was lower in the mice under SD than in those under long-day conditions (LD), indicating that SD exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour. The SD-induced anxiety-like behaviour was countered by an α-lactalbumin diet given under SD. In the mice that were on a gluten diet before transition to SD, the time spent in the central area in the OFT under SD was higher than that in the SD control mice. Alternatively, mice that ingested soya protein before the transition to SD had lower immobility in the forced swim test, a depression-like behaviour, compared with the SD control. Analysis of Trp:LNAA revealed lower Trp:LNAA in the SD control compared with the LD control, which was counteracted by an α-lactalbumin diet under SD. Furthermore, mice on gluten or soya protein diets before transition to SD exhibited high Trp:LNAA levels in plasma under SD. In conclusion, ingestion of specific proteins at different times relative to photoperiodic transition may modulate anxiety- and/or depression-like behaviours, partially through changes in plasma Trp:LNAA. PMID:26370332

  20. Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Skin Photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Malvy, Denis; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Pilar; Tschachler, Erwin; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. Conclusion/Significance These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging. PMID:22970231

  1. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  2. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  3. In vitro fermentation of bacterial cellulose composites as model dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J; Williams, Barbara A

    2011-04-27

    Plant cell walls within the human diet are compositionally heterogeneous, so defining the basis of nutritive properties is difficult. Using a pig fecal inoculum, in vitro fermentations of soluble forms of arabinoxylan, mixed-linkage glucan, and xyloglucan were compared with the same polymers incorporated into bacterial cellulose composites. Fermentation rates were highest and similar for the soluble polysaccharides. Cellulose composites incorporating those polysaccharides fermented more slowly and at similar rates to wheat bran. Bacterial cellulose and cotton fermented most slowly. Cellulose composite fermentation resulted in a different short-chain fatty acid profile, compared with soluble polysaccharides, with more butyrate and less propionate. The results suggest that physical form is more relevant than the chemistry of plant cell wall polysaccharides in determining both rate and end-products of fermentation using fecal bacteria. This work also establishes bacterial cellulose composites as a useful model system for the fermentation of complex cell wall dietary fiber. PMID:21417282

  4. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five ...

  5. Intestinal interaction of bile acids, phospholipids, dietary fibers, and cholestyramine.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, D; Schneeman, B O

    1986-04-01

    Binding of bile acids and phospholipids to a number of dietary fibers and cholestyramine (CH) within the small intestine was determined. The fibers used were cellulose, wheat bran, oat bran, guar gum (GG), and lignin (LG). GG, LG, and CH bound significant quantities of bile acids. However, only the CH reduced the bile acid concentration within the aqueous phase of the intestinal contents. Significant phospholipid binding was found only with CH. None of the test substances significantly reduced the quantity of solubilized lipid. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the total quantity of bile acids and phospholipids in the aqueous phase of the intestinal contents was a significant predictor of the quantity of lipid solubilized within the contents (r2 = 0.67). The failure of GG and LG to significantly decrease the amount of solubilized lipid suggests that the hypocholesterolemic effect of these fibers is due more to their bile acid binding capacity than to an effect on lipid solubilization. PMID:3008573

  6. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA. PMID:25314584

  7. Increased dietary zinc oxide changes the bacterial core and enterobacterial composition in the ileum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Vahjen, W; Pieper, R; Zentek, J

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increased dietary ZnO on the bacterial core and enterobacterial composition in the small intestine of piglets that were fed diets containing a total of 124 or 3,042 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet, respectively. Zinc was supplemented to the basal diet as ZnO. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes of ileal DNA extracts were PCR-amplified with 2 bar-coded primer sets and sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial core species were calculated from the relative abundances of reads present in 5 of 6 samples per group and at a minimum of 5 sequences per sample. The reference database SILVA was used to assign sequence reads at an alignment minimum of 200 bases and 100% identity. Lactic acid bacteria dominated the bacterial core, but showed diverse responses to dietary ZnO. Of the dominant Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri was reduced due to increased dietary ZnO (44.7 vs. 17.9%; P=0.042), but L. amylovorus was not influenced. However, the changes of relative abundances of other lactic acid bacteria were more noteworthy; Weissella cibaria (10.7 vs. 23.0%; P=0.006), W. confusa (10.0 vs. 22.4%; P=0.037), Leuconostoc citreum (6.5 vs. 14.8%; P=0.009), Streptococcus equinus (0.14 vs. 1.0%; P=0.044), and S. lutetiensis (0.01 vs. 0.11%; P=0.016) increased in relative abundance. Nonlactic acid bacteria that were influenced by increased dietary ZnO included the strict anaerobic species, Sarcina ventriculi, which showed a strong numerical decrease in relative abundance (14.6 vs. 5.1%). Species of the Enterobacteriaceae increased their relative abundance, as well as species diversity, in the high dietary ZnO experimental group. Bacterial diversity indices were increased due to increased dietary ZnO (P < 0.05), which was traced back to the increase of sequences from subdominant species. Increased dietary ZnO led to an increase of less prominent species and, thus, had a major impact on the bacterial composition and diversity in

  8. Dietary Deficiency of Essential Amino Acids Rapidly Induces Cessation of the Rat Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Saibabu, Venkata; Fatima, Zeeshan; Khan, Luqman Ahmad; Hameed, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Although modern lifestyle has eased the quality of human life, this lifestyle's related patterns have imparted negative effects on health to acquire multiple diseases. Many synthetic drugs are invented during the last millennium but most if not all of them possess several side effects and proved to be costly. Convincing evidences have established the premise that the phytotherapeutic potential of natural compounds and need of search for novel drugs from natural sources are of high priority. Phenolic acids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites spread throughout the plant kingdom and generally involved in plethora of cellular processes involved in plant growth and reproduction and also produced as defense mechanism to sustain various environmental stresses. Extensive research on PAs strongly suggests that consumption of these compounds hold promise to offer protection against various ailments in humans. This paper focuses on the naturally derived PAs and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds during disease conditions. Based on the available information in the literature, it is suggested that use of PAs as drugs is very promising; however more research and clinical trials are necessary before these bioactive molecules can be made for treatment. Finally this review provides greater awareness of the promise that natural PAs hold for use in the disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26442119

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  11. Dietary essential fatty acids change the fatty acid profile of rat neural mitochondria over time.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J R; Greenwood, C E

    1991-10-01

    This experiment examined the time course over which the amount of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) affects brain mitochondrial fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed 20% (wt/wt) fat diets that contained either 4 or 15% (wt/wt of diet) EFA for 1, 2, 3 or 6 wk or a 10% EFA diet for 3 or 6 wk. The EFA ratio [18:2(n-6)/18:3(n-3)] of all diets was approximately 30. Fatty acid analysis of brain mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin revealed that the largest dietary effect was on 18:2(n-6), which was 30% higher in rats fed the 15 vs. 4% EFA diets after 1 wk. This difference increased to twofold by 3 wk and was still twofold after 6 wk. These results demonstrate several facts: 1) the response of 18:2(n-6) in cardiolipin to dietary EFA is very fast and large, relative to changes in other quantitatively major fatty acids observed in weanling rats; 2) the 18:2(n-6) level in neural cardiolipin stabilizes after 3 wk of feeding at a level dependent upon the amount of dietary EFA; and 3) at least one neural fatty acid, 18:2(n-6), is very sensitive to amounts of dietary EFA that are well above the animal's EFA requirement. PMID:1765818

  12. The physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre determine metabolic responses, short-chain Fatty Acid profiles and gut microbiota composition in rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Fåk, Frida; Jakobsdottir, Greta; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Matziouridou, Chrysoula; Nilsson, Ulf; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM)) and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high) resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities) and with high methoxylated (HM) pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites. PMID:25973610

  13. The Physico-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Determine Metabolic Responses, Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats Fed Low- and High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Matziouridou, Chrysoula; Nilsson, Ulf; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM)) and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high) resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities) and with high methoxylated (HM) pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites. PMID:25973610

  14. Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, A; Bardana, E J

    1991-05-01

    The effects of dietary manipulations on autoimmune disease are understood poorly. In this article, we detail our experience with a human subject who developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia while participating in a research study that required the ingestion of alfalfa seeds. Subsequent experimental studies in primates ingesting alfalfa sprout seeds and L-canavanine (a prominent amino acid constituent of alfalfa) is presented. The results of these studies indicate a potential toxic and immunoregulatory role of L-canavanine in the induction of a systemic lupus-like disease in primates. PMID:1862241

  15. Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Park, S J; Tamura, M; Ando, S

    1998-03-16

    The effect of 12 month feeding of 5% palm oil or sardine oil diet on the maze-learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in mice was studied. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured three times every 4 days. The time and number of mice fed on the sardine oil diet were less than those of animals fed on the palm oil diet in the first and second trials. The results of fatty acid composition analysis of brain stem phosphatidylethanolamine showed that the percentage of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, n-3; DHA) was higher, but the arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6; AA) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4, n-6; DTA) were lower in the sardine oil diet fed-mice than in the palm oil diet fed-animals. Moreover, the microviscosity of the synaptic plasma membrane in the sardine oil diet group was lower than that in the palm oil diet group. These results suggest that the adult mice fed on the sardine oil diet for a long period maintain higher levels of docosahe xaenoic acid in brain phospholipids, synaptic membrane fluidity and maze-learning ability than animals fed on the palm oil diet. PMID:9593318

  16. Dietary agents that target gastrointestinal and hepatic handling of bile acids and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H

    2008-04-01

    Several food components have been demonstrated to exhibit cholesterol-lowering properties by interfering with cholesterol absorption and bile-acid trafficking. Such components include stearic acid, plant sterols, soluble fiber, and soy protein. Among saturated fatty acids, stearic acid is unique in its ability to reduce circulatory low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. This action is accompanied by an observed suppression in cholesterol absorption, an effect seen repeatedly in animal and human studies. Proposed mechanisms include micellar exclusion of cholesterol by this high melting point fatty acid, as well as the ability of stearate to alter the biliary ratios of primary to secondary bile acids, leading to a reduction in hydrophobicity index and lower overall solubility of sterols in micelles. Another dietary ingredient that interferes with absorption of sterols is soy protein, in which studies in animals and humans have identified that compared to casein, consumption of soy protein reduces intestinal absorption of cholesterol while enhancing fecal cholesterol excretion. Considerable investigation using free amino acid mixtures mirroring the composition of soy versus animal proteins has determined that co-existing agents other than soy's amino acid pattern are likely responsible for the inhibitory action of soy protein on sterol uptake. Recently, it has been shown that hydrolysates of soy protein appear to be effective in reducing sterol absorption; these are now being targeted as the possible factor responsible for the overall effect of this dietary ingredient. Plant sterols appear to impact absorption of sterols through several mechanisms, including competition with cholesterol for incorporation into micelles, co-crystallization with cholesterol to form insoluble crystals, interaction with digestive enzymes, and inhibition of cholesterol transporter proteins. Clinical trials attest to plant sterols lowering cholesterol absorption by 20% to 40%, an extent

  17. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses.

    PubMed

    Brøkner, C; Austbø, D; Næsset, J A; Blache, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A H

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis for this study was that a higher dietary proportion of soluble fibre would result in stable and constant plasma metabolite and regulatory hormone concentrations. The study was a 4×4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre. The diet highest in soluble fibre (M) resulted in the highest plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the morning, which then remained stable and constant throughout the day. A strong interaction (P<0.01) between time and diet was measured for plasma urea, glucose, insulin and leptin. The greatest variations in plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were associated with the cereal grain diets (OB and BB). There were indications of a negative energy balance, which was reflected in a significantly higher plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration and a numerically higher non-esterified fatty acid concentration. In conclusion, this study found that inclusion of soluble fibre resulted in increased total caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations. This consequently resulted in stable and constant plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Diets with a high content of soluble fibre provided enough energy for horses at medium work level. PMID:26755337

  18. Untangling the complex relationship between dietary acid load and glucocorticoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I David

    2016-08-01

    The kidney's maintenance of the metabolic component of acid-base homeostasis is critical for normal health. The study by Esche and colleagues in this issue of Kidney International shows that normal children with higher levels of renal net acid excretion and of dietary acid loads have stimulation of glucocorticoid hormone metabolism. Thus, normal variations in dietary acid intake and renal net acid excretion have important biological correlates. PMID:27418088

  19. Site-specific regulation of adult neurogenesis by dietary fatty acid content, vitamin E and flight exercise in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Zachary J; Bauchinger, Ulf; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Pierce, Barbara; McWilliams, Scott R; Sherry, David F; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is known to have a strong effect on neuroproliferation in mammals ranging from rodents to humans. Recent studies have also shown that fatty acids and other dietary supplements can cause an upregulation of neurogenesis. It is not known, however, how exercise and diet interact in their effects on adult neurogenesis. We examined neuronal recruitment in multiple telencephalic sites in adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to a factorial combination of flight exercise, dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. Experimental birds were flown in a wind tunnel following a training regime that mimicked the bird's natural flight behaviour. In addition to flight exercise, we manipulated the composition of dietary fatty acids and the level of enrichment with vitamin E, an antioxidant reported to enhance neuronal recruitment. We found that all three factors - flight exercise, fatty acid composition and vitamin E enrichment - regulate neuronal recruitment in a site-specific manner. We also found a robust interaction between flight training and vitamin E enrichment at multiple sites of neuronal recruitment. Specifically, flight training was found to enhance neuronal recruitment across the telencephalon, but only in birds fed a diet with a low level of vitamin E. Conversely, dietary enrichment with vitamin E upregulated neuronal recruitment, but only in birds not flown in the wind tunnel. These findings indicate conserved modulation of adult neurogenesis by exercise and diet across vertebrate taxa and indicate possible therapeutic interventions in disorders characterized by reduced adult neurogenesis. PMID:24372878

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  1. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  2. Fatty acid analysis of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and pygeum (Prunus africanum) in dietary supplements by mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw palmetto and pygeum are natural products commonly used in dietary supplements for the treatment of enlarged prostate glands. These plant materials are rich in fatty acids, and the fatty acid compositions of both plants are similar. The goal of this study was to develop a gas chromatography-mass ...

  3. Common Indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to dietary value.

    PubMed

    Uma Pradeep, K; Geervani, P; Eggum, B O

    1993-09-01

    Nutrient composition of eight commonly consumed spices of South India was analysed. Spices analysed were red chillies (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum), cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), asafoetida (Ferula foetida), dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ajowan (Carum copticum). The nutrients analysed were proximate principles, minerals, starch, sugars, dietary fibre components, tannins, phytic acid, enzyme inhibitors and amino acids. Dry ginger, ajowan and asafoetida had high calcium (1.0-1.5%) and iron (54-62 mg/100 g) levels. The tannin content of spices was also high (0.9-1.3% DM). Dietary fibre ranged from 14-53%. Spices had appreciable amounts of essential amino acids like lysine and threonine. A survey revealed the average per capita consumption of spices to be 9.54 g and at that level, the nutrient contribution from spices ranged from 1.2 to 7.9% of an average adult Indian male's requirement for different nutrients. PMID:8397396

  4. EFFECT OF DIETARY DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL AND FUSARIC ACID ON TURKEY POULT PERFORMANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of dietary diacetoxyscirpenol and fusaric acid were determined on day-old turkey poults by randomly placing poults in batteries and feeding them one of four dietary treatments: control (C); control plus 4ppm diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS); control plus 300ppm fusaric acid (FA); and control plus 4p...

  5. Dietary Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary trans double bond fatty acids have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are two main sources of dietary trans fatty acids: meat and dairy fats, and partially-hydrogenated oils. Due to a number of factors, including changes in federal labeling requirements fo...

  6. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied. PMID:16050130

  7. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  8. High Dietary Acid Load Predicts ESRD among Adults with CKD.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Crews, Deidra C; Wesson, Donald E; Tilea, Anca M; Saran, Rajiv; Ríos-Burrows, Nilka; Williams, Desmond E; Powe, Neil R

    2015-07-01

    Small clinical trials have shown that a reduction in dietary acid load (DAL) improves kidney injury and slows kidney function decline; however, the relationship between DAL and risk of ESRD in a population-based cohort with CKD remains unexamined. We examined the association between DAL, quantified by net acid excretion (NAEes), and progression to ESRD in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Among 1486 adults with CKD age≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, DAL was determined by 24-h dietary recall questionnaire. The development of ESRD was ascertained over a median 14.2 years of follow-up through linkage with the Medicare ESRD Registry. We used the Fine-Gray competing risks method to estimate the association of high, medium, and low DAL with ESRD after adjusting for demographics, nutritional factors, clinical factors, and kidney function/damage markers and accounting for intervening mortality events. In total, 311 (20.9%) participants developed ESRD. Higher levels of DAL were associated with increased risk of ESRD; relative hazards (95% confidence interval) were 3.04 (1.58 to 5.86) for the highest tertile and 1.81 (0.89 to 3.68) for the middle tertile compared with the lowest tertile in the fully adjusted model. The risk of ESRD associated with DAL tertiles increased as eGFR decreased (P trend=0.001). Among participants with albuminuria, high DAL was strongly associated with ESRD risk (P trend=0.03). In conclusion, high DAL in persons with CKD is independently associated with increased risk of ESRD in a nationally representative population. PMID:25677388

  9. Modulation of inflammation and immunity by dietary conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-08-15

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. This family of polyunsaturated fatty acids has drawn significant attention in the last three decades for its variety of biologically beneficial properties and health effects. CLA has been shown to exert various potent protective functions such as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiadipogenic, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties in animal models of disease. Therefore, CLA represents a nutritional avenue to prevent lifestyle diseases or metabolic syndrome. Initially, the overall effects of CLA were thought to be the result of interactions between its two major isomers: cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12. However, later evidence suggests that such physiological effects of CLA might be different between the isomers: t-10, c-12-CLA is thought to be anticarcinogenic, antiobesity and antidiabetic, whereas c-9, t-11-CLA is mainly anti-inflammatory. Although preclinical data support a benefit of CLA supplementation, human clinical findings have yet to show definitive evidence of a positive effect. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the mechanisms of action and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary CLA supplementation and evaluate the potential uses of CLA in human health and disease. PMID:25987426

  10. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  11. Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess different dietary ratios of omega-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and infl...

  12. Dietary Casein and Soy Protein Isolate Modulate the Effects of Raffinose and Fructooligosaccharides on the Composition and Fermentation of Gut Microbiota in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gaowa; Ni, Kuikui; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Although diet has an important influence on the composition of gut microbiota, the impact of dietary protein sources has only been studied to a minor extent. In this study, we examined the influence of different dietary protein sources regarding the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on the composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota. Thirty female rats were fed casein and soy protein isolate with cellulose, raffinose (RAF), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Microbiota composition was examined by real-time qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dietary protein source affected cecum microbiota; acetic acid concentration and Lactobacillus spp. populations were greater with soy protein than with casein. Prebiotic oligosaccharides had distinctive effects on gut microbiota; RAF increased the acetic acid concentration and Bifidobacterium spp. populations, and FOS increased the butyric acid concentration regardless of the dietary protein. Likewise, Bifidobacterium sp., Collinsella sp., and Lactobacillus sp. were detected in microbiota of the rats fed RAF, and Bacteroides sp., Roseburia sp., and Blautia sp. were seen in microbiota of the rats fed FOS. Interactions between dietary proteins and prebiotic oligosaccharides were observed with Clostridium perfringens group populations and cecum IgA concentration. RAF and FOS decreased C. perfringens group populations in casein-fed rats, and the combination of soy protein and RAF substantially increased cecum IgA concentration. These results indicate that dietary proteins can differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, depending on the type of carbohydrate polymers involved. PMID:27434756

  13. Dietary protein and resistance training effects on muscle and body composition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Leidy, Heather J

    2007-12-01

    The regular performance of resistance exercises and the habitual ingestion of adequate amounts of dietary protein from high-quality sources are two important ways for older persons to slow the progression of and treat sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Resistance training can help older people gain muscle strength, hypertrophy muscle, and increase whole body fat-free mass. It can also help frail elderly people improve balance and physical functioning capabilities. Inadequate protein intake will cause adverse metabolic and physiological accommodation responses that include the loss of fat-free mass and muscle strength and size. Findings from controlled feeding studies show that older persons retain the capacity to metabolically adjust to lower protein intakes by increasing the efficiency of nitrogen retention and amino acid utilization. However, they also suggest that the recommended dietary allowance of 0.8 g protein x kg(-1) x d(-1) might not be sufficient to prevent subtle accommodations and blunt desired changes in body composition and muscle size with resistance training. Most of the limited research suggests that resistance training-induced improvements in body composition, muscle strength and size, and physical functioning are not enhanced when older people who habitually consume adequate protein (modestly above the RDA) increase their protein intake by either increasing the ingestion of higher-protein foods or consuming protein-enriched nutritional supplements. PMID:18187436

  14. Dietary-fat-induced taurocholic acid promotes pathobiont expansion and colitis in Il10-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Musch, Mark W; Leone, Vanessa; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Jabri, Bana; Chang, Eugene B

    2012-07-01

    The composite human microbiome of Western populations has probably changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes the expansion of a low-abundance, sulphite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia. This was associated with a pro-inflammatory T helper type 1 (T(H)1) immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible Il10(−/−), but not wild-type mice. These effects are mediated by milk-derived-fat-promoted taurine conjugation of hepatic bile acids, which increases the availability of organic sulphur used by sulphite-reducing microorganisms like B. wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with taurocholic acid, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B. wadsworthia and development of colitis were observed in Il10(−/−) mice. Together these data show that dietary fats, by promoting changes in host bile acid composition, can markedly alter conditions for gut microbial assemblage, resulting in dysbiosis that can perturb immune homeostasis. The data provide a plausible mechanistic basis by which Western-type diets high in certain saturated fats might increase the prevalence of complex immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:22722865

  15. A comparative study of the metabolic response in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia to changes in dietary macronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W; Panserat, Stéphane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Geurden, Inge

    2013-03-14

    Metabolic mechanisms underlying the divergent response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to changes in dietary macronutrient composition were assessed. Fish were fed one of four isoenergetic diets having a digestible protein-to-digestible energy (DP:DE) ratio above or below the optimal DP:DE ratio for both species. At each DP:DE ratio, fat was substituted by an isoenergetic amount of digestible starch as the non-protein energy source (NPE). Dietary DP:DE ratio did not affect growth and only slightly lowered protein gains in tilapia. In rainbow trout fed diets with low DP:DE ratios, particularly with starch as the major NPE source, growth and protein utilisation were highly reduced, underlining the importance of NPE source in this species. We also observed species-specific responses of enzymes involved in amino acid catabolism, lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis to dietary factors. Amino acid transdeamination enzyme activities were reduced by a low dietary DP:DE ratio in both species and in tilapia also by the substitution of fat by starch as the NPE source. Such decreased amino acid catabolism at high starch intakes, however, did not lead to improved protein retention. Our data further suggest that a combination of increased lipogenic and decreased gluconeogenic enzyme activities accounts for the better use of carbohydrates and to the improved glycaemia control in tilapia compared with rainbow tront fed starch-enriched diets with low DP:DE ratio. PMID:23168215

  16. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  17. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Zimmer, J Paul; Butt, C M; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; and (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA contents compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early postnatal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of protein, on the performance of sows during first and subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 ± 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 ± 0.2 ...

  19. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; McLeod, Catherine; Chan, Lily; Miller, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA) to meet various national recommendations. Objective To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24) with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26) to: (1) determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women)], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT), 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF) recommendation and (2) determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat) or higher fat (n=3, ≥10% total fat) seafood. Design Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood. PMID:24179469

  20. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone. PMID:24151228

  1. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  2. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  3. Dietary linoleic acid-induced alterations in pro- and anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Amit; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Yang, Jun; Blanchard, Helene; Zamora, Daisy; Loewke, James D; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Hammock, Bruce D; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic idiopathic pain syndromes are major causes of personal suffering, disability, and societal expense. Dietary n-6 linoleic acid has increased markedly in modern industrialized populations over the past century. These high amounts of linoleic acid could hypothetically predispose to physical pain by increasing the production of pro-nociceptive linoleic acid-derived lipid autacoids and by interfering with the production of anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids derived from n-3 fatty acids. Here, we used a rat model to determine the effect of increasing dietary linoleic acid as a controlled variable for 15 weeks on nociceptive lipid autacoids and their precursor n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in tissues associated with idiopathic pain syndromes. Results Increasing dietary linoleic acid markedly increased the abundance of linoleic acid and its pro-nociceptive derivatives and reduced the abundance of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and their anti-nociceptive monoepoxide derivatives. Diet-induced changes occurred in a tissue-specific manner, with marked alterations of nociceptive lipid autacoids in both peripheral and central tissues, and the most pronounced changes in their fatty acid precursors in peripheral tissues. Conclusions The present findings provide biochemical support for the hypothesis that the high linoleic acid content of modern industrialized diets may create a biochemical susceptibility to develop chronic pain. Dietary linoleic acid lowering should be further investigated as part of an integrative strategy for the prevention and management of idiopathic pain syndromes. PMID:27030719

  4. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  5. Reduction of Dietary Acid Load as a Potential Countermeasure for Bone Loss Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Watts, S. M.; Sams, C. F.; Whitson, P. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    In several studies we tested the concepts that diet can alter acid-base balance and that reducing the dietary acid load has a positive effect on maintenance of bone. In study 1, (n = 11, 60-90 d bed rest), the renal acid load of the diet was estimated from its chemical composition, and was positively correlated with urinary markers of bone resorption (P less than 0.05); that is, the greater the acid load, the greater the excretion of bone resorption markers. In study 2, in males (n = 8, 30 d bed rest), an estimate of the ratio of nonvolatile acid precursors to base precursors in the diet was positively correlated (P less than 0.05) with markers of bone resorption. In study 3, for 28 d subjects received either a placebo (n = 6) or an essential amino acid supplement (n = 7) that included methionine, a known acid precursor. During bed rest (28 d), urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels in the supplemented group but not the control group (P less than 0.05), and in the supplemented group, urinary pH decreased (P less than 0.05). In study 4, less bone resorption occurred in space crew members who received potassium citrate (n = 6) during spaceflight of 4-6 months than in crew members who received placebo or were not in the study (n = 8) (P less than 0.05). Reducing acid load has the potential to mitigate increased bone resorption during spaceflight, and may serve as a bone loss countermeasure.

  6. Dietary resistant dextrins positively modulate fecal and cecal microbiota composition in young rats.

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Barczyńska, Renata; Kapuśniak, Janusz; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of dietary resistant dextrins, as potential prebiotics, on the intestinal microflora of young rats. Enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and tartaric (40% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 2 h (CA-dextrin). The experiment was performed on 24 Wistar male rats at 3-wk of age, divided by analogues in three experimental groups (control, starch and dextrin). Analyses determined the overall bacterial counts and the counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides and Clostridium strains within the feces and cecal contents of rats using fluorescence in situ hybridization method. CA-dextrin had no effect on primary growth indicators (body weight, body weight gain, dietary consumption) or the mass of the small intestine and the cecum, but dextrins caused a reduction in pH and the concentration of ammonia within the cecal contents. That supplementation of diet with resistant dextrins had a positive effect on composition of intestinal microflora in rats. It increased the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains both in the feces and in the cecum. Moreover, it reduced the counts of Clostridium and Bacteroides strains. These results may suggest that resistant dextrins exerted a prebiotic-like effect in the large intestine. PMID:26610307

  7. Dietary Fatty Acid Metabolism is Affected More by Lipid Level than Source in Senegalese Sole Juveniles: Interactions for Optimal Dietary Formulation.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Estévez, Alicia; Bellot, Olga; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gisbert, Enric; Morais, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of dietary lipid level and source on lipid absorption and metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Juvenile fish were fed 4 experimental diets containing either 100 % fish oil (FO) or 25 % FO and 75 % vegetable oil (VO; rapeseed, linseed and soybean oils) at two lipid levels (~8 or ~18 %). Effects were assessed on fish performance, body proximate composition and lipid accumulation, activity of hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymes and, finally, on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine, and to intestinal absorption, both pre- and postprandially. Increased dietary lipid level had no major effects on growth and feeding performance (FCR), although fish fed FO had marginally better growth. Nevertheless, diets induced significant changes in lipid accumulation and metabolism. Hepatic lipid deposits were higher in fish fed VO, associated to increased hepatic ATP citrate lyase activity and up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) mRNA levels post-prandially. However, lipid level had a larger effect on gene expression of metabolic (lipogenesis and β-oxidation) genes than lipid source, mostly at fasting. High dietary lipid level down-regulated fatty acid synthase expression in liver and intestine, and increased cpt1 mRNA in liver. Large lipid accumulations were observed in the enterocytes of fish fed high lipid diets. This was possibly a result of a poor capacity to adapt to high dietary lipid level, as most genes involved in intestinal absorption were not regulated in response to the diet. PMID:26563870

  8. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  9. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations.

  10. Dietary Stearic Acid Leads to a Reduction of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Gene P.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  11. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Che; Zhao, Xiangmin; Siegal, Gene P; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  12. Different Oilseed Supplements Alter Fatty Acid Composition of Different Adipose Tissues of Adult Ewes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lamb and mutton are important dietary components in human diets in northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor and flavor and nutritional value of fat for human consumption. Twenty-f...

  13. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  14. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of peroxisomal ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sabrina; Skrzypski, Jérémy; Courvoisier, Anne; Gondcaille, Catherine; Bonnetain, Franck; André, Agnès; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Bellenger, Sandrine; Bellenger, Jérôme; Narce, Michel; Savary, Stéphane

    2008-10-01

    Peroxisomal ABC transporters encoded by the ABCD genes are thought to participate in the import of specific fatty acids in the peroxisomal matrix. ABCD1 deficiency is associated with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most frequent peroxisomal disorder which is characterized by the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). ABCD2 (the closest homolog of ABCD1) and ABCD3 have been shown to have partial functional redundancy with ABCD1; only when overexpressed, they can compensate for VLCFA accumulation. Other lipids, for instance polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), should be possible candidate substrates for the ABCD2 and ABCD3 gene products, ALDRP and PMP70 respectively. Moreover, PUFA, which are known regulators of gene expression, could therefore represent potent inducers of the ABCD genes. To test this hypothesis, littermates of n-3-deficient rats were subjected to an n-3-deficient diet or equilibrated diets containing ALA (alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3) as unique source of n-3 fatty acids or ALA plus DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) at two different doses. We analyzed the expression of peroxisomal ABC transporters and of the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase gene 1 (Acox1) in adrenals, brain and liver. Whatever the diet, we did not observe any difference in gene expression in adrenals and brain. However, the hepatic expression level of Abcd2 and Abcd3 genes was found to be significantly higher in the n-3-deficient rats than in the rats fed the ALA diet or the DHA supplemented diets. This was accompanied by important changes in hepatic fatty acid composition. In summary, the hepatic expression of Abcd2 and Abcd3 but not of Abcd1 and Abcd4 appears to be highly sensitive towards dietary PUFA. This difference could be linked to the substrate specificity of the peroxisomal ABC transporters and a specific involvement of Abcd2 and Abcd3 in PUFA metabolism. PMID:18585430

  15. Induction of renal cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity by dietary gamma-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhigang; Ng, Valerie Y; Su, Ping; Engler, Marguerite M; Engler, Mary B; Huang, Yong; Lin, Emil; Kroetz, Deanna L

    2006-05-01

    Dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in borage oil (BOR), lowers systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). GLA is converted into arachidonic acid (AA) by elongation and desaturation steps. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) are cytochrome P450 (P450)-derived AA eicosanoids with important roles in regulating blood pressure. This study tested the hypothesis that the blood pressure-lowering effect of a GLA-enriched diet involves alteration of P450-catalyzed AA metabolism. Microsomes and RNA were isolated from the renal cortex of male SHRs fed a basal fat-free diet for 5 weeks to which 11% by weight of sesame oil (SES) or BOR was added. There was a 2.6- to 3.5-fold increase in P450 epoxygenase activity in renal microsomes isolated from the BOR-fed SHRs compared with the SES-fed rats. Epoxygenase activity accounted for 58% of the total AA metabolism in the BOR-treated kidney microsomes compared with 33% in the SES-treated rats. More importantly, renal 14,15- and 8,9-EET levels increased 1.6- to 2.5-fold after dietary BOR treatment. The increase in EET formation is consistent with increases in CYP2C23, CYP2C11, and CYP2J protein levels. There were no differences in the level of renal P450 epoxygenase mRNA between the SES- and BOR-treated rats. Enhanced synthesis of the vasodilatory EETs and decreased formation of the vasoconstrictive 20-HETE suggests that changes in P450-mediated AA metabolism may contribute, at least in part, to the blood pressure-lowering effect of a BOR-enriched diet. PMID:16421287

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  17. Effects of dietary composition of energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic...

  18. Differential effects of saturated versus unsaturated dietary fatty acids on weight gain and myocellular lipid profiles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, S; de Vogel-van den Bosch, J; de Wit, N; Schaart, G; van Beurden, D; Hesselink, M; van der Meer, R; Schrauwen, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In conditions of continuous high-fat (HF) intake, the degree of saturation of the fatty acids (FAs) in the diet might have a crucial role in the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. In particular, the FA composition of the diet might influence the storage form of lipids inside skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the FA composition of HF diets differentially affects weight gain and accumulation of myocellular triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Furthermore, we examined whether the FA composition of the diet was reflected in the composition of the myocellular lipid intermediates. Design: C57Bl6 mice were fed HF diets (45% energy) mainly containing palm oil (PO), cocoa butter (CB), olive oil (OO) or safflower oil (SO; n=6 per group) for 8 weeks. A low-fat diet (10% energy, PO) was used as control. Body weight was monitored weekly. At the end of the dietary intervention, myocellular TAG and DAG content and profiles were measured. Results: We here show that HF_CB prevented weight gain after 8 weeks of HF feeding. Furthermore, the HF diet rich in SO prevented the accumulation of both myocellular TAG and DAG. Interestingly, the FA composition of DAG and TAG in skeletal muscle was a reflection of the dietary FA composition. Conclusion: Already after a relatively short period, the dietary FA intake relates to the FA composition of the lipid metabolites in the muscle. A diet rich in polyunsaturated FAs seems to prevent myocellular lipid accumulation. PMID:23449423

  19. An essential role of Ffar2 (Gpr43) in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of healthy composition of gut microbiota and suppression of intestinal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprakasam, S; Gurav, A; Paschall, A V; Coe, G L; Chaudhary, K; Cai, Y; Kolhe, R; Martin, P; Browning, D; Huang, L; Shi, H; Sifuentes, H; Vijay-Kumar, M; Thompson, S A; Munn, D H; Mellor, A; McGaha, T L; Shiao, P; Cutler, C W; Liu, K; Ganapathy, V; Li, H; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    Composition of the gut microbiota has profound effects on intestinal carcinogenesis. Diet and host genetics play critical roles in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Whether diet and host genes interact with each other to bring specific changes in gut microbiota that affect intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Ability of dietary fibre to specifically increase beneficial gut microbiota at the expense of pathogenic bacteria in vivo via unknown mechanism is an important process that suppresses intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2 or GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), metabolites of dietary fibre fermentation by gut microbiota. Here, we show FFAR2 is down modulated in human colon cancers than matched adjacent healthy tissue. Consistent with this, Ffar2−/− mice are hypersusceptible to development of intestinal carcinogenesis. Dietary fibre suppressed colon carcinogenesis in an Ffar2-dependent manner. Ffar2 played an essential role in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of beneficial gut microbiota, Bifidobacterium species (spp) and suppression of Helicobacter hepaticus and Prevotellaceae. Moreover, numbers of Bifidobacterium is reduced, whereas those of Prevotellaceae are increased in human colon cancers than matched adjacent normal tissue. Administration of Bifidobacterium mitigated intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in Ffar2−/− mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that interplay between dietary fibre and Ffar2 play a key role in promoting healthy composition of gut microbiota that stimulates intestinal health. PMID:27348268

  20. An essential role of Ffar2 (Gpr43) in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of healthy composition of gut microbiota and suppression of intestinal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sivaprakasam, S; Gurav, A; Paschall, A V; Coe, G L; Chaudhary, K; Cai, Y; Kolhe, R; Martin, P; Browning, D; Huang, L; Shi, H; Sifuentes, H; Vijay-Kumar, M; Thompson, S A; Munn, D H; Mellor, A; McGaha, T L; Shiao, P; Cutler, C W; Liu, K; Ganapathy, V; Li, H; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    Composition of the gut microbiota has profound effects on intestinal carcinogenesis. Diet and host genetics play critical roles in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Whether diet and host genes interact with each other to bring specific changes in gut microbiota that affect intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Ability of dietary fibre to specifically increase beneficial gut microbiota at the expense of pathogenic bacteria in vivo via unknown mechanism is an important process that suppresses intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2 or GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), metabolites of dietary fibre fermentation by gut microbiota. Here, we show FFAR2 is down modulated in human colon cancers than matched adjacent healthy tissue. Consistent with this, Ffar2(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to development of intestinal carcinogenesis. Dietary fibre suppressed colon carcinogenesis in an Ffar2-dependent manner. Ffar2 played an essential role in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of beneficial gut microbiota, Bifidobacterium species (spp) and suppression of Helicobacter hepaticus and Prevotellaceae. Moreover, numbers of Bifidobacterium is reduced, whereas those of Prevotellaceae are increased in human colon cancers than matched adjacent normal tissue. Administration of Bifidobacterium mitigated intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in Ffar2(-/-) mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that interplay between dietary fibre and Ffar2 play a key role in promoting healthy composition of gut microbiota that stimulates intestinal health. PMID:27348268

  1. Postprandial dietary fatty acids exert divergent inflammatory responses in retinal-pigmented epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Moreda, Wenceslao; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-03-16

    Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) lead to a complex series of events that are potentially oxidative and inflammatory. The main goal of this study was to characterize the influence of postprandial TRLs with different fatty acid compositions (mainly SFAs, MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs) on oxidative and inflammatory markers in RPE cells, which play a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Compared to TRL-SFAs, TRL-MUFAs and TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs decreased the production of ROS and nitrite, and the gene expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFNγ and VEGF. For the first time we show that postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities able to induce RPE oxidative stress and inflammation in a fatty acid-dependent manner, TRL-SFAs ⋙ TRL-MUFAs = TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs. These exciting findings open new opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the principal dietary source of oleic acid to prevent the development and progression of AMD. PMID:26914244

  2. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  3. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations. PMID:24342605

  4. Dietary phenolic acids and ascorbic acid: Influence on acid-catalyzed nitrosative chemistry in the presence and absence of lipids.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; El Mesmari, Aziza; Preston, Tom; Crozier, Alan; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2010-03-15

    Acid-catalyzed nitrosation and production of potentially carcinogenic nitrosative species is focused at the gastroesophageal junction, where salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, encounters the gastric juice. Ascorbic acid provides protection by converting nitrosative species to nitric oxide (NO). However, NO may diffuse into adjacent lipid, where it reacts with O(2) to re-form nitrosative species and N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). In this way, ascorbic acid promotes acid nitrosation. Using a novel benchtop model representing the gastroesophageal junction, this study aimed to clarify the action of a range of water-soluble antioxidants on the nitrosative mechanisms in the presence or absence of lipids. Caffeic, ferulic, gallic, or chlorogenic and ascorbic acids were added individually to simulated gastric juice containing secondary amines, with or without lipid. NO and O(2) levels were monitored by electrochemical detection. NOC were measured in both aqueous and lipid phases by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the absence of lipids, all antioxidants tested inhibited nitrosation, ranging from 35.9 + or - 7.4% with gallic acid to 93 + or - 0.6% with ferulic acid. In the presence of lipids, the impact of each antioxidant on nitrosation was inversely correlated with the levels of NO they generated (R(2) = 0.95, p<0.01): gallic, chlorogenic, and ascorbic acid promoted nitrosation, whereas ferulic and caffeic acids markedly inhibited nitrosation. PMID:20026204

  5. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  6. Survey on the Quality of the Top-Selling European and American Botanical Dietary Supplements Containing Boswellic Acids.

    PubMed

    Meins, Jürgen; Artaria, Christian; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2016-04-01

    In consideration of the increasing popularity of frankincense and the widely published quality problems associated with botanical dietary supplements, a survey was conducted for the first time on the quality of frankincense containing botanical dietary supplements. Six US products representing 78 % of the units sold and 70 % of the market value, and 11 European products representing 30 % of the units sold and 40 % of the market value were tested for their boswellic acid composition profile, label compliance, and claimed health benefits. Special focus was also set on the statements made with regard to the frankincense applied.Only five products out of seventeen disclosed all relevant information for the Boswellia extract, mentioning the species, the part of plant used, and the boswellic acid content. Whereas all products but one claimed to use Boswellia serrata, three products did not mention the resin as the part applied and 10 products did not declare the boswellic acid content. Apart from the different boswellic acid composition determined with a sensitive LC/MS method, 41 % of the products did not comply with the label declaration. Hence, one product from Italy did not contain any of the six characteristic boswellic acids (KBA, AKBA, αBA, βBA, AαBA, AβBA) at all and another US product contained only traces, suggesting the absence of frankincense or the use of Boswellia frereana instead of B. serrata. In another product, the ratios of the individual boswellic acids were different from B. serrata gum resin, indicating the use of another species such as Boswellia sacra or Boswellia carterii. Furthermore, two products revealed different boswellic acid contents from those declared on the label. Further, two products did not declare the use of manipulated Boswellia gum resin extract being enriched in acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid content reaching up to 66 %. In addition, consumers could be misled by outdated literature or references to in vitro studies

  7. Chemical composition of acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Jacob, D.J.; Flagan, R.C.; Morgan, J.J.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1982-11-12

    Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation and evaporation of water vapor on preexisting aerosol and the scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid.

  8. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ∼60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 μmol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 μmol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227

  9. Dietary oleic acid increases M2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding in...

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): the importance of dietary supply and physiological response during the entire growth period.

    PubMed

    Murray, David S; Hager, Hannes; Tocher, Douglas R; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this 14-month feeding study was to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on tissue fatty acid composition, DHA retention, and DHA content per biomass accrual in muscle tissues of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). A control feed, formulated with a relatively high DHA inclusion level (F1), was compared with feeds containing gradually reduced amounts of DHA (Feeds F2, F3, and F4). Arctic charr were randomly distributed among 12 tanks and fed one of the feeds in triplicate. The DHA content within muscle tissues of fish fed diets F1 and F2 was generally higher compared to fish fed diets F3 and F4. However, there was an interaction between dietary DHA treatment and season, which resulted in fish muscle tissues having similar DHA contents irrespective of dietary supply during specific sampling periods. Although diets F3 and F4 contained ~4-fold less DHA compared to diets F1 and F2, the retention of DHA in dorsal and ventral muscle tissue was up to 5-fold higher relative to the diet content in fish fed diets F3 and F4. However, the difference among treatments was dependent on the month sampled. In addition, younger fish retained DHA more efficiently compared to older fish. DHA (μg DHA/g/day) accrual in muscle tissue was independent of somatic growth, and there was no difference among treatments. The results suggested that dietary DHA may be essential throughout the life cycle of Arctic charr and that the DHA content of muscle tissues was influenced by diet and metabolic/physiological factors, such as specific DHA retention during the entire growth cycle . Finally, this long-term feeding study in Arctic charr indicated a non-linear function in DHA retention in dorsal and ventral muscle tissues throughout the life cycle, which varied in its relationship to dietary DHA. PMID:25461677

  11. Effect of dietary physically effective fiber on ruminal fermentation and the fatty acid profile of milk in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Li, Zongjun; Li, Shengxiang; Ferguson, James D; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize the relationship among rumen fermentation variables, milk fatty acid profile, and dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content in a study that controlled for the potential confounding effects of dissimilar dry matter intake among treatments. Ten multiparous Xinong Saanen dairy goats were divided into 2 groups with 2 ruminally cannulated goats per group. Goats in each group were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments (high and low peNDF) according to a 2×2 crossover design with 2 periods. The peNDF content of alfalfa hay (proportion of neutral detergent fiber retained on an 8.0-mm screen) was 42.1% for the high-peNDF and 14.5% for the low-peNDF group. To ensure similar dry matter intake, each morning the amount of alfalfa hay consumed on the prior day by the high-peNDF group was determined (amount offered minus morning refusals), and this was the amount of hay offered to the low-peNDF group that day. Each adaptation period consisted of 21d, followed by a 9-d sampling period. Dry matter intake and milk production and composition were similar between treatments. Milk energy efficiency increased with low dietary peNDF. Duration of pH below 5.60 was longer for goats fed the low-peNDF ration compared with the high-peNDF ration (4.08 vs. 0.41h/d); however, mean rumen pH (6.05 vs. 6.13) was not different between treatments. Reducing dietary peNDF increased rumen total volatile fatty acids (114.6 vs. 95.1mM) and decreased chewing time (404 vs. 673min/d), but did not affect the ratios of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens increased with reduced dietary peNDF, but Ruminococcus albus proportions were not influenced by treatment. Reducing dietary peNDF decreased the proportion of iso C14:0, iso C15:0, and trans-11 C18:1 in milk fat, whereas the iso C17:0 and trans-10 C18:1 increased. This study demonstrated that low

  12. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA. PMID:25772907

  13. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  14. Novel vinegar-derived product enriched with dietary fiber: effect on polyphenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Dodero, M Carmen; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber derived from citrus fruits was added to vinegar. Different sources and quantities of fiber and storage conditions have been scrutinized. Formulated vinegars were evaluated on the basis of their phenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The addition of citrus fiber enhanced the phenolic and volatile profile of the resulted vinegars. Whereas lemon fiber contributed mostly to the enrichment of the polyphenolic composition, orange fiber was that which increased in a higher way the volatile composition of the vinegars. Moreover, the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and the majority of volatile compounds decreased as the dose of fiber increased. Furthermore, the judges preferred fiber-enriched vinegars, but in different quantities depending of the fiber source. This preference was mainly based on citric attribute, contributing several terpenes and ketones derived from them. The addition of citrus fiber to vinegar did not result in a marked storage-dependence. PMID:26604338

  15. Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Vessby, Bengt; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt; Tengblad, Siv; Berglund, Lars

    2013-09-14

    Δ9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. Δ6-Desaturase (D6D) and Δ5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids. PMID:23414551

  16. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement-composition databases.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies. PMID:27534627

  17. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  18. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  19. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT–PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism. PMID:26310458

  20. Dietary composition and its associations with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mélanie; Benedetti, Andrea; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the associations between macronutrient intake and insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion (ISct), taking into consideration moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fitness and sedentary behaviour. Caucasian youth (n 630) aged 8-10 years at recruitment, with at least one obese biological parent, were studied (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort). IS was measured using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and Matsuda IS index. ISct was measured using HOMA2%-β, the ratio of the AUC of insulin:glucose over the first 30 min (AUC I/G(t= 30 min)) of the oral glucose tolerance test and AUC I/G(t= 120 min) over 2 h. Fitness was measured using VO₂(peak), percentage of fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7 d MVPA using accelerometry; screen time (ST) by average daily hours of self-reported television, video game or computer use. Dietary composition was measured using three non-consecutive dietary recalls. Non-parametric smoothing splines were used to model non-linear associations; all models were adjusted for age, sex, season, pubertal stage, MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. The percentage of total daily energy from dietary protein, fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate and the consumption of dietary vitamin D, sugar-sweetened beverages, fibre and portions of fruits and vegetables were taken into consideration. No dietary component was associated with any measure of IS after adjusting for MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. For every 1% increase in daily protein intake (%), AUC I/G(t= 30 min) decreased by 1·1% (P= 0·033). Otherwise, dietary composition was not associated with ISct. While long-term excess of energy intake has been shown to lead to overweight and obesity, dietary macronutrient composition is not independently correlated with IS or ISct in youth. PMID:24047611

  1. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber. PMID:24938316

  2. Dietary α-linolenic acid diminishes experimental atherogenesis and restricts T cell-driven inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Winnik, Stephan; Lohmann, Christine; Richter, Eva K.; Schäfer, Nicola; Song, Wen-Liang; Leiber, Florian; Mocharla, Pavani; Hofmann, Janin; Klingenberg, Roland; Borén, Jan; Becher, Burkhard; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Matter, Christian M.; Beer, Jürg H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between plant-derived dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) and cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the mechanism of this protection. We assessed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of dietary ALA (flaxseed) on atherosclerosis in a mouse model. Methods and results Eight-week-old male apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice were fed a 0.21 % (w/w) cholesterol diet for 16 weeks containing either a high ALA [7.3 % (w/w); n = 10] or low ALA content [0.03 % (w/w); n = 10]. Bioavailability, chain elongation, and fatty acid metabolism were measured by gas chromatography of tissue lysates and urine. Plaques were assessed using immunohistochemistry. T cell proliferation was investigated in primary murine CD3-positive lymphocytes. T cell differentiation and activation was assessed by expression analyses of interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) using quantitative PCR and ELISA. Dietary ALA increased aortic tissue levels of ALA as well as of the n−3 long chain fatty acids (LC n−3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The high ALA diet reduced plaque area by 50% and decreased plaque T cell content as well as expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and TNFα. Both dietary ALA and direct ALA exposure restricted T cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammatory activity. Dietary ALA shifted prostaglandin and isoprostane formation towards 3-series compounds, potentially contributing to the atheroprotective effects of ALA. Conclusion Dietary ALA diminishes experimental atherogenesis and restricts T cell-driven inflammation, thus providing the proof-of-principle that plant-derived ALA may provide a valuable alternative to marine LC n−3 FA. PMID:21285075

  3. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    PubMed

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21554818

  4. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  5. Dietary lipid quality and mitochondrial membrane composition in trout: responses of membrane enzymes and oxidative capacities.

    PubMed

    Martin, N; Bureau, D P; Marty, Y; Kraffe, E; Guderley, H

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether membrane fatty acid (FA) composition has a greater impact upon specific components of oxidative phosphorylation or on overall properties of muscle mitochondria, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed two diets differing only in FA composition. Diet 1 was enriched in 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 while Diet 2 was enriched in 22:6n-3. The FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids was strongly affected by diet. 22:6n-3 levels were twice as high (49%) in mitochondrial phospholipids of fish fed Diet 2 than in those fed Diet 1. 18:2n-6 content of the phospholipids also followed the diets, whereas 18:1n-9 changed little. All n-6 FA, most notably 22:5n-6, were significantly higher in fish fed Diet 1. Nonetheless, total saturated FA, total monounsaturated FA and total polyunsaturated FA in mitochondrial phospholipids varied little. Despite a marked impact of diet on specific FA levels in mitochondrial phospholipids, only non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates were higher in fish fed Diet 2. Phosphorylating rates (state 3), oxygen consumption due to flux through the electron transport chain complexes as well as the corresponding spectrophotometric activities did not differ with diet. Body mass affected state 4 rates and cytochrome c oxidase and F 0 F 1 ATPase activities while complex I showed a diet-specific effect of body mass. Only the minor FA that were affected by body mass were correlated with functional properties. The regulated incorporation of dietary FA into phospholipids seems to allow fish to maintain critical membrane functions even when the lipid quality of their diets varies considerably, as is likely in their natural environment. PMID:23052948

  6. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  7. Effects of Stage of Lactation and Dietary Forage Level on Body Composition of Alpine Dairy Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiparous Alpine does (42) were used to determine how stage of lactation and dietary forage level affect body composition. Initial measures were made with six does a few days after kidding (0 mo). Before parturition does were fed a 50% concentrate diet free-choice. Eighteen does were fed a 40% ...

  8. Effect of dietary macronutrient composition under moderate hypocaloric intake on maternal adaptation during lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No evidence-based recommendations exist concerning what dietary macronutrient composition optimizes weight loss during lactation while maintaining milk production. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: compared to a reduced-calorie, high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet, an isonitrogen...

  9. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS FOR DETERMINING INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN DIETARY COMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in dietary composite samples. In the present s...

  10. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation. PMID:27282869

  11. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols. PMID:23510166

  12. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate) and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate) each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p < 0.05). Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) levels were significantly higher in breast milk when women consumed the low fat diet. Increased dietary intake of stearic acid (C18:0) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) on the high fat diet significantly increased proportions of these fatty acids in breast milk (p < 0.05) in 4 days. Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk. PMID:20170476

  13. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  14. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis. PMID:26968402

  15. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  16. Enrichment of poultry products with omega3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation with the alga Nannochloropsis and mantur oil.

    PubMed

    Nitsan, Z; Mokady, S; Sukenik, A

    1999-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Nanno.), as a supplement to laying hens' diet, for the production of enriched eggs and meat with omega3 fatty acids (FA). Nanno. has a unique FA composition, namely, the occurrence of a high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega3) and the absence of other omega3 FA. The effect of supplementing diets with Nanno. on omega3 FA levels in eggs, plasma, liver, and thigh muscle was compared to that of mantur oil, high in alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3 omega3). Nanno. is rich also in carotenoids, which may be useful for egg yolk pigmentation. The observed effect of Nanno. supplementation on yolk pigmentation was dose responsive, in both the rate of coloration and the color intensity. Addition of enzyme preparations (glucanase plus cellulase or glucanase plus pectinase) slightly elevated the yolk color score. The most prominent changes in the level of omega3 FA in egg yolk were evident when the diets were supplemented with 1% Nanno. or mantur lipid extracts. Levels of dietary algal meal (0.1-1.0%) had low and inconsistent effects on the level of yolk omega3 FA. Algal EPA is not accumulated in the liver or in the egg yolk; it is apparently converted and deposited as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LNA from mantur oil was partially converted to DHA, and both DHA and LNA were deposited in egg yolks and livers. It is suggested that the absence of DHA and EPA from thigh muscle is due to the small amount of dietary omega3 FA used in this work, compared to other studies, and to the possibility that in laying hens the egg yolk has a priority on dietary FA over that of muscles. PMID:10606584

  17. Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kelly L; Ivester, Priscilla; Seeds, Michael; Case, L Douglas; Arm, Jonathan P; Chilton, Floyd H

    2009-06-01

    Over the past 100 years, changes in the food supply in Western nations have resulted in alterations in dietary fatty acid consumption, leading to a dramatic increase in the ratio of omega-6 (omega6) to omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in circulation and in tissues. Increased omega6/omega3 ratios are hypothesized to increase inflammatory mediator production, leading to higher incidence of inflammatory diseases, and may impact inflammatory gene expression. To determine the effect of reducing the omega6/omega3 ratio on expression of inflammatory pathway genes in mononuclear cells, healthy humans were placed on a controlled diet for 1 week, then given fish oil and borage oil for an additional 4 weeks. Serum and neutrophil fatty acid composition and ex vivo leukotriene B(4) production from stimulated neutrophils were measured at the start and end of the supplementation period and after a 2-week washout. RNA was isolated from mononuclear cells and expression of PI3K, Akt, NFkappaB, and inflammatory cytokines was measured by real-time PCR. A marked increase was seen in serum and neutrophil levels of long-chain omega3 PUFA concomitant with a reduction in the omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio (40%). The ex vivo capacity of stimulated neutrophils to produce leukotriene B(4) was decreased by 31%. Expression of PI3Kalpha and PI3Kgamma and the quantity of PI3Kalpha protein in mononuclear cells was reduced after supplementation, as was the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines. These data reveal that PUFA may exert their clinical effects via their capacity to regulate the expression of signal transduction genes and genes for proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:19359242

  18. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses by dietary palmitic acid and its metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Eri; Inoue, Asuka; Nagasawa, Risa; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishikawa, Izumi; Shikata, Shiori; Arita, Makoto; Aoki, Junken; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-08-15

    Enhancement of intestinal IgA responses is a primary strategy in the development of oral vaccine. Dietary fatty acids are known to regulate host immune responses. In this study, we show that dietary palmitic acid (PA) and its metabolites enhance intestinal IgA responses. Intestinal IgA production was increased in mice maintained on a PA-enriched diet. These mice also showed increased intestinal IgA responses against orally immunized Ag, without any effect on serum Ab responses. We found that PA directly stimulates plasma cells to produce Ab. In addition, mice receiving a PA-enriched diet had increased numbers of IgA-producing plasma cells in the large intestine; this effect was abolished when serine palmitoyltransferase was inhibited. These findings suggest that dietary PA regulates intestinal IgA responses and has the potential to be a diet-derived mucosal adjuvant. PMID:25031459

  19. Modulation of intestinal mucin composition and mucosal morphology by dietary phytogenic inclusion level in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tsirtsikos, P; Fegeros, K; Kominakis, A; Balaskas, C; Mountzouris, K C

    2012-07-01

    The effect of a dietary phytogenic feed additive (PFA) inclusion level in mucin monosaccharide composition, mucosal morphometry and mucus histochemistry along the broiler intestinal tract was studied. Cobb male broilers (n = 525) were allocated into five experimental treatments that, depending on the type of addition in the basal diet (BD), were labeled as follows: C (BD based on maize-soybean meal with no other additions), E1 (80 mg PFA/kg BD), E2 (125 mg PFA/kg BD), E3 (250 mg PFA/kg of BD) and A (2.5 mg avilamycin/kg BD). Samples from duodenum, ileum and cecum of 14- and 42-day-old broilers were collected and analyzed. In 14-day-old broilers, treatments E2 and E3 had higher (P < 0.01) duodenal mannose than treatments C, E1 and A. Ileal mannose was lower (P < 0.05) in treatment C compared with PFA treatments, and ileal galactose (Gal) was higher (P < 0.01) in treatments E2 and E3 compared with C and A. Polynomial contrast analysis with respect to PFA inclusion level showed that in 14-day-old broilers there was a linear increase (P = 0.001) in duodenal mannose and a quadratic effect (P = 0.038) in duodenal N-acetyl-galactosamine with increasing PFA level. Ileal Gal and mannose increased linearly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.012, respectively) with PFA inclusion level. There were no significant differences between treatments in mucin monosaccharide molar ratios of 42-day-old broilers. However, increasing PFA inclusion level resulted in a linear decrease of ileal fucose (P = 0.021) and cecal N-acetylgalactosamine (P = 0.036). Experimental treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) regarding duodenal villus height (Vh), crypt depth (Cd) and Vh/Cd ratio, irrespective of broiler age and the intestinal segment examined. However, increasing dietary PFA inclusion level showed a pattern of linear increase of duodenal Vh/Cd ratio in 14-day-old broilers and ileal Vh in 42-day-old broilers (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039, respectively). Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid-Schiff (pH 2.5) staining of

  20. Interactions between dietary n-3 fatty acids and genetic variants and risk of disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional genomics has undergone rapid development and the concept is now very popular with the general public. Therefore, there is increasing demand for knowledge on adapting dietary composition to the genome. Our aim has been to undertake a systematic review so as to find out the level of eviden...

  1. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  2. Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A; Michaelsen, K F; Slater, C; Tomé, D; Weisell, R

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge. PMID:24424080

  3. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period. PMID:27351068

  4. Effects of two different dietary sources of long chain omega-3, highly unsaturated fatty acids on incorporation into the plasma, red blood cell, and skeletal muscle in horses.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; Rexford, J K; Hansen, D K; Harris, M; Schauermann, N; Ross, T; Engle, T E; Allen, K G D; Mulligan, C M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different sources of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on plasma, red blood cell, and skeletal muscle fatty acid compositions in horses. Twenty-one mares were blocked by age, BW, and BCS and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 7 mares per treatment. Dietary treatments were: 1) control or no fatty acid supplement (CON), 2) 38 g of n-3 long chain, highly unsaturated fatty acid (LCHUFA) supplement/d provided by algae and fish oil (MARINE) containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and 3) 38 g of n-3 LCHUFA supplement/d provided by a flaxseed meal (FLAX) containing ALA. Each supplement was added to a basal diet consisting of hay and barley and was fed for 90 d. Blood samples and muscle middle gluteal biopsies were taken at d 0, 30, 60 and 90 of supplementation. Plasma, red blood cell and skeletal muscle fatty acid profiles were determined via gas chromatography. Plasma linoleic acid (LA) and ALA were at least 10 and 60% less (P < 0.01), respectively, in the MARINE compared with the FLAX and CON groups. Plasma EPA and DHA were only detected in the MARINE group, and EPA increased 40% (P < 0.001) from d 30 to 60, and DHA 19% (P < 0.01) from d 30 to 90. Red blood cell LA and ALA were not different among treatments. Red blood cell EPA and DHA were only detected in the MARINE group, where EPA increased 38% (P < 0.01) from d 30 to 60, and DHA increased 56% (P < 0.001) between d 30 and 90. Skeletal muscle LA was at least 17% less (P < 0.001) in the MARINE group compared with the other treatments. Skeletal muscle ALA was 15% less (P = 0.03) in the MARINE group compared with FLAX and CON groups. Skeletal muscle EPA was at least 25% greater (P < 0.001) in MARINE group compared with other treatments and increased (P < 0.001) by 71% from d 30 to 60. Skeletal muscle DHA was at least 57% greater (P < 0.001) in the MARINE

  5. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be

  6. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure. PMID:26957625

  7. Long chain fatty acids and dietary fats in fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Irene; Alvino, Gioia; Cardellicchio, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for a healthy diet. The different kinds consumed by the mother during gestation and lactation may influence pregnancy, fetal and also neonatal outcome. The amount of fatty acids transferred from mother to fetus depends not only on maternal metabolism but also on placental function, i.e. by the uptake, metabolism and then transfer of fatty acids to the fetus. The third trimester of gestation is characterized by an increase of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fetal circulation, in particular docosahexaenoic acid, especially to support brain growth and visual development. These mechanisms may be altered in pathological conditions, such as intrauterine growth restriction and diabetes, when maternal and fetal plasma levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo significant changes. The aim of this review is to describe the maternal and placental factors involved in determining fetal fatty acid availability and metabolism, focusing on the specific role of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and pathological pregnancies. PMID:19528253

  8. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  9. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total body potassium to total body water in patients with benign disease but not in those with cancer. Weight loss was probably due to inadequate food intake, the main defect being energy deficiency, since protein intake was usually well maintained. Supplementing with energy the voluntary ingested diet of patients with cancer would probably prevent weight loss in most cases. PMID:7427083

  10. Dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse tissue studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).

    PubMed

    Sjövall, Peter; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hanrieder, Jörg; Kuda, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Bryhn, Morten

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with considerable health benefits, including the prevention of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, incorporation of the main omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at the systemic level has been found to be more efficient when these fatty acids are supplied in the form of marine phospholipids compared to triglycerides. In this work, the uptake of omega-3 fatty acids and their incorporation in specific lipids were studied in adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues of mice given high-fat diets with or without omega-3 supplements in the form of phospholipids or triglycerides using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The results demonstrate significant uptake of EPA and DHA, and the incorporation of these fatty acids in specific lipid molecules, in all three tissue types in response to the dietary omega-3 supplements. Moreover, the results indicate reduced concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and depletion of lipids containing AA in tissue samples from mice given supplementary omega-3, as compared to the control mice. The effect on the lipid composition, in particular the DHA uptake and AA depletion, was found to be significantly stronger when the omega-3 supplement was supplied in the form of phospholipids, as compared to triglycerides. TOF-SIMS was found to be a useful technique for screening the lipid composition and simultaneously obtaining the spatial distributions of various lipid classes on tissue surfaces. PMID:25694146

  11. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  12. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed. PMID:26671648

  13. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and heme iron induce oxidative stress biomarkers and a cancer promoting environment in the colon of rats.

    PubMed

    Guéraud, Françoise; Taché, Sylviane; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Milkovic, Lidija; Borovic-Sunjic, Suzana; Zarkovic, Neven; Gaultier, Eric; Naud, Nathalie; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Pierre, Fabrice; Priymenko, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    The end products of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α), are widely used as systemic lipid oxidation/oxidative stress biomarkers. However, some of these compounds have also a dietary origin. Thus, replacing dietary saturated fat by PUFAs would improve health but could also increase the formation of such compounds, especially in the case of a pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalanced diet. Hence, the possible impact of dietary fatty acids and pro-oxidant compounds was studied in rats given diets allowing comparison of the effects of heme iron vs. ferric citrate and of ω-6- vs. ω-3-rich oil on the level of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress biomarkers. Rats given a heme iron-rich diet without PUFA were used as controls. The results obtained have shown that MDA and the major urinary metabolite of HNE (the mercapturic acid of dihydroxynonane, DHN-MA) were highly dependent on the dietary factors tested, while 8-iso-PGF2α was modestly but significantly affected. Intestinal inflammation and tissue fatty acid composition were checked in parallel and could only explain the differences we observed to a limited extent. Thus, the differences in biomarkers were attributed to the formation of lipid oxidation compounds in food or during digestion, their intestinal absorption, and their excretion into urine. Moreover, fecal extracts from the rats fed the heme iron or fish oil diets were highly toxic for immortalized mouse colon cells. Such toxicity can eventually lead to promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis, supporting the epidemiological findings between red meat intake and colorectal cancer risk. Therefore, the analysis of these biomarkers of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress in urine should be used with caution when dietary factors are not well controlled, while control of their possible dietary intake is needed also because of their pro-inflammatory, toxic, and even

  14. Effect of Dietary n − 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-Mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n − 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n − 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n − 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0) and at adulthood (day 90). Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n − 3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation. PMID:24987679

  15. The effect of dietary fatty acids on the cuticular hydrocarbon phenotype of an herbivorous insect and consequences for mate recognition.

    PubMed

    Otte, Tobias; Hilker, Monika; Geiselhardt, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile of the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae is known to mediate mate recognition and is dependent on food plant species; beetles previously were shown to prefer mates that fed on the same plant species and which have a similar CHC pattern. In order to elucidate whether the pattern of ingested fatty acids affects the CHC pattern of P. cochleariae adults, we fed beetles: (a) with two different host plant species differing in fatty acid profile; and (b) artificial diets differing mainly in their composition of mono-, di-, and triunsaturated fatty acids. Analyses of the beetles' CHCs revealed that ingestion of different fatty acid blends results in quantitative effects on the beetle's straight-chain and methyl-branched CHCs. Interestingly, CHC patterns of males and females were affected differently by ingestion of fatty acids. In contrast to the effect on mating caused by feeding on different host plant species, beetles that were fed with different artificial diets, leading to different beetle CHC profiles, did not exhibit mating preference. We suggest that the occurrence of CHC-dependent assortative mating in P. cochleariae does not depend on the dietary fatty acids offered to the beetles in this study, but on other food constituents that affect CHC biosynthesis. PMID:25516227

  16. Neurorestorative targets of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Johnny D; De Leon, Marino

    2014-08-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-O3PUFAs) exhibit therapeutic potential for the treatment and prevention of the neurological deficits associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the mechanisms implicated in these protective responses remain unclear. The objective of the present functional metabolomics study was to identify and define the dominant metabolic pathways targeted by dietary LC-O3PUFAs. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed rodent purified chows containing menhaden fish oil-derived LC-O3PUFAs for 8 weeks before being subjected to sham or spinal cord contusion surgeries. We show, through untargeted metabolomics, that dietary LC-O3PUFAs regulate important biochemical signatures associated with amino acid metabolism and free radical scavenging in both the injured and sham-operated spinal cord. Of particular significance, the spinal cord metabolome of animals fed with LC-O3PUFAs exhibited reduced glucose levels (-48 %) and polar uncharged/hydrophobic amino acids (less than -20 %) while showing significant increases in the levels of antioxidant/anti-inflammatory amino acids and peptides metabolites, including β-alanine (+24 %), carnosine (+33 %), homocarnosine (+27 %), kynurenine (+88 %), when compared to animals receiving control diets (p < 0.05). Further, we found that dietary LC-O3PUFAs impacted the levels of neurotransmitters and the mitochondrial metabolism, as evidenced by significant increases in the levels of N-acetylglutamate (+43 %) and acetyl CoA levels (+27 %), respectively. Interestingly, this dietary intervention resulted in a global correction of the pro-oxidant metabolic profile that characterized the SCI-mediated sensorimotor dysfunction. In summary, the significant benefits of metabolic homeostasis and increased antioxidant defenses unlock important neurorestorative pathways of dietary LC-O3PUFAs against SCI. PMID:24740740

  17. Neurorestorative targets of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in neurological injury

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Johnny D.; De Leon, Marino

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-O3PUFAs) exhibit therapeutic potential for the treatment and prevention of the neurological deficits associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the mechanisms implicated in these protective responses remain unclear. The objective of the present functional metabolomics study was to identify and define the dominant metabolic pathways targeted by dietary LC-O3PUFAs. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed rodent purified chows containing menhaden fish oil-derived LC-O3PUFAs for 8 weeks before being subjected to sham or spinal cord contusion surgeries. We show, through untargeted metabolomics, that dietary LC-O3PUFAs regulate important biochemical signatures associated with amino acid metabolism and free radical scavenging in both the injured and sham-operated spinal cord. Of particular significance, the spinal cord metabolome of animals fed with LC-O3PUFAs exhibited reduced glucose levels (−48%) and polar uncharged/hydrophobic amino acids (<−20%) while showing significant increases in the levels of antioxidant/anti-inflammatory amino acids and peptides metabolites, including β-alanine (+24%), carnosine (+33%), homocarnosine (+27%), kynurenine (+88%), when compared to animals receiving control diets (p < 0.05). Further, we found that dietary LC-O3PUFAs impacted the levels of neurotransmitters and the mitochondrial metabolism, as evidenced by significant increases in the levels of N-acetylglutamate (+43%) and acetyl-CoA levels (+27%), respectively. Interestingly, this dietary intervention resulted in a global correction of the pro-oxidant metabolic profile that characterized the SCI-mediated sensorimotor dysfunction. In summary, the significant benefits of metabolic homeostasis and increased antioxidant defenses unlock important neurorestorative pathways of dietary LC-O3PUFAs against SCI. PMID:24740740

  18. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  19. Biochemical and physiological bases for utilization of dietary amino acids by young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amounts of all "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" (NEAA) to support maximum production performance. Therefore, over the past 50 years, much emphasis has been placed on dietary requirements of nutritionally essential amino acids as building blocks for tissue proteins. However, a large body of literature shows that NEAA, particularly glutamine, glutamate, arginine and proline regulate physiological functions via cell signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NEAA-derived gaseous molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide). Available evidence shows that under current feeding programs, only 70% and 55% of dietary amino acids are deposited as tissue proteins in 14-day-old sow-reared piglets and in 30-day-old pigs weaned at 21 days of age, respectively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the roles and dietary requirements of NEAA in swine nutrition. This review highlights the basic biochemistry and physiology of absorption and utilization of amino acids in young pigs to enhance the efficacy of utilization of dietary protein and to minimize excretion of nitrogenous wastes from the body. PMID:23445937

  20. Effects of Dietary Linseed Oil and Propionate Precursors on Ruminal Microbial Community, Composition, and Diversity in Yanbian Yellow Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong S.; Choi, Seong H.; Smith, Stephen B.; Yan, Chang G.

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a complex system where rumen fermentation processes involve interactions among microorganisms. There are important relationships between diet and the ruminal bacterial composition. Thus, we investigated the ruminal fermentation characteristics and compared ruminal bacterial communities using tag amplicon pyrosequencing analysis in Yanbian yellow steers, which were fed linseed oil (LO) and propionate precursors. We used eight ruminally cannulated Yanbian yellow steers (510 ± 5.8 kg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four dietary treatments. Steers were fed a basal diet that comprised 80% concentrate and 20% rice straw (DM basis, CON). The CON diet was supplemented with LO at 4%. The LO diet was also supplemented with 2% dl-malate or 2% fumarate as ruminal precursors of propionate. Dietary supplementation with LO and propionate precursors increased ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the molar proportion of propionate. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the rumen were related to dietary treatments. Bacteroidetes dominated the ruminal bacterial community and the genus Prevotella was highly represented when steers were fed LO plus propionate precursors. However, with the CON and LO diet plus malate or fumarate, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum and the genus Ruminococcus was predominant. In summary, supplementing the diets of ruminants with a moderate level of LO plus propionate precursors modified the ruminal fermentation pattern. The most positive responses to LO and propionate precursors supplementation were in the phyla Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes, and in the genus Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Thus, diets containing LO plus malate or fumarate have significant effects on the composition of the rumen microbial community. PMID:26024491

  1. Dietary fatty acids and kidney transplantation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kort, W J; de Keijzer, M H; Hekking-Weijma, I; Vermeij, M

    1991-01-01

    In five groups of 15 rats allogeneic kidney transplantations were performed. Four groups received pre- and postoperatively a semisynthetic diet, isocalorically but differing in quantity and quality of fatty acids: group I received a diet high in saturated fat; group II, a diet high in linoleic acid; group III, a diet containing fish oil; group IV, a diet high in monoenoic acid. Finally, the fifth group of rats was fed a standard commercial chow and served as a control for the procedure of technique and immunological regimen. All groups received the same immunosuppressive regimen of immunological enhancement induced by pretreatment with complete donor blood. Survival and several parameters of graft function were studied. The results showed that the technical mortality, i.e. animals dying in the first week after transplantation, was substantially higher in rats on the semisynthetic diets in comparison with the group of rats on the commercial diet. A statistically significant better graft function could be observed in the group of rats on the diet high in linoleic acid in the first period after kidney transplantation, compared to the other groups on semisynthetic diets. This difference disappeared in the course of the study when a number of animals was lost due to graft rejection. Furthermore, in the same diet group mortality due to rejection was significantly decreased as well. PMID:1952815

  2. DIETARY AMINO ACID RESPONSES OF BROILER CHICKENS: A REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial practice, formulating diets to adequate amino acid (AA) minimums is critical to optimize live production and meat yield of broiler chickens. The modern broiler has lower feed intake per unit BW gain while having the potential to accrete more white meat than the commercial broiler of p...

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids and elevated concentrations of dietary protein on the performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Mateo, R D; Carroll, J A; Hyun, Y; Smith, S; Kim, S W

    2009-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids (O3FA) with or without elevated concentrations of protein on the performance of sows during the first and the subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 +/- 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 +/- 0.2 mm were assigned to 4 dietary treatments from d 60 of gestation (late gestation) to d 21 of lactation. Dietary treatments were 1) a control diet; 2) a high-protein diet (HP); 3) the control diet + 0.2% O3FA (O3); and 4) the HP diet + 0.2% O3FA (HPO3). For the control and O3 treatments, CP contents were 12.3% for late gestation and 17.9% for lactation, and for the HP and HPO3 treatments, CP contents were 18.4% for late gestation and 19.5% for lactation. On d 60 and 110 of gestation and after farrowing (within 12 h postfarrowing), on d 10 and 21 of lactation, BW, BF thickness, and blood samples were obtained. The total number of piglets and the number of piglets born alive and their birth weights were measured within 12 h postfarrowing. Colostrum and milk samples were obtained on d 2 and 21 of lactation, respectively. All piglets were weaned at 21 d. The wean-to-estrus interval and ADFI were recorded. The same measurements were obtained from the control and O3 groups during the subsequent parity. Dietary treatment did not affect BW, BF thickness, ADFI, and the wean-to-estrus interval of sows during their first reproductive cycle. Supplementation of O3FA increased both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents (P < 0.05) in colostrum and mature milk. First-parity litter size and piglet birth weight did not differ among treatment groups. Piglet BW was greater (P < 0.05) for the O3 group compared with both the control and HPO3 groups at d 10 and 21 of lactation. The same pattern was also noted for overall piglet BW gain. Both piglet and litter characteristics of the HP group did not differ from those of other groups throughout lactation. During

  4. Intestinal fuels: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Evans, M A; Shronts, E P

    1992-10-01

    In recent years, considerable research has focused on the physiologic effects and clinical uses of three dietary constituents thought to be trophic to the intestinal tract in human beings: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and dietary fiber. Glutamine is an important nitrogen-carrying amino acid that may be "conditionally essential" in certain disease states to support the gut barrier and immune function and overall protein use. Colonic irrigations with SCFA preparations have demonstrated enhanced healing of bowel tissue in animals and human beings. Dietary fiber supports bacterial SCFA production, normal stool output, and the gut barrier and immune function. However, optimal fiber doses for various medical conditions are not known, and the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, diarrhea, gas, and bloating necessitates careful selection of patients and daily monitoring of fiber tolerance. A review of the current literature indicates that widespread use of glutamine and SCFA additives parenterally and enterally awaits further evidence of safety and efficacy in human beings, establishment of appropriate doses, and advances in formulation technology. Administration of dietary fiber to enhance bowel motility should be considered in long-term tube-fed patients with intact GI function and sufficient fluid tolerance to permit hydration of fiber. Industrywide agreement on fiber analysis methods and labeling standards (eg, fiber fermentability vs solubility) would facilitate selection of enteral products. To streamline studies and optimize research efforts in future clinical trials, standard criteria for evaluating GI function, diarrheagenic factors, and intestinal outcome variables should be established. PMID:1328345

  5. Dietary supplementation of an ellagic acid-enriched pomegranate extract attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Rosillo, Maria Angeles; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2012-09-01

    Dietary polyphenols present in Punica granatum (pomegranate), such as ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA) have shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a dietary EA-enriched pomegranate extract (PE) in a murine chronic model of Cronh's disease (CD). Colonic injury was induced by intracolonic instillation of trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS). Rats were fed with different diets during 30 days before TNBS instillation and 2 weeks before killing: (i) standard, (ii) PE 250 mg/kg/day, (iii) PE 500 mg/kg/day, (iv) EA 10 mg/kg/day and (v) EA 10 mg/kg/day enriched-PE 250 mg/kg/day. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and MPO activity and TNF-α production. Besides, colonic expressions of iNOS, COX-2, p38, JNK, pERK1/2 MAPKs, IKBα and nuclear p65 NF-κB were studied by western blotting. MPO activity and the TNF-α levels were significantly reduced in dietary fed rats when compared with TNBS group. Similarly, PE and an EA-enriched PE diets drastically decreased COX-2 and iNOS overexpression, reduced MAPKs phosporylation and prevented the nuclear NF-κB translocation. Dietary supplementation of EA contributes in the beneficial effect of PE in this experimental colitis model and may be a novel therapeutic strategy to manage inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:22677088

  6. Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, T-J; Dai, Q-Z; Yin, Y-L; Zhang, J; Huang, R-L; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Xie, M

    2008-05-01

    Four male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; average initial (mean ± SEM) BW = 22.5 ± 1.1 kg), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein and carotid artery, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design to measure the effect of dietary starch sources on the net portal appearance of glucose and amino acids. Dietary starch sources were resistant starch (RS), maize, sticky rice and brown rice. Diets were provided at 0730, 1530 and 2330 h during a 6-day adjustment period and 1-day collection period. On day 7 of each period, blood samples were collected from the portal vein and carotid artery at 0730 h (prior to feeding) and hourly up to 8 h after meal. Blood samples were used to determine glucose, amino acid, packed cell volume and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). When calculated per 100 g feed intake, cumulative portal glucose appearance was lower (P < 0.05) for resistant starch than for maize, sticky rice or brown rice up to 8 h after the meal. Cumulative portal glucose appearance was higher (P < 0.05) for sticky rice and brown rice than for other diets until 4 h after the meal, but maize had higher cumulative glucose appearance after 4 h. Net cumulative portal concentrations of most amino acids for resistant starch were also reduced (P < 0.05) than for the other starch sources. Cumulative portal appearance of amino acid represented 48.39%, 63.76%, 61.80% and 59.18% of dietary intake for resistant starch, maize, sticky rice and brown rice, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary starch sources substantially affect the appearance of amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation. PMID:22443597

  7. An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Karen S.; Erdrich, Sharon; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Zhu, Shuotun; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013) and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009) and oleic acid (p = 0.020). DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043), red meat (p = 0.007) and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015). Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat. PMID:25580814

  8. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  9. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  10. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  11. A study on verifying the effectiveness of 4-week composite weight-loss dietary supplement ingestion on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoonseok; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Sung, Suhyun; Jung, Matthew; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a composite weight-loss dietary supplement on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women. Methods Thirty seven middle-aged women living in the Kyunggi area participated in this study and they were randomly divided into 2 groups (Dietary supplement ingestion group; DG, n = 20 and Placebo group; PG, n = 17). Blood draw and dual energy x-ray (DEXA) measurements were conducted to examine changes in body composition and blood lipids. Results There were no significant changes in weight and BMI in both groups. There was an interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and lean body mass in DG and there was a significant decrease in percent body fat in DG. Blood lipid changes in the study results showed that there was no significant difference in TC, TG, and LDL in both groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and HDL-C as well as an increase in the HDL-C of DG. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that 4-week ingestion of the composite weight-loss dietary supplement decreased body fat, increased lean body mass, and increased HDL-C. Therefore, the composite weight-loss dietary supplement is expected to prevent obesity and induce health improvements in middle-aged women. PMID:26527460

  12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  13. Dietary beta-carotene inhibits mammary carcinogenesis in rats depending on dietary alpha-linolenic acid content.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Virginie; Hoinard, Claude; Arab, Khelifa; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique

    2006-07-01

    To investigate whether dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content alters the effect of beta-carotene on mammary carcinogenesis, we conducted a chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis experiment in rats randomly assigned to four nutritional groups (15 rats per group) varying in beta-carotene supplementation and ALA content. Two oil formula-enriched diets (15 %) were used: one with 6 g ALA/kg diet in an essential fatty acids (EFA) ratio of linoleic acid:ALA of 5:1 w/w (EFA 5 diet), the other with 24 g ALA/kg diet in an EFA ratio of 1:1 w/w (EFA 1 diet), both designed with a similar linoleic acid content. beta-Carotene was either added (10 mg/kg diet per d) or not added to these diets. beta-Carotene supplementation led to decreased tumour incidence and tumour growth when added to the EFA 5 diet, whereas it had no effect when added to the EFA 1 diet. The decreased tumour growth did not result from an involvement of lipoperoxidation (tumour malondialdehyde content being similar between the groups) or from an inhibition of tumour cell proliferation (as there was an unchanged S phase fraction in the tumours). We concluded that an adequate content of ALA in the diet is required to allow a protective effect of beta-carotene in mammary carcinogenesis. Whether such an interaction between ALA and beta-carotene influences the risk of breast cancer in women needs to be investigated. PMID:16869986

  14. Lipid metabolic dose response to dietary alpha-linolenic acid in monk parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Petzinger, Christina; Heatley, J J; Bailey, Christopher A; Bauer, John E

    2014-03-01

    Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA (Htin et al. in Arch Geflugelk 71:258-266, 2007; Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013). Therefore, the metabolic effects of including flaxseed oil, as a source of ALA, in the diet at three different levels (low, medium, and high) on the lipid metabolism of Monk parrots was evaluated through measuring plasma total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipid fatty acids. Feed intake, body weight, and body condition score were also assessed. Thus the dose and possible saturation response of increasing dietary ALA at constant linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LNA) concentration on lipid metabolism in Monk parrots (M. monachus) was evaluated. Calculated esterified cholesterol in addition to plasma TC, FC, and TAG were unaltered by increasing dietary ALA. The high ALA group had elevated levels of plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3). The medium and high ALA groups had suppressed plasma phospholipid 20:2n-6 and adrenic acid (22:4n-6, ADA) compared to the low ALA group. When the present data were combined with data from a previous study (Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013) a dose response to dietary ALA was observed when LNA was constant. Plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, DPAn-3, DHA, and total n-3 were positively correlated while 20:2n-6, di-homo-gamma-linoleic acid (20:3n-6Δ7), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), ADA, and total n-6 were inversely correlated with dietary en% ALA. PMID

  15. Dietary fat-induced taurocholic acid production promotes pathobiont and colitis in IL-10−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Musch, Mark; Leone, Vanessa; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Jabri, Bana; Chang, Eugene B.

    2012-01-01

    The composite human microbiome of Western populations has likely changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health1. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk derived)-fat (MF), but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil)-fat (PUFA), changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes expansion of a low abundance, sulfite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia2. This was associated with a pro-inflammatory TH1 immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible IL-10−/−, but not wild type mice. These effects are mediated by MF-promoted taurine-conjugation of hepatic bile acids, which increases the availability of organic sulfur used by sulfite-reducing microbes like B. wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet supplemented with taurocholic, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B. wadsworthia and development of colitis were observed in IL10−/− mice. Together these data show that dietary fats, by promoting changes in host bile acid composition, can dramatically alter conditions for gut microbial assemblage, resulting in dysbiosis that can perturb immune homeostasis. The data provide a plausible mechanistic basis by which Western type diets high in certain saturated fats might increase the prevalence of complex immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel diseases in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:22722865

  16. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated. PMID:26303611

  17. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  18. Effects of the dietary protein level on the microbial composition and metabolomic profile in the hindgut of the pig.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liping; Fang, Lingdong; Sun, Yue; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a long-term low protein diet on the microbial composition and metabolomic profile in the hindgut of the pig. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 days of age, 23.57 ± 1.77 kg) were randomly allocated to normal protein diet (NP) and low protein diet (LP) groups using a randomized block design. At the age of 170 days, the digesta in the hindguts of the pigs were collected for microbial and metabolomic analysis. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or feed:gain ratio between the NP and LP groups. The concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs)/short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum decreased with the reduction of dietary protein. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that LP diet significantly decreased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the cecum, and Streptococcus in the colon; however, the relative abundance of Prevotella and Coprococcus in the LP group was significantly higher than in the NP group in the cecum, and Sarcina, Peptostreptococcaceae incertae sedis, Mogibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Coprococcus was higher in the colon. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the dietary protein level mainly affected phenylalanine metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; the citrate cycle; pyruvate metabolism; and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the correlation analysis of the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between the colonic metabolites and certain microbial species. These results suggest that a low protein diet may modulate the microbial composition and metabolites of the hindgut, without affecting the growth performance of pigs; however, potential roles of this modulation to the health of pigs remains unknown. PMID:26723572

  19. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the “nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)” were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the “ideal protein” concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University’s optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

  20. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the "nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)" were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the "ideal protein" concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University's optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

  1. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A

    2012-06-01

    Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:22591897

  2. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection. PMID:26703213

  3. Epoxides Derived from Dietary Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid Induce Germ Cell Death in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Deline, Marshall; Keller, Julia; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Menzel, Ralph; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats are not created equally, slight differences in structure lead to crucial differences in function. Muticellular organisms use polyunsaturated fatty acid as substrates to produce potent signaling molecules crucial for many physiological processes, including reproduction. Here we explored the mechanism responsible for germ cell loss induced by dietary supplementation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3n-6) in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study we found that C. elegans CYP-33E2 activity produces a range of epoxy and hydroxy metabolites from dietary DGLA. Knockdown of cyp-33E2 suppressed the DGLA-induced sterility phenotype. Additionally, direct exposure of two specific DGLA-derived epoxy products, 8,9- and 14,15-epoxyeicosadienoic acids, produced germ cell abnormalities in the C. elegans gonad. We propose that sterility is mediated by the production of toxic DGLA-derived epoxides that trigger germ cell destruction. These studies are the first to establish a biological activity for a CYP-produced metabolite of DGLA. PMID:26486965

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Carlson, Susan E

    2014-12-01

    Humans evolved a uniquely large brain among terrestrial mammals. Brain and nervous tissue is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Docosahexaenoic acid is required for lower and high order functions in humans because of understood and emerging molecular mechanisms. Among brain components that depend on dietary components, DHA is limiting because its synthesis from terrestrial plant food precursors is low but its utilization when consumed in diet is very efficient. Negligible DHA is found in terrestrial plants, but in contrast, DHA is plentiful at the shoreline where it is made by single-celled organisms and plants, and in the seas supports development of very large marine mammal brains. Modern human brains accumulate DHA up to age 18, most aggressively from about half-way through gestation to about two years of age. Studies in modern humans and non-human primates show that modern infants consuming infant formulas that include only DHA precursors have lower DHA levels than for those with a source of preformed DHA. Functional measures show that infants consuming preformed DHA have improved visual and cognitive function. Dietary preformed DHA in the breast milk of modern mothers supports many-fold greater breast milk DHA than is found in the breast milk of vegans, a phenomenon linked to consumption of shore-based foods. Most current evidence suggests that the DHA-rich human brain required an ample and sustained source of dietary DHA to reach its full potential. PMID:24780861

  5. Dietary eritadenine suppresses guanidinoacetic Acid-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Shin-ichiro; Setoue, Minoru; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2006-11-01

    We assessed the effect of eritadenine, a hypocholesterolemic factor isolated from the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes, on plasma homocysteine concentration using methyl-group acceptor-induced hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with a methyl-group acceptor or a precursor of methyl-group acceptor. Diets were supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 g/kg, nicotinic acid (NiA) or ethanolamine (EA) at 5 and 10 g/kg, or glycine at 25 and 50 g/kg, and the rats were fed for 10 d (Expt. 1). Plasma total homocysteine concentration was increased 255 and 421% by 5 and 10 g/kg GAA, respectively, and 39 and 58% by 5 and 10 g/kg NiA, respectively, but not by EA or glycine. GAA supplementation dose-dependently decreased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentration and the activity of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and increased the hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and homocysteine concentrations. In another study in which rats were fed 5 g/kg GAA-supplemented diet for 1-10 d, plasma homocysteine and the other variables affected in Expt. 1 were affected in rats fed the GAA-supplemented diet (Expt. 2). We investigated the effect of supplementation of 5 g/kg GAA-supplemented diet with eritadenine (50 mg/kg) on plasma homocysteine concentration (Expt. 3). Eritadenine supplementation significantly suppressed the GAA-induced increase in plasma homocysteine concentration. Eritadenine also restored the decreased SAM concentration and CBS activity in the liver, whereas it further increased hepatic SAH concentration, suggesting that eritadenine might elicit its effect by both slowing homocysteine production and increasing cystathionine formation. The results confirm that GAA is a useful compound to induce experimental hyperhomocysteinemia and indicate that eritadenine can effectively counteract the hyperhomocysteinemic effect of GAA. PMID:17056803

  6. Dietary Hizikia fusiformis glycoprotein-induced IGF-I and IGFBP-3 associated to somatic growth, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Hee; Kim, Kang-Woong; Han, Hyon-Sob; Nam, Taek Jeong; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of dietary glycoprotein extracted from the sea mustard Hizikia fusiformis (Phaeophyceae: Sargassaceae) as a dietary supplement on growth performance in association with somatotropin level, proximate compositions, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Water-ethanol extracted glycoprotein from H. fusiformis was supplemented to three fishmeal-based diets at the concentration of 0, 5, and 10gkg(-1) diet (designated as H0, H5, and H10, respectively). After a 12week-long feeding trial, growth performance and biochemical responses were analyzed including proximate composition, and whole body amino acids and fatty acids. We also measured plasma insulin like growth factor (IGF), IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) and interleukin (IL). The fish fed H5 showed the greatest weight gain among the dietary treatments. In parallel with the growth, the fish fed the diets containing H. fusiformis glycoprotein showed an increased plasma IGF-I activity and increased expression of 43-kDa IGFBP-3 compared to that in the control, whereas an opposite trend was observed for 34-kDa IGFBP-1. Although no differences were found in the level of whole body linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) among treatments, increases in arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were observed in fish fed H5 compared to control. IL-2 and -6 levels increased significantly in fish fed H10 compared to those in the control indicating increased immunity. These results suggest that supplementation of H. fusiformis glycoprotein in fish diet may be beneficial for fish growth and immunity in juvenile olive flounder. PMID:24064233

  7. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background : Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective : The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design : The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29-49 years at baseline (1991-1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results : Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions : Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  8. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. PMID:26712573

  9. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  10. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  11. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P < 0.03). Gain:feed (G:F) was greater for pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P < 0.03) and for the duration of the nursery phase (P < 0.03). There were no effects of CLA on ADG, ADFI, or G:F. There were no residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P < 0.06). Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P

  12. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  13. Growth, body composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureaus, fed diets containing various levels of linoleic and linolenic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of various levels of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth, body proximate and fatty acid composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile, sex-reversed all-male hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. areaus, were evaluated. A basal pu...

  14. Carbon isotope fractionation of amino acids in fish muscle reflects biosynthesis and isotopic routing from dietary protein.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Fogel, Marilyn L; Elsdon, Travis S; Thorrold, Simon R

    2010-09-01

    1. Analysis of stable carbon isotopes is a valuable tool for studies of diet, habitat use and migration. However, significant variability in the degree of trophic fractionation (Delta(13)C(C-D)) between consumer (C) and diet (D) has highlighted our lack of understanding of the biochemical and physiological underpinnings of stable isotope ratios in tissues. 2. An opportunity now exists to increase the specificity of dietary studies by analyzing the delta(13)C values of amino acids (AAs). Common mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus, Linnaeus 1766) were reared on four isotopically distinct diets to examine individual AA Delta(13)C(C-D) variability in fish muscle. 3. Modest bulk tissue Delta(13)C(C-D) values reflected relatively large trophic fractionation for many non-essential AAs and little to no fractionation for all essential AAs. 4. Essential AA delta(13)C values were not significantly different between diet and consumer (Delta(13)C(C-D) = 0.0 +/- 0.4 per thousand), making them ideal tracers of carbon sources at the base of the food web. Stable isotope analysis of muscle essential AAs provides a promising tool for dietary reconstruction and identifying baseline delta(13)C values to track animal movement through isotopically distinct food webs. 5. Non-essential AA Delta(13)C(C-D) values showed evidence of both de novo biosynthesis and direct isotopic routing from dietary protein. We attributed patterns in Delta(13)C(C-D) to variability in protein content and AA composition of the diet as well as differential utilization of dietary constituents contributing to the bulk carbon pool. This variability illustrates the complicated nature of metabolism and suggests caution must be taken with the assumptions used to interpret bulk stable isotope data in dietary studies. 6. Our study is the first to investigate the expression of AA Delta(13)C(C-D) values for a marine vertebrate and should provide for significant refinements in studies of diet, habitat use and migration using

  15. Re-examination of Dietary Amino Acid Sensing Reveals a GCN2-Independent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Leib, David E; Knight, Zachary A

    2015-11-10

    Animals cannot synthesize nine essential amino acids (EAAs) and must therefore obtain them from food. Mice reportedly reject food lacking a single EAA within the first hour of feeding. This remarkable phenomenon is proposed to involve post-ingestive sensing of amino acid imbalance by the protein kinase GCN2 in the brain. Here, we systematically re-examine dietary amino acid sensing in mice. In contrast to previous results, we find that mice cannot rapidly identify threonine- or leucine-deficient food in common feeding paradigms. However, mice attain the ability to identify EAA-deficient food following 2 days of EAA deprivation, suggesting a requirement for physiologic need. In addition, we report that mice can rapidly identify lysine-deficient food without prior EAA deficit, revealing a distinct sensing mechanism for this amino acid. These behaviors are independent of the proposed amino acid sensor GCN2, pointing to the existence of an undescribed mechanism for rapid sensing of dietary EAAs. PMID:26526991

  16. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Bo-Linn, G W; Davis, G R; Buddrus, D J; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C; Fordtran, J S

    1984-01-01

    Since calcium solubility is a prerequisite to calcium absorption, and since solubility of calcium is highly pH-dependent, it has been generally assumed that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity play an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium from ingested food or calcium salts such as CaCO3. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a method wherein net gastrointestinal absorption of calcium can be measured after ingestion of a single meal. A large dose of cimetidine, which markedly reduced gastric acid secretion, had no effect on calcium absorption in normal subjects, and an achlorhydric patient with pernicious anemia absorbed calcium normally. This was true regardless of the major source of dietary calcium (i.e., milk, insoluble calcium carbonate, or soluble calcium citrate). Moreover, calcium absorption after CaCO3 ingestion was the same when intragastric contents were maintained at pH 7.4 (by in vivo titration) as when intragastric pH was 3.0. On the basis of these results, we conclude that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity do not normally play a role in the absorption of dietary calcium. Other possible mechanisms by which the gastrointestinal tract might solubilize ingested calcium complexes and salts are discussed. Images PMID:6707197

  17. Re-examination of Dietary Amino Acid Sensing Reveals a GCN2-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Leib, David E.; Knight, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Animals cannot synthesize nine essential amino acids (EAAs) and must therefore obtain them from food. Mice reportedly reject food lacking a single EAA within the first hour of feeding. This remarkable phenomenon is proposed to involve post-ingestive sensing of amino acid imbalance by the protein kinase GCN2 in the brain. Here, we systematically re-examine dietary amino acid sensing in mice. In contrast to previous results, we find that mice cannot rapidly identify threonine- or leucine-deficient food in common feeding paradigms. However, mice attain the ability to identify EAA-deficient food following 2 days of EAA deprivation, suggesting a requirement for physiologic need. In addition, we report that mice can rapidly identify lysine-deficient food without prior EAA deficit, revealing a distinct sensing mechanism for this amino acid. These behaviors are independent of the proposed amino acid sensor GCN2, pointing to the existence of an undescribed mechanism for rapid sensing of dietary EAAs. PMID:26526991

  18. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  19. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    metabolism in the testis. The role of dietary intake of fatty acids on the spermatozoa fatty acid composition remains to be elucidated. PMID:27371336

  20. Response of plasma fatty acid profiles to changes in dietary n-3 fatty acids and its correlation with erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, K; Bachmann, L; Dobeleit, G; Fuhrmann, H

    2013-12-01

    An elevated level of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) in tissue membranes has a positive influence on the progression and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 FA is recommended in some diseases. Even though n-3 FA are absorbed readily from the diet, their incorporation into tissues may be compromised in diseased animals. In a clinical setting, it is desirable to monitor the success of dietary intervention. Plasma FA as well as erythrocyte membrane (EM) FA can be used to monitor dietary FA intake. This study compares FA from EM and plasma with regard to their reaction time and reliability for monitoring dietary changes of tissue FA profiles in dogs. Thirty dogs were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks. The control group (CONT) was fed a commercial standard diet low in n-3 FA. One group received the standard diet and 85 mg/kg body weight of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrate (ADD). The third group was fed a commercial dog food containing fish oil (FO), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EM and plasma FA profiles were analysed by GC separately. Data on EM FA were published recently. n-3 FA in plasma reached the new level after 2 weeks (8 weeks in EM). Dietary differences between DHA and EPA are obvious after 1 week already. The concomitant decrease in plasma n-6 FA differed between ADD and FO. In general, the correlation of n-6 FA between plasma and EM was low. We therefore conclude that analysis of plasma FA is sufficient for monitoring a diet-induced increase in tissue n-3 FA in dogs. However, EM FA should be analysed if the effect of dietary intervention on tissue n-6 FA is important. PMID:23279610

  1. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were −11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  2. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  3. Dietary Sugars Stimulate Fatty Acid Synthesis in Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Elizabeth J.; Skokan, Lauren E.; Timlin, Maureen T.; Dingfelder, Carlus S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the magnitude by which acute consumption of fructose in a morning bolus would stimulate lipogenesis (measured by infusion of 13C1-acetate and analysis by GC-MS) immediately and after a subsequent meal. Six healthy subjects [4 men and 2 women; aged (mean ± SD) 28 ± 8 y; BMI, 24.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; and serum triacylglycerols (TG), 1.03 ± 0.32 mmol/L] consumed carbohydrate boluses of sugars (85 g each) in a random and blinded order, followed by a standardized lunch 4 h later. Subjects completed a control test of glucose (100:0) and a mixture of 50:50 glucose:fructose and one of 25:75 (wt:wt). Following the morning boluses, serum glucose and insulin after 100:0 were greater than both other treatments (P < 0.05) and this pattern occurred again after lunch. In the morning, fractional lipogenesis was stimulated when subjects ingested fructose and peaked at 15.9 ± 5.4% after the 50:50 treatment and at 16.9 ± 5.2% after the 25:75 treatment, values that were greater than after the 100:0 treatment (7.8 ± 5.7%; P < 0.02). When fructose was consumed, absolute lipogenesis was 2-fold greater than when it was absent (100:0). Postlunch, serum TG were 11–29% greater than 100:0 and TG-rich lipoprotein-TG concentrations were 76–200% greater after 50:50 and 25:75 were consumed (P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that an early stimulation of lipogenesis after fructose, consumed in a mixture of sugars, augments subsequent postprandial lipemia. The postlunch blood TG elevation was only partially due to carry-over from the morning. Acute intake of fructose stimulates lipogenesis and may create a metabolic milieu that enhances subsequent esterification of fatty acids flowing to the liver to elevate TG synthesis postprandially. PMID:18492831

  4. Dietary fiber from Tunisian common date cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.): chemical composition, functional properties, and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Mrabet, Abdessalem; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael; Chaira, Nizar; Ferchichi, Ali; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2012-04-11

    The dietary fibers (DF) of 10 date varieties from Tunisian oases have been investigated. Further knowledge on the content, composition, and technological applications of those fibers could support their genetic variability and promote the socioeconomical development of growing areas. The composition, water- and oil-holding capacities, solubility, and antiradical activity have been determined. The DF content ranged from 4.7% (Matteta, Rochdi) to >7% (Deglé Nour, Garen Gaze, Smeti). Composition varied significantly among cultivars, and the results evidenced that uronic acids and lignin determine to a great extent the organoleptic quality of dates. Many of the varieties that have been studied (Garen Gaze, Matteta, Kenta, Rochdi, Mermella, Korkobbi, Eguwa) were selected because of great interest from technological and functional points of view. Among their physicochemical characteristics, these samples presented water- and oil-holding capacities of higher than 17 and 4 mL/g fiber, respectively, which make them suitable for use as additives in fiber-enriched foods. Also, DF of Garen Gaze, Smeti, Mermella, and Eguwa had a high antiradical capacity (>230 Trolox equiv/kg fiber). It was concluded that some of these varieties could be grown as potential sources of DF, which could be included in the formulation of fiber- and antioxidant-enriched foods. PMID:22443221

  5. Effects of dietary pantethine levels on contents of fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver of rats orally administered varying amounts of autoxidized linoleate.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, N; Kishida, T; Hamano, T; Natake, M

    1991-02-01

    The effects of dietary pantethine levels on the contents and compositions of fatty acids and on the levels of lipid peroxides were investigated with rat liver and its S-9 fraction under administration of 0 (non), 0.2 (low dose), and 0.35 ml (high dose) of autoxidized linoleate (AL) per 100 g body weight of the rats per day for 5 days. AL having 800 meq/kg of peroxide value (PV) and 1,700 meq/kg of carbonyl value (CV) was dosed to the rats of each group given drinking water containing 0 mg% (deficient), 6.25 mg% (adequate), and 125 mg% pantethine (excess). In the pantethine-deficient and -adequate groups, the contents of fatty acids both in the liver homogenate and in the S-9 fraction were correspondingly decreased by increasing dose levels of AL, and the decrease was remarkable especially in the pantethine-deficient group, but was not significant in the pantethine-excess group even by a high dose of AL. Particularly, in the high dose of AL, the notable decreases of oleic acid (C18:1) contents in both the liver and the S-9 fraction were observed in rats of the pantethine-deficient and -adequate groups. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in the liver homogenate and the S-9 fraction were increased correspondingly by increasing dose levels of AL, and the increases were repressed in the pantethine-excess group. PMID:1880633

  6. Dietary ellagic acid attenuates oxidized LDL uptake and stimulates cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Jung-Lye; Lee, Eun-Sook; Han, Seon-Young; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2011-11-01

    Foam cell formation is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. Lipid uptake by scavenger receptors (SR) in macrophages initiates chronic proinflammatory cascades linked to atherosclerosis. It has been reported that the upregulation of cholesterol efflux may be protective in the development of atherosclerosis. Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound mostly found in berries, walnuts, and pomegranates, possesses antioxidative, growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-promoting activities in cancer cells. However, the antiatherogenic actions of ellagic acid are not well defined. The current study elucidated oxidized LDL handling of ellagic acid in J774A1 murine macrophages. Noncytotoxic ellagic acid suppressed SR-B1 induction and foam cell formation within 6 h after the stimulation of macrophages with oxidized LDL, confirmed by Oil red O staining of macrophages. Ellagic acid at ≤5 μmol/L upregulated PPARγ and ATP binding cassette transporter-1 in lipid-laden macrophages, all responsible for cholesterol efflux. In addition, 5 μmol/L ellagic acid accelerated expression and transcription of the nuclear receptor of liver X receptor-α highly implicated in the PPAR signaling. Furthermore, ellagic acid promoted cholesterol efflux in oxidized LDL-induced foam cells. These results provide new information that ellagic acid downregulated macrophage lipid uptake to block foam cell formation of macrophages and boosted cholesterol efflux in lipid-laden foam cells. Therefore, dietary and pharmacological interventions with berries rich in ellagic acid may be promising treatment strategies to interrupt the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:21940512

  7. Dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 contents in colon, but does not affect severity or prostaglandin E2 content in murine colitis model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an essential fatty acid and a major constituent of biomembranes. It is converted into various lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). The effects of dietary ARA on colon maintenance are unclear because PGE2 has both mucosal protective and proinflammatory effects, and LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory role. Our objective is to clarify the effects of dietary ARA on an experimental murine colitis model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed three types of ARA diet (0.075%, 0.15% or 0.305% ARA in diet), DHA diet (0.315% DHA) or control diet for 6 weeks, and were then administered dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. We evaluated colitis severity, fatty acid and lipid mediator contents in colonic tissue, and the expression of genes related to lipid mediator formation. Results ARA composition of colon phospholipids was significantly elevated in an ARA dose-dependent manner. ARA, as well as DHA, did not affect colitis severity (body weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea and hemoccult phenomena) and histological features. PGE2 contents in the colon were unchanged by dietary ARA, while LXA4 contents increased in an ARA dose-dependent manner. Gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was unchanged, while that of 12/15-lipoxgenase (LOX) was significantly increased by dietary ARA. ARA composition did not correlate with neither colon length nor PGE2 contents, but significantly correlated with LXA4 content. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary ARA increases ARA and LXA4 contents in colon, but that it has no effect on severity and PGE2 content in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. PMID:24507383

  8. Growth performance, vitamin E status, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing various levels of fish oil and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chhorn; Yildirim-Aksoy, Mediha; Shelby, Richard; Li, Menghe H; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance, liver vitamin E status, and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. Basal purified diets (42% protein and 3,800 kcal DE/kg) supplemented with 6, 10, and 14% menhaden fish oil were each supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg vitamin E/kg (3×3 factorial experiment). Each diet was fed to juvenile channel catfish in three random aquaria to apparent satiation twice daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary levels of fish oil, vitamin E, or their interaction. Survival rate at the end of week 12 was significantly lower for fish fed diets containing 14% fish oil, regardless of vitamin E content. Whole-body moisture significantly decreased and lipid increased when dietary lipid levels were increased to 10 or 14%. Dietary vitamin E levels had no effect on body proximate composition. Lipid content of liver was not influenced by dietary levels of fish oil and vitamin E or their interaction. Hepatosomatic index significantly decreased with increasing lipid levels but was not affected by dietary levels of vitamin E. Liver vitamin E increased with increasing dietary vitamin E but decreased with increasing fish oil levels. Fatty acid composition of whole body and liver reflected that of dietary lipid but was not influenced by dietary levels of vitamin E. Whole-body saturates increased, whereas MUFA decreased with increasing dietary levels of fish oil. Liver saturates were not affected by fish oil levels, but MUFA and n-6 decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing fish oil levels. Total n-3 and n-3 HUFA in both tissues increased with increasing fish oil levels in diets, but liver stored much higher levels of these fatty acids. PMID:19821044

  9. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC) extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA) to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG) level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH) were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c) were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver. PMID:22569330

  10. Systematic review of the association between dietary acid load, alkaline water and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Tanis R; Huang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the evidence for a causal relationship between dietary acid/alkaline and alkaline water for the aetiology and treatment of cancer. Design A systematic review was conducted on published and grey literature separately for randomised intervention and observational studies with either varying acid–base dietary intakes and/or alkaline water with any cancer outcome or for cancer treatment. Outcome measures Incidence of cancer and outcomes of cancer treatment. Results 8278 citations were identified, and 252 abstracts were reviewed; 1 study met the inclusion criteria and was included in this systematic review. No randomised trials were located. No studies were located that examined dietary acid or alkaline or alkaline water for cancer treatment. The included study was a cohort study with a low risk of bias. This study revealed no association between the diet acid load with bladder cancer (OR=1.15: 95% CI 0.86 to 1.55, p=0.36). No association was found even among long-term smokers (OR=1.72: 95% CI 0.96 to 3.10, p=0.08). Conclusions Despite the promotion of the alkaline diet and alkaline water by the media and salespeople, there is almost no actual research to either support or disprove these ideas. This systematic review of the literature revealed a lack of evidence for or against diet acid load and/or alkaline water for the initiation or treatment of cancer. Promotion of alkaline diet and alkaline water to the public for cancer prevention or treatment is not justified. PMID:27297008

  11. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  12. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Affects Blood Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-linolenic Acid (LA:DGLA) Ratio; a Sensitive Physiological Marker of Zinc Status in Vivo (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P.; Tako, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn(+) (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn(−) (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn(+) control versus Zn(−) group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn(+) control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ6 desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn(+) group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn(−) group compared to the Zn(+) group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. PMID:24658588

  13. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a sensitive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn⁺ (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn⁻ (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn⁺ control versus Zn⁻ group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn⁺ control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ⁶ desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn⁺ group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn⁻ group compared to the Zn⁺ group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. PMID:24658588

  14. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy. PMID:26719191

  15. Dietary macronutrients modulate the fatty acyl composition of rat liver mitochondrial cardiolipins.

    PubMed

    Stavrovskaya, Irina G; Bird, Susan S; Marur, Vasant R; Sniatynski, Matthew J; Baranov, Sergei V; Greenberg, Heather K; Porter, Caryn L; Kristal, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of dietary fats and carbohydrates on liver mitochondria were examined in male FBNF1 rats fed 20 different low-fat isocaloric diets. Animal growth rates and mitochondrial respiratory parameters were essentially unaffected, but mass spectrometry-based mitochondrial lipidomics profiling revealed increased levels of cardiolipins (CLs), a family of phospholipids essential for mitochondrial structure and function, in rats fed saturated or trans fat-based diets with a high glycemic index. These mitochondria showed elevated monolysocardiolipins (a CL precursor/product of CL degradation), elevated ratio of trans-phosphocholine (PC) (18:1/18:1) to cis-PC (18:1/18:1) (a marker of thiyl radical stress), and decreased ubiquinone Q9; the latter two of which imply a low-grade mitochondrial redox abnormality. Extended analysis demonstrated: i) dietary fats and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrates induce changes in the relative abundance of specific CL species; ii) fatty acid (FA) incorporation into mature CLs undergoes both positive (>400-fold) and negative (2.5-fold) regulation; and iii) dietary lipid abundance and incorporation of FAs into both the CL pool and specific mature tetra-acyl CLs are inversely related, suggesting previously unobserved compensatory regulation. This study reveals previously unobserved complexity/regulation of the central lipid in mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:23690505

  16. Stearidonic acid, a plant-based dietary fatty acid, enhances the chemosensitivity of canine lymphoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Ferniany, Glennie; Ashraf, Farah; Abbott, Kodye L; Smith, Bruce F; Coleman, Elaine S; Mansour, Mahmoud; Bird, R Curtis; Smith, Annette N; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-05-15

    Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and humans, with similar pathogenesis and therapeutic responses. Anticancer drugs like vincristine (VCR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are often used in treating lymphoma. However, the cure rate is generally poor due to chemoresistance. Here, we sought to determine whether stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based dietary fatty acid, sensitizes chemoresistant canine lymphoid-tumor cells. GL-1 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were found to be highly sensitive to the antitumor-activity of VCR and DOX, while OSW T-cell and 17-71 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were moderately and fully resistant, respectively. SDA, at its non-toxic concentrations, significantly promoted the antitumor action of VCR and DOX in both OSW and 17-71 cells. SDA-mediated chemosensitization was associated with SDA inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. This was confirmed in HEK293 cells stably expressing P-gp as well as by increased binding-affinity of SDA to P-gp in P-gp docking analysis. SDA at its chemosensitizing concentrations did not affect the viability of healthy dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that SDA is non-toxic to normal dog peripheral blood leucocytes at its chemosensitizing concentrations. Our study identifies a novel dietary fatty acid that may be used as a dietary supplement in combination with chemotherapy to promote the antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapy drugs in dogs and possibly in humans with chemoresistant lymphoma. PMID:25847597

  17. Dietary Compositions and Their Seasonal Shifts in Japanese Resident Birds, Estimated from the Analysis of Volunteer Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Tetsuro; Osada, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Determining the composition of a bird’s diet and its seasonal shifts are fundamental for understanding the ecology and ecological functions of a species. Various methods have been used to estimate the dietary compositions of birds, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we examined the possibility of using long-term volunteer monitoring data as the source of dietary information for 15 resident bird species in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The data were collected from field observations reported by volunteers of regional naturalist groups. Based on these monitoring data, we calculated the monthly dietary composition of each bird species directly, and we also estimated unidentified items within the reported foraging episodes using Bayesian models that contained additional information regarding foraging locations. Next, to examine the validity of the estimated dietary compositions, we compared them with the dietary information for focal birds based on stomach analysis methods, collected from past literatures. The dietary trends estimated from the monitoring data were largely consistent with the general food habits determined from the previous studies of focal birds. Thus, the estimates based on the volunteer monitoring data successfully detected noticeable seasonal shifts in many of the birds from plant materials to animal diets during spring—summer. Comparisons with stomach analysis data supported the qualitative validity of the monitoring-based dietary information and the effectiveness of the Bayesian models for improving the estimates. This comparison suggests that one advantage of using monitoring data is its ability to detect dietary items such as fleshy fruits, flower nectar, and vertebrates. These results emphasize the potential importance of observation data collecting and mining by citizens, especially free descriptive observation data, for use in bird ecology studies. PMID:25723544

  18. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  19. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

  20. Elevated dietary linoleic acid increases gastric carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, T; Adair, J E; Lih, F B; Hsi, L C; Rubino, M; Eling, T E; Tomer, K B; Yashiro, M; Hirakawa, K; Olden, K; Roberts, J D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary (n-6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids influence cancer development, but the mechanisms have not been well characterised in gastric carcinoma. Methods: We used two in vivo models to investigate the effects of these common dietary components on tumour metastasis. In a model of experimental metastasis, immunocompromised mice were fed diets containing linoleic acid (LA) at 2% (LLA), 8% (HLA) or 12% (VHLA) by weight and inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with human gastric carcinoma cells (OCUM-2MD3). To model spontaneous metastasis, OCUM-2MD3 tumours were grafted onto the stomach walls of mice fed with the different diets. In in vitro assays, we investigated invasion and ERK phosphorylation of OCUM-2MD3 cells in the presence or absence of LA. Finally, we tested whether a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin, could block peritoneal metastasis in vivo. Results: Both the HLA and VHLA groups showed increased incidence of tumour nodules (LA: 53% HLA: 89% VHLA: 100% P<0.03); the VHLA group also displayed increased numbers of tumour nodules and higher total volume relative to LLA group in experimental metastasis model. Both liver invasion (78%) and metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (67%) were more frequent in VHLA group compared with the LLA group (22% and 11%, respectively; P<0.03) in spontaneous metastasis model. We also found that the invasive ability of these cells is greatly enhanced when exposed to LA in vitro. Linoleic acid also increased invasion of other scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells, OCUM-12, NUGC3 and MKN-45. Linoleic acid effect on OCUM-2MD3 cells seems to be dependent on phosphorylation of ERK. The data suggest that invasion and phosphorylation of ERK were dependent on COX. Indomethacin decreased the number of tumours and total tumour volume in both LLA and VHLA groups. Finally, COX-1, which is known to be an important enzyme in the generation of bioactive metabolites from dietary fatty acids, appears to be responsible for the

  1. Maternal dietary folate, folic acid and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy and lactation and the risk of cows' milk allergy in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinistö, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-08-01

    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements. PMID:27350011

  2. Effect of synbiotic supplementation and dietary fat sources on broiler performance, serum lipids, muscle fatty acid profile and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers. PMID:26654967

  3. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  4. A review of the effects of dietary organic acids fed to swine.

    PubMed

    Suiryanrayna, Mocherla V A N; Ramana, J V

    2015-01-01

    Animal production depends on nutrient utilization and if done there is an accelerated momentum towards growth with a low cost to feed ratio Public concern over the consumption of pork with antibiotic residues of the animals fed with antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has paved the way to use other additives like herbs and their products, probiotics, prebiotics etc. Numerous feed additives are in vogue for achieving this target and one such classical example is the usage of organic acids and their salts. Usage of organic acids was in progress for over four decades. Early weaned piglets are (3-4 weeks age) exposed to stress with a reduced feed intake, little or no weight gain. This post weaning lag period is due to a limited digestive and absorptive capacity due to insufficient production of hydrochloric acid, pancreatic enzymes and sudden changes in feed consistency and intake. Lowering dietary pH by weak organic acids was found to overcome these problems. The main activity of organic acids is associated with a reduction in gastric pH converting the inactive pepsinogen to active pepsin for effective protein hydrolysis. Organic acids are both bacteriostatic and bactericidal. Lactic acid has been reported to reduce gastric pH and delay the multiplication of an enterotoxigenic E. coli. These acids are the intermediary products in Kreb's cycle and thus act as an energy source preventing the tissue breakdown resulting from gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. Excretion of supplemental minerals and nitrogen are minimized with organic acids as these form complexes with minerals and aids for their bio-availability. Short chain fatty cids like acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fibre in the large intestines may increase the proliferation of epithelial cells and have stimulatory effects on both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretions in pigs. Organic acids also enhances apparent total tract digestibility and improves growth

  5. The effect of dietary fiber from wheat processing streams on the formation of carboxylic acids and microbiota in the hindgut of rats.

    PubMed

    Haskå, Lina; Andersson, Roger; Nyman, Margareta

    2011-04-13

    Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces carboxylic acids and may stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria. This study investigated how byproducts of wheat processing (distillers' grains and two fractions from the wet fractionation to starch and gluten, one of which was treated with xylanase) affect the composition of the cecal microbiota and the formation of carboxylic acids in rats. Differences were mostly found between diets based on supernatants and pellets, rather than between fiber sources. Cecal pools and levels of most carboxylic acids in portal blood were higher for rats fed the supernatant diets, while cecal pH and ratios of acetic to propionic acid in portal blood were lower. The diet based on supernatant from distillers' grains gave the highest level of bifidobacteria. Molecular weight and solubility are easier to modify with technological processes, which provides an opportunity to optimize these properties in the development of health products. PMID:21391670

  6. Influence of dietary fat source and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, E W; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-07-01

    A total of 160 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 45.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and feeding duration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. There were 2 pigs per pen with 8 pens per treatment. The 10 dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 3 × 3 factorial with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84). The control corn-soybean meal diet was fed in place of added fat diets when needed for duration treatment purposes. On d 0, 1 pig was identified in each pen and fat biopsy samples of the back, belly, and jowl were collected on d 0, 41, and 81 for fatty acid analysis. At the conclusion of the study, all pigs were harvested, carcass characteristics were determined, and back, belly, and jowl fat samples were collected for analysis. Overall (d 0 to 84), there were no differences among pigs fed the different fat sources for growth and carcass characteristics; however, pigs fed diets with added fat for the entire study had improved ( = 0.036) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Pigs fed supplemental fat throughout the entire study also had improved ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F as well as heavier d-84 BW ( = 0.006) compared with pigs fed additional fat during only 1 period. Adding fat for the entire study increased ( = 0.032) backfat and tended to reduce ( = 0.079) the fat free lean index compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Added fat also increased ( < 0.05) the iodine value (IV) when compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of soybean oil lowered MUFA and increased PUFA concentrations for all fat depots, whereas these values remained relatively unchanged by the addition of tallow (duration × fat source interactions, < 0.05). Our study failed to show

  7. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid-enriched glycerophospholipids exert cardioprotective effects in ouabain-treated rats via physiological and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Monique; Maixent, Jean-Michel; Gerbi, Alain; Lan, Carole; Cozzone, Patrick Jean; Pieroni, Gérard; Armand, Martine; Coste, Thierry Charles

    2016-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might prevent heart failure or optimise drug treatments by improving cardiac contraction. We investigated whether DHA-enriched avian glycerophospholipids (GPL-DHA) exert cardioprotection in ouabain-treated rats after 4 weeks of dietary supplementation with 10, 35 or 60 mg DHA per kg body weight versus none (DHA10, DHA35, DHA60 and control groups, respectively). The contractile responsiveness to different doses of ouabain (10(-7) to 10(-4) M), ouabain intoxication (at 3 × 10(-4) M), and relative variations in cardiac energy metabolism were determined using (31)P NMR in isolated perfused rat hearts. The fatty acid composition of cardiac membranes was analysed by gas chromatography. DHA accretion in the heart was dose-dependent (+8%, +30% and +45% for DHA10, DHA35 and DHA60, respectively). The cardiac phosphocreatine content significantly increased at the baseline in DHA35 (+45%) and DHA60 groups (+85%), and at the different doses of ouabain in the DHA60 group (+73% to 98%). The maximum positive inotropy achieved at 10(-4) M ouabain was significantly increased in all DHA groups versus control (+150%, +122.5% and +135% for DHA10, DHA35 and DHA60, respectively), and ouabain intoxication was delayed. The increase in myocardial phosphocreatine content and the improved efficacy of ouabain on myocardial contraction without toxicity suggest the potential of GPL-DHA as a dietary supplement or ingredient for functional food, and possibly as a co-treatment with digitalis drugs in humans. PMID:26662260

  8. Increasing dietary palmitic acid decreases fat oxidation and daily energy expenditure123

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Janice Y; Ugrasbul, Figen

    2005-01-01

    Background Oleic acid (OA) is oxidized more rapidly than is palmitic acid (PA). Objective We hypothesized that changing the dietary intakes of PA and OA would affect fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure. Design A double-masked trial was conducted in 43 healthy young adults, who, after a 28-d, baseline, solid-food diet (41% of energy as fat, 8.4% as PA, and 13.1% as OA), were randomly assigned to one of two 28-d formula diets: high PA (40% of energy as fat, 16.8% as PA, and 16.4% as OA; n = 21) or high OA (40% of energy as fat, 1.7% as PA, and 31.4% as OA; n = 22). Differences in the change from baseline were evaluated by analysis of covariance. Results In the fed state, the respiratory quotient was lower (P = 0.01) with the high OA (0.86 ± 0.01) than with the high-PA (0.89 ± 0.01) diet, and the rate of fat oxidation was higher (P = 0.03) with the high-OA (0.0008 ± 0.0001) than with the high-PA (0.0005 ± 0.0001 mg · kg fat-free mass−1 · min−1) diet. Resting energy expenditure in the fed and fasting states was not significantly different between groups. Change in daily energy expenditure in the high-OA group (9 ± 60 kcal/d) was significantly different from that in the high-PA group (−214 ±69 kcal/d; P = 0.02 or 0.04 when expressed per fat-free mass). Conclusions Increases in dietary PA decrease fat oxidation and daily energy expenditure, whereas decreases in PA and increases in OA had the opposite effect. Increases in dietary PA may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:16087974

  9. Genetic Variants in the FADS Gene: Implications for Dietary Recommendations for Fatty Acid Intake.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Rasika A; Pani, Vrindarani; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-06-01

    Unequivocally, genetic variants within the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster are determinants of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in circulation, cells and tissues. A recent series of papers have addressed these associations in the context of ancestry; evidence clearly supports that the associations are robust to ethnicity. However ∼80% of African Americans carry two copies of the alleles associated with increased levels of arachidonic acid, compared to only ∼45% of European Americans raising important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions induced by a modern western diet are differentially driving the risk of diseases of inflammation in diverse populations, and are these interactions leading to health disparities. We highlight an important aspect thus far missing in the debate regarding dietary recommendations; we content that current evidence from genetics strongly suggest that an individual's, or at the very least the population from which an individual is sampled, genetic architecture must be factored into dietary recommendations currently in place. PMID:24977108

  10. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored. PMID:26903206

  11. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Rundell, K W

    2005-12-01

    Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of asthma, the prevalence and burden of this disease has continued to increase. While pharmacological treatment of asthma is usually highly effective, medications may have significant side effects or exhibit tachyphylaxis. Alternative therapies for treatment that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacological interventions would be beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. Ecological and temporal data suggest that dietary factors may have a role in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. A possible contributing factor to the increased incidence of asthma in Western societies may be the consumption of a proinflammatory diet. In the typical Western diet, 20- to 25-fold more omega (n)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than n-3 PUFA are consumed, which promotes the release of proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotrienes and prostanoids). This review will analyze the evidence for the health effects of n-3 PUFA in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). While clinical data evaluating the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in asthma has been equivocal, it has recently been shown that fish oil supplementation, rich in n-3 PUFA, reduces airway narrowing, medication use, and proinflammatory mediator generation in nonatopic elite athletes with EIB. These findings are provocative and suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation may be a viable treatment modality and/or adjunct therapy in asthma and EIB. PMID:16047026

  12. Amino acid composition of humic substances in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral amino acid fragments of humic and fulvic acid molecules from tundra soils have been identified and quantified. A significant weight fraction of amino acids has been found in humic acid preparations, which exceeds their content in fulvic acids. Features of the amino acid composition of humic substances along the soil profile and depending on the degree of hydromorphism and the proportions of different (neutral, basic, acidic, cyclic) groups in amino acids have been revealed. The molar ratio between the hydroxy and heterocyclic amino acids reflects the degree of humification of the soil.

  13. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A.; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to “Back of Pack” data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss. PMID:27527214

  14. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to "Back of Pack" data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss. PMID:27527214

  15. The dietary branched chain amino acid requirements of hybrid striped bass(Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirements for branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are unknown in hybrid striped bass and necessary for formulating efficient and nutritious diets. Moreover, the dietary balance among these three amino acids can substantially influence the performance of meat animals fed those diets. The diet...

  16. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  17. Adolescent behavior and dopamine availability are uniquely sensitive to dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Corina O.; Taha, Ameer Y.; Tock, Jody L.; Totah, Nelson K.; Cheon, Yewon; Torres, Gonzalo E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Moghaddam, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the nature of environmental factors that contribute to behavioral health is critical for successful prevention strategies in individuals at-risk for psychiatric disorders. These factors are typically experiential in nature, such as stress and urbanicity, but nutrition, in particular dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), has increasingly been implicated in the symptomatic onset of schizophrenia and mood disorders, which typically occurs during adolescence to early adulthood. Thus, adolescence may be the critical age range for the negative impact of diet as an environmental insult. Methods A rat model involving consecutive generations of n-3 PUFA deficiency was developed based on the assumption that dietary trends toward decreased consumption of these fats began four-five decades ago when the parents of current adolescents were born. Behavioral performance in a wide range of tasks, as well as markers of dopamine-related neurotransmission was compared in adolescents and adults fed n-3 PUFA adequate and deficient diets. Results In adolescents, dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency across consecutive generations produced a modality-selective and task-dependent impairment in cognitive and motivated behavior distinct from the deficits observed in adults. While this dietary deficiency affected expression of dopamine-related proteins in both age groups, in adolescents, but not adults, there was an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was selective to the dorsal striatum. Conclusions These data support a nutritional contribution to optimal cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents. Furthermore, they suggest that n-3 PUFA deficiency disrupts adolescent behaviors through enhanced dorsal striatal dopamine availability. PMID:23890734

  18. Volumetric Titrations Using Electrolytically Generated Reagents for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Iron in Dietary Supplement Tablets: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Christopher; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment for the volumetric quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and iron in dietary supplement tablets is presented. Powdered samples of the dietary supplement tablets were volumetrically titrated against electrolytically generated reagents, and the mass of dietary reagent in the tablet was determined from the…

  19. Should the pharmacological actions of dietary fatty acids in cardiometabolic disorders be classified based on biological or chemical function?

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-07-01

    Westernised dietary patterns are characterised by an increased intake of saturated (SFA) and trans fat (TFA) and a high n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. These changes together with increased sugar intake have been implicated in the progression and development of metabolic syndrome. It is now recognised that the type of dietary fat plays a far more significant role in well-being than the absolute amount. This has led to the generalisations that TFA and SFA are detrimental, MUFA is neutral and PUFA is cardioprotective. However, different dietary fatty acids even within the same chemical class elicit different physiological responses. Thus, generalising fatty acids by the degree of unsaturation or the configuration of double bonds alone is unlikely to predict biological responses. In this review, we have examined the effects of different dietary fatty acids on the cardiometabolic risk factors and propose a revised classification based on current evidence of biological activity, rather than chemical structure. Specifically, we propose that dietary fatty acids be classified into five classes as neutral, reduce one or more cardiometabolic risk factors, increase one or more cardiometabolic risk factor, controversial evidence to allow classification and inadequate research to allow classification as a basis for further discussions. PMID:26205317

  20. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into three groups: "Group A" that received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction. PMID:24311880

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  2. Comparison of the fatty-acid compositions of prey items and yolks of Australian insectivorous scincid lizards.

    PubMed

    Speake, Brian K; Herbert, Jacquie F; Thompson, Michael B

    2004-07-01

    The yolk fatty-acid profiles of a range of species of insectivorous scincid lizards generally conform to a common pattern, typified by high proportions of linoleic acid (13.5-18.5% of total fatty acids), substantial proportions of alpha-linolenic acid (2.4-8.2%), and significant amounts of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (1.6-3.3%), eicosapentaenoic (0.7-1.2%) and docosahexaenoic (0.7-1.6%) acids. We characterised the fatty-acid compositions of ten prey taxa that are eaten by female skinks during vitellogenesis. Linoleic acid is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in all prey, excepting Orthoptera where alpha-linolenic acid predominates. To varying extents, alpha-linolenic acid is present in all the prey items. Arachidonic acid forms over 1% of total fatty acids for six of the prey items. Four of the prey items contain eicosapentaenoic acid at over 1%. Most notably, docosahexaenoic acid is essentially absent from all the prey items. There is a general similarity between the fatty-acid profiles of prey and yolk, suggesting that the linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids required for egg formation can be supplied directly from the maternal diet. However, the docosahexaenoic acid of the egg lipids cannot derive from the diet and must, therefore, be formed by biosynthesis in the maternal liver, using dietary alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids as precursors. PMID:15085383

  3. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Modulate Large-Scale Systems Organization in the Rhesus Macaque Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Christopher D.; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function. PMID:24501348

  4. Separation of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in food by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Laiel C; Donkor, Kingsley K; Church, John S; Cinel, Bruno; Prema, Dipesh; Dugan, Michael E R

    2013-10-01

    A lower dietary omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid ratio (<4) has been shown to be beneficial in preventing a number of chronic illnesses. Interest exists in developing more rapid and sensitive analytical methods for profiling fatty acid levels in foods. An aqueous CE method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 n-3 and n-6 relevant fatty acids. The effect of pH and concentration of buffer, type and concentration of organic modifier, and additive on the separation was investigated in order to determine the best conditions for the analysis. Baseline separations of the 15 fatty acids were achieved using 40 mM borate buffer at pH 9.50 containing 50 mM SDS, 10 mM β-cyclodextrin, and 10% acetonitrile. The developed CE method has LODs of <5 mg/L and good linearity (R(2) > 0.980) for all fatty acids studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in flax seed, Udo® oils and a selection of grass-fed and grain-fed beef muscle samples. PMID:23943402

  5. Deficit in Prepulse Inhibition in Mice Caused by Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Irina; Alvheim, Anita R.; Hussein, Nahed; Salem, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may be biosynthesized from a precursor α-linolenic acid (LNA) or obtained preformed in the diet. Dams were fed four diets with different levels of the various n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and their offspring were weaned to the same diets: “n-3 Deficient”, containing (as % total fatty acids) 0.07% of LNA; “Low LNA” (0.4%); “High LNA” (4.8%); and a “DHA+EPA” diet, containing 0.4% of LNA, 2% DHA and 2% EPA. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response in C57Bl6 mice. The n-3 Deficient and Low LNA diets caused a substantial deficit in PPI compared to the DHA+EPA diet, whereas the High LNA diet induced a less pronounced, but significant reduction of PPI. These are the first data that demonstrate a deficit in sensorimotor gating in rodents caused by an inadequate amount of the n-3 fatty acids in the diet. Our results differentiate the effects of a High LNA diet from one with added EPA and DHA even though the difference in brain DHA content is only 12% between these dietary groups. PMID:20001105

  6. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed. PMID:23417844

  7. Interactive effects of dietary composition and hormonal treatment on reproductive development of cultured female European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Filipa F G; Støttrup, Josianne G; Kjørsvik, Elin; Tveiten, Helge; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Farmed female eels were fed two experimental diets with similar proximate composition but different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. Both diets had similar levels of arachidonic acid (ARA), while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one diet were approximately 4.5 and 2.6 times higher compared to the other diet, respectively. After the feeding period, each diet group was divided into two and each half received one of two hormonal treatments using salmon pituitary extract (SPE) for 13 weeks: i) a constant hormone dose of 18.75mg SPE/kg initial body weight (BW) and ii) a variable hormone dosage that increased from 12.5mg SPE/kg initial BW to 25mg SPE/kg initial BW. Results showed a significant interaction between diets and hormonal treatments on gonadosomatic index (GSI), indicating that the effect of broodstock diets on ovarian development depends on both nutritional status and hormonal regime. Females fed with higher levels of n-3 series PUFAs and stimulated with the constant hormonal treatment reached higher GSIs than those receiving the variable hormonal treatment. However, when females were fed lower levels of n-3 series PUFAs there was no difference in the effect of hormonal treatments on GSI. We also found that, independent of hormonal treatment, the diet with higher levels of n-3 series PUFAs led to the most advanced stages of oocyte development, such as germinal vesicle migration. Concentration of sex steroids (E2, T, and 11-KT) in the plasma did not differ between diets and hormonal treatments, but was significantly correlated with ovarian developmental stage. In conclusion, increasing dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs seemed to promote oocyte growth, leading to a more rapid progression of ovarian development in European eel subjected to hormonal treatment. PMID:27264530

  8. Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Caciano, Susan L.; Inman, Cynthia L.; Gockel-Blessing, Elizabeth E.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet) is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization) and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037). The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044) and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060). Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance. Key points Short-term (4-9 days) changes in

  9. A Prospective Study of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Murff, Harvey J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Dai, Qi; Kallianpur, Asha; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In animal models of colon cancer, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-neoplastic properties while n-6 PUFAs may promote carcinogenesis. Prior epidemiological studies have been inconsistent regarding the association of PUFAs and colorectal cancer. We prospectively evaluated the association between PUFA intake and colorectal cancer in a cohort of 73242 Chinese women who were interviewed in person at the baseline survey for the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Dietary fatty acid consumption was derived using data collected from two food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline and 2 to 3 years later. The dietary total n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared to women in the lowest quintile group, elevated relative risks were observed for the second (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.00–2.32); third (RR = 2.20, 1.41–3.45); fourth (RR= 1.65, 0.99–2.75); and fifth (RR= 1.95, 1.07–3.54) quintile groups. Arachidonic acid was associated with colorectal cancer risk with elevated relative risks of 1.20Q2-Q1 (0.87–1.64), 1.44 Q3-Q1 (1.05–1.98), 1.61 Q4-Q1 (1.17–2.23), and 1.39 Q5-Q1 (0.97–1.99) (Ptrend = 0.03) with increasing dietary quintile. In a subset of 150 cancer cases and 150 controls, we found a statistically significant trend between an increasing n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and increasing production of prostaglandin E2 as measured by urinary PGE2 metabolites (P = 0.03). These results suggest that dietary PUFA and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA intake may be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this association may be mediated in part through PGE2 production. PMID:19661088

  10. Effect of Physical Inactivity on the Oxidation of Saturated and Monounsaturated Dietary Fatty Acids: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Schoeller, Dale A; Normand, Sylvie; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Laville, Martine; Shriver, Timothy; Desage, Michel; Maho, Yvon Le; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Gharib, Claude; Blanc, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in the way dietary fat is metabolized can be considered causative in obesity. The role of sedentary behavior in this defect has not been determined. We hypothesized that physical inactivity partitions dietary fats toward storage and that a resistance exercise training program mitigates storage. Design: We used bed rest, with randomization to resistance training, as a model of physical inactivity. Setting: The trial took place at the Space Clinic (Toulouse, France). Participants: A total of 18 healthy male volunteers, of mean age ± standard deviation 32.6 ± 4.0 y and body mass index 23.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, were enrolled. Interventions: An initial 15 d of baseline data collection were followed by 3 mo of strict bed-rest alone (control group, n = 9) or with the addition of supine resistance exercise training every 3 d (exercise group, n = 9). Outcome measures: Oxidation of labeled [d31]palmitate (the main saturated fatty acid of human diet) and [1-13C]oleate (the main monounsaturated fatty acid), body composition, net substrate use, and plasma hormones and metabolites were measured. Results: Between-group comparisons showed that exercise training did not affect oxidation of both oleate (mean difference 5.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −3.3% to 14.5%; p = 0.20) and palmitate (mean difference −0.2%; 95% CI, −4.1% to 3.6%; p = 0.89). Within-group comparisons, however, showed that inactivity changed oxidation of palmitate in the control group by −11.0% (95% CI, −19.0% to −2.9%; p = 0.01) and in the exercise group by −11.3% (95% CI, −18.4% to −4.2%; p = 0.008). In contrast, bed rest did not significantly affect oleate oxidation within groups. In the control group, the mean difference in oleate oxidation was 3.2% (95% CI, −4.2% to 10.5%; p = 0.34) and 6.8% (95% CI, −1.2% to 14.7%; p = 0.08) in the exercise group. Conclusions: Independent of changes in energy balance (intake and/or output), physical inactivity decreased the

  11. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level. PMID:18568754

  12. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  13. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion (“HC” with 60:40% or “LC” with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  14. Generation and Dietary Modulation of Anti-Inflammatory Electrophilic Omega-3 Fatty Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Cipollina, Chiara; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease cardiovascular risk via suppression of inflammation. The generation of electrophilic α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives of the ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in activated human macrophages is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). These derivatives are potent pleiotropic anti-inflammatory signaling mediators that act via mechanisms including the activation of Nrf2-dependent phase 2 gene expression and suppression of pro-inflammatory NF-κB-driven gene expression. Herein, the endogenous generation of ω-3 PUFAs electrophilic ketone derivatives and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated in human neutrophils. In addition, their dietary modulation was assessed through a randomized clinical trial. Methods Endogenous generation of electrophilic omega-3 PUFAs and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated by mass spectrometry in neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects, both at baseline and upon stimulation with calcium ionophore. For the clinical trial, participants were healthy adults 30–55 years of age with a reported EPA+DHA consumption of ≤300 mg/day randomly assigned to parallel groups receiving daily oil capsule supplements for a period of 4 months containing either 1.4 g of EPA+DHA (active condition, n = 24) or identical appearing soybean oil (control condition, n = 21). Participants and laboratory technicians remained blinded to treatment assignments. Results 5-lypoxygenase-dependent endogenous generation of 7-oxo-DHA, 7-oxo-DPA and 5-oxo-EPA and their hydroxy precursors is reported in human neutrophils stimulated with calcium ionophore and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Dietary EPA+DHA supplementation significantly increased the formation of 7-oxo-DHA and 5-oxo-EPA, with no significant modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite levels. Conclusions The endogenous detection of these electrophilic ω-3 fatty acid ketone derivatives supports the

  15. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Roberts, Matthew A; Hoff, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6), FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3) and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set) were changed by dietary treatment (P < 0.001). Relative to other groups, COMB had unique affects on murine hepatic transcripts involved in cytoskeletal and carbohydrate metabolism; whereas FUNG affected amino acid metabolism via CTNB1 signaling. All three diets affected transcripts linked to apoptosis and cell proliferation, with evidence FISH may have increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation via various transcription factors, kinases, and phosphatases. The three diets affected lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and bile acid metabolism through diverse pathways. Relative to other groups, FISH activated cyps that form hydroxylated fatty acids known to affect vascular tone and ion channel activity. FA synthesis and delta 9 desaturation were down regulated by COMB relative to other groups, implying that a FA mixture of 20:4n6, 20:5n3, and 22:6n3 is most effective at down regulating synthesis, via INS1, SREBP, PPAR alpha, and TNF signaling. Heme synthesis and the utilization of heme for hemoglobin production were likely affected by FUNG and FISH. Finally, relative to other groups, FISH increased numerous transcripts linked to combating oxidative such as peroxidases, an aldehyde dehydrogenase, and heat shock proteins, consistent with the major LC-PUFA in FISH (20:5n3, 22:5n3, 22:6n3) being more oxidizable than the major fatty acids in FUNG (20:4n6). Conclusion Distinct

  16. Spillover of Fatty Acids During Dietary Fat Storage in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Almandoz, Jaime P.; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A.; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T.; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A.; Nelson, Robert H.; Miles, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [3H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-13C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P < 0.0001) and an ∼23% decrease in oleate flux (P = 0.007). Fractional spillover did not change (P = NS). At baseline, there was a strong negative correlation between spillover and leg fat (r = −0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = −0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = −0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23349503

  17. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Bernhard, Annette; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Sonne, Si Brask; Mortensen, Alicja; Hao, Qin; Brattelid, Trond; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined in mice fed fish-oil-based high fat diets during a long-term feeding trial and accumulation of POPs was measured after 3, 6 and 18months of feeding. Further, we performed dose-response experiments using four abundant POPs found in marine sources, PCB-153, PCB-138, PCB-118 and pp'-DDE as single congeners or as mixtures in combination with different diets: one low fat diet and two high fat diets with different protein:sucrose ratios. We measured accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue and liver and determined obesity development, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics. Compared with mice fed diets with a low protein:sucrose ratio, mice fed diets with a high protein:sucrose ratio had significantly lower total burden of POPs in adipose tissue, were protected from obesity development and exhibited enhanced hepatic expression of genes involved in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics. Exposure to POPs, either as single compounds or mixtures, had no effect on obesity development, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the dietary composition of macronutrients profoundly modulates POP accumulation in adipose tissues adding an additional parameter to be included in future studies. Our results indicate that alterations in macronutrient composition might be an additional route for reducing total body burden of POPs. PMID:26507541

  18. Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet can markedly affect acid-base status and it significantly influences chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression. The relationship of dietary acid load (DAL) and CKD has not been assessed on a population level. We examined the association of estimated net acid excretion (NAEes) with CKD; and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of NAEes. Methods Among 12,293 U.S. adult participants aged >20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, we assessed dietary acid by estimating NAEes from nutrient intake and body surface area; kidney damage by albuminuria; and kidney dysfunction by eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 using the MDRD equation. We tested the association of NAEes with participant characteristics using median regression; while for albuminuria, eGFR, and stages of CKD we used logistic regression. Results Median regression results (β per quintile) indicated that adults aged 40–60 years (β [95% CI] = 3.1 [0.3–5.8]), poverty (β [95% CI] = 7.1 [4.01–10.22]), black race (β [95% CI] = 13.8 [10.8–16.8]), and male sex (β [95% CI] = 3.0 [0.7- 5.2]) were significantly associated with an increasing level of NAEes. Higher levels of NAEes compared with lower levels were associated with greater odds of albuminuria (OR [95% CI] = 1.57 [1.20–2.05]). We observed a trend toward greater NAEes being associated with higher risk of low eGFR, which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Higher NAEes is associated with albuminuria and low eGFR, and socio-demographic risk factors for CKD are associated with higher levels of NAEes. DAL may be an important target for future interventions in populations at high risk for CKD. PMID:25151260

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS) - Implications for dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The accretion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in membranes of the central nervous system is required for the optimum development of retina and brain functions. DHA status is determined by the dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), both the metabolic precursor α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) and DHA. Clinical studies have shown that feeding term or premature infants with formula low in total n-3 PUFA may alter the maturation of visual acuity. Moreover, feeding infants over the first 6 mon of life with formula containing adequate α-LNA, but no DHA, did not sustain the same cerebral accretion of DHA as that of breast-fed infants. Whether lower DHA accretion in brain of formula-fed term infants impairs neurophysiological performances is not clearly established. Contradictory data have been published, possibly owing to confounding factors such as maternal intakes and/or genetic variations in PUFA metabolism. Nevertheless, a large corpus of data is in favor of the recommendation of regular dietary intakes of DHA (during at least the first 6 mon of life) and suggest that DHA should be added in formulas at the level generally found in human milk (0.2-0.3 wt% of total fatty acids). The maternal intake of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy and lactation is also crucial, since the n-3 PUFA are provided during perinatal development through placental transfer and maternal milk, which determines the DHA status of the newborn and consequently impacts on post-natal development of brain and visual functions. Whether more clinical studies are needed to control and improve the impact of DHA maternal intakes on the progeny's neurodevelopment, several commissions recommended by precaution that DHA average intake for pregnant and lactating women should be of 200-300 mg/day. PMID:20478353

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (P<0.05). Sperm motility parameters, morphologically normal sperm, and acrosome integrity in T2 boars were greater than those in T1 boars (P<0.05) during the experiment. Free amino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (P<0.05). Furthermore, sows inseminated with semen collected from T2 boars gave birth to more live piglets than those inseminated with semen collected from T1 boars (P=0.04). In conclusion, supplementation of boar diet with amino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets. PMID:27509874

  1. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dietary GL supplementation. Antioxidative effect (total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ reducing activity, reducing power, and TBARS value) in the thigh from the broilers improved significantly with 1.0% GL. Linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the broilers fed both levels of dietary GL. However, volatile basic nitrogen content and microbiological quality was not shown to be different between control and treated group. Results indicate that 1.0% dietary supplementation of GL can improve the antioxidant activity of broiler thigh meat and may enhance the meat quality. PMID:25049528

  2. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  3. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  4. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  5. Dietary essential fatty acids and gender-specific behavioral responses in cranially irradiated rats

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, T David; Wollan, Michael O; Anderson, Stacy L; Gaston, Robert; Meyer, William; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Holloway, Frank A; Martin, Rex E

    2006-01-01

    Specific memory deficits, reduced intellectual processing speed, and a variety of social and behavioral problems have been implicated as long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy (CRT). These deficits are thought to be related to changes in brain cytology and structure associated with microvascular aberrations. N-3 fatty acids may serve as protectants in pediatric patients who receive CRT for brain tumors. Timed-pregnant rat dams were fed one of four diets that were identical in all respects, except for their essential fatty acid content. The dams were placed on these diets at the beginning of the third trimester of gestation and their pups remained on them throughout the study. The rats’ behavioral response as judged by acoustic startle response (ASR) and neurocognitive response (performance in a radial maze, RM) were evaluated in relation to diet, gender, and CRT. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) female rats will show greater CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (2) dietary n-3 fatty acids will diminish CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (3) gender-specific differences would be dampened by n-3 fatty acids in the diet. All three hypotheses were partially supported. These findings are discussed in light of the potential neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:19412484

  6. Digestibility and metabolism of dietary guanidino acetic acid fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Tossenberger, J; Rademacher, M; Németh, K; Halas, V; Lemme, A

    2016-09-01

    In two feeding experiments the retention of supplemental guanidine acetic acid (GAA) in broilers was investigated. In both experiments, the same three treatments were used; the basal feed was supplemented with 0, 0.6, or 6.0 g GAA per kg of feed. While in a growth study (experiment 1) day-old, male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets for 35 days, these diets were fed for only 8 days to fistulated broilers 34 days of age in a balance study (experiment 2). Feeding 0.6 g/kg GAA did not improve growth performance whereas 6.0 g/kg GAA resulted in a reduction of feed consumption and consequently of weight gain (P ≤ 0.05). Feed conversion was not affected and was 1.48 to 1.49 in all treatments. Increasing levels of dietary GAA gradually increased the creatine concentration in breast muscle and liver tissues (P ≤ 0.05) indicating a transformation and retention of dietary GAA as creatine. In experiment 2 the non-supplemented basal diet allowed us to determine the endogenous GAA, creatine, and creatinine excretions. Accordingly, only small amounts of these metabolites were recovered in feces while they were much higher in urine. Increasing dietary GAA intake increased fecal and renal GAA, creatine, and creatinine excretion and was significant (P ≤ 0.05) at 6.0 g/kg dietary GAA compared to no or 0.6 g/kg GAA supplementation. The mean true fecal digestibility of GAA (99%) was unaffected by the level of supplemental GAA. Considering renal GAA excretions, true availability of supplemental GAA was reduced with increasing dose (83% vs. 71%; P ≤ 0.05). Taking into account creatine and creatinine excretions above those of the basal diet, as they are a consequence of increasing dietary supply, true availability of supplemental GAA shrank from 76% (0.6 g/kg GAA) to 46% (6.0 g/kg GAA; P ≤ 0.05). Changes in blood creatine and creatinine levels reflected the changes observed in the liver and muscle tissues and may suggest increased transport to excretion organs. Data from these

  7. Adding monounsaturated fatty acids to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.A.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Wong, Julia M.W.; Kendall, Cyril; Lewis, Gary F.; Vidgen, Edward; Connelly, Philip W.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Lamarche, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Background Higher intake of monounsaturated fat may raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol without raising low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We tested whether increasing the monounsaturated fat content of a diet proven effective for lowering LDL cholesterol (dietary portfolio) also modified other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, specifically by increasing HDL cholesterol, lowering serum triglyceride and further reducing the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Methods Twenty-four patients with hyperlipidemia consumed a therapeutic diet very low in saturated fat for one month and were then randomly assigned to a dietary portfolio low or high in monounsaturated fatty acid for another month. We supplied participants’ food for the two-month period. Calorie intake was based on Harris–Benedict estimates for energy requirements. Results For patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol rose, whereas for those consuming the dietary portfolio low in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol did not change. The 12.5% treatment difference was significant (0.12 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.003). The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% with the diet high in monounsaturated fat relative to the diet low in monounsaturated fat (−0.28, 95% CI −0.59 to −0.04, p = 0.025). Patients consuming the diet high in monounsaturated fat also had significantly higher concentrations of apolipoprotein AI, and their C-reactive protein was significantly lower. No treatment differences were seen for triglycerides, other lipids or body weight, and mean weight loss was similar for the diets high in monounsaturated fat (−0.8 kg) and low in monounsaturated fat (−1.2 kg). Interpretation Monounsaturated fat increased the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio, despite statin-like reductions in LDL cholesterol. The potential benefits for cardiovascular risk were

  8. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies. PMID:26033744

  9. Dietary intake of folate by adolescents and the potential effect of flour fortification with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, P J; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Butler, T J; Adamson, A J

    2001-10-01

    The UK Department of Health recently recommended that flour be fortified with folic acid, at 2400 microg/kg. The objectives of the present paper were: to determine the consequence of this on folic acid intake of adolescents; to determine the level of fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in adolescent girls (the amount recommended periconceptionally); to estimate the consequence of fortification on folic acid intake of high flour consumers; and to report on folate intake of adolescents. Dietary intake of folate and flour were determined by analysis of an existing database of the diets of 379 English adolescents. The folic acid intake that would result from white flour fortification with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg was determined and the level of folic acid fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in girls from this source was also calculated. Without flour fortification, 6.9 % of girls failed to reach the UK lower reference nutrient intake for total folate. Fortification of white flour with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg would result in an additional folic acid intake of 191(sem 6) microg/d in girls. To ensure 97 % of girls received 400 microg/d from white flour, white flour would need to be fortified at a level of 10 430 microg/kg, resulting in intakes of 1260 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) female white flour consumers and 1422 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) male white flour consumers. PMID:11591241

  10. Reproductive performance of dairy cows is influenced by prepartum feed restriction and dietary fatty acid source.

    PubMed

    Colazo, M G; Hayirli, A; Doepel, L; Ambrose, D J

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed restriction and source of dietary fatty acids during the close-up dry period on postcalving reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Thirty-four days before expected calving, pregnant Holstein cows (n = 72; parity 1 to 5) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments were ad libitum (AL) or 24% feed restriction (FR) in combination with 1 of 3 oilseed supplements at 8% of diet dry matter: canola, linola, or flax to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic fatty acids, respectively. After calving, cows were fed a common lactation diet that contained no oilseeds. Measurements of uterus, corpus luteum, and follicles were obtained by ultrasonography twice weekly from 7 +/- 1 d after calving until the first ovulation. Cows (n = 66) were subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and pregnancy was determined 32 d later. Feed-restricted cows had lower dry matter intake and lost more body weight prepartum. Energy balance (Mcal/d) was negative in FR cows prepartum but they had a less severe negative energy balance postpartum. The dietary source of fatty acid did not affect energy balance. Cows fed AL had a higher incidence of uterine infections (10/37 vs. 2/35) but tended to have fewer ovarian cysts (2/37 vs. 7/35) than FR cows. Mean (+/-SE) interval from calving to uterine involution did not differ among dietary treatments (26.8 +/- 1.8 d). Interval from calving to first ovulation was longer in cows fed canola than in those fed either linola or flax (34.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 23.7 +/- 3.2 and 21.0 +/- 3.1 d, respectively). A greater percentage of cows fed AL conceived to the first TAI (47.1 vs. 18.8) and tended to have fewer mean days open (157 +/- 10.8 vs. 191 +/- 10.1) than cows fed FR. In summary, FR cows had a lower incidence of uterine infections, but they were less fertile as reflected by a lower percent pregnancy to first TAI and increased days open. Cows fed diets enriched in

  11. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  12. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid vs. docosahexaenoic acid supply on the distribution of fatty acids among the rat cardiac subcellular membranes after a short- or long-term dietary exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brochot, Amandine; Guinot, Marine; Auchere, Daniel; Macaire, Jean-Paul; Weill, Pierre; Grynberg, Alain; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous work showed that the functional cardiac effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in rats requires a long feeding period (6 months), although a docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid-supply affects cardiac adrenergic response after 2 months. However, the total cardiac membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition remained unchanged after 2 months. This delay could be due to a specific reorganization of the different subcellular membrane PUFA profiles. This study was designed to investigate the evolution between 2 and 6 months of diet duration of the fatty acid profile in sarcolemmal (SL), mitochondrial (MI), nuclear (NU) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane fractions. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups (n = 10/diet/period), either n-3 PUFA-free diet (CTL), or ALA or DHA-rich diets. After 2 or 6 months, the subcellular cardiac membrane fractions were separated by differential centrifugations and sucrose gradients. Each membrane profile was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) after lipid extraction. Results As expected the n-3 PUFA-rich diets incorporated n-3 PUFA instead of n-6 PUFA in all the subcellular fractions, which also exhibited individual specificities. The diet duration increased SFA and decreased PUFA in SL, whereas NU remained constant. The SR and MI enriched in n-3 PUFA exhibited a decreased DHA level with ageing in the DHA and CTL groups. Conversely, the n-3 PUFA level remained unchanged in the ALA group, due to a significant increase in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). N-3 PUFA rich diets lead to a better PUFA profile in all the fractions and significantly prevent the profile modifications induced by ageing. Conclusion With the ALA diet the n-3 PUFA content, particularly in SR and SL kept increasing between 2 and 6 months, which may partly account for the delay to achieve the modification of adrenergic response. PMID:19320987

  13. Dietary long-chain unsaturated fatty acids acutely and differently reduce the activities of lipogenic enzymes and of citrate carrier in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Gnoni, Antonio; Giudetti, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    The activities of lipogenic enzymes appear to fluctuate with changes in the level and type of dietary fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to induce on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) the highest inhibitory effect, which occurs through a long-term adaptation. Data on the acute effects of dietary fatty acids on DNL are lacking. In this study with rats, the acute 1-day effect of high-fat (15 % w/w) diets (HFDs) enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), i.e., monounsaturated (MUFA) and PUFA, of the ω-6 and ω-3 series on DNL and plasma lipid level was investigated; a comparison with a longer time feeding (21 days) was routinely carried out. After 1-day HFD administration UFA, when compared to SFA, reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level and the activities of the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), a decreased activity of the citrate carrier (CIC), a mitochondrial protein linked to lipogenesis, was also detected. In this respect, ω-3 PUFA was the most effective. On the other hand, PUFA maintained the effects at longer times, and the acute inhibition induced by MUFA feeding on DNL enzyme and CIC activities was almost nullified at 21 days. Mitochondrial fatty acid composition was slightly but significantly changed both at short- and long-term treatment, whereas the early changes in mitochondrial phospholipid composition vanished in long-term experiments. Our results suggest that in the early phase of administration, UFA coordinately reduced both the activities of de novo lipogenic enzymes and of CIC. ω-3 PUFA showed the greatest effect. PMID:27312217

  14. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The δ13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  15. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

  16. Dietary long-chain PUFA in the form of TAG or phospholipids influence lymph lipoprotein size and composition in piglets.

    PubMed

    Amate, Laura; Gil, Angel; Ramírez, María

    2002-10-01

    Several sources of long-chain PUFA (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their FA composition, the chemical form of the FA esters [TAG or phospholipids (PL)], and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution, and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of lymph lipoproteins. Eighteen pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 2 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TAG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TAG), or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and FA composition of lymph, main lymph fractions (TAG or PL), and the particle size of lymph lipoproteins. The average diameter of lymph lipoproteins was significantly lower in the E-PL group compared with the control and TF-TAG groups (C: 3902 +/- 384 A; TF-TAG: 3773 +/- 384 A; E-PL: 2370 +/- 185 A). Arachidonic acid and DHA contents in lymph and lymph-TAG were significantly higher in the TF-TAG group compared to the E-PL group (0.50 +/- 0.03 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 g/100 g vs. 0.29 +/- 0.04 and 0.12 +/- 0.03 g/100 g, respectively). The addition to the diet of LCP in the form of TAG or PL affected the size of intestinal lipoproteins and also led to a different distribution of these FA in lymph lipoproteins. PMID:12530557

  17. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel; Knight, Annemarie; Asante, Matilda; Thomas, Jane; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26) and London (n=57) was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001), fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005), and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, p<0.001) and a significantly lower energy from carbohydrate (52.2±7.7 vs. 61.5±9.3%, p<0.001). Dietary fibre intake was significantly higher in the UK-Ghanaian diet compared to the native Ghanaian diet (8.3±3.1 vs. 6.7±2.2 g/1,000 kcal, p=0.007). There was significantly less energy, macronutrients, and fibre derived from traditional foods post-migration. Non-traditional foods including breakfast cereals, wholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities. PMID:26610275

  18. Chemical composition, dietary fibre, tannins and minerals of grain amaranth genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Arif F; Seguin, Philippe; Gélinas, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of 28 white and coloured grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) genotypes. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) concentration was greater while strach concentration was lower for coloured seeds genotypes than white seeds genotypes. Total dietary fibre followed a similar trend to that observed for NDF. Total tannin concentrations ranged between 20.7 and 0 g/kg with total and hydrolysed tannin concentrations being higher for white than for coloured seeds genotypes. Coloured seeds genotypes contained higher Mg and Ca concentrations than white seeds genotypes. However, seed colour had no influence on K, Na and P concentrations. Copper and Fe were the most variable micro-minerals in the evaluated genotypes with no significant effect of seed colour on the concentration of either mineral. PMID:21599462

  19. Impact of dietary protein on microbiota composition and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets in relation to gut health: a review.

    PubMed

    Rist, V T S; Weiss, E; Eklund, M; Mosenthin, R

    2013-07-01

    In pigs, the microbial ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is influenced by various factors; however, variations in diet composition have been identified as one of the most important determinants. Marked changes in fermentation activities and microbial ecology may occur when altering the diet, for example, from milk to solid feed during weaning. In that way, access of pathogens to the disturbed ecosystem is alleviated, leading to infectious diseases and diarrhea. Thus, there is increasing interest in improving intestinal health by use of dietary ingredients suitable to beneficially affect the microbial composition and activity. For example, fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to promote growth of beneficial Lactobacillus species and bifidobacteria, thereby enhancing colonization resistance against potential pathogens or production of short-chain fatty acids, which can be used as energy source for epithelial cells. On the other hand, fermentation of protein results in the production of various potentially toxic products, such as amines and NH3, and is often associated with growth of potential pathogens. In that way, excessive protein intake has been shown to stimulate the growth of potentially pathogenic species such as Clostridium perfringens, and to reduce fecal counts of beneficial bifidobacteria. Therefore, it seems to be a promising approach to support growth and metabolic activity of the beneficial microbiota by developing suitable feeding strategies. For example, a reduction of dietary CP content and, at the same time, dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates have proven to successfully suppress protein fermentation. In addition, the intestinal microbiota seems to be sensible to variations in dietary protein source, such as the use of highly digestible protein sources may reduce growth of protein-fermenting and potentially pathogenic species. The objective of the present review is to assess the impact of dietary protein on

  20. Dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid-base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish. PMID:26041391

  1. Effect of altitude on body composition during mountaineering expeditions: interrelationships with changes in dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, M; Armellini, F; Turcato, E; Robbi, R; Micciolo, R; Todesco, T; Mandragona, R; Angelini, G; Bosello, O

    1996-01-01

    Loss of body weight occurs during high mountain expeditions but whether it is due to inadequate diet or other factors is unknown. Moreover the composition of the weight loss is unclear. The aim of our study was to compare the nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic changes during a mountaineering expedition in two groups of climbers, whose dietary energy intake was ad libitum, one given a lacto-fish-ovo-vegetarian diet and one an omnivorous diet. The intake of various nutrients, body weight, body composition and metabolic variables were evaluated before and during high altitude exposure and after the return to low altitude. The two groups were matched for age, body mass index and gender. No significant differences were found for nutritional variables between the two groups. Energy, animal and vegetable protein and fiber intake were significantly lower at climbing quote than before the beginning of the expedition. Significant differences between before the beginning and base camp in all variables were found. Energy and animal protein intake, but not vegetable protein and fiber intake, were significantly lower at climbing quote than at base camp. All subjects significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences but not fat-free mass and fat mass. Metabolic variables significantly improved after the mountaineering expedition. Our study seems to confirm that a mountaineering expedition decreases energy and protein intake, reduces body weight and improves metabolic variables. Because our subjects spontaneously tended to have the same food intake despite the different dietary recommendations, our study failed to observe any differences between the two groups. However, our study shows that a low protein diet, in which the type of protein is mostly vegetable protein, could be adapted for climbers determining only a small decrease of fat-free mass. PMID:9087309

  2. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol + ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary ??-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five levels for a total of fifteen dietary combinations (diets). Oxidative damage in liver and kidney (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls) and erythrocytes (erythrocyte resistance to peroxidative lysis, ERPL) was determined after feeding experimental diets for 16 (early December) and 28 (early March) weeks. Only TOCAA influenced oxidative stress in this study, with most measures of oxidative damage decreasing (liver lipid peroxidation in December and March; ERPL in December; liver protein carbonyl in March) with increasing levels of TOCAA. We also observed a TOCAA-stimulated increase in susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidative lysis in March at the highest levels of TOCAA. The data suggest that under most circumstances a progressive decrease in oxidative stress occurs as dietary TOCAA increases, but higher TOCAA concentrations can stimulate oxidative damage in some situations. Higher levels of TOCAA in the diet were required in March than in December to achieve comparable levels of protection against oxidative damage, which may have been due to physiological changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation. Erythrocytes appeared to be more sensitive to variation in dietary levels of TOCAA than liver and kidney tissues. Using the March ERPL assay results as a baseline, a TOCAA level of approximately 350-600 mg/kg diet would provide adequate protection against lipid peroxidation under most circumstances in juvenile Chinook salmon. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K; Hayes, K C; DeWitt, G F; Jegathesan, M; Satgunasingam, N; Ong, A S; Tan, D

    1992-08-01

    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma. PMID:1506599

  4. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-12-15

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95-1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77-1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95-1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88-1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93-1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84-1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81-1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98-1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  5. Effects of dietary sulfur amino acids on lead toxicity in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Factorial experiments were conducted to examine the interactions of dietary methionine with cystine, choline and glycine in lead (Pb) intoxicated chicks. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed a basal diet deficient in methionine and total sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA) with 0 or 1000 ppm added Pb. Methionine or methionine plus cystine improved growth regardless of Pb level; cystine addition alone improved growth only when Pb was present. Dietary methionine appeared to counteract Pb toxicity more effectively than cystine. In Experiments 2 and 3 dietary variables were 0 or 1000 ppm Pb, adequate or inadequate methionine and marginal or excess (Experiment 2) or adequate or inadequate (Experiment 3) choline. In Experiment 2 growth depression by Pb was less with methionine-adequate compared to methionine-inadequate diets; there were no differences in growth with choline-marginal or choline-excess diets. In Experiment 3, the Pb-induced growth depression was exacerbated by adequate choline when methionine-inadequate diets were fed. It appears that Pb lowers the chick's choline requirement and that the methyl moiety of methionine does not participate directly in Pb detoxification. In Experiment 4 effects of adequate or deficient methionine, adequate or excess glycine and 0 or 1000 ppm Pb in choline-deficient chicks were studied. Methionine stimulated growth and the response was greater when excess glycine was present. Excess glycine stimulated growth only in the presence of adequate methionine suggesting glycine is limiting for growth in choline-deficient, methionine-adequate diets. These studies indicate that adequate methionine ameliorates Pb-induced growth depression in growing chicks but that the methionine effect is greater with choline-adequate than with choline-deficient diets. The amelioration of Pb toxicity by methionine may be partly related to increased excretion of Pb.

  6. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95–1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77–1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95–1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88–1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93–1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84–1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81–1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98–1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  7. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-05-28

    Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

  8. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids rescues fragile X phenotypes in Fmr1-Ko mice.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Goubran, Mina G; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnes; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Crusio, Wim E; Layé, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are known to critically influence brain development and functions. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has been suggested as a non-pharmacological therapy for a number of developmental disorders, e.g., autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), but human studies so far have led to conflicting results. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the therapeutic impact of n-3 PUFAs on these disorders might be explained by their anti-inflammatory properties and their promoting effects on synaptic function and plasticity, but no clear evidence has been produced in this direction. We evaluated the impact of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), i.e., a major developmental disease and the most frequent monogenic cause of ASD. Fmr1-KO and wild-type mice were provided with a diet enriched or not with n-3 PUFAs from weaning until adulthood when they were tested for multiple FXS-like behaviors. The brain expression of several cytokines and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was concomitantly assessed as inflammatory and synaptic markers. n-3 PUFA supplementation rescued most of the behavioral abnormalities displayed by Fmr1-KO mice, including alterations in emotionality, social interaction and non-spatial memory, although not their deficits in social recognition and spatial memory. n-3 PUFAs also rescued most of the neuroinflammatory imbalances of KOs, but had a limited impact on their BDNF deficits. These results demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation, although not a panacea, has a considerable therapeutic value for FXS and potentially for ASD, suggesting a major mediating role of neuroinflammatory mechanisms. PMID:25080404

  9. Modulation of fear memory by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids via cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Daisuke; Takeo, Jiro; Koppensteiner, Peter; Wada, Keiji; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2014-07-01

    Although the underlying mechanism remains unknown, several studies have suggested benefits of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) for patients with anxiety disorders. Elevated fear is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of particular anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the dietary n-3 to n-6 PUFA (3:6) ratio influences fear memory. For this purpose, the effects of various dietary 3:6 ratios on fear memory were examined in mice using contextual fear conditioning, and the effects of these diets on central synaptic transmission were examined to elucidate the mechanism of action of PUFA. We found that fear memory correlated negatively with dietary, serum, and brain 3:6 ratios in mice. The low fear memory in mice fed a high 3:6 ratio diet was increased by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, reaching a level seen in mice fed a low 3:6 ratio diet. The agonist sensitivity of CB1 receptor was enhanced in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) of mice fed a high 3:6 ratio diet, compared with that of mice fed a low 3:6 ratio diet. Similar enhancement was induced by pharmacological expulsion of cholesterol in the neuronal membrane of brain slices from mice fed a low 3:6 ratio diet. CB1 receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity was facilitated in pyramidal neurons of the BLA in mice fed a high 3:6 ratio diet. These results suggest that the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA is a factor regulating fear memory via cannabinoid CB1 receptors. PMID:24518289

  10. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles. PMID:26850644

  11. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

    PubMed

    Sopian, Nur Farhana Ahmad; Ajat, Mokrish; Shafie, Nurul' Izzati; Noor, Mohd Hezmee Mohd; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Ahmad, Hafandi

    2015-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6), standard pellet added with 10% (w/w) fish oil (FO, n = 6), 10% (w/w) soybean oil (SO, n = 6) and 10% (w/w) butter (BT, n = 6). After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice. PMID:26184176

  12. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  13. Dietary Available Phosphorus Affected Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Hepatic Antioxidant Property of Juvenile Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system. PMID:22924032

  14. Habitual dietary intake is associated with stool microbiota composition in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Simões, Catarina D; Maukonen, Johanna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Saarela, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The impact of diet on the gut microbiota has usually been assessed by subjecting people to the same controlled diet and thereafter following the shifts in the microbiota. In the present study, we used habitual dietary intake, clinical data, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to characterize the stool microbiota of Finnish monozygotic twins. The effect of diet on the numbers of bacteria was described through a hierarchical linear mixed model that included the twin individuals, stratified by body mass index, and their families as random effects. The abundance and diversity of the bacterial groups studied did not differ between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals with the techniques used. Intakes of energy, monounsaturated fatty acids, n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), n6 PUFAs, and soluble fiber had significant associations with the stool bacterial numbers (e.g., increased energy intake was associated with reduced numbers of Bacteroides spp.). In addition, co-twins with identical energy intake had more similar numbers and DGGE-profile diversities of Bacteroides spp. than did the co-twins with different intake. Moreover, the co-twins who ingested the same amounts of saturated fatty acids had very similar DGGE profiles of Bacteroides spp., whereas the co-twins with similar consumption of fiber had a very low bifidobacterial DGGE-profile similarity. In conclusion, our findings confirm that the diet plays an important role in the modulation of the stool microbiota, in particular Bacteroides spp. and bifidobacteria. PMID:23343669

  15. Growth performance, vitamin E status, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing various levels of fish oil and vitamin E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance, liver vitamin E status, and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. Basal purified diets (42% protein and 3,800 kcal DE/kg)...

  16. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  17. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  18. Dietary Fatty Acids Directly Impact Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Haghikia, Aiden; Jörg, Stefanie; Duscha, Alexander; Berg, Johannes; Manzel, Arndt; Waschbisch, Anne; Hammer, Anna; Lee, De-Hyung; May, Caroline; Wilck, Nicola; Balogh, Andras; Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge; Akkad, Denis A; Grohme, Diana A; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Kempa, Stefan; Thöne, Jan; Demir, Seray; Müller, Dominik N; Gold, Ralf; Linker, Ralf A

    2015-10-20

    Growing empirical evidence suggests that nutrition and bacterial metabolites might impact the systemic immune response in the context of disease and autoimmunity. We report that long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) enhanced differentiation and proliferation of T helper 1 (Th1) and/or Th17 cells and impaired their intestinal sequestration via p38-MAPK pathway. Alternatively, dietary short-chain FAs (SCFAs) expanded gut T regulatory (Treg) cells by suppression of the JNK1 and p38 pathway. We used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of T cell-mediated autoimmunity to show that LCFAs consistently decreased SCFAs in the gut and exacerbated disease by expanding pathogenic Th1 and/or Th17 cell populations in the small intestine. Treatment with SCFAs ameliorated EAE and reduced axonal damage via long-lasting imprinting on lamina-propria-derived Treg cells. These data demonstrate a direct dietary impact on intestinal-specific, and subsequently central nervous system-specific, Th cell responses in autoimmunity, and thus might have therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26488817

  19. Influence of Dietary Selenium Species on Selenoamino Acid Levels in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Godin, Simon; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Prabhu, Philip Antony Jesu; Kaushik, Sachi; Médale, Françoise; Bouyssiere, Brice

    2015-07-22

    Two forms of selenium (Se) supplementation of fish feeds were compared in two different basal diets. A 12-week feeding trial was performed with rainbow trout fry using either a plant-based or a fish meal-based diet. Se yeast and selenite were used for Se supplementation. Total Se and Se speciation were determined in both diets and whole body of trout fry using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two selenoamino acids, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocysteine (SeCys), were determined in whole body of fry after enzymatic digestion using protease type XIV with a prior derivatization step in the case of SeCys. The plant-based basal diet was found to have a much lower total Se than the fish meal-based basal diet with concentrations of 496 and 1222 μg(Se) kg(-1), respectively. Dietary Se yeast had a higher ability to raise whole body Se compared to selenite. SeMet concentration in the fry was increased only in the case of Se yeast supplementation, whereas SeCys levels were similar at the end of the feeding trial for both Se supplemented forms. The results show that the fate of dietary Se in fry is highly dependent on the form brought through supplementation and that a plant-based diet clearly benefits from Se supplementation. PMID:26161943

  20. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  1. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:25445491

  2. Dietary polydextrose prevents inflammatory bowel disease in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Witaicenis, Aline; Fruet, Andréa C; Salem, Letícia; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2010-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial intestinal disorder that involves interactions among the immune system, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors, especially the bacterial flora. Polydextrose, a polysaccharide constituted by 90% nondigestible and nonabsorbable soluble fibers, has several physiological effects consistent with those of dietary fibers, including proliferation of colon microflora. Because sulfasalazine presents serious side effects through long-term use at high doses, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventative effect of polydextrose on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced intestinal inflammation and its effects on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of sulfasalazine. Results indicated that polydextrose and its association with sulfasalazine present an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces myeloperoxidase activity, counteracts glutathione content, and promotes reductions in lesion extension and colonic weight/length ratio. PMID:21091252

  3. Antiangiogenic activity of 4-O-methylgallic acid from Canavalia gladiata, a dietary legume.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ki Suk; Na, Hee-Jun; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2005-05-20

    Development of nontoxic and biologically safe antiangiogenic agent has been highlighted as a promising way to treat angiogenesis related diseases including cancer. Herein, we isolated 4-O-methylgallic acid (4-OMGA) from the seed of Canavalia gladiata, a dietary legume, on the basis of the growth inhibitory activity for bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). The compound potently inhibits endothelial cell invasion and tube formation stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at low micromolar concentrations where it shows no cytotoxicity to the cells. In addition, 4-OMGA inhibits vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) production under hypoxic condition and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. These results demonstrate that 4-OMGA is a compound having potential for an antiangiogenic agent. PMID:15823580

  4. Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Brittanie M.; Kunces, Laura J.; Freidenreich, Daniel J.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Saenz, Catherine; Artistizabal, Juan C.; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Bruno, Richard S.; Maresh, Carl M.; Kraemer, William J.; Phinney, Stephen D.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels. Sixteen adults with metabolic syndrome (age 44.9±9.9 yr, BMI 37.9±6.3 kg/m2) were fed six 3-wk diets that progressively increased carbohydrate (from 47 to 346 g/day) with concomitant decreases in total and saturated fat. Despite a distinct increase in saturated fat intake from baseline to the low-carbohydrate diet (46 to 84 g/day), and then a gradual decrease in saturated fat to 32 g/day at the highest carbohydrate phase, there were no significant changes in the proportion of total SFA in any plasma lipid fractions. Whereas plasma saturated fat remained relatively stable, the proportion of palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride and cholesteryl ester was significantly and uniformly reduced as carbohydrate intake decreased, and then gradually increased as dietary carbohydrate was re-introduced. The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes. PMID:25415333

  5. Dietary arachidonic acid dose-dependently increases the arachidonic acid concentration in human milk.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Dirix, Chantal E H; Bruins, Maaike J; Hornstra, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore investigated the LCPUFA responses in nursing mothers upon increased consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA. In a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial, lactating women received for 8 wk no extra LCPUFA (control group, n = 8), 200 (low AA group, n = 9), or 400 (high AA group, n = 8) mg/d AA in combination with (n-3) LCPUFA [320 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 80 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid, and 80 mg/d other (n-3) fatty acids], or this dose of (n-3) LCPUFA alone [DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid group, n = 8]. Relative concentrations of AA, DHA, and sums of (n-6) and (n-3) LCPUFA were measured in milk total lipids (TL) and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) after 2 and 8 wk and changes were compared by ANCOVA. The combined consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA caused dose-dependent elevations of AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations in milk TL and did not significantly affect the DHA and total (n-3) LCPUFA increases caused by (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation only. This latter treatment did not significantly affect breast milk AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations. AA and DHA concentrations in milk TL and their changes were strongly and positively correlated with their corresponding values in erythrocyte PL (r(2) = 0.27-0.50; P

  6. Relatedness of acyl carrier proteins shown by amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Walker, T A; Ernst-Fonberg, M L

    1982-01-01

    1. Relatedness among the following carrier proteins was assessed on the basis of amino acid compositions: eight acyl carrier proteins (ACP's) associated with fatty acid synthesis, ACP's associated with citrate lyase and citramalate lyase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein and cytochrome 552. Two independent indices of amino acid composition were used. 2. The fatty acid synthesis-associated ACP's of many organisms and the lyase-associated ACP's show a high degree of relatedness among one another. 3. The ACP's show no relatedness to biotin carboxyl carrier protein or cytochrome 552. PMID:7128903

  7. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg(-1) calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg(-1), whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01), up to 31.04 mg kg(-1), with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg(-1) PA exhibited higher (P<0.01) docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg(-1). Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA

  8. Effects of Dietary Pantothenic Acid on Growth, Intestinal Function, Anti-Oxidative Status and Fatty Acids Synthesis of Juvenile Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01), up to 31.04 mg kg-1, with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg-1 PA exhibited higher (P<0.01) docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA

  9. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet. PMID:27153204

  10. Dentine hypersensitivity. The effects in vitro of acids and dietary substances on root-planed and burred dentine.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Absi, E G; Adams, D

    1987-05-01

    Evidence indicates that teeth exhibiting cervical dentine hypersensitivity have open dentinal tubules at the dentine surface. The identification of factors which render dentine exposed and tubules open is important both to the prevention and management of dentine hypersensitivity. In this study, recently extracted teeth were root planed or burred to expose the root dentine. Specimens were horizontally sectioned and then using the apical portion as control, the coronal portions placed in a variety of strong and weak acids and dietary fluids. Examination under the scanning electron microscope revealed a smear layer covering completely underlying tubules on the control root planed or burred portions. Test portions exposed to strong and weak acids showed loss of the smear layer and exposure of large numbers of tubules. Formic and tannic acids produced no changes. Some dietary fluids, in particular red and white wine, citrus fruit juices, apple juice and yogurt produced similar etching effects to the acids. The low pH carbonated drink, coca-cola, and a blackcurrent cordial produced no effects. The results of this study in vitro cannot necessarily be extrapolated to the clinical situation, but suggest that certain dietary factors could play a rôle in the aetiology of dentine hypersensitivity. Dietary advice to patients may prove important in the management of this often recurrent condition. PMID:3301914

  11. EFFECT OF DIETARY CLA ON METABOLISM OF ISOTOPE-LABELED OLEIC, LINOLEIC AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ISOMERS IN WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal studies suggest that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has potential health benefits, but no definitive metabolic data are available to support the possibility that it has physiological activity in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary CLA on oleic, linoleic, ...

  12. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  13. MAT1A variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acids on plasma homocysteine concentrations and DNA damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with decreased plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) is an enzyme involved in formation of form S-adenosylmethionine during methionine metabolism. The objectiv...

  14. Dietary Soy Protein Inhibits DNA Damage and Cell Survival of Colon Epithelial Cells through Attenuated Expression of Fatty Acid Synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake of soy protein decreases tumor incidence in rat models of chemically induced colon cancer. We hypothesized that decreased expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) underlies, in part, the tumor preventive effects of soy protein, since FASN over-expression characterizes early tumorigene...

  15. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the development of renovascular hypertension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, D.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Raederstorff, D.; Moreau, D.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of a dietary n-3 PUFA supply was investigated on the blood pressure (BP) increase elicited by left renal artery stenosis in rats distributed in 3 groups (n = 8) fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet either as control diet or enriched diets (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The PUFA intake induced large alterations in heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid profile, but did not influence body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, renal left atrophy and right hypertrophy. Within 4 weeks, BP raised from 120-180 +/- 2 mm Hg in the control group, but only to 165 +/- 3 mm Hg in the n-3 PUFA groups. After stabilization of BP in the 3 groups, the rats received a short administration of increasing dose of perindopril. The lower dose (0.5 mg/kg) moderately decreased BP only in the control group. With higher doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) BP was normalized in the 3 groups, with a higher amplitude of the BP lowering effect in the control group. A moderate n-3 PUFA intake can contribute to prevent the development of peripheral hypertension in rats by a mechanism that may involve angiotensin converting enzyme.

  16. Dietary fatty acid modulation of mucosally-induced tolerogenic immune responses.

    PubMed

    Harbige, L S; Fisher, B A

    2001-11-01

    Immunological unresponsiveness or hyporesponsiveness (tolerance) can be induced by feeding protein antigens to naive animals. Using a classical oral ovalbumin gut-induced tolerance protocol in BALB/c mice we investigated the effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on high-and low-dose oral tolerance (and in non-tolerised animals, i.e. effects of antigen challenge alone) in relation to lymphoproliferative, cytokine and antibody responses. Fish oil rich in long-chain n-3 fatty acids decreased both T-helper (Th) 1- and Th2-like responses. In contrast, borage (Borago officinalis) oil rich in n-6 PUFA, of which gamma-linolenic acid is rapidly metabolised to longer-chain n-6 PUFA, increased Thl-like responses and decreased Th2-like responses, and possibly enhanced suppressor cell or Th3-like activity. These findings are in general agreement with other studies on the effects of long chain n-3 PUFA on immune system functions, and characterise important differences between long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA, defining more precisely and broadly the immunological regulatory mechanisms involved. They are also discussed in relation to autoimmune disease. PMID:12069397

  17. DIETARY BILE ACID SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES INTESTINAL INTEGRITY AND SURVIVAL IN A MURINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Erin E.; Chen, Chen; Longshore, Shannon W.; Okezie, Oneybuchi; Warner, Brad W.; Sun, Chen-Chih; Alaish, Samuel M.; Strauch, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In vitro supplementation of the bile salt, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), has been shown to stimulate proliferation and prevent intestinal apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. We hypothesize that addition of TDCA to a rodent liquid diet will be protective against induced intestinal injury. Methods C57Bl6 mice were fed a liquid diet with or without 50mg/kg/day TDCA supplementation. After 6 days, the mice were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) to induce intestinal injury. Specimens were obtained 24 hours later and evaluated for intestinal apoptosis, crypt proliferation, and villus length. A separate cohort of animals were injected with LPS (25mg/kg) and followed 7 days for survival. Results Mice whose diet was supplemented with TDCA had significantly increased survival. After LPS-induced injury, mice supplemented with TDCA showed decreased intestinal apoptosis by both H&E and caspase-3. They also had increased intestinal proliferation by BrdU-staining and increased villus length. Conclusions Dietary taurodeoxycholic acid supplementation alleviates mucosal damage and improves survival after LPS-induced intestinal injury. TDCA is protective of the intestinal mucosa by increasing resistance to injury-induced apoptosis, stimulating enterocyte proliferation and increasing villus length. TDCA supplementation also results in an increased survival benefit. Therefore, bile acid supplementation may potentially protect the intestine from injury or infection. PMID:20620329

  18. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids upregulate expression of FADS3 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Holly T; Hsieh, Andrea T; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Anthony, Joshua C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family at 11q12-13.1 includes FADS1 and FADS2, both known to mediate biosynthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). FADS3 is a putative desaturase due to its sequence similarity with FADS1 and FADS2, but its function is unknown. We have previously described 7 FADS3 alternative transcripts (AT) and 1 FADS2 AT conserved across multiple species. This study examined the effect of dietary LCPUFA levels on liver FADS gene expression in vivo and in vitro, evaluated by qRT-PCR. Fourteen baboon neonates were randomized to three diet groups for their first 12 weeks of life, C: Control, no LCPUFA, L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); and L3: 1.00% DHA/0.67% ARA (w/w). Liver FADS1 and both FADS2 transcripts were downregulated by at least 50% in the L3 group compared to controls. In contrast, FADS3 AT were upregulated (L3 > C), with four transcripts significantly upregulated by 40% or more. However, there was no evidence for a shift in liver fatty acids to coincide with increased FADS3 expression. Significant upregulation of FADS3 AT was also observed in human liver-derived HepG2 cells after DHA or ARA treatment. The PPARγ antagonist GW9662 prevented FADS3 upregulation, while downregulation of FADS1 and FADS2 was unaffected. Thus, FADS3 AT were directly upregulated by LCPUFA by a PPARγ-dependent mechanism unrelated to regulation of other desaturases. This opposing pattern and mechanism of regulation suggests a dissimilar function for FADS3 AT compared to other FADS gene products. PMID:22398025

  19. Impact of dietary deviation on disease progression and gut microbiome composition in lupus-prone SNF1 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B M; Gaudreau, M-C; Al-Gadban, M M; Gudi, R; Vasu, C

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors, including microbes and diet, play a key role in initiating autoimmunity in genetically predisposed individuals. However, the influence of gut microflora in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not well understood. In this study, we have examined the impact of drinking water pH on immune response, disease incidence and gut microbiome in a spontaneous mouse model of SLE. Our results show that (SWR × NZB) F1 (SNF1 ) mice that were given acidic pH water (AW) developed nephritis at a slower pace compared to those on neutral pH water (NW). Immunological analyses revealed that the NW-recipient mice carry relatively higher levels of circulating autoantibodies against nuclear antigen (nAg) as well as plasma cells. Importantly, 16S rRNA gene-targeted sequencing revealed that the composition of gut microbiome is significantly different between NW and AW groups of mice. In addition, analysis of cytokine and transcription factor expression revealed that immune response in the gut mucosa of NW recipient mice is dominated by T helper type 17 (Th17) and Th9-associated factors. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) promote a Th17 response and autoimmunity in mouse models of arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, however, not only was SFB colonization unaffected by the pH of drinking water, but also SFB failed to cause a profound increase in Th17 response and had no significant effect on lupus incidence. Overall, these observations show that simple dietary deviations such as the pH of drinking water can influence lupus incidence and affect the composition of gut microbiome. PMID:25703185

  20. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the quality, fatty acid profile, and lipid oxidation of longissimus muscle in Kacang goat with aging time.

    PubMed

    Karami, M; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q; Goh, Y M; Ivan, M

    2011-05-01

    Thirty-two male goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments namely, basal diet 70% concentrate and 30% oil palm fronds (control, CN), CN + 400 mg/kg vitamin E (VE), 0.5% turmeric (TU) or 0.5% Anderographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days of feeding, the goats were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and conditioned for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller (4 °C). The drip loss of the LD muscle increased (P < 0.05) with aging time. Meat tenderness was improved (p < 0.05) at 14 days aging. All antioxidant supplements improved (P < 0.05) colour of the meat. The TBARS value increased (P < 0.05) at 7 days of aging while the fatty acid composition was not affected by the dietary supplements. It is concluded that TU and AP are potential dietary antioxidant supplements, for the purpose of improving the quality of chevon. PMID:21194849

  1. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P<0.05). The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL. In comparison with the control group (ANF-free), dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%) significantly decreased the gene expression of poTRY, poCTRY and poEL ( P<0.05). However, excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions ( P>0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  2. Dietary self-selection of protein-unbalanced diets supplemented with three essential amino acids in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Silva, R; Rosa, P V; Zamora, S; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2012-02-01

    Animals do not eat whatever food item they encounter, but choose different foods that best match their requirements. Fish exhibit such "nutritional wisdom" and adapt their feeding behaviour and food intake according to their needs and the nutritional properties of diets. In this paper, we tested the ability of Nile tilapia to select between diets with a balanced or unbalanced composition of essential amino acids. To this end, three different diets were prepared: a gelatine based diet (D(1)), a gelatine diet supplemented with three essential amino acids (EAA, l-tryptophane, l-methionine, l-threonine) (D(2)), and a diet containing only cellulose and the three crystalline EAA (D(3)). In addition, the putative role of both orosensorial factors (using pellets vs capsules) and social interactions (single vs groups of ten fish) was investigated. To this end, a total of 68 male tilapia of about 141±48 g (mean±S.D.) were challenged, individually or in groups, to select between D(1)vs D(2) using pellets dispensed by self-feeders (exp. 1). In another experiment (exp. 2), 11 individual fish were challenged to select encapsulated diets with non flavour or smell proprieties (D(1)vs D(2)), and in exp. 3 fish were challenged to self-supplementation in EAA (D(1)vs D(3)). The results showed the ability of tilapia to avoid the EAA-deficient diet, choosing 82.2% D(2) in the case of individual fish, and 80.8% D(2) in the case of fish groups. Dietary selection was not directly driven by the orosensorial characteristics of food, since tilapia sustained a higher preference for D(2) when fed with encapsulated diets. Finally, in exp. 3 tilapia self-supplemented the EAA deficiency by selecting a synchronised combination of D(1) and D(3) that matched their nutritional requirements. These findings highlighted the capacity of fish to make dietary selection based on the EAA content, which should be considered when discussing food intake regulation mechanisms, and diet formulation and

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients. PMID:24553997

  4. Dietary ω3 fatty acid exerts anti-allergic effect through the conversion to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Jun; Arita, Makoto; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Harada, Takashi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Nagasawa, Risa; Shikata, Shiori; Nagatake, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Eri; Kurashima, Yosuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Arai, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the immune-metabolic progression from dietary oil remains to be investigated. Here we identified 17,18-epoxyeicostetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE) as an anti-allergic metabolite generated in the gut from dietary ω3 α-linolenic acid (ALA). Biochemical and imaging mass spectrometry analyses revealed increased ALA and its metabolites, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the intestines of mice receiving ALA-rich linseed oil (Lin-mice). In murine food allergy model, the decreased incidence of allergic diarrhea in Lin-mice was due to impairment of mast cell degranulation without affecting allergen-specific serum IgE. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry-based mediator lipidomics identified 17,18-EpETE as a major ω3 EPA-derived metabolite generated from dietary ALA in the gut, and 17,18-EpETE exhibits anti-allergic function when administered in vivo. These findings suggest that metabolizing dietary ω3 PUFAs generates 17,18-EpETE, which is an endogenous anti-allergic metabolite and potentially is a therapeutic target to control intestinal allergies. PMID:26065911

  5. Dietary ω3 fatty acid exerts anti-allergic effect through the conversion to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the gut.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Arita, Makoto; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Harada, Takashi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Nagasawa, Risa; Shikata, Shiori; Nagatake, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Eri; Kurashima, Yosuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Arai, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the immune-metabolic progression from dietary oil remains to be investigated. Here we identified 17,18-epoxyeicostetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE) as an anti-allergic metabolite generated in the gut from dietary ω3 α-linolenic acid (ALA). Biochemical and imaging mass spectrometry analyses revealed increased ALA and its metabolites, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the intestines of mice receiving ALA-rich linseed oil (Lin-mice). In murine food allergy model, the decreased incidence of allergic diarrhea in Lin-mice was due to impairment of mast cell degranulation without affecting allergen-specific serum IgE. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based mediator lipidomics identified 17,18-EpETE as a major ω3 EPA-derived metabolite generated from dietary ALA in the gut, and 17,18-EpETE exhibits anti-allergic function when administered in vivo. These findings suggest that metabolizing dietary ω3 PUFAs generates 17,18-EpETE, which is an endogenous anti-allergic metabolite and potentially is a therapeutic target to control intestinal allergies. PMID:26065911

  6. Effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 μg/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 μg/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 μg/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 μg/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid to grazing cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, S R; Oliveira, D E; Aroeira, L J M; McGuire, M A; Bauman, D E; Lanna, D P D

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are potent anticarcinogens in animal and in vitro models as well as inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue. Our objective was to evaluate long-term CLA supplementation of lactating dairy cows in tropical pasture on milk production and composition and residual effects posttreatment. Thirty crossbred cows grazing stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfüensis) were blocked by parity and received 150 g/d of a dietary fat supplement of either Ca-salts of palm oil fatty acids (control) or a mixture of Ca-salts of CLA (CLA treatment). Supplements of fatty acids were mixed with 4 kg/d of concentrate. Grazing plus supplements were estimated to provide 115% of the estimated metabolizable protein requirements from 28 to 84 d in milk (treatment period). The CLA supplement provided 15 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 and 22g of cis-10,trans-12. Residual effects were evaluated from 85 to 112 d in milk (residual period) when cows were fed an 18% crude protein concentrate without added fat. The CLA treatment increased milk production but reduced milk fat concentration from 2.90 to 2.14% and fat production from 437 to 348 g/d. Milk protein concentration increased by 11.5% (2.79 to 3.11%) and production by 19% (422 to 504 g/d) in the cows fed CLA. The CLA treatment decreased milk energy concentration and increased milk volume, resulting in unchanged energy output. Milk production and protein concentration and production were also greater during the residual period for the CLA-treated cows. The CLA treatment reduced production of fatty acids (FA) of all chain lengths, but the larger effect was on short-chain FA, causing a shift toward a greater content of longer chain FA. The CLA treatment increased total milk CLA content by 30% and content of the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer by 88%. The CLA treatment tended to decrease the number of days open, suggesting a possible effect on reproduction. Under tropical grazing

  8. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  9. Effect of dietary zinc oxide on morphological characteristics, mucin composition and gene expression in the colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  10. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  11. [Effect of organic composition of humic acids on Enterobacteria multiplication].

    PubMed

    Buzoleva, L S; Sidorenko, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enterobacteria have been found to be capable of active multiplication in humic acids isolated from bentonite clays containing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Humic acids fractions have been found to be heterogeneous by their molecular weight and organic composition; consequently, they have been found to produce different influence in the multiplication of bacteria. PMID:11548272

  12. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  13. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on marbling and intramuscular adipocytes in pork.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K M; Winslow, N R; Shelton, A G; Hlusko, K C; Azain, M J

    2012-04-01

    Dietary CLA has been reported to decrease backfat and increase marbling in pigs. Our objective was to determine whether the increase in marbling involved changes in intramuscular adipocyte number or size or both. Twenty barrows (53 kg) were penned in pairs and pens were randomly assigned to receive diets containing either 1% soybean oil (SBO) or CLA (60% CLA isomers) for 6 wk. Body weight and feed intake were determined weekly. At slaughter, loin samples were obtained and flash frozen for RNA extraction and real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis of gene expression. After a 24-h chill, loin eye area and backfat depth were measured and subjective marbling and color scores were assigned. Loin, backfat, and belly fat samples were obtained for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography. Loin samples were also frozen in ice-cold isopentane for histological analysis of intramuscular adipocytes. Dietary CLA did not affect BW or feed intake at any point (P > 0.10), nor did treatment groups differ in HCW (P = 0.417) or loin color (P = 0.500). The CLA-fed pigs did have less (P = 0.018) backfat and smaller (P = 0.047) loin eye area than SBO-fed pigs and had a trend for an increase (P = 0.069) in marbling score. Relative gene expression for markers of preadipocytes (preadipocyte factor 1; Pref-1), differentiating adipocytes (PPARγ), and mature adipocytes [fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and perilipin (PLIN)] were determined and normalized to the expression of acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein. No significant differences were detected, but the expression of PPARγ (P = 0.265), PLIN (P = 0.265), and FABP4 (P = 0.148) was numerically greater in CLA-fed pigs than in SBO-fed pigs. Loin samples were stained with Oil Red O to identify intramuscular adipocytes. The average cell area was increased (P = 0.030) in CLA-fed pigs. The cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers were incorporated (P = 0.006) into backfat and belly fat, but only trans-10,cis-12 CLA was increased in

  14. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  15. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    PubMed

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements. PMID:26267402

  16. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

  17. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA. PMID:27464460

  18. Dietary Sulfur Amino Acid Effects on Fasting Plasma Cysteine/Cystine Redox Potential in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Liang, Yongliang; Yu, Tianwei; Accardi, Carolyn Jonas; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Oxidation of plasma cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox potential (EhCySS) has been associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans. Cys and CySS are derived from dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA), but the specific effects of SAA depletion and repletion on Cys/CySS redox indices are unknown. The present study examined the effect of dietary SAA intake level on free Cys, free CySS and EhCySS in human plasma under fasting conditions. Research Methods and Procedures Healthy individuals aged 18–36 y (n=13) were equilibrated to foods providing the RDA for SAA and then fed chemically defined diets without SAA (0 mg·kg−1·d−1; n=13) followed by SAA at levels approximating the mean (56 mg·kg−1·d−1; n=8) or 99th percentile (117 mg·kg−1·d−1; n=5) intake levels of Americans. Fasting plasma samples were collected daily during 4-d study periods and analyzed for free Cys, free CySS and the EhCySS. Results The SAA-free diet significantly (p<0.05) decreased plasma free Cys concentrations and oxidized EhCySS values after 4 days of SAA depletion. With SAA repletion at 56 mg·kg−1·d− 1, plasma free Cys increased significantly and values for EhCySS became more reducing. Administration of a diet providing a higher dose of SAA (117 mg·kg−1·d−1) resulted in a significantly higher level of free Cys and a more reducing EhCySS. Conclusions These results show that free Cys and Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS) in fasting plasma are affected by dietary SAA intake level in humans. Significant changes occur slowly over 4 days with insufficient SAA intake, but rapidly (after 1 day) with repletion. PMID:20471805

  19. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children. PMID:24659110

  20. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  1. Organ-specific dietary fatty acid uptake in humans using positron emission tomography coupled to computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Sébastien M; Grenier-Larouche, Thomas; Croteau, Etienne; Normand-Lauzière, François; Frisch, Frédérique; Ouellet, René; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Eric E; Carpentier, André C

    2011-03-01

    A noninvasive method to determine postprandial fatty acid tissue partition may elucidate the link between excess dietary fat and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the positron-emitting fatty acid analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ((18)FTHA) administered orally during a meal would be incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides, allowing determination of interorgan dietary fatty acid uptake. We administered (18)FTHA orally at the beginning of a standard liquid meal ingested in nine healthy men. There was no significant (18)FTHA uptake in the portal vein and the liver during the 1st hour. Whole body PET/CT acquisition revealed early appearance of (18)FTHA in the distal thoracic duct, reaching a peak at time 240 min. (18)FTHA mean standard uptake value increased progressively in the liver, heart, quadriceps, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues between time 60 and 240 min. Most circulating (18)F activity between time 0 and 360 min was recovered into chylomicron triglycerides. Using Triton WR-1339 treatment in rats that received (18)FTHA by gavage, we confirmed that >90% of this tracer reached the circulation as triglycerides. This novel noninvasive method to determine tissue dietary fatty acid distribution in humans should prove useful in the study of the mechanisms leading to lipotoxicity. PMID:21098737

  2. Human lactation: oxidation and maternal transfer of dietary (13)C-labelled α-linolenic acid into human milk.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Kuhn, Angelika; Dokoupil, Katharina; Hegele, Verena; Sauerwald, Thorsten; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    The origin of fatty acids in milk has not been elucidated in detail. We investigated the contribution of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to human milk fat, its oxidation and endogenous conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ten lactating women were given (13)C-ALA orally, and breath and milk samples were collected for a five-day period, while dietary intakes were assessed. 37.5 ± 2.7 % (M ± SE) of the tracer was recovered in breath-CO2, and 7.3 ± 1.1 % was directly transferred into milk. About 0.25 % of the tracer was found in milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Combining intake and milk data, we estimate that about 65 % of milk ALA is directly derived from maternal diet. Thus, the major portion of milk ALA is directly derived from the diet, but dietary ALA does not seem to contribute much as a precursor to milk n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the studied time period. PMID:26444910

  3. Dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in allergy prevention and asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Linette E M

    2016-08-15

    The rise in non-communicable diseases, such as allergies, in westernized countries links to changes in lifestyle and diet. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) present in marine oils facilitate a favorable milieu for immune maturation and may contribute to allergy prevention. N-3 LCPUFA can suppress innate and adaptive immune activation and induce epigenetic changes. Murine studies convincingly show protective effects of fish oil, a source of n-3 LCPUFA, in food allergy and asthma models. Observational studies in human indicate that high dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFA and low intake of n-6 PUFA may protect against the development of allergic disease early in life. High n-6 PUFA intake is also associated with an increased asthma risk while n-3 LCPUFA may be protective and reduce symptoms. The quality of the marine oil used has impact on efficacy of allergy prevention and several observations link in particular n-3 LCPUFA DHA to allergy suppression. Randomized controlled trials indicate that optimal timing, duration and dosage of n-3 LC-PUFA is required to exert an allergy protective effect. Supplementation during early pregnancy and lactation has shown promising results regarding allergy prevention. However these findings should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Although clinical trials in asthma patients reveal no consistent clinical benefits of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on lung function, it can suppress airway inflammation. Future food-pharma approaches may reveal whether adjunct therapy with dietary n-3 LCPUFA can improve allergy prevention or immunotherapy via support of allergen specific oral tolerance induction or contribute to the efficacy of drug therapy for asthma patients. PMID:27041644

  4. Does membrane fatty acid composition modulate mitochondrial functions and their thermal sensitivities?

    PubMed

    Lemieux, H; Blier, P U; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modifying fatty acid modification of heart mitochondrial membranes by dietary intervention on the functions and thermal sensitivity of electron transport system complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Four groups of rats were fed diets differing in their fat (coconut, olive or fish oil) and antioxidant (fish oil with or without probucol) contents. After 16 weeks of feeding, the coconut and olive oil groups had lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents and a lower unsaturation index compared to both fish oil groups. These differences in fatty acid composition were not related to any differences in the mitochondrial respiration rate induced at Complexes I, II or IV, or to differences in their thermal sensitivity. The coconut oil group showed a lower mitochondrial affinity for pyruvate at 5 degrees C (k(mapp)=6.4+/-1.8) compared to any other groups (k(mapp)=3.8+/-0.5; 4.7+/-0.8; 3.6+/-1.1, for olive, fish oil and fish oil and probucol groups, respectively). At least in rat heart, our results do not support a major impact of the fatty acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane on the function of mitochondrial enzymatic complexes or on their temperature sensitivity. PMID:17993286

  5. Inorganic elemental compositions of commercial multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements: application of collision/reaction cell inductively coupled-mass spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave digestion followed by analysis using ICP-MS has been shown to be a simple, fast reliable method for the multi-element determination in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements (MVM). A study of 35 popular MVM dietary supplements revealed that composition and levels varied among products, a...

  6. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN DIETARY AND DIETARY COMPOSITE SAMPLES TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE FROM DIETARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA's market basket study reports total arsenic concentrations from composite diet samples. The use of composite diets, based on market basket sampling, is the most cost effective means of obtaining a generic arsenic exposure estimate for a population. For example, the tota...

  7. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN DIETARY AND DIETARY COMPOSITE SAMPLES TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE FROM DIETARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA's market basket study reports total arsenic concentrations from composite diet samples. The use of composite diets, based on market basket sampling, is the most cost effective means of obtaining a generic exposure estimate for a population. For example, the total arseni...

  8. Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Beermann, Christopher; Jelinek, J; Reinecker, T; Hauenschild, A; Boehm, G; Klör, H-U

    2003-01-01

    Background The amount and quality of dietary fatty acids can modulate the fat metabolism. Objective This dietary intervention is based on the different metabolic pathways of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFA), which are mostly stored in adipocytic triacylglycerols, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) which are preferentially available for hepatic mitochondrial β-oxidation and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) suggested to modulate fat oxidation and storage by stimulating the peroxisomal β-oxidation. Combined dietary MCFA and n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA may synergistically stimulate fatty acid oxidation resulting in blood lipid clearance and LCFA release from adipocytes. Design In a short term, parallel, randomized, double-blind trial effects on the fatty acid metabolism of 10 healthy volunteers (Body Mass Index 25–30) of a formula containing 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA (intake: 1.500 kcal/day; fat: 55.5% of energy) were measured in comparison to an isoenergetic formula with equal fat amount and LCFA dominated lipid profile. Results The plasma triacylglycerol (p < 0.1) and cholesterol (p < 0.05) content decreased in the test group. The n-3/n-6 LCPUFA (≥ C 20) ratio increased (p < 0.0001) after 4 days treatment. The LCFA content was similar in both groups despite missing LCFA in the test formula indicating LCFA release from adipocytes into the plasma. Both groups significantly reduced body weight considerably 4 kg (p < 0.01) and fat mass up to 50% of weight loss (p < 0.05). Conclusion Combined dietary 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA stimulate the fatty acid oxidation and release from adipocytes without affecting any safety parameters measured. PMID:14622442

  9. Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Mann, Neil; Pirotta, Yvonne; O'Connell, Stella; Li, Duo; Kelly, Fiona; Sinclair, Andy

    2006-07-01

    High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health. PMID:17069347

  10. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    PubMed

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  11. Dietary intake of isoflavones and polyunsaturated fatty acids associated with lung function, breathlessness and the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Mori, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Koichi

    2010-07-01

    The Japanese diet is high in soy products and fish. A case-control study was conducted in Japan to investigate the relationship between dietary intake of isoflavones and fatty acids and lung function, breathlessness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 278 referred patients aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past 4 years, and 340 community-based controls were assessed for respiratory symptoms and undertook spirometric measurements of lung function. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on habitual food consumption. Dietary intakes of isoflavones and fatty acids were derived from the Japanese food composition tables. The COPD patients had significantly lower habitual intakes of isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; both omega-3 and omega-6) than control subjects. Lung function measures were found to be positively associated with isoflavones and PUFA intake. Substantial reductions in prevalence of COPD and breathlessness were observed for isoflavones, the respective adjusted odds ratio being 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.68) and 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.33-1.10) for the highest versus lowest levels of total isoflavone intake. The corresponding tests for linear trend were significant. High intakes of PUFA and omega-6 fatty acids (derived from foods excluding oils and fats as seasonings) also appeared to reduce the risks of COPD and breathlessness symptom, but no evidence of association was found for other types of fatty acids. The study provided evidence of possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet against tobacco carcinogens. PMID:20112297

  12. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gavin F; McNiven, Mary A; Petit, Hélène V; Duynisveld, John L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma prostaglandin F metabolite (PGFM) levels and PGFM to prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) ratio than cows fed Soybean, but there were no significant differences at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. Cows pregnant from TAI and fed Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk. PMID:24124276

  13. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability. PMID:26496496

  14. In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Huang, Caihuan; Ou, Shiyi

    2011-02-15

    Water-soluble dietary fibers from apple peels and water-insoluble dietary fibers from wheat bran and soybean-seed hull were used to evaluate their binding capacities for four toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, and As), lard, cholesterol, and bile acids. The water-soluble dietary fibers showed a higher binding capacity for three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; and a lower binding capacity for lard, compared to the water-insoluble ones. A mixture of the dietary fibers from all samples - apple peels, wheat bran, and soybean-seed hull - in the ratio 2:4:4 (w/w) significantly increased the binding capacity of water-insoluble dietary fibers for the three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; moreover, the mixture could lower the concentrations of Pb(2+) and Cd(+) in the tested solutions to levels lower than those occurring in rice and vegetables grown in polluted soils. However, all the tested fibers showed a low binding capacity for the toxic anion, AsO(3)(3-). PMID:21095057

  15. [Amino acid composition of rice grain proteins].

    PubMed

    Peruanskiĭ, Iu V; Savich, I M

    1976-01-01

    The composition of the major reserve proteins of rice grain--globulins, prolamines and glutelins--was examined in four rice varieties (Dubovsky 129, Kuban 3, Alakul, Ushtobinsky). Globulins proved to be most heterogeneous whereas glutelins appeared to be least heterogeneous. In regards to the ratio of components globulins showed high variability and glutelins displayed high stability. PMID:1005365

  16. Amino acids labelled with 11C as indicator of the effect of dietary treatment of hyperammonaemia.

    PubMed

    Hardell, L I; Stålnacke, C G; Lundqvist, H; Malmborg, P; Långström, B

    1984-01-01

    Short-lived radioactive carbon, 11C, (T 1/2 = 20 min) was incorporated into an essential amino acid [11C-methyl] -L-methionine, to form a true biological amino acid tracer with external detectability. This was tested in a study of the physiological tracer dynamics in a hyperammonaemic patient before and after a change in the dietary treatment. The protein intake was unchanged between the two investigations but the energy intake was increased from 53 to 63 kcal/kg BW/day. The tracer radioactivity was given per os. In the second investigation a relative decrease of radioactivity in the low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma was seen. Also the external measurements indicated a higher hepatic retention of radioactivity in the second investigation but no increased excretion of tracer. This may reflect an increased ability of the liver to utilize the incoming methionine from the vena porta. The hyperammonaemia remained over the second investigation but seven months later the ammonia content in the blood was almost normalized and the patient had also gained 3 kg in weight. The correlation between changes in tracer dynamics and changes in therapeutical effect of the diet is not further verified in this experiment but the investigation indicates the value of further studies in this topic using 11C-labelled amino acids also including the use of the newly introduced positron tomographic technique. It may be possible to develop this type of nuclide technique further to achieve a clinically useful method of optimizing therapeutic regiments in this type of metabolic disease. PMID:6393522

  17. Effect of Wheat Dietary Fiber Particle Size during Digestion In Vitro on Bile Acid, Faecal Bacteria and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26924312

  18. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  19. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  20. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  1. Expression of Adipose MicroRNAs Is Sensitive to Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Treatment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2010-01-01

    Background Investigation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in obesity, their genetic targets and influence by dietary modulators is of great interest because it may potentially identify novel pathways involved in this complex metabolic disorder and influence future therapeutic approaches. This study aimed to determine whether miRNAs expression may be influenced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), currently used to induce fat loss. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined retroperitoneal adipose tissue (rWAT) expression of five miRNAs related to adipocyte differentiation (miRNA-143) and lipid metabolism (miRNA-103 and -107) and altered in obesity (miRNA-221 and -222), using the TaqMan®MicroRNA Assay (Applied-Biosystems). In the first experiment, mice were fed with a standard fat diet and orally treated with sunflower oil (control group) and 3 or 10 mg CLA/day for 37 days. In the second experiment, mice were fed with a high fat diet for 65 days. For the first 30 days, mice received the same doses of CLA described above and, from that time onwards, animals received a double dose. Results showed that expression of selected miRNAs was modified in response to CLA treatment and metabolic status. Interestingly, a strong correlation was observed between miR-103 and -107 expression, as well as miR-221 and -222 in both experiments. Moreover, changes in miRNAs expression correlated with several adipocyte gene expressions: miR-103 and -107 correlated with genes involved in fatty acid metabolism whereas miR-221 and miR-222 correlated with the expression of adipocytokines. Regarding the minor changes observed in miR-143 expression, no differences in expression of adipogenic markers were observed. Conclusions/Significance Although elucidating the functional implications of miRNAs is beyond the scope of this study, these findings provide the first evidence that miRNAs expression may be influenced by dietary manipulation, reflecting or even contributing to the new metabolic state originated

  2. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best. PMID:18540201

  3. Both Dietary Supplementation with Monosodium L-Glutamate and Fat Modify Circulating and Tissue Amino Acid Pools in Growing Pigs, but with Little Interactive Effect

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zemeng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wu, Fei; Yao, Kang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Tiejun; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. Methods and Results Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG) were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum. Conclusions Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG. PMID:24465415

  4. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  5. Dietary Triacylglycerols with Palmitic Acid in the sn-2 Position Modulate Levels of N-Acylethanolamides in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lisai, Sara; Sirigu, Annarita; Piras, Antonio; Collu, Maria; Batetta, Barbara; Gambelli, Luisa; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Background Several evidences suggest that the position of palmitic acid (PA) in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) influences different biological functions. We aimed at evaluating whether dietary fat with highly enriched (87%) PA in sn-2 position (Hsn-2 PA), by increasing PA incorporation into tissue phospholipids (PL), modifies fatty acid profile and biosynthesis of fatty acid—derived bioactive lipids, such as endocannabinoids and their congeners. Study Design Rats were fed for 5 weeks diets containing Hsn-2 PA or fat with PA randomly distributed in TAG with 18.8% PA in sn-2 position (Lsn-2 PA), and similar total PA concentration. Fatty acid profile in different lipid fractions, endocannabinoids and congeners were measured in intestine, liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle and brain. Results Rats on Hsn-2 PA diet had lower levels of anandamide with concomitant increase of its congener palmitoylethanolamide and its precursor PA into visceral adipose tissue phospholipids. In addition, we found an increase of oleoylethanolamide, an avid PPAR alpha ligand, in liver, muscle and brain, associated to higher levels of its precursor oleic acid in liver and muscle, probably derived by elongation and further delta 9 desaturation of PA. Changes in endocannabinoids and congeners were associated to a decrease of circulating TNF alpha after LPS challenge, and to an improved feed efficiency. Conclusions Dietary Hsn-2 PA, by modifying endocannabinoids and congeners biosynthesis in different tissues may potentially concur in the physiological regulation of energy metabolism, brain function and body fat distribution. PMID:25775474

  6. The potential use of n-alkanes, long-chain alcohols and long-chain fatty acids as diet composition markers: indoor validation with sheep and herbage species from the rangeland of Inner Mongolia of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, L J; Zhu, X Y; Jiang, C; Luo, H L; Wang, H; Zhang, Y J; Hong, F Z

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the potential use of n-alkanes (alkanes), long-chain alcohols (alcohols) and long-chain fatty acids (acids) for estimating the diet composition of sheep, in a feeding trial. A total of 18 sheep were assigned randomly to three different diets (diet A, diet B and diet C) containing up to eight herbage species (Leymus chinensis, Leymus dasystachys, Elymus sibiricum, Chenopodium album, Puccinellia chinampoensis, Medicago sativa, Saussurea sinuata and Bromus inermis). Faecal recoveries of alkanes, alcohols and acids were determined, and diet compositions were estimated using different combinations of alkanes, alcohols and acids. The faecal concentrations of individual alkanes, alcohols and acids were corrected using the mean recovery of the dietary treatment that the respective animal belonged to (diet recovery), or the mean recovery across all dietary treatments (general recovery). In general, diets did not affect the faecal recovery values for alkanes, alcohols and acids, and no difference in accuracy was found between diet composition estimates based on dietary recovery and general recovery. The accuracy of diet composition estimates declined as the number of dietary components increased from four to eight herbage species (P < 0.001). Better (P < 0.05) estimates of diet composition were obtained with the combinations of two or three marker types instead of alkanes alone. Moreover, results showed that excluding minor diet components from the calculations decreased (P < 0.05) the accuracy of diet composition estimates, whereas including extra non-grazed herbage species did not reduce (P > 0.05) the quality of diet composition estimates. These results confirmed the usefulness of alkanes, alcohols and acids as markers for determining complex diet composition of sheep. However, a negative impact on the accuracy of diet composition estimates, caused by missing minor diet components from the calculation of diet composition, could happen when plant wax markers

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  8. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  9. Loss of n-6 fatty acid induced pediatric obesity protects against acute murine colitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary influences may affect microbiome composition and host immune responses, thereby modulating propensity toward inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Dietary n-6 fatty acids have been associated with ulcetative colitis in prospective studies. However, the critical d...

  10. Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2012-12-28

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat. PMID:22370331

  11. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Walford, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all). Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02) and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation. PMID:26781817

  14. Dietary aspartame with protein on plasma and brain amino acids, brain monoamines and behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Torii, K; Mimura, T; Takasaki, Y; Ichimura, M

    1986-01-01

    Aspartame (APM; L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester), was investigated for its ability to alter levels of the large neutral amino acids and monoamines in overnight fasted rats allowed to consume meals with or without protein for two hours. Additionally, the possible long term behavioral consequences of APM in 25% casein diets with or without 10% sucrose were determined. Acute APM ingestion increased both plasma and brain phenylalanine and tyrosine levels, but brain tryptophan levels were not altered regardless of dietary protein. Brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels were unaltered by any of the diet while serotonin levels were slightly increased when a protein-free diet was consumed. But APM and/or protein ingestion minimized this increase of brain serotonin levels as much as controls. Chronic APM ingestion failed to influence diurnal feeding patterns, meal size distributions, or diurnal patterns of spontaneous motor activity. The chronic ingestion of abuse doses of APM produced no significant chemical changes in brain capable of altering behavioral parameters believed to be controlled by monoamines in rats. PMID:3714850

  15. Transcriptional regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the male mouse amygdala by dietary phyto-oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, K V; Yanagawa, Y; Stork, O

    2015-04-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are biologically active components of many human and laboratory animal diets. In the present study, we investigated, in adult male mice with C57BL/6 genetic background, the effects of a reduced phyto-oestrogens intake on anxiety-related behaviour and associated gene expression in the amygdala. After 6 weeks on a low-phyto-oestrogen diet (< 20 μg/g cumulative phyto-oestrogen content), animals showed reduced centre exploration in an open-field task compared to their littermates on a soybean-based standard diet (300 μg/g). Freezing behaviour in an auditory fear memory task, in contrast, was not affected. We hypothesised that this mildly increased anxiety may involve changes in the function of GABAergic local circuit neurones in the amygdala. Using GAD67(+/GFP) mice, we could demonstrate reduced transcription of the GAD67 gene in the lateral and basolateral amygdala under the low-phyto-oestrogen diet. Analysis of mRNA levels in microdissected samples confirmed this regulation and demonstrated concomitant changes in expression of the second glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoform, GAD65, as well as the anxiolytic neuropeptide Y. These molecular and behavioural alterations occurred without apparent changes in circulating oestrogens or testosterone levels. Our data suggest that expression regulation of interneurone-specific gene products in the amygdala may provide a mechanism for the control of anxiety-related behaviour through dietary phyto-oestrogens. PMID:25650988

  16. Flaxseed fed pork: n-3 fatty acid enrichment and contribution to dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F; Zijlstra, R T; Dugan, M E R

    2014-01-01

    The potential to increase n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11 weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5 mm backfat (LSS)). The n-3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300 mg/100 g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4 fold that of controls (P<0.001), with further enrichment from inclusion of associated adipose tissues (P<0.001). Increasing flaxseed feeding levels in combination with adipose tissue inclusion amplified total long chain n-3 FA (P<0.05), particularly 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. Flaxseed-fed n-3 FA enriched pork can contribute substantially to daily long chain n-3 FA intakes, particularly for societies with typically low seafood consumption. PMID:24012977

  17. Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid

    PubMed Central

    Tangvoranuntakul, Pam; Gagneux, Pascal; Diaz, Sandra; Bardor, Muriel; Varki, Nissi; Varki, Ajit; Muchmore, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Humans are genetically unable to produce the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), because of a mutation that occurred after our last common ancestor with great apes. Although Neu5Gc is presumed absent from normal humans, small amounts have been claimed to exist in human tumors and fetal meconium. We have generated an antibody with high specificity and avidity for Neu5Gc. Fetal tissues, normal adult tissues, and breast carcinomas from humans showed reactivity to this antibody, primarily within secretory epithelia and blood vessels. The presence of small amounts of Neu5Gc was confirmed by MS. Absent any known alternate pathway for its synthesis, we reasoned that these small amounts of Neu5Gc might originate from exogenous sources. Indeed, human cells fed with Neu5Gc incorporated it into endogenous glycoproteins. When normal human volunteers ingested Neu5Gc, a portion was absorbed and eliminated in urine, and small quantities were incorporated into newly synthesized glycoproteins. Neu5Gc has never been reported in plants or microbes to our knowledge. We found that Neu5Gc is rare in poultry and fish, common in milk products, and enriched in red meats. Furthermore, normal humans have variable amounts of circulating IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies against Neu5Gc, with the highest levels comparable to those of the previously known anti-α-galactose xenoreactive antibodies. This finding represents an instance wherein humans absorb and metabolically incorporate a nonhuman dietary component enriched in foods of mammalian origin, even while generating xenoreactive, and potentially autoreactive, antibodies against the same molecule. Potential implications for human diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:14523234

  18. Binding of water, oil, and bile acids to dietary fibers of the cellan type.

    PubMed

    Dongowski, G; Ehwald, R

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) of the "cellan" type (consisting mainly or exclusively of undestroyed cells) were prepared as ethanol-dried materials from apple, cabbage, sugar-beet, soybean hulls, wheat bran, and suspension cultures of Chenopodium album L. and investigated with respect to their interactions with water, water-oil dispersions, bile acids, and oil. Water binding and retention capacities were found to be especially high in cellans obtained from thin-walled raw material. Water damp sorption by dry cellans, when analyzed according to the GAB and BET equations, shows a considerable fraction of monolayer water. At a water activity of 0.98, the cell and capillary spaces outside the walls remained in the air-filled state but the cell wall pores are filled with water. When the water content of a concentrated aqueous cellan suspension was equal to or below the water binding capacity, its rheological behavior was found to be of pseudoplastic nature. At a given dry weight concentration, yield stress and viscosity of such concentrated suspensions were highest for cellans with the highest water binding capacity. Dry cellan particles absorbed fatty oils without swelling but swell in a detergent-stabilized oil/water emulsion with a similar liquid absorption capacity as in water. In contrast to the dry or alkane-saturated cell wall, the hydrated wall is not permeable to oils in the absence of a detergent. Oil droplets may be entrapped within the cells, yielding a stable dispersion of oil in water. As DF of the cellan type absorb bile acids, preferentially glycoconjugates, from diluted solutions, they may have a potential to decrease the serum cholesterol level. PMID:10194401

  19. Effect of reduced dietary protein and supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid product on broiler performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Costa, P; Alves, S P; Benevides, W S; Bessa, R J B; Lemos, J P C; Pinto, R M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2014-01-01

    1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans. 3. LC-PUFA are very susceptible to oxidation, resulting in off-flavours that affect meat quality and consumers' acceptability. 4. This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing dietary CP, from 21% to 17%, on chicken's meat IMF content and, simultaneously, to evaluate if a complementary supplementation with a proprietary n-3 LC-PUFA source (DHA Gold™) could improve meat quality. These effects were assessed by measuring productive performance and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and fatty acid profile. 5. A reduction in CP content of broiler diets, from 21% to 17%, balanced for lysine, improved performance while it was not sufficient to increase IMF content in chicken meat. In contrast, DHA Gold™ supplementation had a positive impact both in broiler productive parameters and in meat fatty acid profile. 6. In addition, incorporation of 7.4% of DHA Gold™ in the diet promoted carcass yield but negatively affected chicken meat acceptability by consumers, due to a decrease of meat oxidative stability. 7. Overall the data suggest that neither a dietary supplementation with DHA Gold™ nor a reduction in CP have a direct positive effect in the levels of IMF present in broiler meat. PMID:25277689

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A E; Rodrigueiro, R J B; Santos, T C; Ospina-Rojas, I C; Rademacher, M

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance. Two hundred forty meat-type quails at 25 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 8 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 5 dietary levels of GAA (0.00, 0.06, 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24%). The progenies from quail breeders were housed according to breeder treatments and fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal without GAA supplementation. Dietary GAA levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the productivity of meat-type quail breeders, although the concentration of guanidinic compounds (creatine, GAA, and creatinine) in the eggs from the breeders increased linearly (P < 0.05) according to the increase in dietary GAA levels. The number of spermatozoa present in the vitelline membrane was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments, but there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of GAA on fertility, embryonic mortality, and egg hatchability, with the best results estimated at 0.13, 0.15, and 0.14% GAA, respectively. The creatine levels of the pectoral muscle in newborn quails showed a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.07), and the dietary GAA level of 0.11% was estimated to maximize the muscular creatine level in the progeny. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of GAA levels on weight gain and feed conversion of progeny at 35 d of age with an optimization point of 0.14% GAA for these variables. Dietary GAA supplementation of meat-type quail breeders increases the availability of creatine in eggs and muscle of progeny, which results in better reproductive parameters and better postnatal progeny performance. PMID:24974392