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Sample records for acid composition patterns

  1. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  2. The respective roles of polar/nonpolar binary patterns and amino acid composition in protein regular secondary structures explored exhaustively using hydrophobic cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Rebehmed, Joseph; Quintus, Flavien; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have highlighted the leading role of the sequence periodicity of polar and nonpolar amino acids (binary patterns) in the formation of regular secondary structures (RSS). However, these were based on the analysis of only a few simple cases, with no direct mean to correlate binary patterns with the limits of RSS. Here, HCA-derived hydrophobic clusters (HC) which are conditioned binary patterns whose positions fit well those of RSS, were considered. All the HC types, defined by unique binary patterns, which were commonly observed in three-dimensional (3D) structures of globular domains, were analyzed. The 180 HC types with preferences for either α-helices or β-strands distinctly contain basic binary units typical of these RSS. Therefore a general trend supporting the "binary pattern preference" assumption was observed. HC for which observed RSS are in disagreement with their expected behavior (discordant HC) were also examined. They were separated in HC types with moderate preferences for RSS, having "weak" binary patterns and versatile RSS and HC types with high preferences for RSS, having "strong" binary patterns and then displaying nonpolar amino acids at the protein surface. It was shown that in both cases, discordant HC could be distinguished from concordant ones by well-differentiated amino acid compositions. The obtained results could, thus, help to complement the currently available methods for the accurate prediction of secondary structures in proteins from the only information of a single amino acid sequence. This can be especially useful for characterizing orphan sequences and for assisting protein engineering and design.

  3. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  4. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  6. Composite patterning devices for soft lithography

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne

    2007-03-27

    The present invention provides methods, devices and device components for fabricating patterns on substrate surfaces, particularly patterns comprising structures having microsized and/or nanosized features of selected lengths in one, two or three dimensions. The present invention provides composite patterning devices comprising a plurality of polymer layers each having selected mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus and flexural rigidity, selected physical dimensions, such as thickness, surface area and relief pattern dimensions, and selected thermal properties, such as coefficients of thermal expansion, to provide high resolution patterning on a variety of substrate surfaces and surface morphologies.

  7. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  8. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  9. Compositions for acid treating subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E. Jr.; Swanson, B.L.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a high viscosity acid composition. It comprises: an aqueous acid solution; one or more acrylamide polymers dissolved in the acid solution in an amount sufficient to increase the viscosity of the acid solution; a liquid hydrocarbon dispersed in the acid solution; and one or more nonionic surface active agents having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per molecule present in the composition in an amount sufficient to interact with the acrylamide polymer or polymers in the presence of the liquid hydrocarbon whereby the viscosity of the acid solution is further increased and stabilized.

  10. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  11. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    PubMed

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  12. Fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Salvia L. species.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Eyup; Vural, Mecit; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Bruehl, Ludger; Aitzetmüller, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    In the course of our investigations of new sources of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocochromanol contents of Salvia bracteata, S. euphratica var. euphratica, S. aucherii var. canascens, S. cryptantha, S. staminea, S. limbata, S. virgata, S. hypargeia, S. halophylla, S. syriaca and S. cilicica were investigated using GLC and HPLC systems. Some of the species are endemic to Turkey. All the Salvia sp. showed the same pattern of fatty acids. Linoleic, linolenic and oleic acid were found as the abundant components. Tocochromanol derivatives of the seed oil showed differences between Salvia species. gamma-Tocopherol was the abundant component in most of the seed oils except of S. cilicica. The total tocopherol contents of the seed oils were determined to be more than the total of tocotrienols.

  13. Synthesis and patterning of hydrogel-nanoparticle composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L. A.; Mancini, D. C.; Rich, L. E.; Divan, R.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for patterning nanoscale composite hydrogel materials on silicon through electron beam lithography. Gold particles were introduced into poly N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAam) patterned by e-beam lithography. By including BAC, the polymer can covalently bond to the colloidal gold nanoparticles. Such composites can be stable for long periods of time. We describe the structure, quality, and properties of the resulting patterned hydrogel-nanoparticle composite films.

  14. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-05

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA.

  15. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.

    PubMed

    Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

    2008-11-01

    Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county.

  16. Amino acid composition of human milk is not unique.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Nguyen, H V; Garcia-Bravo, R; Fiorotto, M L; Jackson, E M; Lewis, D S; Lee, D R; Reeds, P J

    1994-07-01

    To determine whether the amino acid pattern of human milk is unique, we compared the amino acid pattern of human milk with the amino acid patterns of the milks of great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), lower primates (baboon and rhesus monkey) and nonprimates (cow, goat, sheep, llama, pig, horse, elephant, cat and rat). Amino acid pattern was defined as the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) (in mg) to the total amino acids (in g). Total amino acid concentration was lower in primate milk than in nonprimate milk. There were commonalities in the overall amino acid pattern of the milks of all species sampled; the most abundant amino acids were glutamate (plus glutamine, 20%), proline (10%) and leucine (10%). Essential amino acids were 40%, branched-chain amino acids 20%, and sulfur amino acids 4% of the total amino acids. The amino acid pattern of human milk was more similar to those of great apes than to those of lower primates. For example, cystine was higher and methionine was lower in primate milks than in nonprimate milks, and in great ape and human milks than in lower primate milks. Because the milk amino acid patterns of the human and elephant, both slow-growing species, were dissimilar, the amino acid pattern of human milk seems unrelated to growth rate.

  17. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  18. Manipulation of Galactolipid Fatty Acid Composition with Substituted Pyridazinones

    PubMed Central

    John, Judith B. St.

    1976-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the major lipids of the chloroplast membranes, the mono- and digalactosyl diglycerides, can be definably altered with various substituted pyridazinones. Galactolipid fatty acid composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be altered so that there is a decrease in linolenic acid accompanied by an increase in linoleic acid without a shift in the relative proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids; the fatty acid composition can be shifted toward a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids; or the fatty acid composition of the monogalactosyl diglycerides can be altered in preference to the digalactosyl diglycerides. Also, the light-mediated parallel accumulation of chlorophyll and linolenic acid can be separated with a substituted pyridazinone. The substituted pyridazinones may be useful tools in clarifying the role the galactolipids and their component fatty acids play in the structure and function of chloroplast membranes in higher plants. PMID:16659420

  19. Amino acid composition predicts prion activity.

    PubMed

    Afsar Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir; Ross, Eric D; Ben-Hur, Asa

    2017-04-10

    Many prion-forming proteins contain glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich domains, and there are conflicting opinions as to the role of primary sequence in their conversion to the prion form: is this phenomenon driven primarily by amino acid composition, or, as a recent computational analysis suggested, dependent on the presence of short sequence elements with high amyloid-forming potential. The argument for the importance of short sequence elements hinged on the relatively-high accuracy obtained using a method that utilizes a collection of length-six sequence elements with known amyloid-forming potential. We weigh in on this question and demonstrate that when those sequence elements are permuted, even higher accuracy is obtained; we also propose a novel multiple-instance machine learning method that uses sequence composition alone, and achieves better accuracy than all existing prion prediction approaches. While we expect there to be elements of primary sequence that affect the process, our experiments suggest that sequence composition alone is sufficient for predicting protein sequences that are likely to form prions. A web-server for the proposed method is available at http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/prank.html, and the code for reproducing our experiments is available at http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.167136.

  20. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  1. Isotopic composition of precipitation during different atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina; Vreča, Polona

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. There are several approaches in which atmospheric circulation patterns are classified as elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM; in our approach we have applied Dzerdzeevskii classification. Two types of models of relation between ECM and isotopic composition of precipitation are proposed; first is based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values with precipitation amount weighted average (Brenčič et al., 2015) and the second new one is based on the multiple regression approach. Both approaches make possible also to estimate empirical distributions' dispersion parameters. Application of the models is illustrated on the precipitation records from Ljubljana and Portorož GNIP stations, Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Brenčič, M., Kononova, N.K., Vreča, P., 2015: Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Journal of Hydrology 529, 1422-1432: doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.040

  2. Compositional patterns in the genomes of unicellular eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genomes of multicellular eukaryotes are compartmentalized in mosaics of isochores, large and fairly homogeneous stretches of DNA that belong to a small number of families characterized by different average GC levels, by different gene concentration (that increase with GC), different chromatin structures, different replication timing in the cell cycle, and other different properties. A question raised by these basic results concerns how far back in evolution the compartmentalized organization of the eukaryotic genomes arose. Results In the present work we approached this problem by studying the compositional organization of the genomes from the unicellular eukaryotes for which full sequences are available, the sample used being representative. The average GC levels of the genomes from unicellular eukaryotes cover an extremely wide range (19%-60% GC) and the compositional patterns of individual genomes are extremely different but all genomes tested show a compositional compartmentalization. Conclusions The average GC range of the genomes of unicellular eukaryotes is very broad (as broad as that of prokaryotes) and individual compositional patterns cover a very broad range from very narrow to very complex. Both features are not surprising for organisms that are very far from each other both in terms of phylogenetic distances and of environmental life conditions. Most importantly, all genomes tested, a representative sample of all supergroups of unicellular eukaryotes, are compositionally compartmentalized, a major difference with prokaryotes. PMID:24188247

  3. Daily pattern of some fatty acids in the athletic horse.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Assenza, A; Borruso, M; Fazio, F; Caola, G

    2009-02-01

    In the sport field, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are important for the physical performance during the aerobic exercise of short intensity and long duration. In man, rat, goat and in the sedentary horse studies on the chronometabolism showed the presence of a circadian rhythm of the plasmatic concentration of NEFA while data for the athletic horse are lacking. To define a chronogram helpful for a specific planning and the differentiation of the training programmme in the athletic horse, the circadian pattern of some fatty acids (NEFA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) was studied in five Sella Italiana horses. These horses trained following a daily model of activity consisting of walk, trot, gallop and jump of obstacles of different heights. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein every 4 h, starting at 08:00 hours, for 2 days to assess the concentrations of total NEFA (by spectrophotometry), palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids (by gas chromatography). anova for repeated measures showed a statistical significant effect of the time of the day in NEFA, oleic and linolenic acids. The application of the periodic model showed the periodic pattern of NEFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Acrophases were in the afternoon for all parameters. The results obtained showed a different trend of the circadian pattern of the studied parameters in the athletic horse than in the sedentary one because the physical activity and the post-prandial metabolism acted as zeitgebers.

  4. Multiscale patterning of a biomimetic scaffold integrated with composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Sandri, Monica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Yazdi, Iman K; Liu, Xeuwu; Ferrari, Mauro; Weiner, Bradley K; Tampieri, Anna; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2014-10-15

    The ideal scaffold for regenerative medicine should concurrently mimic the structure of the original tissue from the nano- up to the macroscale and recapitulate the biochemical composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in space and time. In this study, a multiscale approach is followed to selectively integrate different types of nanostructured composite microspheres loaded with reporter proteins, in a multi-compartment collagen scaffold. Through the preservation of the structural cues of the functionalized collagen scaffold at the nano- and microscale, its macroscopic features (pore size, porosity, and swelling) are not altered. Additionally, the spatial confinement of the microspheres allows the release of the reporter proteins in each of the layers of the scaffold. Finally, the staged and zero-order release kinetics enables the temporal biochemical patterning of the scaffold. The versatile manufacturing of each component of the scaffold results in the ability to customize it to better mimic the architecture and composition of the tissues and biological systems.

  5. Species richness effects on ecosystem multifunctionality depend on evenness, composition and spatial pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, F.T.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Bowker, M.A.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) is positively supported by species richness. However, little is known regarding the relative importance of other community attributes (e.g. spatial pattern, species evenness) as drivers of multifunctionality. 2. We conducted two microcosm experiments using model biological soil crust communities dominated by lichens to: (i) evaluate the joint effects and relative importance of changes in species composition, spatial pattern (clumped and random distribution of lichens), evenness (maximal and low evenness) and richness (from two to eight species) on soil functions related to nutrient cycling (β-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase enzymes, in situ N availability, total N, organic C, and N fixation), and (ii) assess how these community attributes affect multifunctionality. 3. Species richness, composition and spatial pattern affected multiple ecosystem functions (e.g. organic C, total N, N availability, β-glucosidase activity), albeit the magnitude and direction of their effects varied with the particular function, experiment and soil depth considered. Changes in species composition had effects on organic C, total N and the activity of β-glucosidase. Significant species richness × evenness and spatial pattern × evenness interactions were found when analysing functions such as organic C, total N and the activity of phosphatase. 4. The probability of sustaining multiple ecosystem functions increased with species richness, but this effect was largely modulated by attributes such as species evenness, composition and spatial pattern. Overall, we found that model communities with high species richness, random spatial pattern and low evenness increased multifunctionality. 5. Synthesis. Our results illustrate how different community attributes have a diverse impact on ecosystem functions related to nutrient cycling, and provide new

  6. Relative Amino Acid Composition Signatures of Organisms and Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandra; Savageau, Michael A.; Alves, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying organism-environment interactions at the molecular level is crucial to understanding how organisms adapt to and change the chemical and molecular landscape of their habitats. In this work we investigated whether relative amino acid compositions could be used as a molecular signature of an environment and whether such a signature could also be observed at the level of the cellular amino acid composition of the microorganisms that inhabit that environment. Methodologies/Principal Findings To address these questions we collected and analyzed environmental amino acid determinations from the literature, and estimated from complete genomic sequences the global relative amino acid abundances of organisms that are cognate to the different types of environment. Environmental relative amino acid abundances clustered into broad groups (ocean waters, host-associated environments, grass land environments, sandy soils and sediments, and forest soils), indicating the presence of amino acid signatures specific for each environment. These signatures correlate to those found in organisms. Nevertheless, relative amino acid abundance of organisms was more influenced by GC content than habitat or phylogeny. Conclusions Our results suggest that relative amino acid composition can be used as a signature of an environment. In addition, we observed that the relative amino acid composition of organisms is not highly determined by environment, reinforcing previous studies that find GC content to be the major factor correlating to amino acid composition in living organisms. PMID:24204807

  7. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  8. Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hormoz, Sahand

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of amino acid occurrence frequencies in proteins (composition) is not yet fully understood. We suggest that protein composition works alongside the genetic code to minimize impact of mutations on protein structure. First, we propose a novel method for estimating thermodynamic stability of proteins whose sequence is constrained to a fixed composition. Second, we quantify the average deleterious impact of substituting one amino acid with another. Natural proteome compositions are special in at least two ways: 1) Natural compositions do not generate more stable proteins than the average random composition, however, they result in proteins that are less susceptible to damage from mutations. 2) Natural proteome compositions that result in more stable proteins (i.e. those of thermophiles) are also tuned to have a higher tolerance for mutations. This is consistent with the observation that environmental factors selecting for more stable proteins also enhance the deleterious impact of mutations. PMID:24108121

  9. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  10. Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2011-03-01

    Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes--a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh--in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution.

  11. Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina K.; Vreča, Polona

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. Mathematical model based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values and on precipitation amount weighted average related to elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM is proposed. The model enables estimation of average δ2H and δ18O values and their standard deviation for the precipitation generated at distinctive atmospheric circulation patterns. Approach in which atmospheric circulation patterns were classified as ECM based on the Dzerdzeevskii classification was applied. Application of the model is illustrated on the long term precipitation record from Ljubljana GNIP station Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Further applications of the proposed model enable new insight into the understanding of isotopes spatial and temporal distribution in precipitation important also for better understanding of climate proxies.

  12. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  13. Irradiation-induced composition patterns in binary solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Santosh; El-Azab, Anter

    2013-09-28

    A theoretical/computational model for the irradiation-driven compositional instabilities in binary solid solutions has been developed. The model is suitable for investigating the behavior of structural alloys and metallic nuclear fuels in a reactor environment as well as the response of alloy thin films to ion beam irradiation. The model is based on a set of reaction-diffusion equations for the dynamics of vacancies, interstitials, and lattice atoms under irradiation. The dynamics of these species includes the stochastic generation of defects by collision cascades as well as the defect reactions and diffusion. The atomic fluxes in this model are derived based on the transitions of lattice defects. The set of reaction-diffusion equations are stiff, hence a stiffly stable method, also known as the Gear method, has been used to numerically approximate the equations. For the Cu-Au alloy in the solid solution regime, the model results demonstrate the formation of compositional patterns under high-temperature particle irradiation, with Fourier space properties (Fourier spectrum, average wavelength, and wavevector) depending on the cascade damage characteristics, average composition, and irradiation temperature.

  14. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  15. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  16. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  17. Hierarchical pattern formation through photo-induced disorder in block copolymer/additive composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Watkins, James

    2013-03-01

    Segregation strength in hybrid materials can be increased through selective hydrogen bonding between organic or nanoparticle additives and one block of weakly segregated block copolymers to generate well ordered hybrid materials. Here, we report the use of enantiopure tartaric acid as the additive to dramatically improve ordering in poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) copolymers. Phase behavior and morphologies within both bulk and thin films were studied by TEM, AFM and X-ray scattering. Suppression of PEO crystallization by the interaction between tartaric acid and the PEO block enables the formation of well ordered smooth thin films. With the addition of a photo acid generator, photo-induced disorder in PEO-b-PtBA/tartaric acid composite system can be achieved upon UV exposure to deprotect PtBA block to yield poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), which is phase-miscible with PEO. Due to the strong interaction of tartaric acid with both blocks, the system undergoes a disordering transition within seconds during a post-exposure baking. With the assistance of trace-amounts of base quencher, high resolution, hierarchical patterns of sub-micron regions of ordered and disordered domains were achieved in thin films through area-selective UV exposure using a photo-mask. Funding from Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CHM); Facility support from Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at UMass Amherst and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

  18. Microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns in topsoil and subsoil horizons along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Takriti, Mounir; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Hofer, Angelika; Klaus, Karoline; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Richter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Soil horizons below 30 cm depth contain about 60% of the organic carbon stored in soils. Although insight into the physical and chemical stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and into microbial community composition in these horizons is being gained, information on microbial functions of subsoil microbial communities and on associated microbially-mediated processes remains sparse. To identify possible controls on enzyme patterns, we correlated enzyme patterns with biotic and abiotic soil parameters, as well as with microbial community composition, estimated using phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Enzyme patterns (i.e. distance-matrixes calculated from these enzyme activities) were calculated from the activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase), which had been measured in soil samples from organic topsoil horizons, mineral topsoil horizons, and mineral subsoil horizons from seven ecosystems along a 1500 km latitudinal transect in Western Siberia. We found that hydrolytic enzyme activities decreased rapidly with depth, whereas oxidative enzyme activities in mineral horizons were as high as, or higher than in organic topsoil horizons. Enzyme patterns varied more strongly between ecosystems in mineral subsoil horizons than in organic topsoils. The enzyme patterns in topsoil horizons were correlated with SOM content (i.e., C and N content) and microbial community composition. In contrast, the enzyme patterns in mineral subsoil horizons were related to water content, soil pH and microbial community composition. The lack of correlation between enzyme patterns and SOM quantity in the mineral subsoils suggests that SOM chemistry, spatial separation or physical stabilization of SOM rather than SOM content might determine substrate availability for enzymatic breakdown. The correlation of microbial community composition and enzyme patterns in all horizons

  19. Pattern recognition by wavelet transforms using macro fibre composites transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz de la Hermosa González-Carrato, Raúl; García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Dimlaye, Vichaar; Ruiz-Hernández, Diego

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel pattern recognition approach for a non-destructive test based on macro fibre composite transducers applied in pipes. A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) method is employed to extract relevant information from ultrasound signals by wavelet decomposition technique. The wavelet transform is a powerful tool that reveals particular characteristics as trends or breakdown points. The FDD developed for the case study provides information about the temperatures on the surfaces of the pipe, leading to monitor faults associated with cracks, leaks or corrosion. This issue may not be noticeable when temperatures are not subject to sudden changes, but it can cause structural problems in the medium and long-term. Furthermore, the case study is completed by a statistical method based on the coefficient of determination. The main purpose will be to predict future behaviours in order to set alarm levels as a part of a structural health monitoring system.

  20. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  1. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia [Gainesville, FL; Nong, Guang [Gainesville, FL; Rice, John D [Gainesville, FL; John, Franz J [Baltimore, MD

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

    2013-04-01

    The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54 g (per 100 g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1 n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2 n-6). The α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34% ± 0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47% ± 0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied.

  4. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints.

  5. The folding type of a protein is relevant to the amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, H; Nishikawa, K; Ooi, T

    1986-01-01

    The folding types of 135 proteins, the three-dimensional structures of which are known, were analyzed in terms of the amino acid composition. The amino acid composition of a protein was expressed as a point in a multidimensional space spanned with 20 axes, on which the corresponding contents of 20 amino acids in the protein were represented. The distribution pattern of proteins in this composition space was examined in relation to five folding types, alpha, beta, alpha/beta, alpha + beta, and irregular type. The results show that amino acid compositions of the alpha, beta, and alpha/beta types are located in different regions in the composition space, thus allowing distinct separation of proteins depending on the folding types. The points representing proteins of the alpha + beta and irregular types, however, are widely scattered in the space, and the existing regions overlap with those of the other folding types. A simple method of utilizing the "distance" in the space was found to be convenient for classification of proteins into the five folding types. The assignment of the folding type with this method gave an accuracy of 70% in the coincidence with the experimental data.

  6. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  7. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Davison, F D; Mackenzie, D W; Owen, R J

    1980-06-01

    DNA was extracted and purified from 55 dermatophyte isolates representing 34 species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. The base compositions of the chromosomal DNA were determined by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and were found to be in the narrow range of 48.7 to 50.3 mol % G + C. A satellite DNA component assumed to be of mitochondrial origin was present in most strains, with a G + C content ranging from 14.7 to 30.8 mol % G + C. Heterogeneity in microscopic and colonial characteristics was not reflected in differences in the mean G + C content of the chromosomal DNAs. Strains varied in the G + C contents of satelite DNA, but these did not correlate with traditional species concepts.

  8. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  9. An investigation of optical composite filters for pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Te

    With the technological advancements in high speed CCD cameras and high resolution spatial light modulators (SLMs), joint transform correlators (JTCs) have obtained more attention in optical pattern recognition, for two main reasons: they are robust to environmental perturbation and they do not require a prefabricated Fourier domain filter, as does the VanderLugt correlator (VLC). JTCs suffer from poor detection efficiency, however, particularly in multi-target and high background noise environments. This study presents several efforts to improve the JTC's performance for pattern recognition. An optimum training process using the simulated annealing algorithm for construction of multilevel composite function (MCF) filters in the input domain was studied. MCFs are suitable for current SLMs because of their limited dynamic range. We investigated the performance of MCFs to observe the impact of number of levels on distortion invariance and discriminability. A JTC system with position encoding technique, which allows a real- valued or complex-valued function to be displayed on an amplitude-modulated SLM, is also provided for the optical implementation of MCF filters. Due to the existence of the zero-order spectra, JTCs suffer from poor detection efficiency. To alleviate this problem, a simple method of removing the zero-order spectra in a joint transform power spectrum (JTPS) was investigated. We have shown that the nonzero-order JTC (NOJTC) performs better, compared to the conventional JTC (CJTC), in terms of detection and defraction efficiency, pixel utilization and avoidance of false alarms due to inter-object modulation. Simulated and experimental demonstrations has been provided. A practical method for identifying the Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) image with a 360-degree rotation-invariant based on a set of MCF filters was also investigated. The MCFs are synthesized by the simulated annealing algorithm, which are suitable for current SLMs because of the limited

  10. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  11. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  12. Subgrouping of Pseudomonas cepacia by cellular fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Mukwaya, G M; Welch, D F

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions were determined for 42 strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from five cystic fibrosis centers in North America. All isolates contained significant (20%) amounts of hexadecanoic (C16:0), and cis-9 hexadecenoic (C16:1 cis9) acids and an isomer of octadecenoic acid (C18:1). None had hydroxy acids containing fewer than 14 carbon atoms. The quantitative data from the fatty acid analysis were highly reproducible and provided a basis for numerical analysis. Five subgroups comprising all the strains were obtained by cluster analysis and further characterized by principal-component analysis. With minor exceptions, the predominant subgroup identified in each center was different from that identified in other centers and accounted for one-half of the isolates within each center. Cellular fatty acid composition is a useful adjunct to biochemical characterization for the identification of P. cepacia isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Numerical analysis of the fatty acid data can separate P. cepacia into subgroups, which may provide useful epidemiologic information or a basis for further analysis by more complex techniques such as DNA probe analysis. PMID:2687315

  13. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  14. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  15. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  16. Method of preparing and using and composition for acidizing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-08-21

    A composition and method of acidizing or fracturing a subterranean formation comprises contacting the formation with a composition comprising an acid, urea, and a selected gelling agent. The urea is present in an amount sufficient to extend the viscous stability of the gelled acid composition in comparison to the acid and gelling agent alone.

  17. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  18. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  19. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  20. Abnormal fatty acid pattern in the superior temporal gyrus distinguishes bipolar disorder from major depression and schizophrenia and resembles multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients.

  1. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  2. Fatty acid composition of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid compositions of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty acids of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty acid patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic acids (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic acid was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty acid compositions of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey.

  3. Bioaccumulation patterns of methyl mercury and essential fatty acids in lacustrine planktonic food webs and fish.

    PubMed

    Kainz, Martin; Telmer, Kevin; Mazumder, Asit

    2006-09-01

    Organisms of the planktonic food web convey essential nutrients as well as contaminants to animals at higher trophic levels. We measured concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) and essential fatty acids (EFAs, key nutrients for aquatic food webs) in four size categories of planktonic organisms - seston (10-64 microm), micro-(100-200 microm), meso-(200-500 microm), and macrozooplankton (>500 microm) - as well as total mercury (THg) and EFAs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in coastal lakes. We demonstrate that, in all lakes during this summer sampling, MeHg concentrations of planktonic organisms increase significantly with plankton size, independent of their taxonomic composition, and that their MeHg accumulation patterns predict significantly THg concentrations in rainbow trout (R2=0.71, p<0.05). However, concentrations of total EFAs do not follow this pattern. Total EFAs increased from seston to mesozooplankton but decreased in the largest zooplankton size fraction. Moreover, concentrations of individual EFA compounds in rainbow trout are consistently lower, with the exception of docosahexaenoic acid, than those in macrozooplankton. The continuous increase of MeHg concentrations in aquatic organisms, therefore, differs from patterns of EFA accumulation in zooplankton and fish. We interpret these contrasting accumulation patterns of MeHg and EFA compounds as the inability of aquatic organisms to regulate the assimilation of dietary MeHg, whereas the rate of EFA retention may be controlled to optimize their physiological performance. Therefore, we conclude that bioaccumulation patterns of Hg in these aquatic food webs are not controlled by lipid solubility and/or the retention of EFA compounds.

  4. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  5. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Sheard, P R; Richardson, R I; Hughes, S I; Whittington, F M

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the factors affecting the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in pigs, sheep and cattle and shows that a major factor is the total amount of fat. The effects of fatty acid composition on meat quality are also reviewed. Pigs have high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the long chain (C20-22) PUFA in adipose tissue and muscle. The full range of PUFA are also found in sheep adipose tissue and muscle whereas cattle 'conserve' long chain PUFA in muscle phospholipid. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is a major ingredient of feeds for all species. Its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle in relation to the amount in the diet is greater than for other fatty acids. It is deposited in muscle phospholipid at a high level where it and its long chain products eg aracidonic acid (20:4n-6) compete well for insertion into phospholipid molecules. Its proportion in pig adipose tissue declines as fat deposition proceeds and is an index of fatness. The same inverse relationships are not seen in ruminant adipose tissue but in all species the proportion of 18:2n-6 declines in muscle as fat deposition increases. The main reason is that phospholipid, where 18:2n-6 is located, declines as a proportion of muscle lipid and the proportion of neutral lipid, with its higher content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, increases. Oleic acid (18:1cis-9), formed from stearic acid (18:0) by the enzyme stearoyl Co-A desaturase, is a major component of neutral lipid and in ruminants the same enzyme forms conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an important nutrient in human nutrition. Like 18:2n-6, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is an essential fatty acid and is important to ruminants since it is the major fatty acid in grass. However it does not compete well for insertion into phospholipid compared with 18:2n-6 and its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle is less efficient. Greater biohydrogenation of 18:3n-3 and a long rumen transit time

  6. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A

    1967-11-01

    A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.

  7. Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Shively, C A; Tarka, S M

    1984-01-01

    This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, an event that formed the backbone of the chocolate industry today. The consumption of cocoa throughout the world has been influenced by a number of factors, and the period of peak consumption occurred during the early to mid-1960s when these factors were highly favorable. The greatest consumption of cocoa in metric tons over the past 10 yr has been in the United States, although the highest per capita consumer during this period was Switzerland. The African continent has been historically the primary producer of raw cocoa, with the Ivory Coast currently being the largest individual supplier. Limited marketing survey data is available for the consumption of methylxanthines in chocolate foods and beverages. In children and teenagers, the major dietary source of caffeine was found to be tea, followed by soft drinks and coffee, respectively. Although chocolate foods and beverages ranked the lowest of these dietary sources to provide caffeine, they do constitute the major source of dietary theobromine. Cacao is the major natural source of the xanthine base theobromine. Small amounts of caffeine are present in the bean along with trace amounts of theophylline. The methylxanthine content of beans varies with the varietal type, and is influenced by the fermentation process. Chocolate liquor is a semifinished product commonly called "baking" or "cooking" chocolate. The average theobromine and caffeine content of liquors has been reported at 1.2% and 0.21%, respectively. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Chocolate beverages comprise the most widely studied category of

  8. Neonatal jaundice and fatty acid composition of the maternal diet.

    PubMed

    Uhari, M; Alkku, A; Nikkari, T; Timonen, E

    1985-11-01

    The role of serum fatty acid composition in neonatal jaundice was studied by comparing the incidence of jaundice among 332 newborn infants receiving breast milk from mothers on a diet with either a low (0.1, n = 145) or a high (1.5, n = 187) polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio. The diet was started immediately after delivery. The composition of fatty acids in the breast milk and sera of the mothers and in the sera of the newborns was evaluated from a random sample of 15 mother-newborn pairs on the control diet (low P/S ratio) and 19 pairs on the experimental diet. Five days after delivery the relative amounts of fatty acids, especially that of linoleate, in the sera of the mothers differed significantly depending on the diet. Differences were also observed in breast milk samples taken three, four or five days after delivery and in the sera of the newborns sampled at the age of four or five days. Nine of the 145 newborn infants (6.2%) in the control group had to be treated with light therapy compared with 12 out of 187 (6.4%) of the newborn infants in the experimental group (high P/S ratio). Serum bilirubin concentrations were 142.5 mumol/l (SD 65.8) and 140.7 mumol/l (SD 73.5) in the experimental and control groups, respectively, at the age of five days. It appears that the changes in the composition of serum fatty acids reached in this study had no effect on the neonatal jaundice.

  9. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  10. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  11. Stratification, composition, and function of marine mammal blubber: the ecology of fatty acids in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Käkelä, Anne; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Käkelä, Reijo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study of vertical fatty acid profiles, based on analysis of 58 fatty acids sampled at 3-mm intervals throughout the blubber column of a model marine mammal, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), revealed three chemically distinct layers. The average depths of the outer and inner layers were quite consistent (approximately 1.5 and approximately 1 cm, respectively). Consequently, the middle layer varied greatly in thickness, from being virtually absent in the thinnest animals to 2.5 cm thick in the fattest. The relative consistencies of the thickness and composition of the layers as well as the nature of the fatty acids making up each layer support the generally assumed function of the various layers: (1) the outer layer is primarily structural and thermoregulatory, (2) the inner layer is metabolically active with a fatty acid composition that is strongly affected by recent/ongoing lipid mobilization/deposition, and (3) the middle layer is a storage site that contracts and expands with food availability/consumption. The remarkable dynamics of the middle layer along with the discrete pattern of stratification found in the vertical fatty acid profiles have important implications for methodological sampling design for studies of foraging ecology and toxicology based on analyses of blubber of marine mammals.

  12. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-03-20

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  13. Phospholipid Analyses for Microbial Community Composition in Alpine Acid Rock Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. E.; Tapp, J. B.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    This project is examining factors of non-anthropogenic acid rock drainage that influence microbial community composition in the Peekaboo Gulch drainage basin (Sawatch Range, Colorado). At this site, natural acid rock drainage outflows from acidic springs (pH=2.6) on Red Mountain. The acid drainage converges with South Fork Lake Creek (pH ~ 7.0, prior to convergence) two miles down gradient. Sediment samples were collected across confluences with gradient of pH, temperature, conductivity and metal concentration. In-situ parameter measurements ranged from 2.3 to 7.9 of pH, 3.8 to 16.6 degree Celsius for temperature, and 34.9 to 1820 for conductivity. Biomass as measured by phospholipids ranged from 280 to 95,900 pmol/g sediment. The only relationship between the in situ parameters and the phospholipid profiles is a weak positive correlation between pH and branched monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in that at a pH greater than 5.0 these fatty acid methyl esters were detected. The phospholipid profiles were diverse across the samples. These profiles changed with respect to the spatial relationship within the drainage pattern. The highest alpine samples contained greater relative abundances of monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters compared to the lower alpine samples. Microbial community profiles shifted at each confluence depending on water source chemistry. Continuing research is needed to determine other biogeochemical factors that may influence these community shifts.

  14. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  15. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  16. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  17. Superconducting composite with multilayer patterns and multiple buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-10-12

    An article of manufacture is described including a substrate, a patterned interlayer of a material selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide, barium-titanium oxide or barium-zirconium oxide, the patterned interlayer material overcoated with a secondary interlayer material of yttria-stabilized zirconia or magnesium-aluminum oxide, upon the surface of the substrate whereby an intermediate article with an exposed surface of both the overcoated patterned interlayer and the substrate is formed, a coating of a buffer layer selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, curium oxide, dysprosium oxide, erbium oxide, europium oxide, iron oxide, gadolinium oxide, holmium oxide, indium oxide, lanthanum oxide, manganese oxide, lutetium oxide, neodymium oxide, praseodymium oxide, plutonium oxide, samarium oxide, terbium oxide, thallium oxide, thulium oxide, yttrium oxide and ytterbium oxide over the entire exposed surface of the intermediate article, and, a ceramic superconductor. 5 figures.

  18. Black Rhetorical Patterns and the Teaching of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    When teaching composition to speakers of Black English, instructors should be aware of the dominance of oral expression in black culture and base the writing program on developing the students' present language abilities. The social value placed by inner-city blacks on oral expression is evident in the varying verbal contests carried out when…

  19. Spatial patterns of microbial community composition within Lake Erie sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Erie is a large freshwater ecosystem with three distinct basins that exhibit an east-west gradient of increasing productivity, as well as allochthonous inputs of nutrients and xenobiotics. To evaluate microbial community composition throughout this ecosystem, 435 16S rDNA environmental clones w...

  20. Species loss on spatial patterns and composition of zoonotic parasites

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nyeema C.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Species loss can result in the subsequent loss of affiliate species. Though largely ignored to date, these coextinctions can pose threats to human health by altering the composition, quantity and distribution of zoonotic parasites. We simulated host extinctions from more than 1300 host–parasite associations for 29 North American carnivores to investigate changes in parasite composition and species richness. We also explored the geography of zoonotic parasite richness under three carnivore composition scenarios and examined corresponding levels of human exposure. We found that changes in parasite assemblages differed among parasite groups. Because viruses tend to be generalists, the proportion of parasites that are viruses increased as more carnivores went extinct. Coextinction of carnivore parasites is unlikely to be common, given that few specialist parasites exploit hosts of conservation concern. However, local extirpations of widespread carnivore hosts can reduce overall zoonotic richness and shift distributions of parasite-rich areas. How biodiversity influences disease risks remains the subject of debate. Our results make clear that hosts vary in their contribution to human health risks. As a consequence, so too does the loss (or gain) of particular hosts. Anticipating changes in host composition in future environments may help inform parasite conservation and disease mitigation efforts. PMID:24068356

  1. Microchannel-patterned and heparin micro-contact-printed biodegradable composite membranes for tissue-engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Baran, Erkan T; Tuzlakoğlu, Kadriye; Salgado, António; Reis, Rui L

    2011-06-01

    Microchannel-patterned starch-poly(capro-lactone)/hydydroxyapatite (SPCL-HA) and starch-poly(lactic acid) (SPLA) composite membranes were produced for use as a laminated tissue-engineering scaffold that incorporates both physical and biochemical patterns. For this purpose, SPCL (30% starch) blended with inorganic hydroxyl apatite (50%) and SPLA (50% starch) membranes were made with compressive moulding. Consequently, the microchannel structures (width 102 µm, 174 µm intervals) were developed on the composite membranes by means of micro-patterned metal mould(s) and hydraulic pressing. An elastomer poly(dimetylsiloxane) stamp was used to transfer heparin as a biochemical cue over the microchannel surfaces by micro-contact printing (µCP). Toluidine blue staining of developed capillaries and heparin µCP-coated membranes showed that heparin was transferred predominantly over the microchannel surfaces. Fibroblast cell culture over the microchannel-formed and heparin µCP-modified SPCL-HA and SPLA membranes showed distinct growth patterns. In contrast to the uniform cell layer formed on unmodified microchannels, the cells were bridging across the grooves of heparin-printed microchannels. At extended culture periods, the heparin-printed microchannels were covered with a layer of fibroblast cells without cellular ingrowths inside. This study indicated that the topographical pattern could induce an organization of fibroblasts only with the biochemical cue and the cells' functions can be controlled spatially over the microchannels by using both cues.

  2. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  3. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  4. Factors Affecting Composition Evaluation in an EFL Context: Cultural Rhetorical Pattern and Readers' Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how readers of different backgrounds evaluated 16 versions of Japanese university English as a foreign language (EFL) students' English compositions containing different culturally influenced rhetorical patterns. Results suggest that a flexible approach to permissible rhetorical patterns and a greater emphasis on coherence may be…

  5. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  6. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment.

  7. Superconducting composite with multilayer patterns and multiple buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    1993-01-01

    An article of manufacture including a substrate, a patterned interlayer of a material selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide, barium-titanium oxide or barium-zirconium oxide, the patterned interlayer material overcoated with a secondary interlayer material of yttria-stabilized zirconia or magnesium-aluminum oxide, upon the surface of the substrate whereby an intermediate article with an exposed surface of both the overcoated patterned interlayer and the substrate is formed, a coating of a buffer layer selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, curium oxide, dysprosium oxide, erbium oxide, europium oxide, iron oxide, gadolinium oxide, holmium oxide, indium oxide, lanthanum oxide, manganese oxide, lutetium oxide, neodymium oxide, praseodymium oxide, plutonium oxide, samarium oxide, terbium oxide, thallium oxide, thulium oxide, yttrium oxide and ytterbium oxide over the entire exposed surface of the intermediate article, and, a ceramic superco n FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of superconducting articles having two distinct regions of superconductive material with differing in-plane orientations whereby the conductivity across the boundary between the two regions can be tailored. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  8. Effect of acidity on the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis of alumina-zirconia composite powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandradass, J.; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    Alumina-zirconia composite powders were produced by sol-gel autocombustion. 20 wt.% ZrO2-Al2O3 mixture precursor solutions were chelated by citric acid ions at different pH. DTA analysis shows sluggish decomposition at low pH, whereas there was rapid decomposition at high pH = 9. XRD patterns of the calcined powders showed that well crystallized powder with 100 % tetragonal phase and α-alumina phase is produced when pH = 0.58 (without ammonia addition). TEM characterization of composite powders revealed homogenous distribution of nanosized zirconia particles in the alumina matrix. FTIR analysis shows peaks at 590 cm-1 and 454 cm-1, which are identified as the characteristic absorption bands of Zr-O and Al-O.

  9. The effects of dietary oils on the fatty acid composition and osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, M; Stangl, G I; Reichlmayr-Lais, A M; Eder, K

    1994-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different dietary oils representing special fatty acids which varied in chain length, position and number of double bonds on fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and on the osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes after incubation in NaCl solutions of different concentrations. For this purpose all animals were initially fed a control diet (CO) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.4% safflower oil for 28 days. After that 10 groups of 10 animals each were switched to test diets for another 20 days in which 50% or 100% of the coconut oil was exchanged for one of the following oils: olive oil (OO 5, OO 10), safflower oil (SFO 5, SFO 10), evening primrose oil (EPO 5, EPO 10), linseed oil (LO 5, LO 10) or salmon oil (SLO 5, SLO 10). The results show that the fatty acid composition of rat erythrocyte membranes was affected by the fatty acid composition of the dietary fats. Rats fed OO 10, EPO 10, LO 5 and LO 10 had a slightly lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in erythrocyte membranes than control rats. Groups fed olive oil showed the highest level of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the erythrocyte membrane. This increase in MUFA at the expense of SFA and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was most pronounced with respect to 18:1 and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Rats fed SFO, EPO or LO had higher linoleic acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane than control rats. This increase in 18:2 (n-6) was mainly at the expense of 18:1 and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. The proportion of 20:4 (n-6) did not remarkably change feeding diets with (n-6) PUFA-rich oils. The (n-3) PUFA concentration in the erythrocyte membranes considerably increased, whereas (n-6) PUFA decreased feeding linseed oil or salmon oil rich in (n-3) PUFA. Linseed oil and salmon oil caused similar changes in the membrane, which were more pronounced in rats fed salmon oil than in rats fed linseed oil. The

  10. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  11. Impact Strength of Different Weaving Patterns of Woven Kenaf Reinforced Polyester Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, S. N. A.; Ismail, A. E.; Zainulabidin, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of weaving patterns and orientations on the energy absorption of woven kenaf reinforced polyester composites. Kenaf fiber in the form of yarn is weaved to produce different weaving patterns such as plain, twill and basket. Three woven mats are stacked together and mixed with polyester resin before it is compressed to squeeze out any excessive resin. There is 9 different orientations are used during stacking processes. The hardened composites are cured for 24 hours before it is shaped according to specific dimensions for imp act tests. The composites are perforated with 1m/s blunted projectile. According to the experimental findings, both weaving patterns and orientations have distinct potential effects on the force-displacement diagrams. However, fiber orientations have insignificant effect for plain woven especially in the first stage of deformations. Energy absorption performances for each composite condition are calculated and then plotted against fiber orientations for different weaving patterns. It is found there is no strong relationship between energy absorption and fiber orientations. However for each case of composites, higher energy absorption is found for the composites orientated using [+40°/-15°/+40°/+75°]. Based on the fracture observation, both plain and basket-type woven composites reveal large fragmentations occurred indicating lower energy absorption performances. While for twill condition, no obvious fragmentation is observed where the impact damage around the perforated hole is uniformly distributed leading to higher capability of energy absorptions.

  12. Proteomic Stable Isotope Probing Reveals Taxonomically Distinct Patterns in Amino Acid Assimilation by Coastal Marine Bacterioplankton

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Samuel; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Hettich, Robert L.; Mayali, Xavier; Pan, Chongle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton are a critical component of the carbon cycle, processing nearly a quarter of annual primary production, yet defining how substrate utilization preferences and resource partitioning structure microbial communities remains a challenge. In this study, proteomic stable isotope probing (proteomic SIP) was used to characterize population-specific assimilation of dissolved free amino acids (DFAAs), a major source of dissolved organic carbon for bacterial secondary production in aquatic environments. Microcosms of seawater collected from Newport, Oregon, and Monterey Bay, California, were incubated with 1 µM 13C-labeled amino acids for 15 and 32 h. The taxonomic compositions of microcosm metaproteomes were highly similar to those of the sampled natural communities, with Rhodobacteriales, SAR11, and Flavobacteriales representing the dominant taxa. Analysis of 13C incorporation into protein biomass allowed for quantification of the isotopic enrichment of identified proteins and subsequent determination of differential amino acid assimilation patterns between specific bacterioplankton populations. Proteins associated with Rhodobacterales tended to have a significantly high frequency of 13C-enriched peptides, opposite the trend for Flavobacteriales and SAR11 proteins. Rhodobacterales proteins associated with amino acid transport and metabolism had an increased frequency of 13C-enriched spectra at time point 2. Alteromonadales proteins also had a significantly high frequency of 13C-enriched peptides, particularly within ribosomal proteins, demonstrating their rapid growth during incubations. Overall, proteomic SIP facilitated quantitative comparisons of DFAA assimilation by specific taxa, both between sympatric populations and between protein functional groups within discrete populations, allowing an unprecedented examination of population level metabolic responses to resource acquisition in complex microbial communities

  13. Proteomic Stable Isotope Probing Reveals Taxonomically Distinct Patterns in Amino Acid Assimilation by Coastal Marine Bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Samuel; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Hettich, Robert L; Mayali, Xavier; Pan, Chongle; Mueller, Ryan S

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton are a critical component of the carbon cycle, processing nearly a quarter of annual primary production, yet defining how substrate utilization preferences and resource partitioning structure microbial communities remains a challenge. In this study, proteomic stable isotope probing (proteomic SIP) was used to characterize population-specific assimilation of dissolved free amino acids (DFAAs), a major source of dissolved organic carbon for bacterial secondary production in aquatic environments. Microcosms of seawater collected from Newport, Oregon, and Monterey Bay, California, were incubated with 1 µM (13)C-labeled amino acids for 15 and 32 h. The taxonomic compositions of microcosm metaproteomes were highly similar to those of the sampled natural communities, with Rhodobacteriales, SAR11, and Flavobacteriales representing the dominant taxa. Analysis of (13)C incorporation into protein biomass allowed for quantification of the isotopic enrichment of identified proteins and subsequent determination of differential amino acid assimilation patterns between specific bacterioplankton populations. Proteins associated with Rhodobacterales tended to have a significantly high frequency of (13)C-enriched peptides, opposite the trend for Flavobacteriales and SAR11 proteins. Rhodobacterales proteins associated with amino acid transport and metabolism had an increased frequency of (13)C-enriched spectra at time point 2. Alteromonadales proteins also had a significantly high frequency of (13)C-enriched peptides, particularly within ribosomal proteins, demonstrating their rapid growth during incubations. Overall, proteomic SIP facilitated quantitative comparisons of DFAA assimilation by specific taxa, both between sympatric populations and between protein functional groups within discrete populations, allowing an unprecedented examination of population level metabolic responses to resource acquisition in complex microbial communities

  14. Nanomaterial processing for multifunctional patterned composites for in situ sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Zachary R.

    The increasing performance demands on composite materials have stimulated the development of new approaches and manufacturing techniques to integrate various system functionalities within the composite structure. Opportunity exists to produce smart, self-sensing composites, by altering the microstructure of the composite where sensors can be patterned for assessing damage locality and severity. Introduction of nanomaterials into continuous fiber-reinforced composites either at the fiber/matrix interface or within the polymer matrix enables further tailoring of mechanical and electrical properties. Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively for modifying the mechanical and physical properties of fiber composites. Recently graphene has generated scientific and technical interest due to potential lower raw material costs and ease of processing. This work studies graphene nano-platelet processing parameters to determine the suitability of graphene nanocomposites for in situ sensing applications. Processing parameters for optimizing the piezoresistive response of graphene nano-platelet composites for in situ sensing applications are determined and applied in for the development of a patterning media suitable for deposition onto glass fibers. A new approach to selectively modify the electrical properties of composite fibers is employed to selectively deposit carbon nanotube and graphene nano-platelet enhanced patterning media through an adapted screen printing process. These nano-modified depositions create hierarchical patterns of piezoresistive sensors as fully integrated components and form a distributed sensor network at the fiber/matrix interface. New analysis tools for resistance based sensing techniques are applied to nanocomposites and patterned unidirectional hybrid nanocomposites to assess damage onset and accumulation. The sensitivity of the electrical response for the graphene nano-platelet is compared with the electrical response of the carbon nanotube

  15. Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

    2007-05-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.

  16. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  17. Groundwater controls on vegetation composition and patterning in mountain meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Christopher S.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Moore, Courtney E.; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2011-10-01

    Mountain meadows are groundwater-dependent ecosystems that are hot spots of biodiversity and productivity. In the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, these ecosystems rely on shallow groundwater to support their vegetation communities during the dry summer growing season in the region's Mediterranean montane climate. Vegetation composition in this environment is influenced by both (1) oxygen stress that occurs when portions of the root zone are saturated and anaerobic conditions limit root respiration and (2) water stress that occurs when the water table drops and the root zone becomes water limited. A spatially distributed watershed model that explicitly accounts for snowmelt processes was linked to a fine-resolution groundwater flow model of Tuolumne Meadows in Yosemite National Park, California, to simulate water table dynamics. This linked hydrologic model was calibrated to observations from a well observation network for 2006-2009. A vegetation survey was also conducted at the site in which the three dominant species were identified at more than 200 plots distributed across the meadow. Nonparametric multiplicative regression was performed to create and select the best models for predicting vegetation dominance on the basis of the simulated hydrologic regime. The hydrologic niches of three vegetation types representing wet, moist, and dry meadow vegetation communities were found to be best described using both (1) a sum exceedance value calculated as the integral of water table position above a depth threshold of oxygen stress and (2) a sum exceedance value calculated as the integral of water table position below a depth threshold of water stress. This linked hydrologic and vegetative modeling framework advances our ability to predict the propagation of human-induced climatic and land use or land cover changes through the hydrologic system to the ecosystem. The hydroecologic functioning of meadows provides an example of the extent to which cascading

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  19. Patterns of effective permeability of leaf cuticles to acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, H.D.; Walters, K.D.; Berg, V.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Plants in the field are frequently exposed to anthropogenic acid precipitation with pH values of 4 and below. For the acid to directly affect leaf tissues, it must pass through the leaf cuticle, but little is known about the permeability of cuticles to protons, of about the effect of different anions on this permeability. We investigated the movement of protons through isolated astomatous leaf cuticles of grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfady.), rough lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm. fils cv Ponderosa), and pear (Pyrus communis L.) using hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids. Cuticles were enzymically isolated from leaves and placed in a diffusion apparatus with pH 4 acid on the morphological outer surface of the cuticle and degassed distilled water on the inner surface. Changes in pH of the solution on the inner surface were used to determine rates of effective permeability of the cuticles to the protons of these acids. Most cuticles exhibited an initial low permeability, lasting hours to days, then after a short transition displayed a significant higher permeability, which persisted until equilibrium was approached. The change in effective permeability appears to be reversible. Effective permeabilities were higher for sulfuric acid than for the others. A model of the movement of protons through the cuticle is presented, proposing that dissociated acid groups in channels within the cutin are first protonated by the acid, accounting for the low initial effective permeability; then protons pass freely through the channels, resulting in a higher effective permeability. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Distribution patterns of different carbon nanostructures in silicon nitride composites.

    PubMed

    Tapasztó, Orsolya; Markó, Márton; Balázsi, Csaba

    2012-11-01

    The dispersion properties of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as mechanically exfoliated few layer graphene flakes within the silicon nitride ceramic matrix have been investigated. Small angle neutron scattering experiments have been employed to gain information on the dispersion of the nano-scale carbon fillers throughout the entire volume of the samples. The neutron scattering data combined with scanning electron microscopy revealed strikingly different distribution patterns for different types of carbon nanostructures. The scattering intensities for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) reveal a decay exponent characteristic to surface fractals, which indicate that the predominant part of nanotubes can be found in loose networks wrapping the grains of the polycrystalline matrix. By contrast, multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were found to be present mainly in the form of bulk aggregate structures, while few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes have been individually dispersed within the host matrix, under the very same preparation and processing conditions.

  1. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases. PMID:27630833

  2. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  3. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  4. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  5. Global patterns of guild composition and functional diversity of spiders.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Pedro; Pekár, Stano; Jocqué, Rudy; Coddington, Jonathan A

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: (1) to define spider guilds for all extant families worldwide; (2) test if guilds defined at family level are good surrogates of species guilds; (3) compare the taxonomic and guild composition of spider assemblages from different parts of the world; (4) compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of spider assemblages and; (5) relate functional diversity with habitat structure. Data on foraging strategy, prey range, vertical stratification and circadian activity was collected for 108 families. Spider guilds were defined by hierarchical clustering. We searched for inconsistencies between family guild placement and the known guild of each species. Richness and abundance per guild before and after correcting guild placement were compared, as were the proportions of each guild and family between all possible pairs of sites. Functional diversity per site was calculated based on hierarchical clustering. Eight guilds were discriminated: (1) sensing, (2) sheet, (3) space, and (4) orb web weavers; (5) specialists; (6) ambush, (7) ground, and (8) other hunters. Sixteen percent of the species richness corresponding to 11% of all captured individuals was incorrectly attributed to a guild by family surrogacy; however, the correlation of uncorrected vs. corrected guilds was invariably high. The correlation of guild richness or abundances was generally higher than the correlation of family richness or abundances. Functional diversity was not always higher in the tropics than in temperate regions. Families may potentially serve as ecological surrogates for species. Different families may present similar roles in the ecosystems, with replacement of some taxa by other within the same guild. Spiders in tropical regions seem to have higher redundancy of functional roles and/or finer resource partitioning than in temperate regions. Although species and family diversity were higher in the tropics, functional diversity seems to be also influenced by

  6. Groundwater Controls on Vegetation Composition and Patterning in Mountain Meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loheide, S. P.; Lowry, C.; Moore, C. E.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain meadows are groundwater dependent ecosystems that are hotspots of biodiversity and productivity in the Sierra Nevada of California. Meadow vegetation relies on shallow groundwater during the region’s dry summer growing season. Vegetation composition in this environment is influenced both by 1) oxygen stress that occurs when portions of the root zone are saturated and anaerobic conditions are created that limit root respiration and 2) water stress that occurs when the water table drops and water-limited conditions are created in the root zone. A watershed model that explicitly accounts for snowmelt processes was linked to a fine resolution groundwater flow model of Tuolumne Meadows in Yosemite National Park, CA to simulated spatially distributed water table dynamics. This linked hydrologic model was calibrated to observations from a well observation network for 2006-2008, and validated using data from 2009. A vegetation survey was also conducted at the site in which the three dominant species were identified at more than 200 plots distributed across the meadow. Nonparametric multiplicative regression was performed to create and select the best models for predicting vegetation dominance based on simulated hydrologic regime. The hydrologic niche of three vegetation types representing wet, moist, and dry meadow vegetation communities was best described using both 1) a sum exceedance value calculated as the integral of water table position above a threshold of oxygen stress and 2) a sum deceedance value calculated as the integral of water table position below a threshold of water stress. This linked hydrologic and vegetative modeling framework advances our ability to predict the propagation of human-induced climatic and land-use/-cover changes through the hydrologic system to the ecosystem.

  7. Fatty acid concentration, proximate composition, and mineral composition in fishbone flour of Nile Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Petenuci, Maria Eugênia; Stevanato, Flávia Braidoti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Matsushita, Makoto; Garcia, Edivaldo Egea; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2008-03-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochormis niloticus) fishbone is a fish part with unknown composition. After elaboration of flour fishbone of tilapia it was analysede. The results in 100 g of flour were: moisture (14.2%), protein (40.8%), total lipids (25.3%), and ash (18.3%), and mineral (in 100 g) was 2715.9 mg (calcium), 1.3 mg (iron), and 1132.7 mg (phosphorus). A total of 22 fatty acids were detected in fishbone flour total lipids (TL), being the major ones in (g) of total lipids: 16:0 (208.5 mg); 18:1n-9 (344.3 mg); and 18:2n-6 (109.6 mg). The concentration of linolenic acid--LNA (18:3n-3); eicopentaenoic acid--EPA (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid--DHA (22:6n-3) were (29.9 mg), (3.3 mg), and (12.9 mg), respectively. The content to saturated (SFA) were (296.2 mg), monounsaturated (MUFA) 415.0 mg, and polyunsaturated (PUFA) 175.6 mg. The ratio PUFA:MUFA:SFA was 1:2.4:1.7, and the ratio omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 2.8. The last is within the recommended values. The results show low concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in flour. The value caloric and calcium, iron, phosphorus, and protein content the fishbone flour of tilapia may results a valuable alternative food in the human diet.

  8. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-05

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics.

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites.

  10. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  11. Fatty acid composition of goat diets vs intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K S; Waldron, D F; Ziprin, Y A; Rhee, K C

    2000-04-01

    Twenty Boer x Spanish goats, at the age range of 90-118 days, were assigned to two dietary treatments, with 10 animals fed a grain ration (G) and the other 10 grazed in rangeland. The grain ration contained sorghum grain (67.5%), cottonseed hulls, dehydrated alfalfa meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, molasses, and mineral and vitamin supplements. Animals were slaughtered at the age range of 206-234 days. Intramuscular fat (IF) and the diet specimens - representative samples of G and the parts of range plants (RPs) that goats were expected to have consumed - were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The percentage of 16:0 was higher in RPs than in G, but not different between IF from range goats and that from grain-fed goats. Total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) percentage was higher in G than in RPs. The major UFAs were 18:2 and 18:3 in RPs, and 18:1 and 18:2 in G. In IF, 18:1 constituted more than two-thirds of UFAs, regardless of diet type.

  12. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs. PMID:28115909

  13. Unusual fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, N M; Reyes, M; Sostre, A; Huang, H; Verhagen, M F; Adams, M W

    1997-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic microorganisms Thermotoga maritima and Pyrococcus furiosus were studied and compared. A total of 37 different fatty acids were identified in T. maritima, including the novel 13,14-dimethyloctacosanedioic acid. In contrast, a total of 18 different fatty acids were characterized, as minor components, in P. furiosus, and these included saturated, monounsaturated, and dicarboxylic acids. This is the first report of fatty acids from an archaeon. PMID:9098079

  14. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  15. Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena

    1995-01-01

    Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of low-molecular organic acids is a major mechanism involved and show that germinating seeds and young seedlings of limestone plants exude considerably more di- and tricarboxylic acids than calcifuges, which mainly exude monocarboxylic acids. The tricarboxylic citric acid is a powerful extractor of Fe, and the dicarboxylic oxalic acid a very effective extractor of phosphate from limestone soils. Monocarboxylic acids are very weak in these respects. The study is based on ten species from limestone soils and ten species from acid silicate soils. PMID:21247915

  16. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  17. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  18. Compositional evolution of SiGe islands on patterned Si (001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianjun; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Bauer, Guenther

    2010-11-15

    The authors investigate, by atomic-force-microscopy-based nanotomography, the composition evolution of ordered SiGe islands grown on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates as their size and aspect ratio increase with increasing Ge deposition. Compared to islands grown on flat substrates, the ordered island arrays show improved size, shape, and compositional homogeneity. The three-dimensional composition profiles of individual pyramids, domes, and barns reveal that the Ge fraction at the base and in subsurface regions of the islands decreases with increasing amount of deposited Ge.

  19. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  20. Abietoid seed fatty acid compositions--a review of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga and preliminary inferences on the taxonomy of Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Robert L; Lavialle, Olivier; Pédrono, Frédérique; Pasquier, Elodie; Destaillats, Frederic; Marpeau, Anne M; Angers, Paul; Aitzetmüller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    The seed fatty acid (FA) compositions of Abietoids (Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga) are reviewed in the present study in conclusion to our survey of Pinaceae seed FA compositions. Many unpublished data are given. Abietoids and Pinoids (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Pseudotsuga)-constituting the family Pinaceae-are united by the presence of several delta5-olefinic acids, taxoleic (5,9-18:2), pinolenic (5,9,12-18:3), coniferonic (5,9,12,15-1 8:4), keteleeronic (5,11-20:2), and sciadonic (5,11,14-20:3) acids, and of 14-methyl hexadecanoic (anteiso-17:0) acid. These acids seldom occur in angiosperm seeds. The proportions of individual delta5-olefinic acids, however, differ between Pinoids and Abietoids. In the first group, pinolenic acid is much greater than taxoleic acid, whereas in the second group, pinolenic acid is greater than or equal to taxoleic acid. Moreover, taxoleic acid in Abietoids is much greater than taxoleic acid in Pinoids, an apparent limit between the two subfamilies being about 4.5% of that acid relative to total FA. Tsuga spp. appear to be a major exception, as their seed FA compositions are much like those of species from the Pinoid group. In this respect, Hesperopeuce mertensiana, also known as Tsuga mertensiana, has little in common with Abietoids and fits the general FA pattern of Pinoids well. Tsuga spp. and H. mertensiana, from their seed FA compositions, should perhaps be separated from the Abietoid group and their taxonomic position revised. It is suggested that a "Tsugoid" subfamily be created, with seed FA in compliance with the Pinoid pattern and other botanical and immunological criteria of the Abietoid type. All Pinaceae genera, with the exception of Pinus, are quite homogeneous when considering their overall seed FA compositions, including delta5-olefinic acids. In all cases but one (Pinus), variations from one species to another inside a given genus are of small amplitude. Pinus spp., on the other hand

  1. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  2. Conditions for Symmetries in the Buckle Patterns of Laminated-Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Conditions for the existence of certain symmetries to exist in the buckle patterns of symmetrically laminated composite plates are presented. The plates considered have a general planform with cutouts, variable thickness and stiffnesses, and general support and loading conditions. The symmetry analysis is based on enforcing invariance of the corresponding eigenvalue problem for a group of coordinate transformations associated with buckle patterns commonly exhibited by symmetrically laminated plates. The buckle-pattern symmetries examined include a central point of inversion symmetry, one plane of reflective symmetry, and two planes of reflective symmetry.

  3. Influence of Space Radiation on the Outgassing Rate of a Patterned Polymeric Composite in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Khasanshin, R. H.; Timofeev, A. N.; Ivanov, M. F.

    2009-01-05

    Experimental results on outgassing rates of patterned polymeric composites preliminary subjected to separate and combined radiation have been analyzed and presented. Mathematical models describing the outgassing processes in these materials were used for interpretation of the experimental data. Numerical results found using the models are presented.

  4. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  5. Are Longitudinal Patterns of Bacterial Community Composition and Dissolved Organic Matter Composition Linked Across a River Continuum? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, J.; Kaplan, L. A.; Kan, J.; Findlay, R. H.; Podgorski, D. C.; McKenna, A. M.; Branan, T. L.; Griffith, C.

    2013-12-01

    The River Continuum Concept (RCC), an early meta-ecosystem idea, was developed without the benefit of new frontiers in molecular microbial ecology and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. We have applied technical advances in these areas to address a hypothesis implicit in the RCC that the upstream legacy of DOM processing contributes to the structure and function of downstream bacterial communities. DOM molecular structure and microbial community structure were measured across river networks within three distinct forested catchments. High-throughput pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons and phospholipid fatty acid analysis were used to characterize bacterial communities, and ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry characterized the molecular composition of stream water DOM. Total microbial biomass varied among river networks but showed a trend of decreasing biomass in sediment with increasing stream order. There were distinct shifts in bacterial community structure and a trend of decreasing richness was observed traveling downstream in both sediment and epilithic habitats. The bacterial richness in the first order stream sediment habitats was 7728 genera which decreased to 6597 genera in the second order sites and 4867 genera in the third order streams. The richness in the epilithic biofilm habitats was 2830 genera in the first order, 2322 genera in the second order and 1629 genera in the third order sites. Over 45% of the sediment biofilm genera and 37% of the epilithic genera were found in all three orders. In addition to shifts in bacterial richness, we observed a longitudinal shift in bacterial functional-types. In the sediment biofilms, Rhodoplanes spp. (containing rhodopsin pigment) and Bradyrhizobium spp. (nitrogen fixing bacteria) were predominately found in the heavily forested first order streams, while the cyanobacteria Limnothrix spp. was dominant in the second order streams. The third order

  6. Target Turing patterns and growth dynamics in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction.

    PubMed

    Preska Steinberg, Asher; Epstein, Irving R; Dolnik, Milos

    2014-04-03

    We study the growth dynamics of Turing patterns in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system in response to perturbations with visible light. We describe several mechanisms by which Turing patterns reappear after they are suppressed by illumination with a disc-shaped geometry. We observe that under specific conditions the patterns reorganize from a random configuration of spots and stripes to a set of ordered, concentric rings, which we refer to as target Turing patterns. These patterns closely resemble the unit cells of the Turing hexagonal superlattices known as black eye patterns. However, these target Turing patterns are not part of a larger superlattice structure, and they usually have a larger number of concentric rings. Numerical simulations support the experimental findings.

  7. Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

  8. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  9. Human impact on regional groundwater composition through intervention in natural flow patterns and changes in land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schot, P. P.; van der Wal, J.

    1992-06-01

    The relations between groundwater composition, land use, soil conditions and flow patterns on a regional scale are studied for the Gooi and Vechtstreek area in the Netherlands. This densely populated area consists of a glacier-created ridge with dry sand soils bordered by the Vecht and Eem River plains with wet peat and clay soils. R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode cluster analysis were applied to a set of 1349 groundwater analyses to determine the factors controlling groundwater composition and the main resulting water types. The results indicate that groundwater composition in the study area is affected on a regional scale by human activities through changes in land use and intervention in natural flow patterns. On the ridge, ground water is recharged by precipitation, which dissolves carbonates from the matrix of the sandy aquifer. Increased solute concentrations in shallow ground water, especially of nitrate, sulphate and potassium, indicate increased pollution resulting from urbanization and increasingly intensive agricultural activity over the past decades. In the Vecht River plain infiltration occurs as a result of drainage of polders and groundwater extraction on the ridge. Recharge occurs by precipitation and from polluted surface water to which ammonium, organic complexes and carbonic acid are added through decomposition of organic matter in the peat and clay soils. The carbonic acid results in enhanced dissolution of carbonates present in the soil and the underlying sandy aquifer. Oxygen depletion and subsequent low redox potentials result in denitrification, dissolution of manganese and iron oxides, and sulphate reduction. The flow of ground water from high-level to low-level polders causes displacement of a former stagnant brakish groundwater body under the Vecht River plain accompanied by increased mixing of fresh and brackish ground water.

  10. Enhanced Osteoblast Functions on Nanophase Titania in Poly-lactic-co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Poly - lactic -co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) Composites Huinan Liu’, Elliott B. Slamovich’ and Thomas J. Webster’ 2 1School of Materials Engineering, 501...collagen matrix. For this purpose, poly - lactic -co- glycolic acid (PLGA) was dissolved in chloroform and nanometer grain size titania was dispersed by...gelatin, fibrin or collagen [4-6]), synthetic bioresorbable polymers (e.g., polylactic acid , polyglycolic acid and poly - lactic -co-glycolic acid [7-9

  11. Ontogenetic trends in aspartic acid racemization and amino acid composition within modern and fossil shells of the bivalve Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Weidman, Christopher R.

    2001-06-01

    Ontogenetic trends (umbo to growth edge of shell) in aspartic acid (Asp) racemization and amino acid composition and their evolution over time are examined in serial samples of annual growth bands from a time-series of three live-collected and two fossil (ca. 500 and 1000 y BP) shells of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica. The rate of Asp racemization is shown to be higher in the umbonal portion of the shells (laid down when the clams are young) but constant from a biological age of 10 to 20 y to more than 100 y. Corresponding changes are also seen in amino acid composition and concentration: with increasing biological age of the clam: total amino acid concentration increases substantially, the acidic amino acids Asp, glutamic acid, and alanine decrease in relative concentration (mole-percent) and more basic amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine increase in relative concentration. These ontogenetic trends are generally retained in the fossil shells. These trends may reflect changing protein composition related to changes in growth rate. Clams grow considerably faster in their youth than when they are older, as indicated by changes in the annual growth increments. Production of more acidic proteins, which play a role in crystal growth, may be favored during the phase of faster growth, whereas more structural proteins, perhaps enhancing structural strength of the shell, may be favored during later growth. These ontogenetic differences in protein composition affect the observed rates of racemization of the protein pool. Some weak diagenetic trends in amino acid composition and abundance may be represented in the time series of shells. These results emphasize the importance of standardization of the location from which samples are taken from shells for dating by amino acid racemization analysis.

  12. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  13. Cell patterning on polylactic acid through surface-tethered oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshiki; Arima, Yusuke; Takemoto, Naohiro; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-02-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a candidate material to prepare scaffolds for 3-D tissue regeneration. However, cells do not adhere or proliferate well on the surface of PLA because it is hydrophobic. We report a simple and rapid method for inducing cell adhesion to PLA through DNA hybridization. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and to a terminal phospholipid (ssDNA-PEG-lipid) was used for cell surface modification. Through DNA hybridization, modified cells were able to attach to PLA surfaces modified with complementary sequence (ssDNA'). Different cell types can be attached to PLA fibers and films in a spatially controlled manner by using ssDNAs with different sequences. In addition, they proliferate well in a culture medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. The coexisting modes of cell adhesion through DNA hybridization and natural cytoskeletal adhesion machinery revealed no serious effects on cell growth. The combination of a 3-D scaffold made of PLA and cell immobilization on the PLA scaffold through DNA hybridization will be useful for the preparation of 3-D tissue and organs.

  14. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  15. Migration of Co-cultured Endothelial Cells and Osteoblasts in Composite Hydroxyapatite/Polylactic Acid Scaffolds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-16

    Migration of Co-cultured Endothelial Cells and Osteoblasts in Composite Hydroxyapatite/ Polylactic Acid Scaffolds AMITA R. SHAH,1,2,3 SARITA R. SHAH,2...bone. A scaffold design consisting of a hydroxy apatite (HA) ring surrounding a polylactic acid (PLA) core simulates the structure of bone and provides...and osteoblasts in composite hydroxyapatite/ polylactic acid scaffolds. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  16. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  17. Amino Acids Composition of Teucrium Nutlet Proteins and their Systematic Significance

    PubMed Central

    JUAN, R.; PASTOR, J.; MILLÁN, F.; ALAIZ, M.; VIOQUE, J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant species are considered as a good source of dietary proteins, although the nutritional quality of proteins depends on their amino acid composition. In this work the protein content and amino acid composition of nutlets of 21 Teucrium taxa (Lamiaceae) from Spain were analysed and their nutritional quality was compared with the minimum values established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). In addition, the amino acid composition was evaluated as a chemical character to clarify the taxonomic complexity in this genus. • Methods Amino acid content of nutlets was determined after derivatization with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Previously, nutlets samples were hydrolysed and incubated in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. • Key Results The protein content was variable, ranging from 6·4 % in T. dunense to 43·8 % in T. algarbiense. According to the FAO values all taxa contain satisfactory amounts of leucine, threonine and valine and are deficient in lysine. The similarity analysis of Teucrium taxa using amino acid composition data did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of this genus. • Conclusions Annual species, such as T. spinosum, T. aristatum and T. resupinatum showed a better balanced amino acid composition. The dendrogram partly matched with the karyological complexity of Teucrium. No correlation between amino acid composition and habitat has been observed, showing that Teucrium nutlet amino acid composition may not be strongly influenced by the environment. PMID:15329333

  18. Functional and Computational Analysis of Amino Acid Patterns Predictive of Type III Secretion System Substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Lisa M.; Valenta, Joy C.; Schneider, David J.; Collmer, Alan; Sakk, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 possess characteristic patterns, including (i) greater than 10% serine within the first 50 amino acids, (ii) an aliphatic residue or proline at position 3 or 4, and (iii) a lack of acidic amino acids within the first 12 residues. Here, the functional significance of the P. syringae T3SS substrate compositional patterns was tested. A mutant AvrPto effector protein lacking all three patterns was secreted into culture and translocated into plant cells, suggesting that the compositional characteristics are not absolutely required for T3SS targeting and that other recognition mechanisms exist. To further analyze the unique properties of T3SS targeting signals, we developed a computational algorithm called TEREE (Type III Effector Relative Entropy Evaluation) that distinguishes DC3000 T3SS substrates from other proteins with a high sensitivity and specificity. Although TEREE did not efficiently identify T3SS substrates in Salmonella enterica, it was effective in another P. syringae strain and Ralstonia solanacearum. Thus, the TEREE algorithm may be a useful tool for identifying new effector genes in plant pathogens. The nature of T3SS targeting signals was additionally investigated by analyzing the N-terminus of FtsX, a putative membrane protein that was classified as a T3SS substrate by TEREE. Although the first 50 amino acids of FtsX were unable to target a reporter protein to the T3SS, an AvrPto protein substituted with the first 12 amino acids of FtsX was translocated into plant cells. These results show that the T3SS targeting signals are highly mutable and that secretion may be directed by multiple features of

  19. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption.

  20. GLC analysis of Indian rapeseed-mustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Agnihotri, A

    2000-12-01

    Rapeseed-mustard is one of the most economically important oilseed crops in India. Speciality oils having high amounts of a specific fatty acid are of immense importance for both nutritional and industrial purposes. Oil high in oleic acid has demand in commercial food-service applications due to a long shelf-life and cholesterol-reducing properties. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; however, less than 3% linolenic acid is preferred for oil stability. High erucic acid content is beneficial for the polymer industry, whereas low erucic acid is recommended for food purposes. Therefore, it is important to undertake systematic characterization of the available gene pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes. In the present study the Indian rapeseed-mustard germplasm and some newly developed low-erucic-acid strains were analysed by GLC to study the fatty acid composition in these lines. The GLC analysis revealed that the rapeseed-mustard varieties being commonly grown in India are characterized by high erucic acid content (30-51%) in the oil with low levels of oleic acid (13-23%). However, from among the recently developed low-erucic-acid strains, several lines were identified with comparatively high oleic acid (60-70%), moderate to high linoleic acid (13-40%) and low linolenic acid (< 10%) contents. Work is in progress at TERI (New Delhi, India) to utilize these lines for development of strains with particular fatty acid compositions for specific purposes.

  1. Fatty acids from seeds of Pinus pinea L.: composition and population profiling.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Fady, Bruno; Triki, Saida

    2005-07-01

    Pinus pinea L. is widely disseminated all over the Mediterranean Basin. Qualitatively, P. pinea fatty acid seed composition is identical and typical of the genus Pinus. This composition is made of unsaturated oil with several unusual polymethylene-interrupted unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Quantitatively, for all Mediterranean populations, total amounts of fatty acids seem to be fairly constant and independent from their origin. When applying principal component analysis, it seems that there is not a distinct geographical variability. Tunisian populations appear to be integral part of the Mediterranean populations without any particular structuring. Taking into account this research and the data reported in the literature, we can confirm that P. pinea expresses no significant variability. This low genetic diversity revealed by fatty acid composition can be explained by anthropogenetic diffusion of genetically homogeneous reproductive material as early as the first explorations.

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of Unicellular Strains of Blue-Green Algae1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, C. N.

    1972-01-01

    The fatty acids of 34 strains of unicellular blue-green algae provisionally assigned to the genera Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, Gloeocapsa, Microcystis, and Chlorogloea by Stanier et al. have been chemically characterized. The strains analyzed can be divided into a series of compositional groups based upon the highest degree of unsaturation of the major cellular fatty acids. Twenty strains fall into the group characterized by one trienoic fatty acid isomer (α-linolenic acid), and seven strains fall into a group characterized by another trienoic acid isomer (γ-linolenic acid). These groups in many cases correlate well with groupings based upon other phenotypic characters of the strains, e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid base composition. The assignment of a strain to a compositional group is not altered when the strain is grown under a variety of different culture conditions. All strains contain glycolipids with the properties of mono- and digalactosyldiglycerides. PMID:4621688

  3. Gender Differences in Rat Erythrocyte and Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition: Role of Ovarian Hormones and Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The two-fold higher prevalence rate of major depression in females may involve vulnerability to omega-3 fatty acid deficiency secondary to a dysregulation in ovarian hormones. However, the role of ovarian hormones in the regulation of brain omega-3 fatty acid composition has not been directly evaluated. Here we determined erythrocyte and regional brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in intact male and female rats, and in chronically ovariectomized (OVX) rats with or without cyclic estradiol treatment (2 μg/4 d). All groups were maintained on diets with or without the DHA precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We report that both male (−21%) and OVX (−19%) rats on ALA+ diet exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte DHA composition relative to female controls. Females on ALA+ diet exhibited lower DHA composition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) relative males (−5%). OVX rats on ALA+ diet exhibited significantly lower DHA composition in the hippocampus (−6%), but not in the PFC, hypothalamus, or midbrain. Lower erythrocyte and hippocampus DHA composition in OVX rats was not prevented by estrogen replacement. All groups maintained on ALA− diet exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte and regional brain DHA composition relative to groups on ALA+ diet, and these reductions were greater in males but not in OVX rats. These preclinical data corroborate clinical evidence for gender differences in peripheral DHA composition (female>male), demonstrate gender differences in PFC DHA composition (male>female), and support a link between ovarian hormones and erythrocyte and region-specific brain DHA composition. PMID:19046819

  4. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  5. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  6. The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2015-05-01

    With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio <5) and those from summer (November) not. This study indicates that Egyptian goose meat does not only vary in nutritional composition but season may also have a substantial effect on the flavor profile and ultimate uniformity of the meat. The season and portion effects were, however, interlinked but the general tendency shows that the portions, especially the breast and thigh do differ concerning the major fatty acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product.

  7. Characterization of L10-FePt/Fe based exchange coupled composite bit pattern media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Weimin; Rahman, M. Tofizur; Zhao, Haibao; Ding, Jun; Chen, Yunjie; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2012-04-01

    L10-FePt exchange coupled composite (ECC) bit patterned media has been considered as a potential candidate to achieve high thermal stability and writability for future high density magnetic recording. In this paper, FePt based ECC bit patterned structures with 31 nm bit size and 37 nm pitch size were fabricated using di-block copolymer lithography on 3 inch wafer. Remanant states were tracked using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). DC demagnetization (DCD) curves were plotted by counting the reversed bits in the MFM images. Magnetic domains in which the magnetizations of the neighboring bits were aligned to the same direction were observed in the MFM patterns. Thermal decay measurement was performed for the samples to obtain the thermal stability and gain factor. The thermal barrier was found around 210 kBT with a gain factor up to 1.57 for the bit patterned structure FePt(4 nm)/Fe(4 nm).

  8. Fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane in relation to menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Tworek; Muti; Micheli; Krogh; Riboli; Berrino

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Menopausal status effects female anatomical functioning at a variety of system-wide and cellular levels, including cellular membrane composition. This study analyzed a nested case-control ORDET data set of 433 pre and post-menopausal breast cancer controls to examine the effects of menopausal status on the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane.METHODS: ORDET is a prospective cohort study conducted in Italy to investigate the etiologic role of hormones and diet in breast cancer development. The fatty acid composition was measured and analyzed by gas chromotography, comparing retention time with standard measurement. Twenty-two individual fatty acids were measured, recorded, and categorized into four fatty acid groups: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated n-6 (PUFA n-6), and polyunsaturated (PUFA n-3) fatty acids.RESULTS: Post-menopausal women had consistently lower mean values for all four fatty acid categories and all individual fatty acids. Statistically significant mean differences, by menopausal status, were observed for three of the four fatty acid categories: saturated fatty acids (p = 0.006), PUFA n-6 acids (p = 0.001), and PUFA n-3 acids (p = 0.000). The biggest statistically significant differences in mean values among individual fatty acids for each category were observed for Palmitic acid (p = 0.009), Oleic acid (p = 0.040), Linoleic acid (p = 0.000), and Docosahexaenoic acid (p = 0.000). Individual fatty acids were also less highly correlated among post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: There was an observed relationship between menopausal status and the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane that warrants further study. This relationship may contribute to the physiological and psychological changes that occur during and after menopause, and may have far-reaching implications for women's health.

  9. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  10. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  11. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  12. Developmental pattern of 3-oxo-Δ4 bile acids in neonatal bile acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, T.; Kimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Tohma, M.; Kato, H.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate whether a fetal pathway of bile acid synthesis persists in neonates and infants.
METHODS—3-oxo-Δ4 bile acids were determined qualitatively and quantitatively in the urine, meconium, and faeces of healthy neonates and infants, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS—The mean percentage of 3-oxo-Δ4 bile acids in total bile acids in urine at birth was significantly higher than that at 3 or 7 days, and at 1 or 3 months of age. The concentration of this component in meconium was significantly higher than that in faeces at 7 days and at 1 or 3 months of age.
CONCLUSIONS—The presence of large amounts of urinary 3-oxo-Δ4 bile acids may indicate immaturity in the activity of hepatic 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase in the first week of postnatal life. Large amounts of this component in meconium may be due to the ingestion of amniotic fluid by the fetus during pregnancy.

 Keywords: ketonic bile acid; 3-oxo-Δ4 bile acid; 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase; meconium; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry PMID:9279184

  13. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  14. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  15. Fatty acid composition of seed oils from sixAdansonia species with particular reference to cyclopropane and cyclopropene acids.

    PubMed

    Ralaimanarivo, A; Gaydou, E M; Bianchini, J P

    1982-01-01

    The oil content of sixAdansonia species (Bombacaceae family) of Madagascar (Adansonia grandidieri, A. za, A. digitata, A. fony, A. madagascariensis andA. suarenzensis) and Africa (A. digitata) ranges from 8 to 46%. All the oils give a positive response to the Halphen test. Malvalic, sterculic and dihydrosterculic acids were detected using gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Epoxy or hydroxy fatty acids were not found in these oils. Fatty acid composition was determined by GLC using glass capillary columns coated with BDS and Carbowax 20 M. Results obtained for cyclopropenic fatty acids (CPEFA) were compared to those given by glass capillary GLC after derivatization with silver nitrate in methanol, by hydrogen bromide titration and by proton magnetic resonance (PMR). Good agreement was observed for the results given by the various methods. Malvalic acid content ranges from 3 to 28%, sterculic acid from 1 to 8% and dihydrosterculic acid from 1.5 to 5.1%. Odd-numbered fatty acids (Pentadecanoic and hepatadecanoic) were also observed in minute amounts (0.1-1.1%). Among the normal fatty acids, we observed mainly palmitic (21-46%), oleic (15-40%) and linoleic (12-32%). The relationship between fatty acid composition andAdansonia species is discussed.

  16. Bit patterned media with composite structure for microwave assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibagi, Nasim

    Patterned magnetic nano-structures are under extensive research due to their interesting emergent physics and promising applications in high-density magnetic data storage, through magnetic logic to bio-magnetic functionality. Bit-patterned media is an example of such structures which is a leading candidate to reach magnetic densities which cannot be achieved by conventional magnetic media. Patterned arrays of complex heterostructures such as exchange-coupled composites are studied in this thesis as a potential for next generation of magnetic recording media. Exchange-coupled composites have shown new functionality and performance advantages in magnetic recording and bit patterned media provide unique capability to implement such architectures. Due to unique resonant properties of such structures, their possible application in spin transfer torque memory and microwave assisted switching is also studied. This dissertation is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter covers the history of magnetic recording, the need to increase magnetic storage density, and the challenges in the field. The second chapter introduces basic concepts of magnetism. The third chapter explains the fabrication methods for thin films and various lithographic techniques that were used to pattern the devices under study for this thesis. The fourth chapter introduces the exchanged coupled system with the structure of [Co/Pd] / Fe / [Co/Pd], where the thickness of Fe is varied, and presents the magnetic properties of such structures using conventional magnetometers. The fifth chapter goes beyond what is learned in the fourth chapter and utilizes polarized neutron reflectometry to study the vertical exchange coupling and reversal mechanism in patterned structures with such structure. The sixth chapter explores the dynamic properties of the patterned samples, and their reversal mechanism under microwave field. The final chapter summarizes the results and describes the prospects for future

  17. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  18. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  19. Nitrogen retention of young men who consumed selection patterns of essential amino acids at a constant nitrogen intake.

    PubMed

    Brewer, M F; Halvorson, J D; Calrk, H E

    1978-05-01

    Six patterns of essential amino acids were devised to represent different sources or combinations of protein based on a daily intake of 6.0 g of nitrogen from these sources. In each diet, cereals furnished 70% and a specially designed amino acid mixture 30% of the total nitrogen. Nitrogen retention of young men who consumed amino acids equivalent to combinations of rice and soy or egg and potato did not differ from the pattern of egg, and these patterns were superior to a combination of rice and wheat; egg also was superior to corn plus beans and wheat plus milk. Relative amounts and proportions of essential amino acids could be modified without depressing nitrogen retention until one amino acid became limiting or the pattern became imbalanced. Therefore, more than one pattern of amino acids should be recognized as useful for adult human subjects; both minimal and total amounts of essential amino acids need to be considered.

  20. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  1. Characterization and the Pattern of Surfaces of Sealant with nano size Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quddos, A.; Samtio, N. H.; Syed, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Nano composite sealant is low viscosity, room temperature cured, opaque and flowable nature. They have variety of uses such as potting, pressure sealant and shock resistant. Most important factor influencing use of fillers in polymer composites is their ability to effectively transfer the applied load in the matrix. The effective utilization of fillers in composites for structural applications depends strongly on the ability to disperse the nano fillers homogeneously in the matrix without damaging them. R-Belite supper epoxy adhesive (RBSEA) were formulated with different nano fillers (KCl, Al2O3, ZrO2, SiO2, ZrO2) at room temperature. The composite were prepared with the 0.02 to 0.10 weight ratios to promote the nucleation of the nanoparticles in the applied sealant. Two main problems which arise in improving the properties are poor dispersion of the fillers in the composite and weak bonding between nano fillers and the matrix. These problems are solved by mechanical and chemical means. It was observed that mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation hardness etc and thermal properties were also improved with incorporation of nanofillers in the working applied polymer matrix. The dispersion of nano fillers in polymer matrix is studied by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results confirm the presence of nanomaterial in RBSEA/fillers nanocomposites. SEM is also used to characterize the pattern of surfaces with nano size composite materials.

  2. Venoms of Micrurus coral snakes: Evolutionary trends in compositional patterns emerging from proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Fernández, Julián; Sasa, Mahmood; Pla, Davinia; Vargas, Nancy; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Sanz, Libia; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Núñez, Vitelbina; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Alagón, Alejandro; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-11-01

    The application of proteomic tools to the study of snake venoms has led to an impressive growth in the knowledge about their composition (venomics), immunogenicity (antivenomics), and toxicity (toxicovenomics). About one-third of all venomic studies have focused on elapid species, especially those of the Old World. The New World elapids, represented by coral snakes, have been less studied. In recent years, however, a number of venomic studies on Micrurus species from North, Central, and South America have been conducted. An overview of these studies is presented, highlighting the emergence of some patterns and trends concerning their compositional, functional, and immunological characteristics. Results gathered to date, encompassing 18 out of the approximately 85 species of Micrurus, reveal a dichotomy of venom phenotypes regarding the relative abundance of the omnipresent phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and 'three-finger' toxins (3FTx): a group of species express a PLA2-predominant venom composition, while others display a 3FTx-predominant compositional pattern. These two divergent toxin expression phenotypes appear to be related to phylogenetic positions and geographical distributions along a North-South axis in the Americas, but further studies encompassing a higher number of species are needed to assess these hypotheses. The two contrasting phenotypes also show correlations with some toxic functionalities, complexity in the diversity of proteoforms, and immunological cross-recognition patterns. The biological significance for the emergence of a dichotomy of venom compositions within Micrurus, in some cases observed even among sympatric species that inhabit relatively small geographic areas, represents a puzzling and challenging area of research which warrants further studies.

  3. Global pattern of phylogenetic species composition of shark and its conservation priority.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hungyen; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2015-10-01

    The diversity of marine communities is in striking contrast with the diversity of terrestrial communities. In all oceans, species richness is low in tropical areas and high at latitudes between 20 and 40°. While species richness is a primary metric used in conservation and management strategies, it is important to take into account the complex phylogenetic patterns of species compositions within communities. We measured the phylogenetic skew and diversity of shark communities throughout the world. We found that shark communities in tropical seas were highly phylogenetically skewed, whereas temperate sea communities had phylogenetically diversified species compositions. Interestingly, although geographically distant from one another, tropical sea communities were all highly skewed toward requiem sharks (Carcharhinidae), hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae), and whale sharks (Rhincodon typus). Worldwide, the greatest phylogenetic evenness in terms of clades was found in the North Sea and coastal regions of countries in temperate zones, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, southern Australia, and Chile. This study is the first to examine patterns of phylogenetic diversity of shark communities on a global scale. Our findings suggest that when establishing conservation activities, it is important to take full account of phylogenetic patterns of species composition and not solely use species richness as a target. Protecting areas of high phylogenetic diversity in sharks, which were identified in this study, could form a broader strategy for protecting other threatened marine species.

  4. Nucleic acids and endosomal pattern recognition: how to tell friend from foe?

    PubMed

    Brencicova, Eva; Diebold, Sandra S

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved endosomal and cytoplasmic receptors for the detection of viral nucleic acids as sensors for virus infection. Some of these pattern recognition receptors (PRR) detect features of viral nucleic acids that are not found in the host such as long stretches of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and uncapped single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in case of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and RIG-I, respectively. In contrast, TLR7/8 and TLR9 are unable to distinguish between viral and self-nucleic acids on the grounds of distinct molecular patterns. The ability of these endosomal TLR to act as PRR for viral nucleic acids seems to rely solely on the mode of access to the endolysosomal compartment in which recognition takes place. The current dogma states that self-nucleic acids do not enter the TLR-sensing compartment under normal physiological conditions. However, it is still poorly understood how dendritic cells (DC) evade activation by self-nucleic acids, in particular with regard to specific DC subsets, which are specialized in taking up material from dying cells for cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens. In this review we discuss the current understanding of how the immune system distinguishes between foreign and self-nucleic acids and point out some of the key aspects that still require further research and clarification.

  5. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  6. Microlens formation in microgel/gold colloid composite materials via photothermal patterning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Clinton D; Serpe, Michael J; Schroeder, Laura; Lyon, L Andrew

    2003-05-07

    We report on the nature of photothermally patterned regions inside self-assembled hydrogel nanoparticle materials containing coassembled colloidal Au. These composite materials are prepared from approximately 226-nm diameter particles composed of the environmentally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm). Upon centrifugation to achieve a proper volume fraction, these close-packed assemblies display a sharp Bragg diffraction peak in the midvisible region of the spectrum and can be reversibly converted into a nondiffracting glassy material as the temperature is raised above the characteristic phase transition temperature of the polymer. The addition of 16-nm colloidal Au prior to centrifugation allows the homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles throughout the close-packed material. Localized heating is then possible upon excitation of the Au plasmon absorption with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (lambda = 532 nm). Such localized heating events lead to patterned regions of ordered crystalline phases inside of bulk glassy phases. We illustrate that the nature of the locally patterned area results in the formation of a microlens due to density/refractive index gradient in the patterned crystalline region. The Gaussian power distribution of the incident beam is thought to be a contributing factor in the microlens formation. Microlens formation is shown by observing interference patterns similar to Newton's rings, which change over time as the region is formed. A true hallmark of the lens is also demonstrated by focusing an image through the patterned structure.

  7. Effects of UV-B radiation on phenolic composition and deposition patterns and leaf physiology in three Eastern tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph H.; Gitz, Dennis C.; Peek, Michael S.; McElrone, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative changes in foliar chemistry in response to UVB radiation are frequently reported but less is known about the qualitative changes in putative UV-screening compounds. It has also not been conclusively shown whether qualitative differences in screening compounds or differences in localization patterns influences the sensitivity of plants to damage from UVB radiation. In this study we evaluated the chemical composition and deposition patterns of UV-absorbing compounds in three tree species and assayed these species for possible effects on gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Branches of mature trees of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and red maple (Acer rubrum) were exposed to supplemental levels of UVB radiation over three growing seasons. Controls for UVA were also measured by exposing branches to supplemental UVA only, and additional branches not irradiated were also used for controls. These species demonstrated contrasting chemical composition and deposition patterns with poplar being the most responsive in terms of epidermal accumulation of phenolics including flavonols and chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamates. Sweetgum and red maple showed increases primarily in hydroxycinnamates, particularly in the mesophyll in red maple. Leaf area was marginally influenced by UV exposure level. Assimilation was generally not reduced by UVB radiation in these species and was enhanced in red maple by both UVB and UVA and by UVA in sweetgum. These finding are consistent with a hypothesis that epidermal attenuation of UVB would only be reduced in poplar, which accumulated the additional epidermal screening compounds. It is possible that photosynthetic efficiency was enhanced in red maple by the increased absorption of blue light within the mesophyll. Stomatal conductance was generally reduced, and this led to an increase in water use efficiency in red maple and poplar.

  8. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  9. Method of tracing contour patterns for use in making gradual contour resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontes, M. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The invention relates to methods for making alminate patterns for a resin matrix composite structural component. A sheet of paper is temporarily adhered to a model of the structrual component. A pen is positioned on the paper with a spindle touching the model surface opposite the pen. The pen and spindle are moved along the path that maintains the aforementioned contacts. The resulting line traced on paper is a model constant-thickness locus and provides a pattern for a single lamination of resin-impregnated fabric. The steps are repeated to make other patterns and each time the steps are repeated the distance between the tracer and the spindle is changed to correspond to the thickness of a lamination.

  10. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut (Juglans regia L.) proteins and protein fractionations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-27

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8-6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa.

  11. Prediction of Bacillus weihenstephanensis acid resistance: the use of gene expression patterns to select potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Desriac, N; Postollec, F; Coroller, L; Sohier, D; Abee, T; den Besten, H M W

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to mild stress conditions can activate stress adaptation mechanisms and provide cross-resistance towards otherwise lethal stresses. In this study, an approach was followed to select molecular biomarkers (quantitative gene expressions) to predict induced acid resistance after exposure to various mild stresses, i.e. exposure to sublethal concentrations of salt, acid and hydrogen peroxide during 5 min to 60 min. Gene expression patterns of unstressed and mildly stressed cells of Bacillus weihenstephanensis were correlated to their acid resistance (3D value) which was estimated after exposure to lethal acid conditions. Among the twenty-nine candidate biomarkers, 12 genes showed expression patterns that were correlated either linearly or non-linearly to acid resistance, while for the 17 other genes the correlation remains to be determined. The selected genes represented two types of biomarkers, (i) four direct biomarker genes (lexA, spxA, narL, bkdR) for which expression patterns upon mild stress treatment were linearly correlated to induced acid resistance; and (ii) nine long-acting biomarker genes (spxA, BcerKBAB4_0325, katA, trxB, codY, lacI, BcerKBAB4_1716, BcerKBAB4_2108, relA) which were transiently up-regulated during mild stress exposure and correlated to increased acid resistance over time. Our results highlight that mild stress induced transcripts can be linearly or non-linearly correlated to induced acid resistance and both approaches can be used to find relevant biomarkers. This quantitative and systematic approach opens avenues to select cellular biomarkers that could be incremented in mathematical models to predict microbial behaviour.

  12. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant.

  13. Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing the biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on naturally occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions, and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results emphasize that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e., isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterially derived amino acids ranged from 10 to 15 % in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years, and up to 35 % during the last glacial period. The greater bacterial contributions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a

  14. Annual cycle and spatial trends in fatty acid composition of suspended particulate organic matter across the Beaufort Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Tara L.; Businski, Tara N.; Deibel, Don; Parrish, Christopher C.; Trela, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) were determined over an annual cycle (September 2003 to August 2004) on the Beaufort Sea shelf, Canadian Arctic. Special emphasis was placed on the nutritional quality of the fatty acid pool available to zooplankton by examining spatial and temporal patterns in the proportions of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the essential fatty acids 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 20:5n-3 (EPA). EPA and DHA were the two most abundant PUFA throughout the study period. A log-ratio multivariate (LRA) analysis revealed strong structure in fatty acid profiles related to season and depth. Dominant fatty acids accounting for the observed trend included 18:5n-3, 18:4n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:5n-3, 18:0 and 20:3n-3. We observed a shift in fatty acid profiles from summer to autumn (e.g., from 16:1n-7 and EPA to 18:5n-3 and 18:4n-3) that likely corresponded to a shift in the relative importance of diatoms versus dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes and/or prasinophytes to the POM pool. Fatty acid composition during winter was dominated by more refractory saturated fatty acids. A surprising finding was the depth and seasonal trend of 20:3n-3, which was higher in winter, aligned with 18:0 in the LRA, but behaved differently than other n-3 PUFA. We interpret fatty acid profiles during summer to be predominantly driven by phytoplankton inputs, whereas fatty acid profiles in winter were dominated by fatty acids that were left over after consumption and/or were generated by heterotrophs. The highest diatom inputs (EPA, the diatom fatty acid marker), n-3/n-6 ratios, and C16 PUFA index were located in an upwelling region off Cape Bathurst. This study is the first annual time series of fatty acid profiles of POM in Arctic seas, expanding our knowledge of the composition of POM throughout the dark season.

  15. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  16. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  17. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  18. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  19. Robustness of two-step acid hydrolysis procedure for composition analysis of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Nunez, Angelica; Wyman, Charles E; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-01

    The NREL standard procedure for lignocellulosic biomass composition has two steps: primary hydrolysis in 72% wt sulfuric acid at 30°C for 1h followed by secondary hydrolysis of the slurry in 4wt% acid at 121°C for 1h. Although pointed out in the NREL procedure, the impact of particle size on composition has never been shown. In addition, the effects of primary hydrolysis time and separation of solids prior to secondary hydrolysis on composition have never been shown. Using poplar, it was found that particle sizes less than 0.250mm significantly lowered the glucan content and increased the Klason lignin but did not affect xylan, acetate, or acid soluble lignin contents. Composition was unaffected for primary hydrolysis time between 30 and 90min. Moreover, separating solids prior to secondary hydrolysis had negligible effect on composition suggesting that lignin and polysaccharides are completely separated in the primary hydrolysis stage.

  20. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance.

  1. Chronic administration of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid changes microsomal membrane lipid content and fatty acid compositions in rats.

    PubMed

    Bellentani, S; Chao, Y C; Ferretti, I; Panini, R; Tiribelli, C

    1996-03-27

    We studied the effect of oral supplementation with ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) or tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat hepatic microsomes. UDCA and TUDCA significantly increased the total amount of lipids with the exception of cholesteryl-esters. UDCA significantly increased the triglycerides and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) microsomal content, and decreased the cholesterol/phospholipids and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PE ratio. Both treatments increased the percentage oleic acid and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in each class of lipids. UDCA and TUDCA had a different action on PUFA microsomal molar percentage of phospholipids: UDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PE fraction, while TUDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PC fraction. These changes in the hepatic lipid content and composition might in part explain both cytoprotective action of these hydrophillic bile acids and their effect on membrane fluidity.

  2. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  3. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  4. Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

  5. Highly sensitive electronic whiskers based on patterned carbon nanotube and silver nanoparticle composite films.

    PubMed

    Takei, Kuniharu; Yu, Zhibin; Zheng, Maxwell; Ota, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2014-02-04

    Mammalian whiskers present an important class of tactile sensors that complement the functionalities of skin for detecting wind with high sensitivity and navigation around local obstacles. Here, we report electronic whiskers based on highly tunable composite films of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles that are patterned on high-aspect-ratio elastic fibers. The nanotubes form a conductive network matrix with excellent bendability, and nanoparticle loading enhances the conductivity and endows the composite with high strain sensitivity. The resistivity of the composites is highly sensitive to strain with a pressure sensitivity of up to ∼8%/Pa for the whiskers, which is >10× higher than all previously reported capacitive or resistive pressure sensors. It is notable that the resistivity and sensitivity of the composite films can be readily modulated by a few orders of magnitude by changing the composition ratio of the components, thereby allowing for exploration of whisker sensors with excellent performance. Systems consisting of whisker arrays are fabricated, and as a proof of concept, real-time two- and three-dimensional gas-flow mapping is demonstrated. The ultrahigh sensitivity and ease of fabrication of the demonstrated whiskers may enable a wide range of applications in advanced robotics and human-machine interfacing.

  6. Spatial patterns of throughfall isotopic composition at the event and seasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Scott T.; Keim, Richard F.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of throughfall isotopic composition in forests is indicative of complex processes occurring in the canopy and remains insufficiently understood to properly characterize precipitation inputs to the catchment water balance. Here we investigate variability of throughfall isotopic composition with the objectives: (1) to quantify the spatial variability in event-scale samples, (2) to determine if there are persistent controls over the variability and how these affect variability of seasonally accumulated throughfall, and (3) to analyze the distribution of measured throughfall isotopic composition associated with varying sampling regimes. We measured throughfall over two, three-month periods in western Oregon, USA under a Douglas-fir canopy. The mean spatial range of δ18O for each event was 1.6‰ and 1.2‰ through Fall 2009 (11 events) and Spring 2010 (7 events), respectively. However, the spatial pattern of isotopic composition was not temporally stable causing season-total throughfall to be less variable than event throughfall (1.0‰; range of cumulative δ18O for Fall 2009). Isotopic composition was not spatially autocorrelated and not explained by location relative to tree stems. Sampling error analysis for both field measurements and Monte-Carlo simulated datasets representing different sampling schemes revealed the standard deviation of differences from the true mean as high as 0.45‰ (δ18O) and 1.29‰ (d-excess). The magnitude of this isotopic variation suggests that small sample sizes are a source of substantial experimental error.

  7. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Campos, Hannia; Ma, Jing; Stampfer1, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating fatty acids are highly correlated with each other and analyzing fatty acid patterns could better capture their interactions and their relation to prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the associations between data-derived blood fatty acid patterns and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the Physicians’ Health Study. Fatty acids levels were measured in whole blood samples of 476 cases and their matched controls by age and smoking status. Fatty acid patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Two patterns explaining 40.9% of total variation in blood fatty acid levels were identified. Pattern 1, which mainly reflects polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, was suggestively positively related to prostate cancer risk (ORquintile 5 vs. quintile 1=1.37, 95%CI=0.91–2.05, Ptrend=0.07). Pattern 2, which largely reflects de novo lipogenesis, was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer risk (ORquintile5 vs quintile1=1.63, 95%CI=1.04–2.55, Ptrend=0.02). This association was similar across tumor stage, grade, clinical aggressiveness categories and follow-up time. Conclusion The two patterns of fatty acids we identified were consistent with known interactions between fatty acid intake and metabolism. A pattern suggestive of higher activity in the de novo lipogenesis pathway was related to higher risk of prostate cancer. PMID:27488836

  8. Seasonal Patterns of Acid Metabolism and Gas Exchange in Opuntia basilaris1

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, Stan R.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1974-01-01

    Acid metabolism and gas exchange studies were conducted in situ on the cactus Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel. A pattern of significant seasonal variation was evident. The pattern was controlled by rainfall, which significantly influenced plant water potentials, total gas transfer resistances, and nocturnal organic acid synthesis. In winter and early spring, when plant water stress was mild, stomatal and mesophyll resistances remained low, permitting enhanced nocturnal assimilation of 14CO2. The day/night accumulation of acidity was large during these seasons. In summer and fall, plant water stress was moderate, although soil water stress was severe. The nocturnal assimilation of 14CO2 was very low during these seasons, even in stems with open stomata, indicating large mesophyll resistances restricting exogenous gas incorporation. The day/night accumulation of acidity was reduced, and a low level of acid metabolism persisted throughout this period. The rapid response to a midsummer rainfall emphasizes the importance of plant water potential as a parameter controlling over-all metabolic activity. The seasonal variations of acid metabolism and gas exchange significantly influenced the efficiency of water use and carbon dioxide assimilation. Periods of maximal efficiency followed rainfall throughout the course of the year. PMID:16658842

  9. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance.

  10. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  11. Selective Metallization Induced by Laser Activation: Fabricating Metallized Patterns on Polymer via Metal Oxide Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang

    2017-02-28

    Recently, metallization on polymer substrates has been given more attention due to its outstanding properties of both plastics and metals. In this study, the metal oxide composite of copper-chromium oxide (CuO·Cr2O3) was incorporated into the polymer matrix to design a good laser direct structuring (LDS) material, and the well-defined copper pattern (thickness =10 μm) was successfully fabricated through selective metallization based on 1064 nm near-infrared pulsed laser activation and electroless copper plating. We also prepared polymer composites incorporated with CuO and Cr2O3; however, these two polymer composites both had very poor capacity of selective metallization, which has no practical value for LDS technology. In our work, the key reasons causing the above results were systematically studied and elucidated using XPS, UV-vis-IR, optical microscopy, SEM, contact angle, ATR FTIR, and so on. The results showed that 54.0% Cu(2+) in the polymer composite of CuO·Cr2O3 (the amount =5 wt %) is reduced to Cu(0) (elemental copper) after laser activation (irradiation); however, this value is only 26.8% for the polymer composite of CuO (the amount =5 wt %). It was confirmed that to achieve a successful selective metallization after laser activation, not only was the new formed Cu(0) (the catalytic seeds) the crucial factor, but the number of generated Cu(0) catalytic seeds was also important. These two factors codetermined the final results of the selective metallization. The CuO·Cr2O3 is very suitable for applications of fabricating metallic patterns (e.g., metal decoration, circuit) on the inherent pure black or bright black polymer materials via LDS technology, which has a prospect of large-scale industrial applications.

  12. Comparison of the composition and gas/particle partitioning of organic acids in monoterpene and isoprene dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Kimmel, J.; Krechmer, J.; Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Isaacman, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Khan, M. H.; Holzinger, R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Thornton, J. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Gas and particle-phase organic acids measurements from two different regions with different biogenic volatile organic compound emissions are used to understand gas/particle partitioning principles. A Chemical Ionization High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS), with acetate (CH3COO-) as the reagent ion was used to selectively detect acids. Hundreds of gas and particle-phase organic acids were measured in both locations, a monoterpene and MBO-dominated environment (ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011) and isoprene and terpene-dominated environment (mixed deciduous and pine forest in Alabama, SOAS 2013). Time series of gas/particle partitioning for ions consistent with tracers for isoprene oxidation such as methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) and isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) and tracers for α-pinene oxidation such as pinic and pinonic acid will be presented. Gas/particle partitioning, represented as the fraction of each species in the particle-phase, Fp, was calculated for C1-C18 alkanoic acids and biogenic VOC oxidation tracers and compared to an absorptive partitioning model. These results are compared with those of two other instruments that can also quantify gas/particle partitioning with high time resolution: a Semivolatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol GC/MS (SV-TAG) and a Thermal Desorption Proton Transfer Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TD-PTRMS). Data from both environments were consistent with the values and trends predicted by the absorptive partitioning model for the tracer acids. However, for low carbon number alkanoic acids we report a higher fraction in the particle phase than predicted by the model. The Fp for the bulk-averaged acids and its relationship to the degree of oxidation and carbon number will also be presented. Temporal patterns and correlations with atmospheric conditions and composition will be explored for individual and bulk acids. We will discuss atmospheric implications of the gas/particle partitioning

  13. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  14. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  15. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  16. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  17. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  18. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osage orange wood was combined with poly(lactic acid) to form a polymer composite intendedfor use as an agricultural mulch film. The mechanical properties were comparable to existing products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing season. PLA-OO composites...

  19. Graphene-carbon nanotube composite aerogel for selective detection of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Tang, Jie; Wang, Zonghua; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-12-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite aerogel has been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The restacking of graphene is effectively reduced by SWNTs inserted in between graphene layers in order to make available more active sites and reactive surface area. Electrochemical experiments show that the graphene-SWNT composite electrode has superior catalytic performance in selective detection of uric acid (UA).

  20. Subglacial conditions and ice-flow patterns reconstructed from petrographic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Ewelina; Szuman, Izabela

    2010-05-01

    Usually the petrographic composition of sediments give a basis to distinguish sediments horizons and correlate them. In this study clasts petrography contributes to reconstruction of subglacial conditions as well. Together with till fabric analysis and geomorphological facts it can also give a valuable evidence for ice-flow patterns. The study concerns the Great Poland region, located in central-western Poland. The research area extnents are 53.149 °N and 51.849 °N paralells and 15.899 °E and 18.249 °E meridians. The area lies within the range of the Last Glacial Maximum phase (in Poland known as the Leszno Phase) and the Poznan Phase, which is the succeeding stage of the Weichselian Ice Sheet in Poland. The purpose of the study was twofold. Firstly, the authors aimed at revealing and reconstructing the vertical diversity of subglacial dynamics. Secondly it was intended to distinguish lower-scale flowline patterns within the major ice streams as well. A set of data was acquired from subglacial tills deposited by an active ice sheet sole (deformation and lodgement till). The data set included results of: lithofacies analysis results, till fabric measurements (a-axes of at least 30 elongated clasts), clasts-compositional data derived from 5-10 mm gravels and grain-size distribution obtained with wet and dry (mechanical) sieving techniques. Changes in the petrographic composition of gravels were investigated in two ways. At first, in parallel profiles, to detect a spatial tendency in the petrographic composition. The latter way concerned vertical profiles within subglacial till horizons with the purpose of revealing some trends induced by vertical changes of subglacial conditions. Subsequently all the textural features were associated with geomorphic traces, demonstrated by subglacial channels and other glacial lineations, obtained from Digital Elevation Model, in order to distinguish ice-flow patterns. The clasts petrography analysed in vertical profiles revealed

  1. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  2. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    PubMed

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  3. Stress-directed compositional patterning of SiGe substrates for lateral quantum barrier manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swapnadip; Kaiser, Daniel; Bonilla, Jose; Sinno, Talid; Han, Sang M.

    2015-08-01

    While vertical stacking of quantum well and dot structures is well established in heteroepitaxial semiconductor materials, manipulation of quantum barriers in the lateral directions poses a significant engineering challenge. Here, we demonstrate lateral quantum barrier manipulation in a crystalline SiGe alloy using structured mechanical fields to drive compositional redistribution. To apply stress, we make use of a nano-indenter array that is pressed against a Si0.8Ge0.2 wafer in a custom-made mechanical press. The entire assembly is then annealed at high temperatures, during which the larger Ge atoms are selectively driven away from areas of compressive stress. Compositional analysis of the SiGe substrates reveals that this approach leads to a transfer of the indenter array pattern to the near-surface elemental composition, resulting in near 100% Si regions underneath each indenter that are separated from each other by the surrounding Si0.8Ge0.2 bulk. The "stress transfer" process is studied in detail using multiscale computer simulations that demonstrate its robustness across a wide range of applied stresses and annealing temperatures. While the "Si nanodot" structures formed here are not intrinsically useful as quantum structures, it is anticipated that the stress transfer process may be modified by judicious control of the SiGe film thickness and indenter array pattern to form more technologically useful structures.

  4. Stress-directed compositional patterning of SiGe substrates for lateral quantum barrier manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Swapnadip; Kaiser, Daniel; Sinno, Talid E-mail: meister@unm.edu; Bonilla, Jose; Han, Sang M. E-mail: meister@unm.edu

    2015-08-17

    While vertical stacking of quantum well and dot structures is well established in heteroepitaxial semiconductor materials, manipulation of quantum barriers in the lateral directions poses a significant engineering challenge. Here, we demonstrate lateral quantum barrier manipulation in a crystalline SiGe alloy using structured mechanical fields to drive compositional redistribution. To apply stress, we make use of a nano-indenter array that is pressed against a Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} wafer in a custom-made mechanical press. The entire assembly is then annealed at high temperatures, during which the larger Ge atoms are selectively driven away from areas of compressive stress. Compositional analysis of the SiGe substrates reveals that this approach leads to a transfer of the indenter array pattern to the near-surface elemental composition, resulting in near 100% Si regions underneath each indenter that are separated from each other by the surrounding Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} bulk. The “stress transfer” process is studied in detail using multiscale computer simulations that demonstrate its robustness across a wide range of applied stresses and annealing temperatures. While the “Si nanodot” structures formed here are not intrinsically useful as quantum structures, it is anticipated that the stress transfer process may be modified by judicious control of the SiGe film thickness and indenter array pattern to form more technologically useful structures.

  5. A hierarchical examination of methane uptake: field patterns, lab physiology, community composition and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Koyama, A.; Johnson, N. G.; Webb, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling problems abound in biogeochemistry. At the finest scale, soil microbes experience habitats and environmental changes that affect the chemical transformations of interest. We collect the DNA of these organisms from sites across landscapes and note differences in who is there, and we seek to evaluate why group membership changes in space (biogeography) and why activity rates change over time (physiology). The goal of efforts at finer scales is often to better predict patterns at larger scales. We conducted such a hierarchical examination of methane uptake in the Great Plains grasslands of North America, gathering data from 22 plots at 8 field locations, scattered from South Dakota to New Mexico and Colorado to Kansas. Our work provides insight into methanotroph biogeochemistry at all of these scales. For example, we found that methane uptake rates vary mostly due to the methanotroph activity, and less so due to diffusivity. A combination of field and lab observations reveal that methanotroph communities differ in their sensitivity to soil moisture and to ammonium (an inhibitor of methanotrophy). Examination of methanotroph community composition reveals tantalizing patterns in composition, dominance and richness across sites, that appears to be structured by patterns of precipitation and soil texture. We anticipate that greater synthesis of these hierarchical findings will paint a richer picture of methanotroph life and enable improved prediction of methane uptake at regional scales.

  6. Parametric analysis of mechanically driven compositional patterning in SiGe substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Daniel; Han, Sang M.; Sinno, Talid

    2017-02-01

    A recently demonstrated approach for creating structured compositional gradients in the near-surface region of SiGe substrates is studied parametrically using a multiresolution coarse-grained lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulation method. In the "stress patterning" process, a patterned elastic stress field is generated in the SiGe substrate by pressing an array of micro-indenters into it. The stressed substrate is then thermally annealed to drive the atomic diffusion in which the larger Ge atoms are pushed away from the areas of compressive stress. By varying a subset of the parameters that characterize the high-dimensional input space of the process (e.g., indenter spacing, indenter tip shape, and indenter array symmetry) we show that technologically interesting compositional configurations may be readily generated. In particular, we show that it is theoretically possible to generate arrays of well-delineated nanoscale regions of high Ge content surrounded by essentially pure Si. Such configurations may be useful as Ge "quantum dots" that exhibit three-dimensional quantum confinement, which have otherwise been very challenging to create with high degrees of size and spatial uniformity. These simulation results will be instrumental in guiding future experimental demonstrations of stress patterning.

  7. Composite axilens-axicon diffractive optical elements for generation of ring patterns with high focal depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmavarapu, Raghu; Vijayakumar, A.; Brunner, R.; Bhattacharya, Shanti

    2016-03-01

    A binary Fresnel Zone Axilens (FZA) is designed for the infinite conjugate mode and the phase profile of a refractive axicon is combined with it to generate a composite Diffractive Optical Element (DOE). The FZA designed for two focal lengths generates a line focus along the propagation direction extending between the two focal planes. The ring pattern generated by the axicon is focused through this distance and the radius of the ring depends on the propagation distance. Hence, the radius of the focused ring pattern can be tuned, during the design process, within the two focal planes. The integration of the two functions was carried out by shifting the location of zones of FZA with respect to the phase profile of the refractive axicon resulting in a binary composite DOE. The FZAs and axicons were designed for different focal depth values and base angles respectively, in order to achieve different ring radii within the focal depth of each element. The elements were simulated using scalar diffraction formula and their focusing characteristics were analyzed. The DOEs were fabricated using electron beam direct writing and evaluated using a fiber coupled diode laser. The tunable ring patterns generated by the DOEs have prospective applications in microdrilling as well as microfabrication of circular diffractive and refractive optical elements.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium sp. Strain IPPAS B-1200 with a Unique Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Starikov, Alexander Y.; Usserbaeva, Aizhan A.; Sinetova, Maria A.; Sarsekeyeva, Fariza K.; Zayadan, Bolatkhan K.; Ustinova, Vera V.; Kupriyanova, Elena V.; Los, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS strain B-1200, isolated from Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan, and characterized by the unique fatty acid composition of its membrane lipids, which are enriched with myristic and myristoleic acids. The approximate genome size is 3.4 Mb, and the predicted number of coding sequences is 3,119. PMID:27856596

  9. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  10. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  11. [Amino acid composition and biologic value of the proteins of several sorts of buckwheat].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, N E; Kirilenko, S K

    1976-01-01

    The amino acids composition of summary proteins in unground buckwheat of four common and promising varieties grown in the Ukraine was investigated by using ion-exchange chromatography with an automatic analyzor Hd-1200 E. Between individual varieties of buckweheat no essential differences in the amino acids content were in evidence. The total proteins of the buckwheat grit contain high quantities of lysine, treonine, leucine, glutamic acid and arginine. The amino acids score was instrumental in determining the biological value and in eliciting amino acids limiting this value in different grits. These data may be made use of in the practice of public catering for estimating formulae of meals prepared with grits differently combined with other products securing an improved amino acids composition of ready-to-eat meals.

  12. Essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and fatty acid composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Flávia; Torres, Alexandre G; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this study. Breast milk and blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Fatty acid composition of breast milk, erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma NEFA were determined by GC. Indices of fatty acid status (mean melting point (MMP); EFA status index; DHA status indices, 22 : 5n-6:22 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3:22 : 5n-6 ratios) were calculated from EM fatty acid composition. Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids was low when compared with current recommendations for lactating women. MMP was associated with indices of DHA status, some individual fatty acids in EM and years post-menarche and weeks postpartum, suggesting the use of erythrocyte MMP as a possible comprehensive biochemical marker of LCPUFA status in this physiological condition. The DHA status of lactating adolescents and their milk DHA concentrations were similar to the values of Brazilian lactating adults, but lower compared with the values of lactating adults from other countries. Therefore, these lactating adolescents were apparently not disadvantaged, as compared with the Brazilian adults, when EM and breast milk fatty acid composition were considered. In general, PUFA in milk from adolescents presented few associations with their concentrations in plasma NEFA and with maternal status. However, milk DHA was associated with maternal LCPUFA and DHA states.

  13. The effect of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite line patterns.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, C K; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Chang, Jingbo; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2010-09-24

    We prepared nanocomposite inks of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) filled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) purified by acidic treatment, carboxylated by chemical oxidation and carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes physically modified with a natural gum, gum arabic. Inkjet printing of line patterns with a feature size of 100 microm width and lengths ranging from 1 to 5 cm was performed on glass substrates with a piezoelectric inkjet printer. The carboxyl-functionalized SWNT-based composite demonstrated a significant decrease (fourfold) of electrical resistance for the line patterns compared to that with a purified CNT-based composite due to improved dispersability of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The use of gum arabic for the dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes demonstrated a further drastic decrease (18-fold) of the resistance compared with a purified CNT-based composite owing to the formation of an extended continuous network within the line pattern. The inkjet-printed conductive patterns can be applied in various fields, such as flexible high speed transistors, high efficiency solar cells and transparent electrodes.

  14. Introns Structure Patterns of Variation in Nucleotide Composition in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ressayre, Adrienne; Glémin, Sylvain; Montalent, Pierre; Serre-Giardi, Laurana; Dillmann, Christine; Joets, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Plant genomes present a continuous range of variation in nucleotide composition (G + C content). In coding regions, G + C-poor species tend to have unimodal distributions of G + C content among genes within genomes and slight 5′–3′ gradients along genes. In contrast, G + C-rich species display bimodal distributions of G + C content among genes and steep 5′–3′ decreasing gradients along genes. The causes of these peculiar patterns are still poorly understood. Within two species (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice), each representative of one side of the continuum, we studied the consequences of intron presence on coding region and intron G + C content at different scales. By properly taking intron structure into account, we showed that, in both species, intron presence is associated with step changes in nucleotide, codon, and amino acid composition. This suggests that introns have a barrier effect structuring G + C content along genes and that previous continuous characterizations of the 5′–3′ gradients were artifactual. In external gene regions (located upstream first or downstream last introns), species-specific factors, such as GC-biased gene conversion, are shaping G + C content whereas in internal gene regions (surrounded by introns), G + C content is likely constrained to remain within a range common to both species. PMID:26450849

  15. Introns Structure Patterns of Variation in Nucleotide Composition in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Ressayre, Adrienne; Glémin, Sylvain; Montalent, Pierre; Serre-Giardi, Laurana; Dillmann, Christine; Joets, Johann

    2015-10-07

    Plant genomes present a continuous range of variation in nucleotide composition (G + C content). In coding regions, G + C-poor species tend to have unimodal distributions of G + C content among genes within genomes and slight 5'-3' gradients along genes. In contrast, G + C-rich species display bimodal distributions of G + C content among genes and steep 5'-3' decreasing gradients along genes. The causes of these peculiar patterns are still poorly understood. Within two species (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice), each representative of one side of the continuum, we studied the consequences of intron presence on coding region and intron G + C content at different scales. By properly taking intron structure into account, we showed that, in both species, intron presence is associated with step changes in nucleotide, codon, and amino acid composition. This suggests that introns have a barrier effect structuring G + C content along genes and that previous continuous characterizations of the 5'-3' gradients were artifactual. In external gene regions (located upstream first or downstream last introns), species-specific factors, such as GC-biased gene conversion, are shaping G + C content whereas in internal gene regions (surrounded by introns), G + C content is likely constrained to remain within a range common to both species.

  16. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well.

  17. CONCORDANCE OF TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION PATTERNS ACROSS MULTIPLE LAKE ASSEMBLAGES: EFFECTS OF SCALE, BODY SIZE, AND LAND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed environmental gradients and the extent to which they induced concordant patterns of taxonomic composition among benthic macroinvertebrate, riparian bird, sedimentary diatom, fish, and pelagic zooplankton assemblages in 186 northeastern U.S.A. lakes. Human population ...

  18. Fluorine-containing composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface and pattern formation method

    DOEpatents

    Nishi, Mineo; Makishima, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    A composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface which comprises an aqueous solution of a water soluble fluorine compound, and a pattern formation method which comprises the steps of coating a photoresist composition on a substrate; coating the above-mentioned composition for forming anti-reflection film; exposing the coated film to form a specific pattern; and developing the photoresist, are provided. Since the composition for forming anti-reflection film can be coated on the photoresist in the form of an aqueous solution, not only the anti-reflection film can be formed easily, but also, the film can be removed easily by rinsing with water or alkali development. Therefore, by the pattern formation method according to the present invention, it is possible to form a pattern easily with a high dimensional accuracy.

  19. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  20. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

    2016-01-12

    The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

  1. Fatty acid composition and extreme temperature tolerance following exposure to fluctuating temperatures in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Suring, Wouter; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-09-01

    Ectotherms commonly adjust their lipid composition to ambient temperature to counteract detrimental thermal effects on lipid fluidity. However, the extent of lipid remodeling and the associated fitness consequences under continuous temperature fluctuations are not well-described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated temperature fluctuations on fatty acid composition and thermal tolerance. We exposed the springtail Orchesella cincta to two constant temperatures of 5 and 20°C, and a continuously fluctuating treatment between 5 and 20°C every 2 days. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between constant low and high temperatures. As expected, animals were most cold tolerant in the low temperature treatment, while heat tolerance was highest under high temperature. Under fluctuating temperatures, fatty acid composition changed with temperature initially, but later in the experiment fatty acid composition stabilized and closely resembled that found under constant warm temperatures. Consistent with this, heat tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was comparable to the constant warm treatment. Cold tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was intermediate compared to animals acclimated to constant cold or warmth, despite the fact that fatty acid composition was adjusted to warm conditions. This unexpected finding suggests that in animals acclimated to fluctuating temperatures an additional underlying mechanism is involved in the cold shock response. Other aspects of homeoviscous adaptation may protect animals during extreme cold. This paper forms a next step to fully understand the functioning of ectotherms in more thermally variable environments.

  2. The influence of host diversity and composition on epidemiological patterns at multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean M; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    Spatial patterns of pathogen prevalence are determined by ecological processes acting across multiple spatial scales. Host-pathogen interactions are influenced by community composition, landscape structure, and environmental factors. Explaining prevalence patterns requires an understanding of how local determinants of infection, such as community composition, are mediated by landscape characteristics and regional-scale environmental drivers. Here we investigate the role of local community interactions and the effects of landscape structure on the dynamics of barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV) in the open meadows of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. B/CYDV is an aphid-transmitted, generalist pathogen of over 100 wild and cultivated grass species. We used variance components analysis and model selection techniques to partition the sources of variation in B/CYDV prevalence and to determine which abiotic and biotic factors influence host-pathogen interactions in a Cascades meadowsystem. B/CYDV prevalence in Cascades meadows varied by host species identity, with a significantly higher proportion of infected Festuca idahoensis individuals than Elymus glaucus or Bromus carinatus. Although there was significant variation in prevalence among host species and among meadows in the same meadow complex, there was no evidence of any significant variation in prevalence among different meadow complexes at a larger spatial scale. Variation in prevalence among meadows was primarily associated with the local community context (host identity, the relative abundance of different host species, and host species richness) and the physical landscape attributes of the meadow. These results highlight the importance of local host community composition, mediated by landscape characteristics such as meadow aspect, as a determinant of the spatial pattern of infection of a multi-host pathogen.

  3. Pattern recognition with composite correlation filters designed with multi-object combinatorial optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, Abdul; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Cuevas, Andres; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo

    2014-10-23

    Composite correlation filters are used for solving a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. These filters are given by a combination of several training templates chosen by a designer in an ad hoc manner. In this work, we present a new approach for the design of composite filters based on multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a vast search space of training templates, an iterative algorithm is used to synthesize a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several competing criteria. Furthermore, by employing a suggested binary-search procedure a filter bank with a minimum number of filters can be constructed, for a prespecified trade-off of performance metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method in recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared in terms of recognition performance and complexity with existing state-of-the-art filters.

  4. Pattern recognition with composite correlation filters designed with multi-object combinatorial optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Awwal, Abdul; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Cuevas, Andres; ...

    2014-10-23

    Composite correlation filters are used for solving a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. These filters are given by a combination of several training templates chosen by a designer in an ad hoc manner. In this work, we present a new approach for the design of composite filters based on multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a vast search space of training templates, an iterative algorithm is used to synthesize a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several competing criteria. Furthermore, by employing a suggested binary-search procedure a filter bank with a minimum number of filters can be constructed, formore » a prespecified trade-off of performance metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method in recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared in terms of recognition performance and complexity with existing state-of-the-art filters.« less

  5. Floristic composition, environmental variation and species distribution patterns in burned grassland in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, G E; Müller, S C; Pillar, V D; Pfadenhauer, J

    2006-11-01

    In regularly burned grassland on Morro Santana, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, we investigated differences in the floristic composition and their relation to soil properties, aspect and distance from the forest border. In 48 plots of 0.75 m2, we identified a total of 201 species from a local species pool of approximately 450 to 500 species. Most species occurred in low frequencies, showing clumpy distribution patterns in the studied area. Multivariate analysis showed that plots close to the forest edge clearly differed from plots in the open grassland concerning composition and structure. Plots exposed to the north differed from plots on the top of the hill both in the composition of species as well as in soil variables, mainly due to shallower soil in the former. No strong relation between soil properties and variation in vegetation composition could be detected at a finer scale. The studied grassland, as all grassland vegetation in southern Brazil, is very rich in species compared to other grassland formations worldwide. However, this high biodiversity and conservational value of Campos vegetation in general has so far not been recognized properly. Disturbance is essential to maintain this open vegetation type and its species richness. Fire should be considered as a management option in the absence of grazing.

  6. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  7. Fatty Acid Composition of Escherichia coli as a Possible Controlling Factor of the Minimal Growth Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Maxwell K.; Ingraham, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Shaw, Maxwell K. (University of California, Davis), and John L. Ingraham. Fatty acid composition of Escherichia coli as a possible controlling factor of the minimal growth temperature. J. Bacteriol. 90:141–146. 1965.—If Escherichia coli ML30 is shifted from 37 to 10 C during exponential growth in glucose minimal medium, a 4.5-hr lag results. During this lag, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increases in the cellular lipids. However, the adjustment of the fatty acid composition does not appear to be prerequisite to growth at 10 C. If shifts are made to 10 C into minimal medium containing glucose after starvation for glucose at 37 C for 0.5 and 16 hr, the lag periods at 10 C are 4.5 and 6 hr, respectively. Withholding glucose during the lag periods does not affect the duration of the lag periods, but no change in fatty acid composition occurs if glucose is not present. Supplementing the medium with glucose after the lag period permits immediate growth at 10 C; however, the fatty acid composition is still typical of cells grown at 37 C. It is concluded that the fatty acid composition of cells does not determine the minimal temperature of growth. PMID:16562009

  8. Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Lindberg, G L; Beitz, D C

    2003-10-01

    Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower (n = 5) in their proportion of milk unsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were collected a week after testing, and butter was prepared from the individual samples. Milk and butter samples were again analyzed for fatty acid composition. Butter at 5 degrees C was evaluated by a sensory panel for spreadability and by a texture analyzer at both 5 and 23 degrees C for hardness and adhesiveness. Milk and butter samples from cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition had a lower atherogenic index, and the butter samples were more spreadable, softer, and less adhesive. Thus, phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet is sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties.

  9. Composite catalyst surfaces: Effect of inert and active heterogeneities on pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.; Bangia, A.K.; Kevrekidis, I.G.; Haas, G.; Rotermund, H.H.; Ertl, G.

    1996-12-05

    Spatiotemporal dynamics in reaction-diffusion systems can be altered through the properties (reactivity, diffusivity) of the medium in which they occur. We construct active heterogeneous media (composite catalytic surfaces with inert as well as active illusions) using microelectronics fabrication techniques and study the spatiotemporal dynamics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions on these catalysts. In parallel, we perform simulations as well as numerical stability and bifurcation analysis of these patterns using mechanistic models. At the limit of large heterogeneity `grain size` (compared to the wavelength of spontaneously arising structures) the interaction patterns with inert or active boundaries dominates (e.g., pinning, transmission, and boundary breakup of spirals, interaction of pulses with corners, `pacemaker` effects). At the opposite limit of very small or very finely distributed heterogeneity, effective behavior is observed (slight modulation of pulses, nearly uniform oscillations, effective spirals). Some representative studies of transitions between the two limits are presented. 48 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Static envelope patterns in composite resonances generated by level crossing in optical toroidal microcavities.

    PubMed

    Carmon, Tal; Schwefel, Harald G L; Yang, Lan; Oxborrow, Mark; Stone, A Douglas; Vahala, Kerry J

    2008-03-14

    We study level crossing in the optical whispering-gallery (WG) modes by using toroidal microcavities. Experimentally, we image the stationary envelope patterns of the composite optical modes that arise when WG modes of different wavelengths coincide in frequency. Numerically, we calculate crossings of levels that correspond with the observed degenerate modes, where our method takes into account the not perfectly transverse nature of their field polarizations. In addition, we analyze anticrossing with a large avoidance gap between modes of the same azimuthal number.

  11. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-12-02

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12+/-1 g day(-1)) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils.

  12. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  13. Distinct Patterns in Human Milk Microbiota and Fatty Acid Profiles Across Specific Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Himanshu; du Toit, Elloise; Kulkarni, Amruta; Aakko, Juhani; Linderborg, Kaisa M.; Zhang, Yumei; Nicol, Mark P.; Isolauri, Erika; Yang, Baoru; Collado, Maria C.; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland), Africa (South Africa), and Asia (China), on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the 1 month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country) participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or cesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6%) observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p = 0.002). Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes (mean relative abundance of 3.75) whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 5.7). Women who had had a cesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p < 0.05). Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r = -0.43, p < 0.05), while Lactobacillus genus was associated with MUFA (r = -0.23, p = 0.04). These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery. PMID:27790209

  14. Lactic acid fermentation by cells immobilised on various porous cellulosic materials and their alginate/poly-lactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mrinal Nishant; Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Masson, Jean Bernard; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Porous delignified cellulose (or tubular cellulose, abbr. TC) from Indian Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta) wood and Rice husk, and TC/Ca-alginate/polylactic acid composites, were used as Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilisation carriers leading to improvements in lactic acid fermentation of cheese whey and synthetic lactose media, compared to free cells. Specifically, shorter fermentation rates, higher lactic acid yields (g/g sugar utilised) and productivities (g/Ld), and higher amounts of volatile by-products were achieved, while no significant differences were observed on the performance of the different immobilised biocatalysts. The proposed biocatalysts are of food grade purity, cheap and easy to prepare, and they are attractive for bioprocess development based on immobilised cells. Such composite biocatalysts may be used for the co-immobilisation of different microorganisms or enzymes (in separate layers of the biocatalyst), to efficiently conduct different types of fermentations in the same bioreactor, avoiding inhibition problems of chemical or biological (competition) nature.

  15. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase.

  16. Bacterial community composition and fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed three different diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G; Liu, Hanlu; Bao, Kun; Zhang, Tietao; Wang, Kaiying; Cui, Xuezhe; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-02-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) rely on microorganisms living in the rumen to convert plant materials into chemical compounds, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), but how the rumen bacterial community is affected by different forages and adapt to altered diets remains poorly understood. The present study used 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to examine the relationship between rumen bacterial diversity and metabolic phenotypes using three sika deer in a 3 × 3 latin square design. Three sika deer were fed oak leaves (OL), corn stover (CS), or corn silage (CI), respectively. After a 7-day feeding period, when compared to the CS and CI groups, the OL group had a lower proportion of Prevotella spp. and a higher proportion of unclassified bacteria belonging to the families Succinivibrionaceae and Paraprevotellaceae (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of isobutyrate was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the OL group than in the CS and CI groups. There was no significant change of dominant bacterial genera in the OL group after 28 days of feeding. Conversely, total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) showed an increase after 28 days of feeding, mainly due to the increasing of acetate, propionate, and valerate (P<0.05). The interplay between bacteria and metabolism in the OL group differed from that in the CS and CI groups, especially for the interaction of TVFAs and acetate/propionate. Overall, the current study suggested that Prevotella spp. played critical roles in the fermentation of feed in the rumen of sika deer. However, the differences in interplay patterns between rumen bacterial community composition and metabolic phenotypes were altered in the native and domesticated diets indicating the changed fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer.

  17. Assessing biogeographic patterns in the changes in soil invertebrate biodiversity due to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sugg, P.M.; Kuperman, R.G.; Loucks, O.L. |

    1995-09-01

    We are studying the response of soil faunal communities to a gradient in acidic deposition across midwestern hardwood forests. We have documented a pattern of population decrease and species loss for soil invertebrates along the acidification gradient. We now ask the following question: When confronted with apparent diversity changes along a region-wide pollution gradient, how can one assess the possibility of natural biogeographic gradients accounting for the pattern? As a first approximation, we use published range maps from taxonomic monographs to determine the percent of the regional fauna with ranges encompassing each site. For staphylinid beetles, range data show no sign of a biogeographic gradient. Yet for soil staphylinids, a large decrease is seen in alpha diversity (as species richness) from low to high acid dose sites (from 20 species to 8). Staphylinid species turnover is greatest in the transition from low to intermediate dose sites.

  18. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  19. In vitro biostability evaluation of polyurethane composites in acidic, basic, oxidative, and neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Suping; Schley, James; Loy, Brian; Luo, Lian; Hobot, Chris; Sparer, Randall; Untereker, Darrel; Krzeszak, Jason

    2008-05-01

    New and improved properties can often be achieved by compounding two or more different but compatible materials. But, can failure possibility also be increased by such a compounding strategy? In this article, we compared the in vitro biostability of composites with that of the pure polymer. We tested three model composites in oxidative, acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. We found that oxidation degradation was much more profound in the composites than in the corresponding pure polymer. This degradation seemed to be an intrinsic property of composite materials. We also observed the well documented interfacial debonding between filler and matrix and its effects on the mechanical reinforcement of the hydrated composites. The improvements in acid and base resistance were also observed.

  20. Enhanced in vitro cell activity on silicon-doped vaterite/poly(lactic acid) composites.

    PubMed

    Obata, Akiko; Tokuda, Shingo; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2009-01-01

    A biodegradable composite with silicon-species releasability was prepared using poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and silicon-doped vaterite (SiV) particles. SiV with particle diameters of approximately 1 mum was prepared using aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the silicon species by a carbonation process and then mixed with PLLA in methylene chloride according to a SiV to PLLA weight ratio of 1:2, resulting in the preparation of composite slurry. A composite film was prepared by dipping a cover glass in the slurry. The composite films were incubated in a culture medium for 7 days and the silicon concentration of the medium was measured to estimate the species releasability of the composites. A trace amount of silicon species was continuously released from the composites for 7 days, the amount depending on the content of APTES in SiV. On the composite releasing silicon species, mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) were significantly stimulated to proliferate and differentiate in comparison with those on a composite containing no silicon species. The proliferation of the cells on the composites releasing larger amounts of silicon species (0.51mgl(-1)day(-1)) was higher than that on the composites releasing smaller amount of the species (0.21mgl(-1)day(-1)). The silicon species in the composites were effective in enhancing the cellular functions. The composites were expected to be useful as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

  2. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  3. Biodegradable composites from sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Liu, LinShu; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B; Liu, Cheng-Kung

    2005-11-16

    Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were prepared by compression-heating. The resultant thermoplastics had a lower density, but they had tensile strength similar to that of pure PLA specimens as well as the same geometric properties. Tensile properties depended on the initial water content of sugar beet pulp and the process by which composites were manufactured. In comparison with sugar beet pulp, the composite showed improved water resistance. This can be attributed to the hydrophobic character of PLA and pulp-matrix interactions. The composite thermoplastics showed suitable properties for potential use as lightweight construction materials.

  4. Effect of Selection for High Activity-Related Metabolism on Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Bank Voles.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas; Sadowska, Edyta T; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Rudolf, Agata; Maiti, Uttaran; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Endothermy, high basal metabolic rates (BMRs), and high locomotor-related metabolism were important steps in the evolution of mammals. It has been proposed that the composition of membrane phospholipid fatty acids plays an important role in energy metabolism and exercise muscle physiology. In particular, the membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism suggests that an increase in cell membrane fatty acid unsaturation would result in an increase in BMR. We aimed to determine whether membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of heart, liver, and gastrocnemius muscles differed between lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism-which also evolved an increased BMR-and unselected control lines. Proportions of fatty acids significantly differed among the organs: liver was the least unsaturated, whereas the gastrocnemius muscles were most unsaturated. However, fatty acid proportions of the heart and liver did not differ significantly between selected and control lines. In gastrocnemius muscles, significant differences between selection directions were found: compared to control lines, membranes of selected voles were richer in saturated C18:0 and unsaturated C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, whereas the pattern was reversed for saturated C16:0 and unsaturated C20:4n-6. Neither unsaturation index nor other combined indexes of fatty acid proportions differed between lines. Thus, our results do not support the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. However, the differences between selected and control lines in gastrocnemius muscles reflect chain lengths rather than number of double bonds and are probably related to differences in locomotor activity per se rather than to differences in the basal or routine metabolic rate.

  5. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  6. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque.

  7. Snorkeling preferences foster an amino acid composition bias in transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Aaron K; Lee, Yohan; Kim, Sanguk; Bowie, James U

    2004-05-28

    By analyzing transmembrane (TM) helices in known structures, we find that some polar amino acids are more frequent at the N terminus than at the C terminus. We propose the asymmetry occurs because most polar amino acids are better able to snorkel their polar atoms away from the membrane core at the N terminus than at the C terminus. Two findings lead us to this proposition: (1) side-chain conformations are influenced strongly by the N or C-terminal position of the amino acid in the bilayer, and (2) the favored snorkeling direction of an amino acid correlates well with its N to C-terminal composition bias. Our results suggest that TM helix predictions should incorporate an N to C-terminal composition bias, that rotamer preferences of TM side-chains are position-dependent, and that the ability to snorkel influences the evolutionary selection of amino acids for the helix N and C termini.

  8. Composition of fatty acids triacylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter in Calophyllum calaba L. oil from Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Crane, Sylvie; Aurore, Guylène; Joseph, Henry; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Bourgeois, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The composition of the kernel oils of two Calophyllum species (Calophyllum calaba L. and Calophyllum inophyllum L.) was investigated. The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the kernel oils were examined. In two species, oleic acid C18:1 (39.1-50%) is the dominating fatty acid followed by linoleic acid C18:2 (21.7-31.1%) as the second major fatty acid. Stearic C18:0 (13.4-14.3%) and palmitic C16:0 (11-13.7%) acids are the major saturates. The oils contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (70.8-73.10%). Most of the fatty acids are present as triacylglycerol (76.7-84%), twenty one triacylglycerols are detected with predominantly unsaturated triacylglycerols. The total unsaponifiable content, its general composition and the identity of the components of the sterol and tocopherol fractions are presented. In both species, analysis of the unsaponifiable fractions revealed the preponderance of phytosterols, mainly stigmasterol (35.8-45.1%) and beta-sitosterol (41.1-43.1%). Among the eight tocopherols and tocotrienols present in two species, variations exist; alpha-tocopherol (183 mg/kg) is the main tocopherol in Calophyllum calaba L. and Delta-tocotrienol (236 mg/kg) is the dominant tocotrienol in Calophyllum inophyllum L.

  9. Application of Markov chain to the pattern of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantika, Sandy; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.

    2014-03-01

    This research explains how Markov chain used to model the pattern of deoxyribonucleic acid mutations in mitochondrial (mitochondrial DNA). First, sign test was used to see a pattern of nucleotide bases that will appear at one position after the position of mutated nucleotide base. Results obtained from the sign test showed that for most cases, there exist a pattern of mutation except in the mutation cases of adenine to cytosine, adenine to thymine, and cytosine to guanine. Markov chain analysis results on data of mutations that occur in mitochondrial DNA indicate that one and two positions after the position of mutated nucleotide bases tend to be occupied by particular nucleotide bases. From this analysis, it can be said that the adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine will mutate if the nucelotide base at one and/or two positions after them is cytosine.

  10. Turing pattern formation in the chlorine dioxide-iodine- malonic acid reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayeshgar, Sima

    The formation of localized structures in the chlorine dioxide-idodine-malonic acid (CDIMA) reaction-diffusion system is investigated numerically using a realistic model of this system. We analyze the one-dimensional patterns formed along the gradients imposed by boundary feeds, and study their linear stability to symmetry- breaking perturbations (the Turing instability) in the plane transverse to these gradients. We establish that an often-invoked simple local linear analysis which neglects longitudinal diffusion is inappropriate for predicting the linear stability of these patterns. Using a fully nonuniform analysis, we investigate the structure of the patterns formed along the gradients and their stability to transverse Turing pattern formation as a function of the values of two control parameters: the malonic acid feed concentration and the size of the reactor in the dimension along the gradients. The results from this investigation are compared with existing experimental results. We also verify that the two-variable reduction of the chemical model employed in the linear stability analysis is justified. Finally, we present numerical solution of the CDIMA system in two dimensions which is in qualitative agreement with experiments. This result also confirms our linear stability analysis, while demonstrating the feasibility of numerical exploration of realistic chemical models.

  11. Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Bobr, Aleh; Yao, Dan; Lu, Yuwei; Nelson, Valerie M; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-15

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.

  12. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  13. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  14. Free amino acid composition in hemolymph and muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypode platytarsis.

    PubMed

    Sankar, R Siva; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-05-15

    Free amino acid plays an important role in physiological functions. The ghost crab, Ocypode platytarsis caught off the Puducherry sandy beaches, south east coast of India were investigated for the pattern of distribution of free amino acids. The hemolymph and muscle were sampled from male and female crabs and then subjected to free amino acid analysis quantitatively by HPLC. Fourteen free amino acids have been determined in hemolymph and muscle of both sexes in Ocypode platytarsis. The essential amino acids were leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine and histidine and non-essential amino acids were alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, glycine, serine and tyrosine. The total concentration of free amino acid found in the male and female hemolymph was lower than that in the muscle. Glutamic acid is of higher concentration in the hemolymph whereas histidine found was higher in the muscle of both sexes. The male crab contains a strikingly higher concentration of histidine of about eight times than that of female in muscles. The study revealed that distribution pattern of free amino acids differ in relation to hemolymph and muscle of male and female crabs.

  15. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration.

  17. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  18. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria.

  19. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  20. Compositional similarities of non-solvent extractable fatty acids from recent marine sediments deposited in differing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Mitsugu; Baker, Earl W.

    1987-06-01

    Five recent sediment samples from a variety of North American continental shelves were analyzed for fatty acids (FAs) in the solvent-extractable (SOLEX) lipids as well as four types of non-solvent extractable (NONEX) lipids. The NONEX lipids were operationally defined by the succession of extraction procedure required to recover them. The complete procedure included (i) very mild acid treatment, (ii) HF digestion and (iii) saponification of the sediment residue following exhaustive solvent extraction. The distribution pattern and various compositional parameters of SOLEX FAs in the five sediments were divided into three different groups, indicating the difference of biological sources and also diagenetic factors and processes among the three groups of samples. Nevertheless, the compositions of the corresponding NONEX FAs after acid treatment were surprisingly very similar. This was also true for the remaining NONEX FA groups in the five sediment samples. The findings implied that most of the NONEX FAs reported here are derived directly from living organisms. It is also concluded that a large part of NONEX FAs are much more resistant to biodegradation than we have thought, so that they can form the large percentage of total lipids with increasing depth of water and sediments.

  1. Compositional similarities of non-solvent extractable fatty acids from recent marine sediments deposited in differing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Baker, E.W.

    1987-06-01

    Five recent sediment samples from a variety of North American continental shelves were analyzed for fatty acids (FAs) in the solvent-extractable (SOLEX) lipids as well as four types of non-solvent extractable (NONEX) lipids. The NONEX lipids were operationally defined by the succession of extraction procedure required to recover them. The complete procedure included (i) very mild acid treatment, (ii) HF digestion and (iii) saponification of the sediment residue following exhaustive solvent extraction. The distribution pattern and various compositional parameters of SOLEX FAs in the five sediments were divided into three different groups, indicating the difference of biological sources and also diagenetic factors and processes among the three groups of samples. Nevertheless, the compositions of the corresponding NONEX FAs after acid treatment were surprisingly very similar. This was also true for the remaining NONEX FA groups in the five sediment samples. The findings implied that most of the NONEX FAs reported here are derived directly from living organisms. It is also concluded that a large part of NONEX FAs are much more resistant to biodegradation than the authors have thought, so that they can form the large percentage of total lipids with increasing depth of water and sediments.

  2. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites.

  3. Properties of polylactic acid composites reinforced with oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Zakaria, Zainoha; Inuwa, I M; Islam, M S; Jawaid, M

    2013-10-15

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm biomass were successfully prepared through solution casting. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that there are no significant changes in the peak positions, suggesting that incorporation of MCC in PLA did not result in any significant change in chemical structure of PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on the samples. The T50 decomposition temperature improved with addition of MCC, showing increase in thermal stability of the composites. The synthesized composites were characterized in terms of tensile properties. The Young's modulus increased by about 30%, while the tensile strength and elongation at break for composites decreased with addition of MCC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites fractured surface shows that the MCC remained as aggregates of crystalline cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic image of the composite surfaces show clustering of MCC with uneven distribution.

  4. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  5. Genome-wide association study for carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition, sugar, and the effects of related candidate genes in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasago, Nanae; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene analysis to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of the GWAS in our small population by performing GWAS for carcass weight (CW) and fatty acid composition; (ii) detect novel candidate regions affecting non-CW carcass traits, chemical composition and sugar; and (iii) evaluate the association of the candidate genes previously detected in CW and fatty acid composition with other economically important traits. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle and 40 657 Single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. In addition, candidate gene analyses were performed to evaluate the association of three CW-related genes and two fatty acid-related genes with carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition and sugar. The significant regions with the candidate genes were detected for CW and fatty acid composition, and these results showed that a significant region would be detectable despite the small sample size. The novel candidate regions were detected on BTA23 for crude protein and on BTA19 for fructose. CW-related genes associated with the rib-eye area and fatty acid composition were identified, and fatty acid-related genes had no relationship with other traits. Moreover, the favorable allele of CW-related genes had an unfavorable effect on fatty acid composition.

  6. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  7. Transfer molding processes for nanoscale patterning of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Rabin; Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana; Kim, Jaeyoun

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscale patterned structures composed of biomaterials exhibit great potential for the fabrication of functional biostructures. In this paper, we report cost-effective, rapid, and highly reproducible soft lithographic transfer-molding techniques for creating periodic micro- and nano-scale textures on poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) surface. These artificial textures can increase the overall surface area and change the release dynamics of the therapeutic agents coated on it. Specifically, we use the double replication technique in which the master pattern is first transferred to the PDMS mold and the pattern on PDMS is then transferred to the PLLA films through drop-casting as well as nano-imprinting. The ensuing comparison studies reveal that the drop-cast PLLA allows pattern transfer at higher levels of fidelity, enabling the realization of nano-hole and nano-cone arrays with pitch down to ~700 nm. The nano-patterned PLLA film was then coated with rapamycin to make it drug-eluting.

  8. Amino acid composition determined using multiple hydrolysis times for three goat milk formulations.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Lowry, Dianne; Prosser, Colin G

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid composition of goat milk formulations with varying protein and carbohydrate concentrations were determined. Proteins in goat milk infant formula, goat milk growing-up formula and goat whole milk powder were hydrolysed using multiple hydrolysis time intervals. A least-squares non-linear regression model was used to predict the free and protein bound amino acid concentrations. The amino acid composition of goat infant formula was compared with human milk reference values. There was good agreement between the multiple hydrolysis and single 24-h hydrolysis methods for approximately one-half of the amino acids. Tryptophan, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, isoleucine, valine, serine and alanine contents were underestimated by 10.6, 5.6, 5.6, 4.7, 4.4, 3.7, 3.7 and 3.6%, respectively, by the single 24-h hydrolysis. The study provides accurate reference data on the amino acid composition of goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula has amino acids in amounts similar to human milk reference values, when expressed on a per-energy basis.

  9. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  10. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco A; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  11. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres.

  12. Influence of a peracetic acid-based immersion on indirect composite resin.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Fracaro, Gisele Baggio; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Campregher, Ulisses Bastos

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of immersion in a 0.2% peracetic acid-based disinfectant on the three-point flexural strength, water sorption and water solubility of an indirect composite resin. Specimens were produced according to ISO 4049:2000 specifications and were divided in two groups: Control group, with no disinfection and Disinfected group, with three 10 min immersions in the peracetic acid intercalated with 10 min immersions in sterile distilled water. All evaluations were conducted in compliance with ISO specifications. Three-point flexural strength, water sorption and solubility of indirect composite resin before and after immersion showed no statistical significant differences (p > 0.05) and met ISO standard requirements. Immersion in peracetic acid solution showed no influence in indirect composite resin tested properties.

  13. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  14. The influence of dietary essential fatty acids on uterine C20 and C22 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Howie, A; Leaver, H A; Wilson, N H; Yap, P L; Aitken, I D

    1992-06-01

    The effect of dietary fatty acids on uterine fatty acid composition was studied in rats fed control diet or semi-synthetic diet supplemented with 1.5 microliter/g/day evening primrose oil (EPO) or fish oil (FO). Diet-related changes in uterine lipid were detected within 21 days. Changes of 2- to 20-fold were detected in the uterine n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) and in certain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The FO diet was associated with higher uterine C20 and C22 n-3, and the EPO diet, with higher uterine n-6 fatty acid. High uterine C18:2 n-6 was detected in neutral lipid (NL) of rats fed high concentrations of this fatty acid, but there was little evidence of selective incorporation or retention of C18:2 n-6 by uterine NL. The incorporation of EFA into uterine phospholipids (PL) was greater than NL EFA incorporation, and uterine PL n-3/n-6 ratios showed greater diet dependence. Tissue/diet fatty acid ratios in NL and PL also indicated preferential incorporation/synthesis of C16:1 n-9, and C16:0, and there was greater incorporation of C12:0 and C14:0 into uteri of rats fed EPO and FO. Replacement of 50-60% of arachidonate with n-3 EFA in uterine PL may inhibit n-6 EFA metabolism necessary for uterine function at parturition.

  15. Contrasting patterns of phytoplankton community pigment composition in two salt marsh estuaries in southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Noble, Peter A; Tymowski, Raphael G; Fletcher, Madilyn; Morris, James T; Lewitus, Alan J

    2003-07-01

    Phytoplankton community pigment composition and water quality were measured seasonally along salinity gradients in two minimally urbanized salt marsh estuaries in South Carolina in order to examine their spatial and temporal distributions. The North Inlet estuary has a relatively small watershed with minimal fresh water input, while the Ashepoo, Combahee, and Edisto (ACE) Basin is characterized by a relatively greater influence of riverine drainage. Sampling stations were located in regions of the estuaries experiencing frequent diurnal tidal mixing and had similar salinity and temperature regimens. Phytoplankton community pigment composition was assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and multivariate statistical analyses. Shannon diversity index, principal-component, and cluster analyses revealed that phytoplankton community pigments in both estuaries were seasonally variable, with similar diversities but different compositions. The temporal pigment patterns indicated that there was a relatively weak correlation between the pigments in ACE Basin and the relative persistence of photopigment groups in North Inlet. The differences were presumably a consequence of the unpredictability and relatively greater influence of river discharge in the ACE Basin, in contrast to the greater environmental predictability of the more tidally influenced North Inlet. Furthermore, the timing, magnitude, and pigment composition of the annual phytoplankton bloom were different in the two estuaries. The bloom properties in North Inlet reflected the predominance of autochthonous ecological control (e.g., regenerated nutrients, grazing), and those in ACE Basin suggested that there was greater influence of allochthonous environmental factors (e.g., nutrient loading, changes in turbidity). These interestuarine differences in phytoplankton community structure and control provide insight into the organization of phytoplankton in estuaries.

  16. Contrasting Patterns of Phytoplankton Community Pigment Composition in Two Salt Marsh Estuaries in Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Peter A.; Tymowski, Raphael G.; Fletcher, Madilyn; Morris, James T.; Lewitus, Alan J.

    2003-01-01

    Phytoplankton community pigment composition and water quality were measured seasonally along salinity gradients in two minimally urbanized salt marsh estuaries in South Carolina in order to examine their spatial and temporal distributions. The North Inlet estuary has a relatively small watershed with minimal fresh water input, while the Ashepoo, Combahee, and Edisto (ACE) Basin is characterized by a relatively greater influence of riverine drainage. Sampling stations were located in regions of the estuaries experiencing frequent diurnal tidal mixing and had similar salinity and temperature regimens. Phytoplankton community pigment composition was assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and multivariate statistical analyses. Shannon diversity index, principal-component, and cluster analyses revealed that phytoplankton community pigments in both estuaries were seasonally variable, with similar diversities but different compositions. The temporal pigment patterns indicated that there was a relatively weak correlation between the pigments in ACE Basin and the relative persistence of photopigment groups in North Inlet. The differences were presumably a consequence of the unpredictability and relatively greater influence of river discharge in the ACE Basin, in contrast to the greater environmental predictability of the more tidally influenced North Inlet. Furthermore, the timing, magnitude, and pigment composition of the annual phytoplankton bloom were different in the two estuaries. The bloom properties in North Inlet reflected the predominance of autochthonous ecological control (e.g., regenerated nutrients, grazing), and those in ACE Basin suggested that there was greater influence of allochthonous environmental factors (e.g., nutrient loading, changes in turbidity). These interestuarine differences in phytoplankton community structure and control provide insight into the organization of phytoplankton in estuaries. PMID:12839791

  17. A base composition analysis of natural patterns for the preprocessing of metagenome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background On the pretext that sequence reads and contigs often exhibit the same kinds of base usage that is also observed in the sequences from which they are derived, we offer a base composition analysis tool. Our tool uses these natural patterns to determine relatedness across sequence data. We introduce spectrum sets (sets of motifs) which are permutations of bacterial restriction sites and the base composition analysis framework to measure their proportional content in sequence data. We suggest that this framework will increase the efficiency during the pre-processing stages of metagenome sequencing and assembly projects. Results Our method is able to differentiate organisms and their reads or contigs. The framework shows how to successfully determine the relatedness between these reads or contigs by comparison of base composition. In particular, we show that two types of organismal-sequence data are fundamentally different by analyzing their spectrum set motif proportions (coverage). By the application of one of the four possible spectrum sets, encompassing all known restriction sites, we provide the evidence to claim that each set has a different ability to differentiate sequence data. Furthermore, we show that the spectrum set selection having relevance to one organism, but not to the others of the data set, will greatly improve performance of sequence differentiation even if the fragment size of the read, contig or sequence is not lengthy. Conclusions We show the proof of concept of our method by its application to ten trials of two or three freshly selected sequence fragments (reads and contigs) for each experiment across the six organisms of our set. Here we describe a novel and computationally effective pre-processing step for metagenome sequencing and assembly tasks. Furthermore, our base composition method has applications in phylogeny where it can be used to infer evolutionary distances between organisms based on the notion that related organisms

  18. Composites of manganese oxide with carbon materials as catalysts for the ozonation of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Orge, C A; Órfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R

    2012-04-30

    Manganese oxide and manganese oxide-carbon composites were prepared and tested as catalysts for the removal of oxalic acid by ozonation. Their performances were compared with the parent carbon material (activated carbon or carbon xerogel) used to prepare the composites. Oxalic acid degradation by carbon materials is slower than that attained with manganese oxide or manganese oxide-carbon composites. A complete degradation after 90 and 45 min of reaction was obtained for carbon materials and for the catalysts containing manganese, respectively. The ozonation in the presence of the prepared composites are supposed to occur mainly by surface reactions, following a direct oxidation mechanism by molecular ozone and/or surface oxygenated radicals.

  19. The effect of diet on the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria and myelin in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, L.

    1965-01-01

    1. Three groups of female rats (8–12 weeks old) were maintained respectively on a linoleic acid-rich diet, a linoleic acid-poor predominantly saturated-fatty acid diet and a normal diet. Changes in the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin were observed. 2. Of the serum fatty acids, linoleic acid showed the greatest change in the percentage of the total acids in response to diet; the change in the proportion of oleic acid was considerable. The percentages of arachidonic acid in serum fatty acids in the groups on the linoleic acid-rich and linoleic acid-poor diets were similar, but higher than those in the normal group. 3. Changes in the proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid occurred in brain fatty acids that to some extent paralleled those occurring in the serum. Changes in the proportions of most other acids in the serum fatty acids were not accompanied by corresponding changes in the brain fatty acids. 4. The percentage fatty acid compositions of a mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin are given, and changes in the relative proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and possibly some docosapolyenoic acids were demonstrated to occur as a result of diet. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the possible aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:5881652

  20. Assessing the potential of amino acid δ13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles, and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on natural occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions; and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results underscore that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e. isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterial derived amino acids ranged from 10-15% in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years to 35% during the last glacial period. The larger bacterial fractions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a function of sediment age, to

  1. Mathematical Characterization of Protein Sequences Using Patterns as Chemical Group Combinations of Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Provas; Ray, Korak Kumar; Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Jana, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences. The amino acid sequence of conventional myosin II head domain of 14 family members are taken to illustrate this new approach. We find two blocks of maximum length 6 aa as 'FPKATD' and 'Y/FTNEKL' without repeating the same chemical nature and one block of maximum length 20 aa with the repetition of chemical nature which are common among all 14 members. We also check commonality with another motor protein sub-family kinesin, KIF1A. Based on our analysis we find a common block of length 8 aa both in myosin II and KIF1A. This motif is located in the neck linker region which could be responsible for the generation of mechanical force, enabling us to find the unique blocks which remain chemically conserved across the family. We also validate our methodology with different protein families such as MYOI, Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Altogether, our studies provide a new methodology for investigating the conserved amino acids' pattern in different proteins.

  2. Geometric Patterns for Neighboring Bases Near the Stacked State in Nucleic Acid Strands.

    PubMed

    Sedova, Ada; Banavali, Nilesh K

    2017-03-14

    Structural variation in base stacking has been analyzed frequently in isolated double helical contexts for nucleic acids, but not as often in nonhelical geometries or in complex biomolecular environments. In this study, conformations of two neighboring bases near their stacked state in any environment are comprehensively characterized for single-strand dinucleotide (SSD) nucleic acid crystal structure conformations. An ensemble clustering method is used to identify a reduced set of representative stacking geometries based on pairwise distances between select atoms in consecutive bases, with multiple separable conformational clusters obtained for categories divided by nucleic acid type (DNA/RNA), SSD sequence, stacking face orientation, and the presence or absence of a protein environment. For both DNA and RNA, SSD conformations are observed that are either close to the A-form, or close to the B-form, or intermediate between the two forms, or further away from either form, illustrating the local structural heterogeneity near the stacked state. Among this large variety of distinct conformations, several common stacking patterns are observed between DNA and RNA, and between nucleic acids in isolation or in complex with proteins, suggesting that these might be stable stacking orientations. Noncanonical face/face orientations of the two bases are also observed for neighboring bases in the same strand, but their frequency is much lower, with multiple SSD sequences across categories showing no occurrences of such unusual stacked conformations. The resulting reduced set of stacking geometries is directly useful for stacking-energy comparisons between empirical force fields, prediction of plausible localized variations in single-strand structures near their canonical states, and identification of analogous stacking patterns in newly solved nucleic acid containing structures.

  3. Method and compositions for reducing corrosion in the removal of acidic gases from gaseous mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    DuPart, M.S.; Cringle, D.C.; Oakes, B.D.

    1984-05-01

    A corrosion inhibited composition containing a gas conditioning solution such as an alkanol amine with water or with organic solvents and with small amounts of soluble thiocyanate compounds, soluble trivalent bismuth compounds with or without soluble divalent nickel or cobalt compounds. The compositions are useful to separate acid gases such as carbon dioxide from hydrocarbon feed streams in gas conditioning apparatus with minimum amounts of corrosion of the ferrous surfaces.

  4. Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flexible foraging strategies, such as prey switching, omnivory and food mixing, are key to surviving in a labile and changing environment. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in western Hudson Bay are versatile predators that use all of these strategies as they seasonally exploit resources across trophic levels. Climate warming is reducing availability of their ice habitat, especially in spring when polar bears gain most of their annual fat reserves by consuming seal pups before coming ashore in summer. How polar bears combine these flexible foraging strategies to obtain and utilize terrestrial food will become increasingly important in compensating for energy deficits from lost seal hunting opportunities. We evaluated patterns in the composition of foods in scat to characterize the foraging behaviors that underpin the diet mixing and omnivory observed in polar bears on land in western Hudson Bay. Specifically, we measured diet richness, proportions of plant and animal foods, patterns in co-occurrence of foods, spatial composition and an index of temporal composition. Results Scats contained between 1 and 6 foods, with an average of 2.11 (SE = 0.04). Most scats (84.9%) contained at least one type of plant, but animals (35.4% of scats) and both plants and animals occurring together (34.4% of scats) were also common. Certain foods, such as Lyme grass seed heads (Leymus arenarius), berries and marine algae, were consumed in relatively higher proportions, sometimes to the exclusion of others, both where and when they occurred most abundantly. The predominance of localized vegetation in scats suggests little movement among habitat types between feeding sessions. Unlike the case for plants, no spatial patterns were found for animal remains, likely due the animals’ more vagile and ubiquitous distribution. Conclusions Our results suggest that polar bears are foraging opportunistically in a manner consistent with maximizing intake while minimizing energy

  5. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  6. Influencing fatty acid composition of yeasts by lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Kolouchova, Irena; Sigler, Karel; Zimola, Michal; Rezanka, Tomas; Matatkova, Olga; Masak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of microorganisms is affected by cultivation conditions, concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources and the presence of trace elements. One of the new possibilities of influencing the production of cell mass or lipids is the use of lanthanides. Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry and their concentration as environmental contaminants is therefore increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants but their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements or operate as potent blockers of Ca(2+) channels. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on traditional biotechnologically useful yeast species (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii), and species capable of high accumulation of lipids (Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp., Yarrowia lipolytica). Low concentrations of lanthanum and monazite were conducive to an increase in cell mass and lipids and also higher production of palmitoleic acid, commonly used in cosmetics and medicine, and ω6-linoleic acid which is a precursor of thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leucotrienes.

  7. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  8. Cadmium chloride exposure modifies amino acid daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Caride, A; Fernández-Pérez, B; Cabaleiro, T; Bernárdez, G; Lafuente, A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of cadmium exposure on the daily pattern of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult male rats. For this purpose, animals were treated with cadmium at two different exposure doses (25 and 50 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control age-matched rats received CdCl(2)-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. CdCl(2) exposure modified the amino acid daily pattern, as it decreased aspartate, glutamate, GABA and taurine levels at 12:00 h with both exposure doses employed. In addition, the treatment with 25 mg l(-1) of CdCl(2) induced the appearance of minimal values at 16:00 h and maximal values between 04:00 and 08:00 h for glutamate, and a peak of glutamine content at 20:00 h. The heavy metal also decreased GABA medium levels around the clock in the mediobasal hypothalamus. However, CdCl(2) did not alter the metabolic correlation between glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and GABA observed in control animals. These results suggest that CdCl(2) induced several alterations in aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, GABA and taurine daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus and those changes may be related to alterations in hypothalamic function.

  9. Expression Pattern of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Celiac Disease Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bottasso Arias, Natalia M.; García, Marina; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Redondo, Agustina; Chopita, Nestor; Córsico, Betina; Chirdo, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs): intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs' expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa. PMID:26346822

  10. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the object; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  11. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  12. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena.

  13. Evolution of proteomes: fundamental signatures and global trends in amino acid compositions

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj; Yeramian, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    Background The evolutionary characterization of species and lifestyles at global levels is nowadays a subject of considerable interest, particularly with the availability of many complete genomes. Are there specific properties associated with lifestyles and phylogenies? What are the underlying evolutionary trends? One of the simplest analyses to address such questions concerns characterization of proteomes at the amino acids composition level. Results In this work, amino acid compositions of a large set of 208 proteomes, with significant number of representatives from the three phylogenetic domains and different lifestyles are analyzed, resorting to an appropriate multidimensional method: Correspondence analysis. The analysis reveals striking discrimination between eukaryotes, prokaryotic mesophiles and hyperthemophiles-themophiles, following amino acid usage. In sharp contrast, no similar discrimination is observed for psychrophiles. The observed distributional properties are compared with various inferred chronologies for the recruitment of amino acids into the genetic code. Such comparisons reveal correlations between the observed segregations of species following amino acid usage, and the separation of amino acids following early or late recruitment. Conclusion A simple description of proteomes according to amino acid compositions reveals striking signatures, with sharp segregations or on the contrary non-discriminations following phylogenies and lifestyles. The distribution of species, following amino acid usage, exhibits a discrimination between [high GC]-[high optimal growth temperatures] and [low GC]-[moderate temperatures] characteristics. This discrimination appears to coincide closely with the separation of amino acids following their inferred early or late recruitment into the genetic code. Taken together the various results provide a consistent picture for the evolution of proteomes, in terms of amino acid usage. PMID:17147802

  14. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  15. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  16. Structures of malonic acid diamide/phospholipid composites and their lipoplexes.

    PubMed

    Janich, Christopher; Taßler, Stephanie; Meister, Annette; Hause, Gerd; Schäfer, Jens; Bakowsky, Udo; Brezesinski, Gerald; Wölk, Christian

    2016-07-06

    As a continuation of previous work, the self-assembly process of cationic lipid formulations in the presence and absence of DNA was investigated with respect to binary lipid mixtures suitable as polynucleotide carrier systems. The lipid blends consist of one malonic-acid-based cationic lipid with a varying alkyl chain pattern, either N-{6-amino-1-[N-(9Z)-octadec-9-enylamino]-1-oxohexan-(2S)-2-yl}-N'-{2-[N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl}-2-hexadecylpropandiamide () or N-[6-amino-1-oxo-1-(N-tetradecylamino)hexan-(2S)-2-yl]-N'-{2-[N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl}-2-hexadecylpropandiamide (), and one neutral co-lipid, either 1,2-di-[(9Z)-octadec-9-enoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPE) or 1,2-di-(hexadecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). Although the cationic lipids exhibit only slight differences in their structure, the DNA transfer efficiency varies drastically. Therefore, self-assembly was studied in 3D systems by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as in 2D systems by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) on Langmuir films. The investigated lipid mixtures show quite different self-assembly in the absence of DNA, with varying structures from vesicles (/DOPE; /DOPE) and tubes (/DOPE) to discoid structures (/DPPC; /DPPC). Twisted ribbons and sheets, which were stabilized due to hydrogen-bond networks, were found in all investigated lipid mixtures in the absence of DNA. The addition of DNA leads to the formation of lamellar lipoplexes for all the investigated lipid compositions. The lipoplexes differ in crucial parameters, such as the lamellar repeat distance and the spacing between the DNA strands, indicating differences in the binding strength between DNA and the lipid composition. The formation of associates with an ideal charge density might emerge as a key parameter for efficient DNA transfer. Furthermore, the structures observed for the different lipid compositions in

  17. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD).

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  20. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-20

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation.

  1. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  2. Amino Acid compositions of 27 food fishes and their importance in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal; Mahanty, Arabinda; Ganguly, Satabdi; Sankar, T V; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N; Akhtar, M S; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K K; Laxmanan, P T; Sharma, A P

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

  3. Fatty acid composition of umbilical arteries and veins: possible implications for the fetal EFA-status.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, G; van Houwelingen, A C; Simonis, M; Gerrard, J M

    1989-06-01

    Fatty acid compositions were determined of phospholipids, isolated from umbilical arteries and veins, obtained from Dutch neonates after vaginal delivery, terminating normal pregnancy. The fatty acid profiles of the cord vessels were characterized by the absence of eicosapentaenoic (timnodonic) acid, a low (2-3%) content of linoleic acid and reasonable amounts of arachidonic acid (10-15%) and docosahexaenoic (cervonic) acid (3-5%). Significant amounts of Mead acid (1-4%) and its direct elongation product (0.5-2%) were also observed. In each cord, the efferent blood vessels contained significantly more Mead acid and other fatty acids of the oleic acid (n-9) family and less fatty acids of the linoleic (n-6) and linolenic (n-3) families than the afferent blood vessel. This indicates that the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of 'downstream' neonatal tissue may be marginal. No signs of EFA-deficiency were observed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture, or in blood vessels from adults. In all cords 22:5(n-6) was significantly higher in the artery compared to the vein, whereas for all other (n-6) fatty acids this difference was negative. Since the synthesis of 22:5(n-6) is known to be stimulated when the required amount of cervonic acid, 22:6(n-3), is too low, our observations also suggest that the cervonic acid status of the neonates investigated was not optimal. Further studies are in progress to relate these findings to maternal EFA status and complications of pregnancy.

  4. Effect of the fatty acid composition of acclimated oenological Lactobacillus plantarum on the resistance to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L; Tymczyszyn, E E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes due to acclimation to ethanol on the fatty acid composition of three oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains and their effect on the resistance to ethanol and malic acid consumption (MAC). Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 133, UNQLp 65.3 and UNQLp 155 were acclimated in the presence of 6 or 10% v/v ethanol, for 48 h at 28°C. Lipids were extracted to obtain fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy. The influence of change in fatty acid composition on the viability and MAC in synthetic wine was analysed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient. Acclimated strains showed a significant change in the fatty composition with regard to the nonacclimated strains. Adaptation to ethanol led to a decrease in the unsaturated/saturated ratio, mainly resulting from an increase in the contribution of short-length fatty acid C12:0 and a decrease of C18:1. The content of C12:0 was related to a higher viability after inoculation of synthetic wine. The MAC increased at higher contents in saturated fatty acid, but its efficiency was strain dependent.

  5. Concentration of Nitric Acid Strongly Influences Chemical Composition of Graphite Oxide.

    PubMed

    Jankovsky, Ondrej; Novacek, Michal; Luxa, Jan; Sedmidubsky, David; Bohacova, Marie; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdenek

    2017-02-28

    Graphite oxide is the most widely used precursor for the synthesis of graphene by top-down methods. We demonstrate a significant influence of nitric acid concentration on the structure and composition of the graphite oxide prepared by graphite oxidation. In general, two main chlorate based oxidation methods are currently used for graphite oxide synthesis, Staudenmaier method dealing with 98 wt.% nitric acid and Hofmann method dealing with 68 wt.% nitric acid. However a gradual change of nitric acid concentration allowed for the continuous change of the graphite oxide composition. The prepared samples were thoroughly characterized by microscopic techniques as well as various spectroscopic and analytical methods. Lowering of nitric acid concentration led to an increase of oxidation degree and in particular to a concentration of epoxy and hydroxyl groups. This knowledge is not only useful for the large scale synthesis of graphite oxide with tunable size and chemical composition, but the use of nitric acid in lower concentration can also significantly reduce the overall cost of the synthesis.

  6. Poly(acrylic acid) brushes pattern as a 3D functional biosensor surface for microchips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Mei; Cui, Yi; Cheng, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Lu-Sheng; Wang, Zhi-You; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhu, Jin-Song

    2013-02-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, a novel three dimensional (3D) precursor layer of biosensor or protein microarrays, possess high protein loading level and low non-specific protein adsorption. In this article, we describe a simple and convenient way to fabricate 3D PAA brushes pattern by microcontact printing (μCP) and characterize it with FT-IR and optical microscopy. The carboxyl groups of PAA brushes can be applied to covalently immobilize protein for immunoassay. Thriving 3D space made by patterning PAA brushes thin film is available to enhance protein immobilization, which is confirmed by measuring model protein interaction between human immunoglobulin G (H-IgG) and goat anti-H-IgG (G-H-IgG) with fluorescence microscopy and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). As expected, the SPRi signals of H-IgG coating on 3D PAA brushes pattern and further measuring specific binding with G-H-IgG are all larger than that of 3D PAA brushes without pattern and 2D bare gold surface. We further revealed that this surface can be used for high-throughput screening and clinical diagnosis by label-free assaying of Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antibody (HBsAb) with Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antigen (HBsAg) concentration array chip. The linearity range for HBsAb assay is wider than that of conventional ELISA method.

  7. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  8. Relationship between membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance of acid and cold stressed Salmonella senftenberg CECT 4384.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the adaptative response to heat (63 degrees C) and the modifications in membrane fatty acid composition of Salmonella senftenberg after its growth in an acidified medium and after its exposure to combinations of acid and cold stresses. Cells were grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.0 and acidified up to pH 4.5 (fresh cultures) and kept at refrigeration temperature (4 degrees C) for 7 days (refrigerated cultures). The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, but combinations of sublethal stresses reduced S. senftenberg heat tolerance, specially when the growth medium pH was decreased. Acid-adapted cells showed D(63)-values ranging from 3.10 to 6.27 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed D(63)-values of 1.07 min. As pH decreased, over the pH range studied (7.4-4.5), D(63)-values of the resulting cells increased. However, refrigerated acid-adapted cells showed lower D(63)-values, which ranged from 0.95 to 0.49 min. A linear relationship between the thermotolerance of S. senftenberg cells and the previous growth medium pH was found in both fresh and refrigerated cultures, which allowed us to predict changes in heat resistance of S. senftenberg that occur at any pH value within the range used in the present study in which most foodstuffs are included. Both acidification of the growth medium and refrigeration storage of cells induced modifications in membrane fatty acid composition, which were clearly linked to their heat resistance. Acid-adapted cells, regardless of the pH value of the growth medium, showed the lowest UFA/SFA ratio and a CFA content 1.5-2-fold higher than that observed for non-acid-adapted cells. On the other hand, the UFA/SFA ratio found for S. senftenberg cells exposed to a cold stress was 1.2-1.8-fold higher than that observed for non-refrigerated cultures. This increase in the UFA/SFA ratio was specially high for acid-adapted cells. The highest

  9. Genetic effects on fatty acid composition of carcass fat of Japanese Black Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Oka, A; Iwaki, F; Dohgo, T; Ohtagaki, S; Noda, M; Shiozaki, T; Endoh, O; Ozaki, M

    2002-04-01

    Two hundred ninety-three Japanese Black Wagyu steers derived from 34 sires were used to investigate genetic effects on the fatty acid composition of carcass fat. All steers were fed identical diets for 365 d and slaughtered at similar ages. If the percentage of genetic contribution of sire A, B, or C was not lower than 25%, steers were classified into groups A, B, and C, respectively. Fatty acid compositions differed depending on deposit sites. Mean percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) tended to be higher in the outer parts than in the inner parts of the body. Percentage of MUFA in carcass fat was negatively correlated with withers height and BW and positively correlated with meat quality score and marbling score. Fatty acid compositions of the 34 sire groups varied, and mean percentages of MUFA in i.m. fat ranged from 47.71 to 54.77%. Steers in the C group grew larger than those in the A or B group. Mean percentages of MUFA for i.m. fat in the A, B, and C groups (52.83, 51.88, and 50.33%, respectively) differed (P < 0.05) from each other. Steers in the C group had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of saturated fatty acids than those in the A or B groups. Percentages of genetic contribution of sires B (P < 0.05) and C (P < 0.001) were negatively correlated with percentage of MUFA in i.m. fat. These results suggested that genetic factors affected fatty acid composition of carcass fat in Japanese Black Wagyu cattle and that some sires had potent genetic factors affecting this composition.

  10. Three-dimensional patterns from the thin-film drying of amino acid solutions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehua; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the dried-in patterns from amino acid solutions which can be in the form of dots or networks. The three-dimensional lattice-gas Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model is applied to simulate the formation of dot-like and network-like particle structures from the evaporating thin films of solutions. A sigmoidal jump in the chemical potential value is implemented to obtain dual-scale structures with the grain size distribution peaking at two distinctive values. The simulated and experimental results are qualitatively comparable. PMID:26039636

  11. Seasonal Patterns in Microbial Community Composition in Denitrifying Bioreactors Treating Subsurface Agricultural Drainage.

    PubMed

    Porter, Matthew D; Andrus, J Malia; Bartolerio, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Luis F; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zilles, Julie L; Kent, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors, consisting of water flow control structures and a woodchip-filled trench, are a promising approach for removing nitrate from agricultural subsurface or tile drainage systems. To better understand the seasonal dynamics and the ecological drivers of the microbial communities responsible for denitrification in these bioreactors, we employed microbial community "fingerprinting" techniques in a time-series examination of three denitrifying bioreactors over 2 years, looking at bacteria, fungi, and the denitrifier functional group responsible for the final step of complete denitrification. Our analysis revealed that microbial community composition responds to depth and seasonal variation in moisture content and inundation of the bioreactor media, as well as temperature. Using a geostatistical analysis approach, we observed recurring temporal patterns in bacterial and denitrifying bacterial community composition in these bioreactors, consistent with annual cycling. The fungal communities were more stable, having longer temporal autocorrelations, and did not show significant annual cycling. These results suggest a recurring seasonal cycle in the denitrifying bioreactor microbial community, likely due to seasonal variation in moisture content.

  12. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  13. Mathematical Characterization of Protein Sequences Using Patterns as Chemical Group Combinations of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Jana, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences. The amino acid sequence of conventional myosin II head domain of 14 family members are taken to illustrate this new approach. We find two blocks of maximum length 6 aa as ‘FPKATD’ and ‘Y/FTNEKL’ without repeating the same chemical nature and one block of maximum length 20 aa with the repetition of chemical nature which are common among all 14 members. We also check commonality with another motor protein sub-family kinesin, KIF1A. Based on our analysis we find a common block of length 8 aa both in myosin II and KIF1A. This motif is located in the neck linker region which could be responsible for the generation of mechanical force, enabling us to find the unique blocks which remain chemically conserved across the family. We also validate our methodology with different protein families such as MYOI, Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Altogether, our studies provide a new methodology for investigating the conserved amino acids’ pattern in different proteins. PMID:27930687

  14. Spatially Modulating Interfacial Properties of Transparent Conductive Oxides: Patterning Work Function with Phosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Knesting, Kristina M.; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; MacLeod, Bradley A.; Marder, Seth R.; Ginger, David S.

    2011-09-29

    The interface between an organic semiconductor and a transparent conducting oxide is crucial to the performance of organic optoelectronics. We use microcontact printing to pattern pentafluorobenzyl phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on indium tin oxide (ITO). We obtain high-fidelity patterns with sharply defined edges and with large work function contrast (comparable to that obtained from phosphonic acid SAMs deposited from solution).

  15. Evaluation of cooling strategies for pumping of milk - impact of fatty acid composition on free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Wiking, Lars; Bertram, Hanne C; Björck, Lennart; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2005-11-01

    Cooling strategies for pumping of raw milk were evaluated. Milk was pumped for 450 s at 31 degrees C, or pumped after cooling to 4 degrees C and subsequently subjected to various incubation times. Two types of milk were used; i.e. milk from cows fed a diet high in saturated fat supplements resulting in significantly larger milk fat globules than the other type of milk which comes from cows fed a low-fat diet that stimulates high de novo fat synthesis. The content of liquid fat was determined by low-field 1H NMR, which showed that milk from cows given the saturated fat diet also contained less liquid fat at both 4 degrees and 31 degrees C than the other type of milk. This can be ascribed to the differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk as a result of the fatty acid composition of the diets. After pumping of the milk at 31 degrees C, measurement of fat globule size distribution revealed a significant coalescence of milk fat globules in the milk obtained from the saturated fat diet due to pumping. Pumping at 4 degrees C or pumping the other type of milk did not result in coalescence of milk fat globules. Formation of free fatty acids increased significantly in both types of milk by pumping at 31 degrees C. Cooling the milk to 4 degrees C immediately before pumping inhibited an increased content of free fatty acids. However, when the milk was incubated at 4 degrees C for 60 min after cooling and then subjected to pumping, a significant increase in the formation of free fatty acids was observed in both types of milk. It is suggested that this increase in free fatty acids is caused by transition of polymorphic crystal forms or higher level of attached lipoprotein lipases to the milk fat globule before pumping.

  16. Contrasting patterns of fine-scale herb layer species composition in temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudomelová, Markéta; Zelený, David; Li, Ching-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Although being well described at the landscape level, patterns in species composition of forest herb layer are rarely studied at smaller scales. Here, we examined fine-scale environmental determinants and spatial structures of herb layer communities in thermophilous oak- and hornbeam dominated forests of the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Species composition of herb layer vegetation and environmental variables were recorded within a fixed grid of 2 × 2 m subplots regularly distributed within 1-ha quadrate plots in three forest stands. For each site, environmental models best explaining species composition were constructed using constrained ordination analysis. Spatial eigenvector mapping was used to model and account for spatial structures in community variation. Mean Ellenberg indicator values calculated for each subplot were used for ecological interpretation of spatially structured residual variation. The amount of variation explained by environmental and spatial models as well as the selection of variables with the best explanatory power differed among sites. As an important environmental factor, relative elevation was common to all three sites, while pH and canopy openness were shared by two sites. Both environmental and community variation was mostly coarse-scaled, as was the spatially structured portion of residual variation. When corrected for bias due to spatial autocorrelation, those environmental factors with already weak explanatory power lost their significance. Only a weak evidence of possibly omitted environmental predictor was found for autocorrelated residuals of site models using mean Ellenberg indicator values. Community structure was determined by different factors at different sites. The relative importance of environmental filtering vs. spatial processes was also site specific, implying that results of fine-scale studies tend to be shaped by local conditions. Contrary to expectations based on other studies, overall dominance of

  17. Real-valued composite filters for correlation-based optical pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, P. K.; Balendra, Anushia

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the technology of optical devices such as spatial light modulators (SLMs) have influenced the research and growth of optical pattern recognition. In the research leading to this report, the design of real-valued composite filters that can be implemented using currently available SLMs for optical pattern recognition and classification was investigated. The design of real-valued minimum average correlation energy (RMACE) filter was investigated. Proper selection of the phase of the output response was shown to reduce the correlation energy. The performance of the filter was evaluated using computer simulations and compared with the complex filters. It was found that the performance degraded only slightly. Continuing the above investigation, the design of a real filter that minimizes the output correlation energy and the output variance due to noise was developed. Simulation studies showed that this filter had better tolerance to distortion and noise compared to that of the RMACE filter. Finally, the space domain design of RMACE filter was developed and implemented on the computer. It was found that the sharpness of the correlation peak was slightly reduced but the filter design was more computationally efficient than the complex filter.

  18. Element partitioning and thermal-compositional patterns in coexisting muscovites and biotites, Black Hills, SD

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.S.; Feldman, S.G.; Wehn, D.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two elements in 50 coexisting muscovites and biotites from pelitic schists of the southern Black Hills have been analyzed by ICP spectrometry. Most elements exhibit highly systematic partitioning between the micas over a wide range of composition. Sillimanite-zone micas are typically enriched in K, Ti, and Li but depleted in Na relative to those from the staurolite zone. Also, sillimanite-zone biotites are relatively depleted in Mg/(Fe+Mg), but enriched in Mn, relative to those of the staurolite zone. Preliminary verification of the muscovite-biotite thermometer (calibration of Hoish (1989)) is indicated from a regional thermal pattern that is strikingly similar to that obtained by Friberg et al. (in prep.) using garnet (rim) - biotite thermometry. The lowest K/(Na+K)[sup mus], X[sub Li] (bio), mica temperatures, and highest X[sub Mg](bio) in the region are observed in staurolite-zone schists between the Grand Junction and Hill City Faults. These regional patterns correlate with: (1) mapped gravity lows (subsurface granitic plutons ), (2) mapped pegmatite density, and (3) proximity to the main mass of Harney Peak Granite. As such, pelitic micas appear to record the T-X signatures of vertically( )-flowing alkali metasomatic fluids that variably overprinted low- to medium-grade regional-metamorphic assemblages during emplacement of the Harney Peak granite-pegmatite complex. The area between the Grand Junction and Hill City faults appears least affected by the metasomatic activity associated with this magmatic event.

  19. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition in the northern South China Sea during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hongchang; Ning, Xiuren; Tang, Xuexi; Hao, Qiang; Le, Fengfeng; Qiao, Jing

    2011-03-01

    Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition were investigated in the northern South China Sea using high-performance liquid chromatography and the CHEMTAX software from February 11 to 23, 2009. We recognized four different vertical distribution patterns of pigments: chlorophyll a (Chi a)-like type, divinyl chlorophyll a (DV Chi a) type, even distribution type, and surface type. The average value of ratios of accessory photo-protective pigments (APP) to accessory photo-synthetic pigments was 0.89±0.63 in the upper 50 m and 0.16±0.06 below 50 m depth. With increasing depth, APP decreased and photo-synthetically active radiation was attenuated. There was an obvious succession in the phytoplankton community from inshore to the open sea. Diatoms were dominant in the inshore region, while pelagophytes, Prochlorococcus, cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes were dominant in the open sea. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton also differed greatly from inshore to the open sea. In the coastal and shelf region, diatoms were important components in the whole water column. Cyanobacteria also had a high abundance at the Subsurface Chlorophyll a Maxima (SCM) in the shelf region. In the slope and open sea, Prochlorococcus and cyanobacteria were important groups above the SCM, while pelagophytes dominated below the SCM.

  20. Species composition and distribution patterns of fishes captured by longlines on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossen, I.; Cotton, C. F.; Bergstad, O. A.; Dyb, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    During the 2004 MAR-ECO expedition to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the M/S Loran deployed longlines and caught a total of 8518 fish, representing 40 species and 17 families. The 59 longline sets were distributed across the ridge axis at depths ranging from 400 to 4300 m within two sub-areas, i.e. just north of the Azores archipelago and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ). Overall, chondrichthyans dominated the catches and contributed nearly 60% in terms of both weight and numbers. This was mainly due to the dominance of Etmopterus princeps in both sub-areas. Multidimensional scaling using species-by-station data indicated an assemblage distribution related primarily to factors varying by depth and latitude. Grouping patterns of stations were not very pronounced, suggesting a gradual spatial change rather than abrupt changes in species composition by depth or latitude. Catch rates peaked at the shallower stations in the CGFZ sub-area, and generally decreased with depth. Relatively large individuals dominated, and the overall mean weight was 2.4 kg. Average fish weight was lower in the CGFZ sub-area than in the southern sub-area. No depth-related pattern was found.

  1. Spatial patterns in the oxygen isotope composition of daily rainfall in the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Jonathan J.; Jones, Matthew; Arrowsmith, Carol; Allott, Tim; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the modern day relationship between climate and the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18OP) is crucial for obtaining rigorous palaeoclimate reconstructions from a variety of archives. To date, the majority of empirical studies into the meteorological controls over δ18OP rely upon daily, event scale, or monthly time series from individual locations, resulting in uncertainties concerning the representativeness of statistical models and the mechanisms behind those relationships. Here, we take an alternative approach by analysing daily patterns in δ18OP from multiple stations across the British Isles ( n = 10-70 stations). We use these data to examine the spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of regression statistics between δ18OP and common predictors (temperature, precipitation amount and the North Atlantic Oscillation index; NAO). Temperature and NAO are poor predictors of daily δ18OP in the British Isles, exhibiting weak and/or inconsistent effects both spatially and between seasons. By contrast δ18OP and rainfall amount consistently correlate at most locations, and for all months analysed, with spatial and temporal variability in the regression coefficients. The maps also allow comparison with daily synoptic weather types, and suggest characteristic δ18OP patterns, particularly associated with Cylonic Lamb Weather Types. Mapping daily δ18OP across the British Isles therefore provides a more coherent picture of the patterns in δ18OP, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the climatic controls. These observations are another step forward towards developing a more detailed, mechanistic framework for interpreting stable isotopes in rainfall as a palaeoclimate and hydrological tracer.

  2. Is the fatty acid composition of freshwater zoobenthic invertebrates controlled by phylogenetic or trophic factors?

    PubMed

    Makhutova, Olesia N; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Gladyshev, Michail I; Ageev, Alexander V; Pryanichnikova, Ekaterina G; Kalachova, Galina S

    2011-08-01

    We studied the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of ten zoobenthic species of several taxonomic groups from different freshwater bodies. Special attention was paid to essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6); and the n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios, which are important for consumers of higher trophic levels, i.e., fish. The content and ratios of these FA varied significantly in the studied zoobenthic species, consequently, the invertebrates were of different nutritional quality for fish. Eulimnogammarus viridis (Crustacea) and Dendrocoelopsis sp. (Turbellaria) had the highest nutrition value for fish concerning the content of EPA and DHA and n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios. Using canonical correspondence analysis we compared the FA profiles of species of the studied taxa taking into account their feeding strategies and habitats. We gained evidence that feeding strategy is of importance to determine fatty acid profiles of zoobenthic species. However, the phylogenetic position of the zoobenthic species is also responsible and may result in a similar fatty acid composition even if species or populations inhabit different water bodies or have different feeding strategies.

  3. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-09

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon.

  4. Variations in fatty acid composition of neem seeds collected from the Rajasthan state of India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Vir, S

    2000-12-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a multipurpose tree native to the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asian countries. Products derived from neem have been used for centuries, particularly in India, for medicinal and pest-management purposes. Azadirachtin and neem oil are the two major commercially important products derived from the tree. The oil contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in good proportion. Although there is growing demand for quality planting material for plantation of neem, efforts are lacking for the selection of neem trees based on their biochemical composition. In the present study, 60 Neem seed samples were collected from different provinances of the Rajasthan state in India. These samples were analysed by GLC to study the variability of fatty acid composition. Significant variability in individual fatty acids was observed. The palmitic acid ranged from 16 to 34%, stearic acid from 6 to 24%, oleic acid from 25 to 58% and linoleic acid from 6 to 17%. This variability can be exploited for selection of trees and for studying the genetic variability in neem. These selections can also be utilized for genetic improvement of the tree.

  5. Gallstone formation in guinea pigs under different dietary conditions. Effect of vitamin C on bile acid pattern.

    PubMed

    Bergman, F; Curstedt, T; Eriksson, H; van der Linden, W; Sjövall, J

    1981-04-01

    Guinea pigs formed gallstones when fed chow supplemented with cholesterol and cholic acid. Although the stones contained little or no cholesterol the changes in biliary bile acid and lipid composition were similar to those observed in other rodents under conditions of cholesterol gallstone formation. Addition of cholestyramine to chow had a midly lithogenic effect. Hypovitaminosis C in animals given cholesterol and cholic acid resulted in an increase of the cholesterol content of the gallstones. The composition of biliary bile acids was markedly changed. Reductive formation of deoxycholic acid decreased and oxidative formation of ketonic bile acid increased. The results show that vitamin C may influence the redox state of the intestinal microorganisms microorganisms responsible for these conversions.

  6. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  7. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  8. Gasoline compositions containing reaction products of fatty acid esters and amines as carburetor detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicht, R.C.; Herbstman, S.; Levin, M.D.; Sung, R.L.

    1988-03-08

    A motor fuel composition is described comprising (a) a major portion of a fuel consisting essentially of a hydrocarbon boiling in the gasoline boiling range; and (b) a minor effective amount of, as detergent additive, a reaction product of C/sub 6/-C/sub 20/ fatty acid and a mono- or di-(hydroxy hydrocarbyl) amine.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  10. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osage orange wood(OO)was combined with poly(lactic acid)(PLA)to form a polymer composite intended for use as an agricultural mulch film. The PLA-OO mechanical properties were comparable to existing mulch film products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing ...

  11. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  12. Pseudo and true visible light photocatalytic activity of nanotube titanic acid/graphene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Min; Li, Qiuye; Yu, Laigui; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-09-01

    Nanotube titanic acid/graphene (NTA/Gr) composites were prepared by an easy hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) and NTA in a mixed solvent of ethanol-water. As-prepared NTA/Gr composites and GO were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, diffuse-reflection spectrometry, thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Besides, the photocatalytic activities of as-prepared NTA/Gr composites were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It has been found that extending hydrothermal reaction time (24 h instead of 3 h) leads to great changes in the morphology and crystal structure of as-prepared composites. Namely, the orthorhombic NTA (ca. 10 nm in diameter) in the composite transformed to anatase TiO2 particle (ca. 20-30 nm in diameter) while the Gr sheets (with micrometers-long wrinkles) in it transformed to a few Gr fragments (ca. 50 nm in diameter). Correspondingly, the NTA/Gr composite transformed to titanium dioxide/graphene (TiO2/Gr) composite. In the meantime, pure GO only has adsorption effect but it has no photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. Nevertheless, increasing Gr ratio results in enhanced visible light absorption capability and photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO2/Gr composites. This demonstrates that the true visible light photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO2/Gr composites for the degradation of MO is not as excellent as expected, and their high apparent activity is attributed to the strong adsorption of MO on the composites.

  13. A protein delivery system: biodegradable alginate-chitosan-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Hong; Gao, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Ye-Ping; Liang, Wen-Quan

    2004-10-29

    In the present study we developed alginate-chitosan-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite microspheres to elevate protein entrapment efficiency and decrease its burst release. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which used as the model protein, was entrapped into the alginate microcapsules by a modified emulsification method in an isopropyl alcohol-washed way. The rapid drug releases were sustained by chitosan coating. To obtain the desired release properties, the alginate-chitosan microcapsules were further incorporated in the PLGA to form the composite microspheres. The average diameter of the composite microcapsules was 31+/-9microm and the encapsulation efficiency was 81-87%, while that of conventional PLGA microspheres was just 61-65%. Furthermore, the burst releases at 1h of BSA entrapped in composite microspheres which containing PLGA (50:50) and PLGA (70:30) decreased to 24% and 8% in PBS, and further decreased to 5% and 2% in saline. On the contrary, the burst releases of conventional PLGA microspheres were 48% and 52% in PBS, respectively. Moreover, the release profiles could be manipulated by regulating the ratios of poly(lactic acid) to poly(glycolic acid) in the composite microspheres.

  14. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  15. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  16. Responses in growth, lipid accumulation, and fatty acid composition of four oleaginous microalgae to different nitrogen sources and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is an effective strategy for enhancing lipid production in microalgae. Close relationships exist among lipid production, microalgal species, and nitrogen sources. We report growth, lipid accumulation, and fatty acid composition in four microalgae ( Chlorococcum ellipsoideum UTEX972, Chlorococcum nivale LB2225, Chlorococcum tatrense UTEX2227, and Scenedesmus deserticola JNU19) under nitrate- and urea-nitrogen deficiencies. We found three patterns of response to nitrogen deficiency: Type-A (decrease in biomass and increase in lipid content), Type-B (reduction in both biomass and lipid content), and Type-C (enhancement of both biomass and lipid content). Type-C microalgae are potential candidates for large-scale oil production. Chlorococcum ellipsoideum, for example, exhibited a neutral lipid production of up to 239.6 mg/(L·d) under urea-nitrogen deficiency. In addition, nitrogen deficiency showed only a slight influence on lipid fractions and fatty acid composition. Our study provides useful information for further screening hyper-lipid microalgal strains for biofuel production.

  17. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  18. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  19. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents, in particular 18:1n-9. Conversely, carnivorous fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the lowest MUFA contents. Omnivorous fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

  20. The Regional Patterns of Chemical Composition in the Otolith Core of Larval Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M. Y.; Geffen, A. J.; Nash, R. D. M.; Clemmesen, C.

    2012-04-01

    The elemental composition of fish otoliths can record the environmental information because once a trace element is deposited in the otolith; it presents a permanent record of the environmental conditions experienced by the fish at a particular time. The elemental signature of the otolith nucleus, the area lying within the first annual growth ring, is likely to be characteristic of the nursery areas of the species, and could be used as biological tracer for tracking origin and dispersal. However, ocean acidification may alter otolith growth and element incorporation, and it is important to establish baseline information about the sources of variation - both biotic and abiotic. The objectives of this study, as part of the wider CalMarO network, is to examine the regional differences in the otolith cores of selected fish species, contrast these differences with those measured between these same species in areas where their larvae co-exist and to find out the maternal effect to the chemical composition during the first forming of otoliths. The laboratory and field experiments were included to produce otolith material reflecting the maternal and regional patterns. Otolith composition was measured using laser-ablation ICPMS. For clarifying the regional patterns, juveniles from six locations and seven spawning groups along the west of the British Isles and larvae from the North Sea were sampled to distinguish the origin of spawning herring. There are three main nursery-ground groups, the Irish Sea, Scottish sea lochs and the Minch, contributing to the spawning herring in the west of the British Isles according to the otolith elemental composition data. However, the spawning origin of the North Sea herring larvae was still unclear. The otolith concentrations of Li, Na, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ru and Sr were significantly different among nursery-ground populations. Together with length-at-age data, at least two nursery-ground groups contributed to each spawning population. The

  1. Molecular size and amino acid composition of H-2d antigen solubilized in Nonidet P-40.

    PubMed

    Rossowski, W; Kloczewiak, M; Radzikowski, C; Strzadala, L

    1976-01-01

    H-2d antigenic material solubilized by the detergent Nonidet P-40 from L-1210 mouse leukemia cells was isolated by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-100. A single peak eluted in the void volume consisted of about 90% protein, 8% hexose and traces of sialic acids. In sedimentation velocity runs, the antigen sedimented as a single peak of 3-1 S. Molecular weight determined by sedimentation equilibrium as well as calculated from amino acid composition was found to be in the range of 53,000 daltons and approx. 45,000-51,000 when calculated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Secondary structure of H-2d glycoprotein was predicted from the amino acid composition. For NP-40-solubilized H-2d antigen, about 34% of helix, 13% beta sheet and 41% turns was found.

  2. Prediction of retention times of proteins in hydrophobic interaction chromatography using only their amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Salgado, J Cristian; Rapaport, Ivan; Asenjo, Juan A

    2005-12-09

    This paper focuses on the prediction of the dimensionless retention time of proteins (DRT) in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) by means of mathematical models based, essentially, only on aminoacidic composition. The results show that such prediction is indeed possible. Our main contribution was the design of models that predict the DRT using the minimal information concerning a protein: its aminoacidic composition. The performance is similar to that observed in models that use much more sophisticated information such as the three-dimensional structure of proteins. Three models that, in addition to the amino acid composition, use different assumptions about the amino acids tendency to be exposed to the solvent, were evaluated in 12 proteins with known experimental DRT. In all the cases analyzed, the model that obtained the best results was the one based on a linear estimation of the aminoacidic surface composition. The models were adjusted using a collection of 74 vectors of aminoacidic properties plus a set of 6388 vectors derived from these using two mathematical tools: k-means and self-organizing maps (SOM) algorithms. The best vector was generated by the SOM algorithm and was interpreted as a hydrophobicity scale based partly on the tendency of the amino acids to be hidden in proteins. The prediction error (MSE(JK)) obtained by this model was almost 35% smaller than that obtained by the model that supposes that all the amino acids are completely exposed and 40% smaller than that obtained by the model that uses a simple correction factor considering the general tendency of each amino acid to be exposed to the solvent. In fact, the performance of the best model based on the aminoacidic composition was 5% better than that observed in the model based on the three-dimensional structure of proteins.

  3. Patterns of nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes recovering from acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    With decreases in acid deposition, nitrogen : phosphorus (N:P) ratios in lakes are anticipated to decline, decreasing P limitation of phytoplankton and potentially changing current food web dynamics. This effect could be particularly pronounced in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a historic hotspot for effects of acid deposition. In this study, we evaluate spatial patterns of nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes and use these to infer potential future temporal trends. We calculated Mann-Kendall tau correlations among total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and nitrate (NO3(-) ) concentrations in 52 Adirondack Long Term Monitoring (ALTM) program lakes using samples collected monthly during 2008-2012. We evaluated the hypothesis that decreased atmospheric N and S deposition will decrease P limitation in freshwater ecosystems historically impacted by acidification. We also compared these patterns among lake watershed characteristics (i.e., seepage or lacking a surface outlet, chain drainage, headwater drainage, thin glacial till, medium glacial till). We found that correlations (P < 0.05) were highly dependent upon the different hydrologic flowpaths of seepage vs. drainage lakes. Differentiations among watershed till depth were also important in determining correlations due to water interaction with surficial geology. Additionally, we found low NO3(-) :TP (N:P mass) values in seepage lakes (2.0 in winter, 1.9 in summer) compared to chain drainage lakes (169.4 in winter, 49.5 in summer) and headwater drainage lakes (97.0 in winter, 10.9 in summer), implying a high likelihood of future shifts in limitation patterns for seepage lakes. With increasing DOC and decreasing NO3(-) concentrations coinciding with decreases in acid deposition, there is reason to expect changes in nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes. Seepage lakes may become N-limited, while drainage lakes may become less P

  4. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

  5. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  6. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity.

  7. Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and phytosterol composition in six Tunisian olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Haddada, Faouzia M; Manaï, Hédia; Oueslati, Imen; Daoud, Douja; Sánchez, Jacinto; Osorio, Emilio; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2007-12-26

    The physicochemical and stability properties as well as the fatty acid, triacylglycerol, sterol, and triterpenic dialcohol compositions of Tunisian olive oil varieties were analyzed. On the basis of our results, we classified all of the monovarietal oils into the extra virgin category. Oleic and linoleic acids were the most useful fatty acids to discriminate three cultivars, Neb Jmel, Chétoui, and Ain Jarboua, from the others. Of the six monovarietal virgin olive oils analyzed, the main triacylglycerols were OOO, POO, PLO plus SLL, and OLO, which was expected given the high oleic acid and low linoleic and linolenic acids content observed in total fatty acids. In total, these accounted for more than 80% of the total HPLC chromatogram peak area. The main sterols found were beta-sitosterol, Delta5-avenasterol, and campesterol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between oil samples, and the obtained results showed a great variability in the oil composition between cultivars, which is influenced exclusively by genetic factors.

  8. Fatty acid composition of symbiotic zooxanthellae in relation to their hosts.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D G; Kenrick, J R

    1980-10-01

    Gymnodinoid dinoflagellate symbionts, commonly referred to as zooxanthellae, are widely distributed among marine invertebrates. It has been assumed that they represent only one species,Gymnodinium microadriaticum. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and galactolipids of zooxanthellae isolated from 8 species of corals, 3 species of clams and a foraminiferan have been analyzed and found to vary according to the host. For example, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in clam zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol was less than 2%, whereas in the same lipid from coral zooxanthellae, the content ranged from 9 to 22%. Corresponding values for the acid in digalactosyl-diacylglycerol were 1-8% from clam zooxanthellae and 23-40% from coral zooxanthellae. Coral zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol contain higher levels of octadecatetraenoic acid than are found in digalactosyldiacylglycerol, whereas the reverse is true in clam zooxanthellae. The fatty acid composition of the lipids of an axenic culture of zooxanthellae isolated from the clamTridacna maxima are similar to those of cells freshly isolated from the host. The results suggest either that the host is capable of affecting the fatty acid metabolism of the symbiont or that different strains of zooxanthellae occur in corals and clams.

  9. Cellular fatty acid compositions and isoprenoid quinone contents of 23 Legionella species.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, M A; Moss, C W

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions and ubiquinone contents of 182 Legionella strains representing 23 species were determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Except for the type strain of Legionella erythra (ATCC 35303T), all Legionella species contained large (40 to 90%) amounts of branched-chain fatty acids and only trace to small (less than 0.5 to 5%) amounts of ester-linked hydroxy acids. The 23 species were placed in three major fatty acid groups on the basis of differences in the relative amounts of 14-methylpentadecanoic (Ci16:0), hexadecanoic (C16:1), and 12-methyltetradecanoic (Ca15:0) acids. All Legionella species contained ubiquinones with 9 to 14 isoprene units in the side chains and were divided into five different ubiquinone groups. The species were further differentiated into 16 groups on the basis of qualitative and quantitative differences in their fatty acid compositions and ubiquinone contents. Both of these chemical characteristics can be used to distinguish Legionella species from other gram-negative bacteria and rapidly and accurately identify suspected isolates before serologic and other tests are done. PMID:2715320

  10. Fatty acid composition of 12 fish species from the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Huang, L-T C; Bülbül, U; Wen, P-C; Glew, R H; Ayaz, F A

    2012-05-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are healthful to humans, particularly in promoting growth and cognitive development in infants and young children, and in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Though the populations who inhabit the Trabzon province of Turkey include seafood from the Black Sea in their diet, knowledge of the fatty acid composition and content of these fish is scant. Fatty acid analysis was performed on freeze-dried muscle tissue of 12 species of fish purchased in markets in Trabzon. The fat content varied from 0.2% (garfish) to 12% (shad) of dry weight. The highest DHA and DHA plus EPA contents were found in horse mackerel 16.1 and 20.6 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Only in sea bass and sea bream did the essential fatty acid linoleic acid account for more than 10% of the fatty acid total. For all 12 species, arachidonic acid accounted for 0.09% to 7.64% of the fatty acid total. Oleic acid varied greatly from 0.14% (garfish) to 32.7% (shad). The omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio ranged from 0.8 to 25. A 100 g serving of fresh horse mackerel would contribute 586 mg of DHA to the diet, which exceeds the recommended daily intake of 200 to 300 mg of DHA for pregnant and lactating women. These data indicate that some, but not all, of the 12 fish species from the Black Sea fish we studied could contribute significantly to satisfy the DHA and EPA needs of the inhabitants of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

  11. Patterns of racemization and epimerization of amino acids in land snail shells over the course of the Holocene

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfriend, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The patterns of racemization of six amino acids and of epimerization of isoleucine over the course of the Holocene were studied in a series of 38 radiocarbon-dated samples of the land snail Trochoidea seetzeni from the Negev Desert in southern Israel. The D/L ratios of each of the amino acids show a strong correlation with age (r = 0.84-0.94) and thus good age predictive ability. The patterns in faster-racemizing amino acids do not conform to first-order kinetics. Transformation to parabolic kinetics linearizes these faster-racemizing amino acids, except for aspartic acid (which shows a very high initial rate of racemization). After transformation, each amino acid shows an equally good correlation with age (r = 0.91-0.93). The D/L ratios of the various amino acids covary very strongly, even after the covariation due to sample age is removed from the data set. Thus, analysis of more than one amino acid provides largely redundant information on sample age. Nevertheless, because of differences in racemization rates, some amino acids provide better time resolution in different time ranges - aspartic acid is especially useful for very young samples, and glutamic acid and isoleucine for older samples. Neither the depth of burial of the samples nor the burial mode appears to affect the rate of racemization or epimerization.

  12. Peculiar patterns of amino acid substitution and conservation in the fast evolving tunicate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Berná, Luisa; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the patterns and rates of amino acid evolution in tunicates with special interest on the extremely fast evolving Oikopleura dioica. We show that this species, on average, is twice as fast as the already fast evolving Ciona intestinalis. The acceleration in both species seems to be affected by similar evolutionary forces yet to different extent, since a substantial proportion of the most and less accelerated genes are orthologous between the two species. Among the possible causes that underlie the genome wide acceleration in Oikopleura, relaxation of functional constraints appears to be an important one, since all amino acids exhibit surprisingly homogenous levels of divergence. Such homogeneity, however, is not observed in Ciona. Apart from the genome wide acceleration, detailed analysis of functional groups of genes revealed that genes associated with regulatory functions (transcription regulators, chromatin remodeling proteins and metabolic regulators), have been subjected to an even more extreme process of acceleration, suggesting that adaptive evolution is the most probable cause of their unusual exacerbated rates. Another remarkable observation is that cysteine is among the less conserved amino acids, contrary to what is commonly observed in other species. The possible causes of this particular behavior are discussed.

  13. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability.

  14. Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties.

    PubMed

    Ramos, María Jesús; Fernández, Carmen María; Casas, Abraham; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Pérez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil weight; molar ratio methanol/oil, 6/1; reaction temperature, 60 degrees C). Biodiesel quality was tested according to the standard [UNE-EN 14214, 2003. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods]. Some critical parameters like oxidation stability, cetane number, iodine value and cold filter plugging point were correlated with the methyl ester composition of each biodiesel, according to two parameters: degree of unsaturation and long chain saturated factor. Finally, a triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.

  15. Electrochemical performance of electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu2+ composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ying; Li, Fangfei; Hanlon, Ashley M.; Berda, Erik B.; Liu, Xincai; Wang, Ce; Chao, Danming

    2017-01-01

    Electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu2+ (EPAA-Cu) composites on substrates were successfully prepared via nucleophilic polycondensation followed by the use of an immersing method. Analysis of the structure properties of EPAA-Cu composites was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR). A significant current enhancement phenomenon of EPAA-Cu/ITO electrodes was found as evident from cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. In addition, Cu2+ ions were incorporated into the composites and had a positive effect on their electrochromic behaviors decreasing their switching times. The anticorrosive performance of EPAA-Cu composites coatings on the carbon steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution were also investigated in detail using tafel plots analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anticorrosive ability of these coatings significantly enhanced through the incorporation of Cu2+ ions.

  16. New matrix polymers for photo-activated resin composites using di-alpha-fluoroacrylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Shigeaki; Yamazaki, Noboru

    2008-07-01

    A novel matrix resin for photo-activated resin composites was developed using alpha-fluoroacrylic acid derivatives. To render resin composites with improved mechanical properties, silica fillers were also used. It was found that the newly developed fluorine-substituted monomer was polymerized quite easily not only by free radical chemical initiators, but also by photoirradiation using free radical photoinitiator system. In particular, the photopolymerization rate of the novel monomer was more than two times faster than that of corresponding methacrylate-based monomer. Composite based on the newly developed matrix resin had higher micro-Vickers hardness and compressive strength values than the methacrylate-based composite, and that it contained only trace residual monomers compared with the methacrylate-based material. The high polymerization conversion of the fluorine-substituted monomer could be attributed to the polar effect or the small steric hindrance of fluorine at the alpha-position.

  17. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  18. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF THE BLOOD PLASMA OF RABBIT UNDER ARGININE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Hopanenko, O O; Rivis, J F

    2015-01-01

    The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol is normalized and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil.

  19. The Environment, Not Space, Dominantly Structures the Landscape Patterns of the Richness and Composition of the Tropical Understory Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue-Hua; Sheng, Da-Yong; Xiang, Yang-Zhou; Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Zhang, Ning-Nan; Shi, Lei-Lei

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms driving the spatial patterns of species richness and composition are essential to the understanding of biodiversity. Numerous studies separately identify the contributions of the environment (niche process) and space (neutral process) to the species richness or composition at different scales, but few studies have investigated the contributions of both types of processes in the two types of data at the landscape scale. In this study, we partitioned the spatial variations in all, exotic and native understory plant species richness and composition constrained by environmental variables and space in 134 plots that were spread across 10 counties in Hainan Island in southern China. The 134 plots included 70 rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation plots, 50 eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) plantation plots, and 14 secondary forest plots. RDA based variation partitioning was run to assess the contribution of environment and space to species richness and composition. The results showed that the environmental variables alone explained a large proportion of the variations in both the species richness and composition of all, native, and exotic species. The RDA results indicated that overstory composition (forest type here) plays a leading role in determining species richness and composition patterns. The alpha and beta diversities of the secondary forest plots were markedly higher than that of the two plantations. In conclusion, niche differentiation processes are the principal mechanisms that shape the alpha and beta diversities of understory plant species in Hainan Island. PMID:24278417

  20. Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Hedges, John I.

    2000-08-01

    Compositions and fluxes of amino acids and major chloropigments were measured in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean as part of the US JGOFS EqPac program. Fluxes decreased by several orders of magnitude, from 400 to 0.03 mg amino acid m -2 d -1 and from 9 mg to 0.0004 μg chloropigment m -2 d -1, between production in the surface waters and accumulation at the sea floor. Most rapid losses were in surface waters and at the sediment interface. Losses from the mid-water column were as great as those in surface waters or at the sediment interface, but occurred over a much greater depth range. Export flux estimates based on floating sediment traps were higher near the equator and decreased poleward, similar to primary production. Little meridional difference was apparent in composition of either amino acids or pigments in exported material over the 24° of latitude sampled in spite of the large (factor of 5-6) difference in fluxes. However, pigment composition changed dramatically with depth in the water column, and considerable diagenesis occurred before particles reached the sediment. Pigment compositions suggest that suspended particles were more degraded in the northern than in the southern hemisphere, possibly due to differences in food chain structure. Compositional changes in amino acids occurred in the water column, but were most noticeable at the sediment-seawater interface. Increases in the relative proportions of aspartic acid and glycine with depth were more consistent with preferential preservation within the particulate matrix than with any inherent stability of these compounds to heterotrophic consumption. The contribution of amino acids and pigments to total organic carbon clearly shows that selective degradation of organic matter occurs with depth; this is not evident from total organic carbon data alone. Amino acids contributed about a quarter of the total organic carbon (OC) in surface waters and 16% of the OC in sediment; pigments decreased from 1

  1. Species composition of skates (Rajidae) in commercial fisheries around the British Isles and their discarding patterns.

    PubMed

    Silva, J F; Ellis, J R; Catchpole, T L

    2012-04-01

    Recent regulations have required European nations to report commercial landings of Rajidae (skates) to species level since 2008. Morphological similarities between some species, variability in colouration and regional differences in common names may compromise the accuracy of some of these data. An increased proportion of rajid landings reported by the U.K. (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) are now reported to species level (42% in 2008, rising to 92% in 2010). Recent landings (2007-2010) of Rajidae by the U.K. indicated that the majority of reported landings were made by otter trawl (55·9%), tangle and gillnet (18·7%) and beam trawl (15·5%). Approximately 70% of recent landings originated from four ICES Divisions: the Irish Sea (VIIa), western English Channel (VIIe), Bristol Channel (VIIf) and southern North Sea (IVc). Recent species-specific landings of Rajidae are appraised in terms of the species reported and the overall composition, and potential problems identified. Data from observer trips have been used to estimate the species composition of Rajidae taken in some of the main commercial fisheries operating around the British Isles, and these data are compared to landings. Although there was typically broad agreement between these data sets in terms of the main species landed, misidentification issues were apparent and Rajidae with highly patchy distributions may be under-represented in observer data. Data from observer trips were also used to examine the discard and retention pattern. Most rajid species were first retained from total lengths, L(T) , of 27-34 cm, with 50% retention occurring at between 49 and 51 cm and near-full retention at L(T) of 60-67 cm. Beam trawls captured a higher proportion of smaller individuals, whilst gillnets (>150 mm mesh size) caught proportionally more larger rajids.

  2. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  3. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-02

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs.

  4. Amino acid composition of Lagenaria siceraria seed flour and protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Ogunbusola, Moriyike Esther; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin Faramade

    2010-12-01

    Defatted seed flours of Lagenaria siceraria (calabash and bottle gourd) were fractionated into their major protein fractions. The amino acid composition of seed flours and their protein fractions were determined and the protein quality was evaluated. Glutamic acid (139-168 mg/g protein) was the most abundant amino acid followed by aspartic acid (89.0-116 mg/g protein) in both the seed flours and their protein fractions. The total essential amino acid ranged from 45.8 to 51.5%. The predicted protein efficiency ratio and the predicted biological value ranged from 2.4 to 2.9 and 8.7 to 44.0, respectively. Lysine and sulphur amino acids were mostly concentrated in the globulin fractions. The first and second limiting amino acids in seed flours and protein fractions were methionine and valine or threonine. The seed flours contained adequate essential amino acids required by growing school children and adults. The seed has potential as protein supplement in cereal based complementary diets or in the replacement of animal proteins in conventional foods.

  5. Amino acid composition and crude protein values of some Cyanobacteria from Çanakkale (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgül, Rıza; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Akgül, Füsun; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) form an important component of integrated nutrient managements in agriculture and are exploited in commercial biotechnological ventures. In this study, Rivularia bullata (Poir) Berkeley ex Bornet & Flahault, Nostocs pongiaeforme C. Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault were researched for their amino acid composition and crude protein values. R. bullata was collected from coastal zones of the Gulf of Saros and N. spongiaeforme from the Ayazma Stream. The levels of amino acids were measured in algae samples using EZ: fast kits (EZ: fast GC/FID Protein Hydrolysate Amino Acid Kit) by gas chromatography. The crude proteins of samples were determined by the Kjeldahl method and were calculated using a nitrogen conversion factor of 6.25. Thirty-two amino acids were investigated, for N. spongiaeforme eight free essential amino acids (EAA), eight free non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and eleven other amino acids (OAA); for R. bullata eight EAA, eight NEAA and eight OAA were detected. Aspartic acid is the major constituent for both species. The total protein percents were determined for N. spongiaeforme as % 19.83 and for R. bullata as % 6.15. When considering the increasing world population and reducing natural products; Cyanobacteria will benew feed sources for all living.

  6. Synoptic patterns of meiofaunal and macrofaunal abundances and specific composition in littoral sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, Werner; Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1987-03-01

    During recent years, many investigations on small zoobenthos have been performed at the island of Sylt. As these studies were carried out sporadically over many years and as different extraction methods were used, comparisons of the results have been hampered. Therefore, in August/September 1986, 24 sites were sampled and evaluated using one quantitative method throughout. Sites range from mud to exposed sand and from the sublittoral to the supralittoral. Macrofauna and the taxa Plathelminthes, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta are determined to species level. Macrofaunal (>0.5 mm) abundance is highest in mud and continuously decreases with increasing exposure to wave action. Meiofaunal (<0.5 mm) abundance is less variable. Nematoda dominate in mud and muddy sand, Copepoda in sheltered and exposed sand, other taxa only intermittently. Related to surface area, no correlation between macro-and meiofaunal abundance is apparent. Plathelminthes and Copepoda reach highest abundance per surface area in sand but their per volume density is higher in mud and muddy sand. Related to sediment volume instead of surface area, the meiofaunal abundance pattern is very similar to the macrofaunal pattern. The faunal composition changes gradually along the tidal gradient without general faunal boundaries. On an averange, the faunal similarity of neighbouring sites is highest in Oligochaeta and lowest in Plathelminthes. Presumably, Oligochaeta tolerate wider ranges of environmental factors. This may explain the low number of oligochaete species. On the other hand, Plathelminthes seem to adapt to relatively narrow ranges of factors and their species richness is highest. Because of macrofaunameiofauna interaction it is suggested that the meiofaunal assemblage will be least stable in mud and muddy sand, and most stable in exposed sand.

  7. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA.

  8. Associations between food consumption patterns and saliva composition: Specificities of eating difficulties children.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Truntzer, Caroline; Neyraud, Eric; Brignot, Hélène; Ducoroy, Patrick; Lucchi, Géraldine; Canlet, Cécile; Gaillard, Ségolène; Nicod, Florian; Nicklaus, Sophie; Peretti, Noël; Feron, Gilles

    2017-05-01

    Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories. Complete datasets were obtained for 16 ED and 16 C subjects (median age 4.7y and 5.0y, respectively) and the statistical link between salivary and dietary characteristics was studied by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Overall, ED children showed as expected lower consumption frequency scores and higher food selectivity. The two groups of children differed in "diet/saliva" associations. Some distinctive salivary variables were common to both groups of children. For example, carbonic anhydrase 6 and the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets and drinks were positively associated with the MFA axis 1 in C children, but oppositely associated in ED children. Specifically for ED children, abundant salivary proteins (cystatins, amylase, amylase fragments) and some metabolites (amino acids, galactose, lactate) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of sauces & seasonings, bread & cereal products, ready-to-eat meals, fish, biscuits & sweets, drinks and potatoes. Specifically for C children, several proteins (serum albumin, haptoglobin, Igκ, apolipoprotein A-1, α-1 antitrypsin) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets, milk & dairy products, drinks, fruit, meat and vegetables. This study demonstrates that the

  9. Changes in fatty acid composition in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) with cooking and refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Imose, K

    1989-02-01

    The influence of cooking and later storage in a refrigerator for 7 days on the fatty acid composition of lipids in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) was studied. The total lipid and triacylglycerol (TG) levels did not change and the phospholipid (PL) level decreased somewhat with cooking or during storage. The fatty acid composition of the total lipids and TG fractions was little changed and that in the PL fractions was somewhat changed by the cooking. The composition of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipids of sardine precooked at 100 or 170 degrees C for 30 min changed from 42.7 to 38.3 or 33.5%, respectively, for total lipids and from 51.5 to 38.4 or 37.6%, respectively, for PL fractions during storage. The fatty acids in lipids from the ordinary meat of sardine was stable and those in the dark meat were extremely unstable during storage after cooking. We concluded that the PUFA in the lipids of sardines were stable to cooking, but unstable to oxidation during storage in a refrigerator. The PUFA of lipids in the dark meat of sardine were extremely unstable to oxidation.

  10. Effect of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Ravindran, V

    2007-10-01

    The effects of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens were investigated using the peptide alimentation method. Phytic acid (fed as the sodium salt) was included in a synthetic diet at 8.5, 11.5 and 14.5 g/kg (or 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 g/kg phytate-phosphorus) and each diet was fed without or with an Escherichia coli-derived microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg diet. A control containing no phytate was fed as a comparison to estimate basal endogenous flows. Ingestion of phytic acid increased (P < 0.05) the flow of endogenous amino acids and N by an average of 47 % at the lowest phytic acid concentration and 87 % at the highest. The addition of microbial phytase reduced (P < 0.05) the inimical effects of phytic acid on endogenous amino acid flow at all dietary phytic acid levels. The composition of endogenous protein was also influenced (P < 0.10-0.001) by increasing phytic acid concentrations and phytase addition. The effects of phytic acid and phytase on endogenous flow and composition of endogenous protein, however, varied depending on the amino acid. It is concluded that the effects of phytase on amino acid digestibility may be mediated, in part, through a route of reduced endogenous loss.

  11. Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kiwull-Schöne, Heidrun; Kiwull, Peter; Manz, Friedrich; Kalhoff, Hermann

    2008-02-01

    Alkali-enriched diets are recommended for humans to diminish the net acid load of their usual diet. In contrast, herbivores have to deal with a high dietary alkali impact on acid-base balance. Here we explore the role of nutritional alkali in experimentally induced chronic metabolic acidosis. Data were collected from healthy male adult rabbits kept in metabolism cages to obtain 24-h urine and arterial blood samples. Randomized groups consumed rabbit diets ad libitum, providing sufficient energy but variable alkali load. One subgroup (n = 10) received high-alkali food and approximately 15 mEq/kg ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with its drinking water for 5 d. Another group (n = 14) was fed low-alkali food for 5 d and given approximately 4 mEq/kg NH4Cl daily for the last 2 d. The wide range of alimentary acid-base load was significantly reflected by renal base excretion, but normal acid-base conditions were maintained in the arterial blood. In rabbits fed a high-alkali diet, the excreted alkaline urine (pH(u) > 8.0) typically contained a large amount of precipitated carbonate, whereas in rabbits fed a low-alkali diet, both pH(u) and precipitate decreased considerably. During high-alkali feeding, application of NH4Cl likewise decreased pH(u), but arterial pH was still maintained with no indication of metabolic acidosis. During low-alkali feeding, a comparably small amount of added NH4Cl further lowered pH(u) and was accompanied by a significant systemic metabolic acidosis. We conclude that exhausted renal base-saving function by dietary alkali depletion is a prerequisite for growing susceptibility to NH4Cl-induced chronic metabolic acidosis in the herbivore rabbit.

  12. Relationship between hydroxycinnamic acid content, lignin composition and digestibility of maize silages in sheep.

    PubMed

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Masa, Antón; Pomar, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids and the composition of lignin were studied in relation to the digestibility of a collection of 91 maize silages in wethers. Total lignin and guaiacyl content showed the highest correlation coefficients with digestibility. Using the above-mentioned chemical parameters, eight equations were also developed to predict digestibility. The prediction of organic matter digestibility produced a high adjusted R2 value (0.487) using total lignin, guaiacyl, esterified ferulic acid and esterified p-coumaric acid content as predictors. The prediction of in vivo dry matter digestibility produced a higher adjusted R2 value (0.516) using the same variables as predictors. Cell wall digestibility depends on a multiplicity of factors and it is not possible to attribute a causal effect on in vivo digestibility to any single factor. However, total lignin, guaiacyl and p-coumaric acid content emerge as good predictors of digestibility.

  13. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  14. Enhancement effect of ethanol on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengchen; Wang, Wei; Yue, Long; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp. were studied. The maximum increment of algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content were 6.61, 11.75, 1.34 and 3.14 times higher than the control group under 12h photoperiod. Algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. The cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times. Besides, unsaturated fatty acids appeared early in algal cells and increased 57.02% in maximum. However, only 2.27% (14)C was transferred from ethanol to fatty acids. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties.

  15. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Owen J; Bramble, Judith E; Heisler, I Lorraine; Phillips, Christopher A; Cox, David L

    2005-10-01

    Most snakes and lizards produce eggs with flexible shells that interact with the environment to maintain water balance. Geckos produce rigid eggshells that are independent of an external source of water and can be oviposited in more open, dryer locations. In this study, we analyzed and compared the amino acid composition of 24 lizard species, six snake species, and four outgroups (including avian and reptilian elastin and chicken eggshell). Rigid Gecko eggshells had significantly lower levels of seven of the 17 amino acids evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that proline was the most important amino acid in distinguishing between these two groups of eggshells, occurring at significantly higher levels in flexible eggshells. High levels of proline have also been observed in the eggshells of other species. Proline and other amino acids are associated with the alleviation of water and salt stress in plants.

  16. Chemical composition and amino acid profiles of goose muscles from native Polish breeds.

    PubMed

    Okruszek, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Orkusz, A; Werenska, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the chemical and amino acid composition of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles in 17-wk-old geese from 2 Polish conservative flocks: Rypińska (Ry, n = 20) and Garbonosa (Ga, n = 20). The geese were fed ad libitum during the experimental period on the same complete feed. Genotypes affected the moisture and fat content of breast and thigh meat. The Ga geese were characterized by higher moisture as well as lower fat lipid content compared with the Ry breast and thigh muscles. The amino acid proportions of meat proteins depended on the goose flock and type of muscles, where significant differences were found. The proteins of Ga breast muscles contained more glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, tryptophan, histidine, and methionine, and less aspartic acid, proline, serine, leucine, valine, phenyloalanine, tyrosine, and threonine than the Ry geese (P ≤ 0.05). The proteins of Ry thigh muscles were characterized by higher content of proline, serine, and essential amino acids (without lysine and methionine) and lower glutamic and asparagine acid, alanine, and glycine compared with the Ga flock. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (1991) standard, tryptophan was the amino acid limiting the nutritional value of meat proteins of Ry breast muscles (amino acid score for tryptophan = 90%). Except for tryptophan, the meat proteins of the investigated raw materials contained more essential amino acids than the standard. The total content of essential amino acids for all investigated muscles was also higher (52.51 to 55.54%) than the standard (33.90%). It is evident that muscle protein from both flocks of geese have been characterized by high nutritional value. The values of the essential amino acid index of breast muscle proteins were similar in both flocks.

  17. Selective Light-Induced Patterning of Carbon Nanotube/Silver Nanoparticle Composite To Produce Extremely Flexible Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhyuk; Woo, Kyoohee; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Lee, Eonseok; Kang, Dongwoo; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Young-Man; Jang, Yunseok; Kwon, Sin; Moon, Jooho

    2017-02-22

    Recently, highly flexible conductive features have been widely demanded for the development of various electronic applications, such as foldable displays, deformable lighting, disposable sensors, and flexible batteries. Herein, we report for the first time a selective photonic sintering-derived, highly reliable patterning approach for creating extremely flexible carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) composite electrodes that can tolerate severe bending (20 000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm). The incorporation of CNTs into a Ag NP film can enhance not only the mechanical stability of electrodes but also the photonic-sintering efficiency when the composite is irradiated by intense pulsed light (IPL). Composite electrodes were patterned on various plastic substrates by a three-step process comprising coating, selective IPL irradiation, and wiping. A composite film selectively exposed to IPL could not be easily wiped from the substrate, because interfusion induced strong adhesion to the underlying polymer substrate. In contrast, a nonirradiated film adhered weakly to the substrate and was easily removed, enabling highly flexible patterned electrodes. The potential of our flexible electrode patterns was clearly demonstrated by fabricating a light-emitting diode circuit and a flexible transparent heater with unimpaired functionality under bending, rolling, and folding.

  18. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  19. Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M

    2014-04-24

    The adsorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) composite was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) composite such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) composite could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from textile effluents.

  20. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  1. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela; Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-01

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO 4, by H 3PO 4 is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO 4) 2·H 2O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO 4) 2·H 2O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H 2PO 4)(PO 4)·2H 2O and Ti(H 2PO 4)(PO 4). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H 3PO 4 concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H 3PO 4 is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO 4) 2·H 2O-SiO 2 composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO 4·2H 2O fertilizer.

  2. The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on central nervous system polyunsaturated fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies on perinatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration in cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism.

  3. The Influence of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid on Central Nervous System Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, J. Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies on perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism. PMID:18023566

  4. Comparative study of the fatty acid composition of sponges of the genus Ircinia. Identification of the new 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, N M; Shalabi, F; Cruz, C; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, E

    1991-01-01

    1. The phospholipid fatty acid compositions of the sponges Ircinia strobilina, Ircinia felix, Ircinia campana, Ircinia sp., Spongia tubulifera and Dysidea etherea were studied, revealing the presence, besides other common fatty acids, of considerable amounts (2-5%) of the novel 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (1). 2. The demospongic acids 5,9-tetracosadienoic acid, 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (1), and 5,9-pentacosadienoic acid, were particularly abundant in sponges of the genus Ircinia, in contrast to the most common 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid found in other species. These findings are discussed in terms of the taxonomy of the Dictyoceratida. 3. The complete characterization of the novel phospholipid fatty acid 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (1) is presented.

  5. Erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns in dogs with atopic dermatitis and healthy dogs in the same household

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Annett; Gück, Thomas; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have indicated that dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) may have a disorder of fatty acid metabolism: possibly low or absent activity of Δ6-desaturase or Δ5-desaturase, or both. To clarify this possibility, we examined the erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns of 8 dogs with CAD and their 8 healthy housemates. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Willemse; other causes of dermatitis were excluded clinically and by appropriate tests. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from blood samples. Membrane lipids were extracted and separated by thin-layer chromatography. From plasma and lipid fractions, fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography. In erythrocytes, but not in plasma, we observed significant differences in the fatty acid pattern that suggested a reduction in the n6 fatty acid products of the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturases in dogs with atopic dermatitis when compared with healthy housemates. PMID:16850941

  6. Unique Reactivity Patterns Catalyzed by Internal Lewis Acid Assisted Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvil, Tyler Jay

    The advancement of hydrogen bond donor (HBD) organocatalysis has been inhibited by a number of challenges. Conventional HBDs suffer from high catalyst loadings and operate in only limited types of reactions, typically the activation of 1,2- and 1,4-acceptors for nucleophilic attack. One strategy to address the shortcomings of HBD catalysis is to design innovative catalysts with improved reactivity. To this end, boronate ureas have been developed as a new family of enhanced HBD catalysts that enable useful new reactivity patterns. Boronate ureas are easily-accessible, small organic molecules that benefit from improved catalytic abilities plausibly due to internal coordination of the urea carbonyl to a strategically placed Lewis acid. Optimization of the boronate urea scaffold has revealed their enhanced catalytic activity, enabling new directions in HBD catalysis. The discovery of boronate ureas has allowed for the unveiling of new HBD activation modes, providing unique reactivity patterns that are inaccessible with conventional HBD catalysts. Among these reactivity patterns is the activation of strained nitrocyclopropane carboxylates for nucleophilic ring-opening reactions, which affords a swift route to access gamma-amino-alpha-nitroester building blocks. The ring-opening method was highlighted by its utilization in the total synthesis of a CB-1 receptor inverse agonist, which was recently patented by Eli Lilly. Additionally, boronate ureas can elicit carbene-like reactivity from alpha-diazocarbonyl compounds, allowing for organocatalytic heteroatom-hydrogen insertions reactions, the first of their kind. The boronate urea activation of alpha-nitrodiazoesters has permitted the development of an unsymmetric double alpha-arylation process, affording a synthetically challenging motif in a single flask. The alpha-arylation reaction proceeds through a conceptually novel organocatalytic transient N--H insertion process, employing anilines as carbene activators. The use

  7. Effects of 1-Year Intervention with a Mediterranean Diet on Plasma Fatty Acid Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in a Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chisaguano, Maribel; Castellote, Ana I.; Estruch, Ramón; Covas, María Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Ros, Emilio; López-Sabater, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become an important public concern due to its increasing prevalence. An altered fatty acid composition has been associated with MetS, but the Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a protective effect. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as assessed by the biomarkers of food supplied, on the plasma fatty acid composition and its relation with MetS after 1 year of intervention. Methods A total of 424 subjects were randomly selected from the PREDIMED randomized dietary trial after completing a 1-year intervention program. Participants aged 55 to 80 years and at high risk of cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to three dietary interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts, or a low-fat diet. Results After 1 year of intervention participants in the virgin olive oil group showed significantly increased plasma concentrations of palmitic and oleic acids, but reduced proportions of margaric, stearic, and linoleic acids. In turn, subjects in the nut group showed significantly increased levels of palmitic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids, but reduced proportions of myristic, margaric, palmitoleic, and dihommo-γ-linoleic acids. Increases in the biomarkers of foods supplied to the Mediterranean diet groups, i.e., oleic and α-linolenic acids, were beneficially associated with the incidence, reversion and prevalence of MetS. No weight changes were observed among participants. Conclusions The nut and olive oil diets induced a fatty acid composition that has been shown to be beneficial in the face of MetS. Therefore, a Mediterranean diet rich in fats of vegetable origin may be a useful tool for the management of MetS without the need for concerns over weight gain due to its high fat content. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639 PMID:24651160

  8. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed.

  9. Fatty Acid Composition and Community Structure of Plankton from the San Lorenzo Channel, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, B. E.; López-Cortés, D.

    1997-12-01

    The structure of the plankton community and fatty acid composition of nano-, micro- and zooplankton are described during four seasons of 1994 from the San Lorenzo Channel. During August, the warmest temperature in the surface water was observed and a thermocline developed between 20 and 30 m. In the remaining months, a well-mixed layer occurred in the upper 30 m. The chlorophyllacontent of the nanoplankton fraction (<38 μm) was higher than the microplanktonic fraction (38-200 μm) year round. Maximal chlorophyll values (1·5-3 μ l-1) occurred in January, which may be associated with organic matter, since phytoplankton was lower than at other seasons. The relative abundance of diatoms increased from January (57% of phytoplankton) to November (99%). The increment was mainly due toNitzschiaandChaetoceros. Dinoflagellates were always low (0·03-1·36 cells ml-1). Copepods (mainlyEucalanus) dominated the zooplankton in winter and fall, while in spring and summer, the abundance of doliolids was similar to the copepods (Nannocalanus minordominated). Four fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1) were the most conspicuous in the plankton, representing usually between 40 and 80% of the total fatty acids throughout the water column. In winter, higher fatty acid content and higher relative amounts of 16:0 and 16:1 were observed than in the warm months. Stearic acid (18:0) peaked during fall. The major seasonal differences occurred in the nanoplankton, which had peaks of 20:5 during January, and 16:4 in April. A strong decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) occurred during the warm months. The fatty acid composition of microplankton and larger zooplankton was similar in winter-spring. Individual copepods of selected species (Eucalanus sewelli,Rhincalanus nasutus,Centropages furcatusandLabidocera acuta) showed fatty acid profiles similar to the mixed zooplankton, with some differences in content of PUFA.

  10. Diel variations in carbon isotopic composition and concentration of organic acids and their impact on plant dark respiration in different species.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M M; Wegener, F; Werner, R A; Werner, C

    2016-09-01

    Leaf respiration in the dark and its C isotopic composition (δ(13) CR ) contain information about internal metabolic processes and respiratory substrates. δ(13) CR is known to be less negative compared to potential respiratory substrates, in particular shortly after darkening during light enhanced dark respiration (LEDR). This phenomenon might be driven by respiration of accumulated (13) C-enriched organic acids, however, studies simultaneously measuring δ(13) CR during LEDR and potential respiratory substrates are rare. We determined δ(13) CR and respiration rates (R) during LEDR, as well as δ(13) C and concentrations of potential respiratory substrates using compound-specific isotope analyses. The measurements were conducted throughout the diel cycle in several plant species under different environmental conditions. δ(13) CR and R patterns during LEDR were strongly species-specific and showed an initial peak, which was followed by a progressive decrease in both values. The species-specific differences in δ(13) CR and R during LEDR may be partially explained by the isotopic composition of organic acids (e.g., oxalate, isocitrate, quinate, shikimate, malate), which were (13) C-enriched compared to other respiratory substrates (e.g., sugars and amino acids). However, the diel variations in both δ(13) C and concentrations of the organic acids were generally low. Thus, additional factors such as the heterogeneous isotope distribution in organic acids and the relative contribution of the organic acids to respiration are required to explain the strong (13) C enrichment in leaf dark-respired CO2 .

  11. Well cementing method using acid removable low density well cement compositions

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.; Totten, P.L.

    1993-05-25

    A method of forming a cement plug or seal in a subterranean zone penetrated by a well bore which can subsequently be removed by dissolution in acid is described comprising: pumping a low density cement composition which sets into a hard substantially impermeable mass into said zone comprised of magnesium oxide, an aqueous magnesium chloride solution, calcium carbonate filler, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer and a gas entrained in said slurry in an amount sufficient to obtain a desired slurry density; and allowing said cement composition to set in said zone.

  12. Changes in membrane fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to UV-C radiations.

    PubMed

    Ghorbal, Salma Kloula Ben; Chatti, Abdelwaheb; Sethom, Mohamed Marwan; Maalej, Lobna; Mihoub, Mouadh; Kefacha, Sana; Feki, Moncef; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2013-07-01

    The changes in lipid composition enable the micro-organisms to maintain membrane functions in the face of environmental fluctuations. The relationship between membrane fatty acid composition and UV-C stress was determined for mid-exponential phase and stationary phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total lipids were obtained by dichloromethane/methanol (3:1) and were quantified by GC. The TLC analysis of phospholipids showed the presence of three major fractions phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. Significant modifications, as manifested by an increase of UFA, were obtained. Interestingly, this microorganism showed a remarkable capacity for recovery from the stressful effects of UV-C.

  13. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  14. The Lake Huron pelagic fish community: persistent spatial pattern along biomass and species composition gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, D.M.; Schaeffer, J.S.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial patterns in the biomass of pelagic fish in Lake Huron have persisted over 10 years even though biomass decreased 86% and the fish community shifted from dominance by non-native species (rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax) to dominance by native species (bloater, Coregonus hoyi). Based on multivariate analyses of acoustic biomass data and abiotic variables from the years 1997, 2004, 2005, and 2007, the strength of relationships between abiotic variables (primarily bottom depth) and fish community composition gradients decreased with fish biomass, suggesting that at high biomass, the influence of the measured abiotic variables is minimal. We observed consistently higher biomass in the North Channel and Georgian Bay than in the Main Basin, and as a result, we conclude that these smaller basins are likely important contributors to lakewide fish biomass, production, and dynamics. These results suggest that at current biomass levels, efforts to understand ecology, population dynamics, and lakewide abundance need to incorporate the effects of depth and geographic variation on fish distributions and ecology.

  15. Composition and Longitudinal Patterns of Aquatic Insect Emergence in Small Rivers of Palawan Island, the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Hendrik

    2004-09-01

    This study presents the first emergence trap samples from streams in the Philippines and Greater Sunda. Aquatic insect emergence from two small rivers and longitudinal patterns including estuaries are compared. A decline of total emergence towards estuaries was observed, affecting all major orders. Diptera, namely Chironomidae, dominated all sites. High abundances in Ceratopogonidae, Odonata, and Coleoptera were found, compared to other emergence studies from tropical and temperate latitudes. Ephemeroptera displayed a highly variable contribution to the emergence from Palawan as well as in other comparative studies either supported by the appropriate conditions for certain functional groups or limited by environmental variables such as pH. Trichoptera are likely to tolerate a wider range of environmental conditions and they are consequently able to fill further niches where Ephemeroptera are under-represented. Except for scarce abundances of Plecoptera observed in this and other studies from the tropics, no substantial differences in emergence composition at order level existed between temperate and tropical rivers, however, with a remarkable local variation. Components of riparian and non-aquatic insects and non-emergent fauna contributing to the collections are discussed based on trap features. (

  16. Helminth community composition, structure, and pattern in six dove species (Columbiformes: Columbidae) of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Autumn J; Fedynich, Alan M

    2012-02-01

    The helminth community composition and structure of 6 species of columbids residing in south Texas are reported and compared herein. Sixty individuals of the following species, rock pigeons (Columba livia [RP]), mourning doves (Zenaida macroura [MD]), Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto [ECD]), white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica [WWD]), and common ground doves (Columbina passerina [CGD]), and 48 Inca doves (Columbina inca [ID]) were collected during the summer of 2006 and examined for helminths. Twelve helminth species were found (9 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 486 individuals. Nematodes numerically dominated the component community in all host species. Overall, helminth prevalence was similar among host sex within all dove species. However, prevalence of Skrjabinia bonini and Hymenolepis sp. in RPs was significantly different among host age groups (P = 0.01, P = 0.0002, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of Killigrewia delafondi was higher (P = 0.0001) in adult WWDs. Based on percent similarity and Jaccard's coefficient of community indices, helminth component communities were dissimilar, and the number of shared helminth species varied among host species. Data from this study suggest that the environment surrounding preferred host habitat and foraging strategies of each host species is the driving force behind helminth component communities. This study emphasizes the importance of examining co-occurring hosts at both local and regional scales to elucidate helminth community structure and patterns.

  17. Stable Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Organisms of Different Trophic Levels in the Yenisei River

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Michail I.; Sushchik, Nadezhda N.; Kalachova, Galina S.; Makhutova, Olesia N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied four-link food chain, periphytic microalgae and water moss (producers), trichopteran larvae (consumers I), gammarids (omnivorous – consumers II) and Siberian grayling (consumers III) at a littoral site of the Yenisei River on the basis of three years monthly sampling. Analysis of bulk carbon stable isotopes and compound specific isotope analysis of fatty acids (FA) were done. As found, there was a gradual depletion in 13C contents of fatty acids, including essential FA upward the food chain. In all the trophic levels a parabolic dependence of δ13C values of fatty acids on their degree of unsaturation/chain length occurred, with 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in its lowest point. The pattern in the δ13C differences between individual fatty acids was quite similar to that reported in literature for marine pelagic food webs. Hypotheses on isotope fractionation were suggested to explain the findings. PMID:22470513

  18. Boosting one-step conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid by NO2 and VPO composite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jian; You, Kuiyi; Duan, Xuezhi; Gao, Hongxu; Luo, Qing; Deng, Renjie; Liu, Pingle; Ai, Qiuhong; Luo, He'an

    2016-02-25

    We demonstrate VPO composites as efficient catalysts for highly selective oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid with NO2. In particular, the Ni-Al-VPO composite catalyst exhibits the striking conversion of cyclohexane (60.6%) and exceptionally high selectivity towards adipic acid (85.0%). Moreover, N2O is an environmentally harmful gas, and its yield in the present process is only 0.03 t/t adipic acid, which is far below that obtained using the industrial method (0.3 t/t adipic acid). This work provides a new strategy for the one-step synthesis of dicarboxylic acids from cycloalkanes.

  19. Lipid and fatty acid composition of cytoplasmic membranes from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and its stable protoplast-type L form.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Gura, K; Luge, C; Gumpert, J

    1997-01-01

    The cells of an L-form strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus have been grown for 20 years without a cell wall. Their cytoplasmic membranes have high stability and an unusual structural polymorphism. To clarify the importance of the lipid components for these membrane properties, a comparative analysis has been carried out with purified membranes of L-form cells, of parent vegetative hyphal cells (N-form cells), and of protoplasts derived from the latter. The phospholipid classes and fatty acids were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), two-dimensional TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The qualitative compositions of cardiolipin (CL), lyso-cardiolipin (LCL), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE1 and PE2), lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositolmannoside (PIM), phosphatidic acid (PA), dilyso-cardiolipin-phosphatidylinositol (DLCL-PI), and the 13 main fatty acids were the same in the three membrane types. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in the L-form membrane. They consist of a three- to fourfold-higher content of total, extractable lipids, 20% more phospholipids, an increased content of CL and PIM, and a reduced amount of the component DLCL-PI. Furthermore, the L-form membrane is characterized by a higher content of branched anteiso 15:0 and anteiso 17:0 fatty acids compared to that of the membranes of the walled vegetative cells. These fatty acids have lower melting points than their straight and iso-branched counterparts and make the membrane more fluid. The phospholipid composition of the protoplast membrane differs quantitatively from that of the N form and the L form. Whereas the phospholipid classes are mostly similar to that of the N form, the fatty acid pattern tends to be closer to that of the L-form membrane. The membranes of both the L-form cells and the protoplasts need to be more fluid because of their spherical cell shape and higher degree of curvature

  20. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  1. Distinct fatty acid composition of some edible by-products from bovines fed high or low silage diets.

    PubMed

    Alfaia, Cristina M; Alves, Susana P; Pestana, José M; Madeira, Marta S; Moreira, Olga; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui Jb; Toldrá, Fidel; Prates, José Am

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, it was hypothesized that the incorporation of fatty acids is distinct among ruminant tissues and that it could be modulated by diet composition. To test this hypothesis, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid isomers, of the most relevant beef by-products (brain, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas and tongue) from young bulls those fed distinct silage levels was assessed. Data indicated a large variation in fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid composition among edible by-products. The most abundant fatty acids were C16:0 (kidney), C18:0 (heart and liver) and C18:1 c9 (brain, pancreas and tongue) followed by C20:4 n-6, except in brain (C22:6 n-3 predominates). Brain, as shown by principal component analysis, presents a distinct fatty acid composition compared to the other beef by-products analysed. In addition, high silage diet relative to low silage diet promoted an increase of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, t11, t13 and t11, c13 conjugated linoleic acid in heart, kidney, liver and pancreas. Overall, the data suggested that beef by-products had, in general, high contents of cholesterol, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid, as well as high levels of conjugated linoleic acid. Therefore, from a nutritional point of view they are recommended only in small amounts as part of a balanced diet.

  2. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle.

  3. DNA methylation landscape of fat deposits and fatty acid composition in obese and lean pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Shen, Linyuan; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Qiong; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Obese and lean type pig breeds exhibit differences in their fat deposits and fatty acid composition. Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide DNA methylation on fatty acid metabolism between Landrace pigs (LP, leaner) and Rongchang pigs (RP, fatty). We found that LP backfat (LBF) had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content but a lower adipocyte volume than RP backfat (RBF). LBF exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels at the genome level than RBF. A total of 483 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located in promoter regions, mainly affecting olfactory and sensory activity and lipid metabolism. In LBF, the promoters of genes related to ATPase activity had significantly stronger methylation. This fact may suggest lower energy metabolism levels, which may result in less efficient lipid synthesis in LBF. Furthermore, we identified a DMR in the miR-4335 and miR-378 promoters and validated their methylation status by bisulfite sequencing PCR. The hypermethylation of the promoters of miR-4335 and miR-378 in LBF and the resulting silencing of the target genes may result in LBF’s low content in saturated fatty acids and fat deposition capacity. This study provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms affecting fat deposition and fatty acid composition. PMID:27721392

  4. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  5. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit.

  6. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  7. An acidic microenvironment sets the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 in a tissue repair mode

    PubMed Central

    Doni, Andrea; Musso, Tiziana; Morone, Diego; Bastone, Antonio; Zambelli, Vanessa; Sironi, Marina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Stravalaci, Matteo; Pasqualini, Fabio; Laface, Ilaria; Valentino, Sonia; Tartari, Silvia; Ponzetta, Andrea; Maina, Virginia; Barbieri, Silvia S.; Tremoli, Elena; Catapano, Alberico L.; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. In four different models of tissue damage in mice, PTX3 deficiency was associated with increased fibrin deposition and persistence, and thicker clots, followed by increased collagen deposition, when compared with controls. Ptx3-deficient macrophages showed defective pericellular fibrinolysis in vitro. PTX3-bound fibrinogen/fibrin and plasminogen at acidic pH and increased plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis. The second exon-encoded N-terminal domain of PTX3 recapitulated the activity of the intact molecule. Thus, a prototypic component of humoral innate immunity, PTX3, plays a nonredundant role in the orchestration of tissue repair and remodeling. Tissue acidification resulting from metabolic adaptation during tissue repair sets PTX3 in a tissue remodeling and repair mode, suggesting that matrix and microbial recognition are common, ancestral features of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PMID:25964372

  8. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  9. Effect of growth phase on the fatty acid compositions of four species of marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-04-01

    The fatty acid compositions of four species of marine diatoms ( Chaetoceros gracilis MACC/B13, Cylindrotheca fusiformis MACC/B211, Phaeodactylum tricornutum MACC/B221 and Nitzschia closterium MACC/B222), cultivated at 22°C±1°C with the salinity of 28 in f/2 medium and harvested in the exponential growth phase, the early stationary phase and the late stationary phase, were determined. The results showed that growth phase has significant effect on most fatty acid contents in the four species of marine diatoms. The proportions of 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids increased while those of 16:3n-4 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with increasing culture age in all species studied. The subtotal of saturated fatty acids (SFA) increased with the increasing culture age in all species with the exception of B13. The subtotal of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased while that of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased with culture age in the four species of marine diatoms. MUFA reached their lowest value in the exponential growth phase, whereas PUFA reached their highest value in the same phase.

  10. Determining the fatty acid composition in plasma and tissues as fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography – a comparison of different derivatization and extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Annika I; Müller, Maike; Willenberg, Ina; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition in biological samples is commonly carried out using gas liquid chromatography (GC) after transesterification to volatile FA methyl esters (FAME). We compared the efficacy of six frequently used protocols for derivatization of different lipid classes as well as for plasma and tissue samples. Transesterification with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) led to insufficient derivatization efficacies for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, <50%). Derivatization in presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) failed at derivatizing free FAs (FFAs). Boron trifluoride (BF3) 7% in hexane/MeOH (1:1) was insufficient for the transesterification of cholesterol ester (CE) as well as triacylglycerols (TGs). In contrast, methanolic hydrochloric acid (HCl) as well as a combination of BF3 with methanolic sodium hydroxide (NaOH+BF3) were suitable for the derivatization of FFAs, polar lipids, TGs, and CEs (derivatization rate >80% for all tested lipids). Regarding plasma samples, all methods led to an overall similar relative FA pattern. However, significant differences were observed, for example, for the relative amount of EPA+DHA (n3-index). Absolute FA plasma concentrations differed considerably among the methods, with low yields for KOH and BF3. We also demonstrate that lipid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether/methanol (MTBE/MeOH) is as efficient as the classical method according to Bligh and Dyer, making it possible to replace (environmentally) toxic chloroform.We conclude that HCl-catalyzed derivatization in combination with MeOH/MTBE extraction is the most appropriate among the methods tested for the analysis of FA concentrations and FA pattern in small biological samples. A detailed protocol for the analysis of plasma and tissues is included in this article.

  11. [Amino acid composition evaluation of Pleurotus spp. cultivated in banana leaves].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L

    1998-12-01

    The protein quality of edible mushrooms besides being species/strain specific, could also vary with the growth substrate. The aim of this work was to determine the amino acid composition of the protein from edible mushrooms--Pleurotus sp. "Florida" (L1), P. ostreatoroseus (L2) and P. sajor-caju (L3), cultivated on banana leaves (BL) single and, mixed with sugar cane bagasse (BLSCB). Total amino acids, cystine and tryptophan were evaluated; the chemical score index and PDCAAS--"protein digestibility-correct amino acid scoring" were calculated. From both substrates, the studied species contain all essential amino acids; in decreasing order, the amino acids in great amounts were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. The L1 chemical score was 90.4, with limitation in sulfur and aromatic amino acids when from BL substrate; and, from BLSC substrate the chemical score was 88.7 with limitation in aromatics only. The L2 and L3 was 100, 0, independent of cultivation substrate. The calculated PDCAAS value, considering 90% of recommended digestibility, varied between 80.0-96%. The L1 proteins were limiting in sulfur and aromatic amino acids and had the lowest value of PDCAAS (approximately 80.0) in both substrates; the L3 proteins were limiting in aromatic, sulfur and tryptophan, dependent of cultivation substrate; the L2 proteins had the greatest value of PDCAAS (approximately 96%) and were limiting in aromatic and/or sulfur amino acids, dependent of cultivation substrate. Considering the conditions of this study, the protein of the studied species is incomplete, although of high biological value, comparable to meet.

  12. Poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites: Preparation and viscoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, L. D.; Fakirov, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) from petrochemical-derived polymers have been investigated for several years and the technique can result in significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared with the neat matrix material of the respective composite. The current work applies the technique to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers for potential applications in bioabsorbable medical devices. MFCs were prepared from melt blended poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) via cold drawing then compression molding of extruded yarn. These MFCs were shown to have higher Young's moduli than that of neat PLLA but for load-bearing applications the creep characteristics are of interest. The MFC sheets resulting from compression molding were subjected to tensile relaxation tests at 37°C in the fiber orientation direction. Specimens were also tested via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Neat PLLA specimens were subjected to the same tests for comparison. Results indicate that at 37°C PLLA/PGA MFCs exhibit lower creep resistance than that of neat PLLA due to the more rapid relaxation of stress observed. DMTA results elucidate the loss modulus changes in PLLA/PGA MFCs which occur as the material approaches the glass transition temperature of PGA (˜45°C).

  13. Coaxial electrospinning with acetic acid for preparing ferulic acid/zein composite fibers with improved drug release profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Mao; Zha, Liu-sheng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Liu, Jianyun

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated drug/zein composite fibers prepared using a modified coaxial electrospinning process. With unspinnable acetic acid as sheath liquid and an electrospinnable co-dissolving solution of zein and ferulic acid (FA) as core fluid, the modified coaxial process could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. Compared with those from the single-fluid electrospinning process, the FA-loaded zein fibers from the modified process were rounder and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopic observations of their surface and cross-section. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed that fibers from both processes similarly formed a composite with the FA present in the zein matrix in an amorphous state. The driving force of encapsulation of FA into zein fibers was hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. However, in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the fibers from the coaxial process exhibited better sustained-release profiles with a smaller initial burst effect and less tailing-off release compared with those from the single process. The modified coaxial electrospinning process is a useful tool for generating nanofibers with higher quality and improved functional performance.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  15. Protein packing: dependence on protein size, secondary structure and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P J; Richards, F M

    2000-06-02

    We have used the occluded surface algorithm to estimate the packing of both buried and exposed amino acid residues in protein structures. This method works equally well for buried residues and solvent-exposed residues in contrast to the commonly used Voronoi method that works directly only on buried residues. The atomic packing of individual globular proteins may vary significantly from the average packing of a large data set of globular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that these variations in protein packing are due to a complex combination of protein size, secondary structure composition and amino acid composition. Differences in protein packing are conserved in protein families of similar structure despite significant sequence differences. This conclusion indicates that quality assessments of packing in protein structures should include a consideration of various parameters including the packing of known homologous proteins. Also, modeling of protein structures based on homologous templates should take into account the packing of the template protein structure.

  16. Predicting lipase types by improved Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ya; Li, Hong-Chun; Gao, Jia-Qiang; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2008-01-01

    By proposing a improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition approach to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences. To avoid redundancy and bias, demonstrations were performed on a dataset where none of the proteins has > or =25% sequence identity to any other. The overall success rate thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test was over 90%, indicating that the improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches.

  17. Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale

    2002-04-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible analytical method is described for the extraction and the simultaneous determination of 18 amino acids in different for geographical origin Spirulina alga samples using phenylisothiocianate as derivatizating agent in natural feed. The best experimental hydrolysis conditions have been studied varying the temperature, the time and the hydrolyzing reagent. The separation and the quantitative analysis of the by-products have been carried out by HPLC analysis and UV detection. An amino acid pattern is compared with that proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) for an ideal protein and with those of some traditional feed.

  18. Differential Amino Acid, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Perpetuations Involved in a Subtype of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Chinese Medicine Cold Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongtao; Niu, Xuyan; Gu, Yan; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Cheng; Yue, Kevin; Zhang, Ge; Pan, Xiaohua; Jiang, Miao; Tan, Yong; Kong, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenli; Xu, Guowang; Lu, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Pattern classification is a key approach in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and it is used to classify the patients for intervention selection accordingly. TCM cold and heat patterns, two main patterns of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) had been explored with systems biology approaches. Different regulations of apoptosis were found to be involved in cold and heat classification in our previous works. For this study, the metabolic profiling of plasma was explored in RA patients with typical TCM cold or heat patterns by integrating liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) platforms in conjunction with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Three main processes of metabolism, including amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid were focused on for function analysis. The results showed that 29 and 19 differential metabolites were found in cold and heat patterns respectively, compared with healthy controls. The perturbation of amino acid metabolism (increased essential amino acids), carbohydrate metabolism (galactose metabolism) and lipid metabolism, were found to be involved in both cold and heat pattern RA. In particular, more metabolic perturbations in protein and collagen breakdown, decreased glycolytic activity and aerobic oxidation, and increased energy utilization associated with RA cold pattern patients. These findings may be useful for obtaining a better understanding of RA pathogenesis and for achieving a better efficacy in RA clinical practice. PMID:27775663

  19. The cysteine releasing pattern of some antioxidant thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Önen Bayram, F Esra; Sipahi, Hande; Acar, Ebru Türköz; Kahveci Ulugöl, Reyhan; Buran, Kerem; Akgün, Hülya

    2016-05-23

    Oxidative stress that corresponds to a significant increase in free radical concentration in cells can cause considerable damage to crucial biological macromolecules if not prevented by cellular defense mechanisms. The low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione (GSH) constitutes one of the main intracellular antioxidants. It is synthesized via cysteine, an amino acid found only in limited amounts in cells because of its neurotoxicity. Thus, to ensure an efficient GSH synthesis in case of an oxidative stress, cysteine should be provided extracellularly. Yet, given its nucleophilic properties and its rapid conversion into cystine, its corresponding disulfide, cysteine presents some toxicity and therefore is usually supplemented in a prodrug approach. Here, some thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant properties via the DDPH and CUPRAC assays. Then, the cysteine releasing capacity of the obtained compounds was investigated in aqueous and organic medium in order to correlate the relevant antioxidant properties of the molecules with their cysteine releasing pattern. As a result, the structures' antioxidative properties were not only attributed to cysteine release but also to the thiazolidine cycle itself.

  20. Amino acid sequence of bacterial microbe-associated molecular pattern flg22 is required for virulence.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kana; Taguchi, Fumiko; Suzuki, Tomoko; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki

    2008-09-01

    Flagellin proteins derived from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 and flg22Pa (QRLSTGSRINSAKDDAAGLQIA), one of the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) in bacterial flagellin, induce cell death and growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana. To examine the importance of aspartic acid (D) at position 43 from the N-terminus of a flagellin in its elicitor activity, D43 was replaced with valine (V) and alanine (A) in P. syringae pv. tabaci flagellin and flg22Pta. The abilities of flagellins from P. syringae pv. tabaci D43V and D43A to induce cell death and growth inhibition were reduced, whereas the abilities of flg22PtaD43V and flg22PtaD43A were abolished. These results indicate that D43 is important for elicitor activity in P. syringae pv. tabaci. When tobacco plants were inoculated with each bacterium by the spray method, both P. syringae pv. tabaci D43V and D43A mutants had remarkably reduced ability to cause disease symptoms. Both mutants had reduced or no swimming and swarming motilities and adhesion ability. In P. syringae pv. tabaci D43V, little flagellin protein was detected and few flagella were observed by electron microscopy. These results indicate that mutant flagella are unstable and that flagellar motility is impaired. Thus, the amino acid residue required for MAMP activity is important for the intrinsic flagellar function.

  1. Pattern formation in fatty acid-nanoparticle and lipid-nanoparticle mixed monolayers at water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, M.; Datta, A.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Janaki, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Dodecanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are self-organized in two different amphiphilic monolayers one of which is a single-tailed fatty acid Stearic acid (StA) and the other a double-tailed lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). In the StA-AuNP film the AuNPs self-organize to form an interconnected network of nanoclusters on compression while in the DMPC-AuNP film the AuNPs aggregate to form random, isolated clusters in the film. The long time evolution of the films at constant surface pressure reveals ring structures in the former and diffusion limited aggregates in the latter that with time evolve into an irregular porous maze of AuNPs in the DMPC film. The difference in structure of the AuNP patterns in the two films can be attributed to a difference in the lipophilic interactions between the NPs and the amphiphilic molecules. The mean square intensity fluctuations f(ln) calculated along a typical line for the 2D structures in both the films at initial and final stages of long time evolution reflect the structural changes in the films over time.

  2. Fatty acid composition differences between adipose depot sites in dairy and beef steer breeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Lei, Z M; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) and kidney fat (KF) in Holstein steers (HS), Simmental steers (SS) and Chinese LongDong Yellow Cattle steers (CLD). All steers received the same nutrition and management but in different locations. Cattle were harvested at approximately 550 kg and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi and kidney fat was analyzed in samples taken after 3 days of aging. There was evidence (P < 0.05) that C18:3n6 was greater in KF than LD in CLD cattle but not in HS or SS cattle. Percentage C18:1n9, C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and n6 fatty acids were greater in LD than KF for all breeds (P < 0.05), but the difference between fat sources for n6 in CLD cattle was smaller than the other two breeds. The LD had greater percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and a greater ratio of n6:n3 PUFAs compared to the KF in each breed (P < 0.05). The △(9)-desaturase catalytic activity index was greater in LD than in KF in each breed group (P < 0.05). Percentage cis-9, trans-11 CLA was greater in KF than LD in HS (P < 0.05) but not SS or CLD cattle. These results indicate fatty acid percentages generally differed between longissimus dorsi fat and kidney fat. Further, there was some indication that some of these differences between fatty acid deposition sites were not consistent across breed group.

  3. Polypropylene Glycol-Silver Nanoparticle Composites: A Novel Anticorrosion Material for Aluminum in Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Moses M.; Umoren, Saviour A.; Israel, Aniekemeabasi U.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-11-01

    Admixture of polypropylene glycol and 1 mM AgNO3 together with natural honey as reducing and stabilizing agent was employed to prepare in situ polypropylene glycol/silver nanoparticle (PPG/AgNPs) composite. The prepared PPG/AgNPs composite was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and EDS, while the morphology of the Ag nanoparticles in the composite was obtained by TEM. TEM results revealed that the Ag nanoparticles were spherical in shape. The anticorrosion property of PPG/AgNPs composite was examined by electrochemical, weight loss, SEM, EDS, and water contact angle measurements. Results obtained show that PPG/AgNPs are effective in retarding the dissolution of Al in an acid-induced corrosive environment. Inhibition efficiency increased with the increasing composite concentration but decreased with the increasing temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that PPG/AgNPs functions as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The adsorption of the composite onto Al surface was found to follow El-Awady et al. adsorption isotherm model. SEM, EDS, and water contact angle results confirmed the adsorption of PPG/AgNPs films onto Al surface.

  4. [Effect of phenibut and its composition with nicotinic acid on hemostasis in rats with brain ischemia].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Litvinov, A A; Tarasov, A S

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that, in rats with global cerebral ischemia modeled by a complete irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery and forced hypotension, the hemostasis is characterized by a shift toward hypercoagulation. A single preventive introduction of phenibut and, to a greater degree, a composition of phenibut with nicotinic acid, in rats with acute cerebral ischemia reduced the extent of disturbances in the hemostasis system of experimental animals.

  5. [Psychotropic effect of phenibut salts and their compositions with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaia, A N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2011-01-01

    The spectra of psychotropic action of some phenibut salts (succunate, maleate, nicotinate) and a composition of phenibut with glutamic acid were studied. It is established, that the substances studied show psychotropic activity spectrum generally similar to that of phenibut, but different in expressiveness of some particular effects. Compound RSPU-149 exhibited the most pronounced psychotropic action: its anxiolytic effect was below, the antidepressant effect was comparable with, and the nootrope action exceeded that of phenibut.

  6. Calculation of subunit stoichiometry of large, multisubunit proteins from amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Kapp, O H; Qabar, A N; Vinogradov, S N

    1990-01-01

    The subunit stoichiometry of a large, multisubunit protein can be determined from the molar amino acid compositions (i amino acids) of the protein and its subunits. The number of copies of the subunits (1, 2, ... j) is calculated by solving all possible combinations of simultaneous equations in j unknowns (i!/j!(i - j)!). Calculations carried out using the published amino acid compositions determined by analysis and the compositions calculated from the sequences for two proteins of known stoichiometry provided the following results: Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (R6C6, Mr = 307.5 kDa), R = 5.6 to 6.6 and C = 5.8 to 6.3, and spinach ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (L8S8, Mr = 535 kDa), L = 7.3 to 9.1 and S = 5.6 to 10.6. Calculations were also carried out with the amino acid compositions of two much larger proteins, the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Mr = 5280 kDa, subunits E1 (99.5 kDa), E2 (66 kDa), and E3 (50.6 kDa), and the extracellular hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris, Mr = 3760 kDa, subunits M (17 kDa), D1 (31 kDa), D2 (37 kDa), and T (51 kDa); the results for PDHase were E1 = 20 to 24, E2 = 18 to 31, E3 = 21 to 33 and those for Lumbricus hemoglobin were M = 34 to 46, D1 = 13 to 19, D2 = 13 to 18, and T = 34 to 36. Although the sample standard deviations of the mean values are generally high, the proposed method works surprisingly well for the two smaller proteins and provides physically reasonable results for the two larger proteins.

  7. Prediction of mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasite using split amino acid composition and PSSM profile.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ruchi; Varshney, Grish C; Raghava, G P S

    2010-06-01

    The rate of human death due to malaria is increasing day-by-day. Thus the malaria causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PF) remains the cause of concern. With the wealth of data now available, it is imperative to understand protein localization in order to gain deeper insight into their functional roles. In this manuscript, an attempt has been made to develop prediction method for the localization of mitochondrial proteins. In this study, we describe a method for predicting mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasite using machine-learning technique. All models were trained and tested on 175 proteins (40 mitochondrial and 135 non-mitochondrial proteins) and evaluated using five-fold cross validation. We developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model for predicting mitochondrial proteins of P. falciparum, using amino acids and dipeptides composition and achieved maximum MCC 0.38 and 0.51, respectively. In this study, split amino acid composition (SAAC) is used where composition of N-termini, C-termini, and rest of protein is computed separately. The performance of SVM model improved significantly from MCC 0.38 to 0.73 when SAAC instead of simple amino acid composition was used as input. In addition, SVM model has been developed using composition of PSSM profile with MCC 0.75 and accuracy 91.38%. We achieved maximum MCC 0.81 with accuracy 92% using a hybrid model, which combines PSSM profile and SAAC. When evaluated on an independent dataset our method performs better than existing methods. A web server PFMpred has been developed for predicting mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasites ( http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/pfmpred/).

  8. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  9. Human gestation-associated tissues express functional cytosolic nucleic acid sensing pattern recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Aled H; Menzies, Georgina E; Scott, Louis M; Spencer-Harty, Samantha; Davies, Lleucu B; Smith, Rachel A; Jones, Ruth H; Thornton, Catherine A

    2017-03-13

    The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these PRRs were expressed by the term placenta, choriodecidua and amnion. A statistically significant increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-8 production in response to specific agonists for TLR3 (Poly(I:C); low and high molecular weight), TLR7 (Imiquimod), TLR8 (ssRNA40) and RIG-I/MDA5 (Poly(I:C)LyoVec) was observed; there was no response to a TLR9 (ODN21798) agonist. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to compare the response of each tissue type to the ligands studied and revealed that the placenta and choriodecidua generate a more similar IL-8 response, while the choriodecidua and amnion generate a more similar IL-6 response to nucleic acid ligands. These findings demonstrate that responsiveness via TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and RIG-1/MDA5 is a broad feature of human term gestation-associated tissues with differential responses by tissue that might underpin adverse obstetric outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of Some Salvia Species from Iran--A Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Massoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Rahmani, Nosrat; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). The results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α-Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 - 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 - 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 - 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 - 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 - 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs ranged between 1.90 - 53.80% and 13.46 - 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among the species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of polyunsaturated FAs, except in linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Strong positive selection and habitat-specific amino acid substitution patterns in MHC from an estuarine fish under intense pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    Population-level studies using the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) have linked specific alleles with specific diseases, but data requirements are high and the power to detect disease association is low. A novel use of Mhc population surveys involves mapping allelic substitutions onto the inferred structural molecular model to show functional differentiation related to local selective pressures. In the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus, populations experiencing strong differences in antigenic challenges show significant differences in amino acid substitution patterns that are reflected as variation in the structural location of changes between populations. Fish from a population genetically adapted to severe chemical pollution also show novel patterns of DNA substitution at a highly variable Mhc class II B locus including strong signals of positive selection at inferred antigen-binding sites and population-specific signatures of amino acid substitution. Heavily parasitized fish from an extreme PCB-contaminated (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund) site show enhanced population-specific substitutions in the a-helix portion of the inferred antigen-binding region. In contrast, fish from an unpolluted site show a significantly different pattern focused on the first strand of the B-pleated sheet. Whether Mhc population profile differences represent the direct effects of chemical toxicants or indirect parasite-mediated selection, the result is a composite habitat-specific signature of strong selection and evolution affecting the genetic repertoire of the major histocompatibility complex.

  12. Long-term spatial pattern change in a semi-arid plant community: The role of climate and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Rob W.; Matesanz, Silvia; Valladares, Fernando; Klotz, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The spatial pattern of plant communities can be an indicator of the processes that regulate community structure and their interplay with environmental drivers such as climate. However, to exploit such indicators we need a fuller understanding of the links between spatial pattern and climate. We examined variation in spatial pattern of annuals/biennials and perennials in a range margin steppic plant community in Germany over 26 years. We assessed change in spatial pattern through time, and how this change was related to local variation in climate and community composition. We found increasing dissociation between annuals/biennials and perennials through time, and a response of spatial pattern to summer temperature and precipitation. These responses are associated with the occurrence of Centaurea stoebe, a species which establishes in the community mid-way through the recording period. Our results indicate that in some circumstances spatial patterning of vegetation may not be directly linked to environmental severity, and that species turnover rather than changes in the interactions or abundance of species already in the community can influence the observed dynamics of vegetation spatial pattern. Thus, they support calls for a better understanding of the context-specificity of plant-plant interactions, their translation to spatial pattern, and their regulation by climate and other drivers such as species turnover.

  13. Whole-genome prediction of fatty acid composition in meat of Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Shimizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H

    2015-10-01

    Because fatty acid composition influences the flavor and texture of meat, controlling it is particularly important for cattle breeds such as the Japanese Black, characterized by high meat quality. We evaluated the predictive ability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) in fatty acid composition of Japanese Black cattle by assessing the composition of seven fatty acids in 3088 cattle, of which 952 had genome-wide marker genotypes. All sires of the genotyped animals were genotyped, but their dams were not. Cross-validation was conducted for the 952 animals. The prediction accuracy was higher with ssGBLUP than with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for all traits, and in an empirical investigation, the gain in accuracy of using ssGBLUP over BLUP increased as the deviations in phenotypic values of the animals increased. In addition, the superior accuracy of ssGBLUP tended to be more evident in animals whose maternal grandsire was genotyped than in other animals, although the effect was small.

  14. Rheological, microstructural, and in vitro characterization of hybrid chitosan-polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A B A; Lemos, A F; Ferreira, J M F

    2009-03-15

    In this work, hybrid chitosan/hydroxyapatite composites material were developed and characterized. The polymer matrix was first dissolved in polylactic acid, and then hydroxyapatite (HA) was added as filler material. The effects of the added amounts of a crosslinking agent (genipin) and of the concentrations of lactic acid, and of the presence of HA powder on the evolution of rheological properties were evaluated. A significant decrease of gelation time with increasing amounts of crosslinking agent was observed, the effect being even more pronounced in the presence of HA. The chitosan matrix and the composites with a chitosan/HA weight ratio of 2/5 were characterized using microstructural analysis and in vitro tests. The formation of large pore sizes in the chitosan-based scaffolds was favored by low concentrations of lactic acid and genipin. The in vitro tests in synthetic body fluid revealed an extensive formation of an apatitic layer onto the surface of the chitosan/HA composite scaffolds crosslinked with genipin.

  15. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  16. Enhanced proton conductivity of Nafion composite membrane by incorporating phosphoric acid-loaded covalent organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yongheng; Li, Zhen; Yang, Xin; Cao, Li; Wang, Chongbin; Zhang, Bei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-11-01

    Design and fabrication of efficient proton transport channels within solid electrolytes is crucial and challenging to new energy-relevant devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) molecules are impregnated into SNW-1-type covalent organic frameworks (COFs) via vacuum assisted method. High loading of H3PO4 in SNW-1 and low guest leaching rate are achieved due to the similar diameter between H3PO4 and micropores in SNW-1. Then the COF-based composite membranes are fabricated for the first time with impregnated COFs (H3PO4@SNW-1) and Nafion matrix. For the composite membranes, the acid-base pairs formed between H3PO4@SNW-1 networks and Nafion optimize the interfacial interactions and hydrophilic domains. The acidic -PO3H2 groups in pores of H3PO4@SNW-1 provide abundant proton transfer sites. As a result, the continuous proton transfer channels with low energy barrier are created. At the filler content of 15 wt%, the composite membrane exhibits a superior proton conductivity of 0.0604 S cm-1 at 51% relative humidity and 80 °C. At the same time, the maximum power density of single fuel cell is 60.3% higher than that of the recast Nafion membrane.

  17. [Prediction of lipases types by different scale pseudo-amino acid composition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangya; Li, Hongchun; Gao, Jiaqiang; Fang, Baishan

    2008-11-01

    Lipases are widely used enzymes in biotechnology. Although they catalyze the same reaction, their sequences vary. Therefore, it is highly desired to develop a fast and reliable method to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences, or even just to confirm whether they are lipases or not. By proposing two scales based pseudo amino acid composition approaches to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to address the problems. The overall success rates thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test were shown as below: for predicting lipases and nonlipase, the success rates were 92.8%, 91.4% and 91.3%, respectively. For lipase types, the success rates were 92.3%, 90.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Among them, the Z scales based pseudo amino acid composition was the best, T scales was the second. They outperformed significantly than 6 other frequently used sequence feature extraction methods. The high success rates yielded for such a stringent dataset indicate predicting the types of lipases is feasible and the different scales pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches.

  18. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-05-19

    that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.

  19. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    DOE PAGES

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; ...

    2015-05-19

    communities that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.« less

  20. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  1. Closely related intertidal and deep-sea Halomonhystera species have distinct fatty acid compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Vanreusel, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The deep-sea free-living nematode Halomonhystera hermesi, dominant in the sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (1280 m, Barent sea slope), is part of the mainly estuarine Halomonhystera disjuncta species complex consisting of five cryptic species (GD1-GD5). Cryptic species have a very similar morphology raising questions on their specific environmental differences. This study analyzed total fatty acid (FA) compositions of H. hermesi and GD1, one of H. hermesi's closest relatives. Additionally, we experimentally investigated the effect of a temperature reduction, salinity increase and sulphide concentrations on GD1's FA composition. Because nematodes are expected to have low amounts of storage FA, total FA compositions most likely reflect FA contents of cellular membranes. The deep-sea nematode H. hermesi had significantly lower saturation levels and increased highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFAs) proportions due to the presence of docosahexanoic acid (DHA—22:6ω3) and higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA—20:5ω3) proportions. HUFAs were absent in H. hermesi's food source indicating the ability and need for this nematode to synthesize HUFAs in a deep-sea environment. Our experimental data revealed that only a decrease in temperature resulted in lower saturated fatty acids proportions, indicating that the FA content of H. hermesi is most likely a response to temperature but not to sulphide concentrations or salinity differences. In experimental nematodes, EPA proportions were low and DHA was absent indicating that other factors than temperature, salinity and sulphides mediate the presence of these HUFAs in H. hermesi.

  2. Dietary lipids modify the fatty acid composition of cartilage, isolated chondrocytes and matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Watkins, B A; Adkisson, H D

    1994-09-01

    The effects of dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of hyaline cartilage, epiphyseal chondrocytes (EC) and matrix vesicles (MV) were evaluated in chicks. A basal semipurified diet was fed to chicks containing one of the following lipid sources at 70 g/kg: soybean oil, butter+corn oil, margarine+corn oil or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC). Articular and epiphyseal growth cartilage were isolated from the proximal tibiotarsus; EC and MV were subsequently released by trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) digestion followed by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid composition of polar lipids in chick epiphyseal cartilage at three and six weeks, as well as articular cartilage, EC and MV at eight weeks of age revealed the presence of high levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (up to 85.5%) but low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (2.6-10.2%). Mead acid (20:3n-9, > 3%) was also present in cartilage, EC and MV lipids, and was unaffected by the dietary lipid treatments. Total n-3 PUFA concentrations were the highest in cartilage, EC and MV of chicks consuming MEC. Feeding MEC lowered the levels of 20:4n-6 in cartilage, but increased 20:5n-3 levels. The data are consistent with those reported previously which showed that cartilage tissues are low in n-6 PUFA and that they contain 20:3n-9. We furthermore demonstrated that the PUFA composition of cartilage can be modified by dietary lipids.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of polyacrylic acid and composite films containing nanotubes and oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Deen, I; Zhitomirsky, I

    2011-10-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the deposition of thin films of polyacrylic acid (PAA). This method allowed the formation of uniform films of controlled thickness on conductive substrates. It was shown that PAA can be used as a common dispersing agent suitable for charging and EPD of various materials, such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes, halloysite nanotubes, MnO(2), NiO, TiO(2) and SiO(2). The feasibility of EPD of composite films containing the nanotubes and oxide particles in a PAA matrix has been demonstrated. The kinetics of deposition and deposition mechanisms were investigated and discussed. The films were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that film thickness and composition can be varied. Obtained results pave the way for the fabrication of PAA and composite films for biomedical, electrochemical and other applications.

  4. Changes in composition and sulfation patterns of glycoaminoglycans in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ucakturk, Ebru; Akman, Orkun; Sun, Xiaojun; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Dolgun, Anil; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are heterogeneous, linear, highly charged, anionic polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharides units. GAGs have some biological significance in cancer progression (invasion and metastasis) and cell signaling. In different cancer types, GAGs undergo specific structural changes. In the present study, in depth investigation of changes in sulfation pattern and composition of GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS)/heparin (HP), chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan (HA) in normal renal tissue (NRT) and renal cell carcinoma tissue (RCCT) were evaluated. The statistical evaluation showed that alteration of the HS (HSNRT = 415.1 ± 115.3; HSRCCT = 277.5 ± 134.3), and CS (CSNRT = 35.3 ± 12.3; CSRCCT = 166.7 ± 108.8) amounts (in ng/mg dry tissue) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Sulfation pattern in NRT and RCCT was evaluated to reveal disaccharide profiles. Statistical analyses showed that RCCT samples contain significantly increased amounts (in units of ng/mg dry tissue) of 4SCS (NRT = 25.7 ± 9.4; RCCT = 117.1 ± 73.9), SECS (NRT = 0.7 ± 0.3; RCCT = 4.7 ± 4.5), 6SCS (NRT = 6.1 ± 2.7; RCCT = 39.4 ± 34.7) and significantly decreased amounts (in units of ng/mg dry tissue) of NS6SHS (RCCT = 28.6 ± 6.5, RCCT = 10.2 ± 8.0), NS2SHS (RCCT = 44.2 ± 13.8; RCCT = 27.2 ± 15.0), NSHS (NRT = 68.4 ± 15.8; RCCT = 50.4 ± 21.2), 2S6SHS (NRT = 1.0 ± 0.4; RCCT = 0.4 ± 0.3), and 6SHS (NRT = 60.6 ± 17.5; RCCT = 24.9 ± 12.3). If these changes in GAGs are proven to be specific and sensitive, they may serve as potential biomarkers in RCC. Our findings are likely to help us to show the direction for further investigations to be able to bring different diagnostic and prognostic approaches in renal tumors.

  5. Circulation pattern and ice mass exchange for different water compositions in Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, C.; Grosfeld, K.; Siegert, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Vostok, Antarctica's largest known subglacial lake, isolated from direct exchange with the atmosphere or oceans for several million years due to its thick ice cover, provides a unique and so far inaccessible habitat. By implementing the newest available information about the lake geometry into a 3-dimensional fluid-dynamics model the lake circulation was investigated for different water compositions. In the case of fresh water, thermally driven circulation is predicted, as a result of the pressure-dependent melting point at the inclined ice-water interface, in agreement with other investigators. Ice pumping from north to south provides a steady supply of glacial water to the lake, whereby no unsusual geothermal conditions are required for maintaining the circulation and the melting/refreezing balance. The rather weak circulation is driven by very small, temperature determined, density contrasts between the resident lake water and the fresh melt water. The circulation pattern, however, is determined by the strongly structured trough geometry of the lake. For slightly saline water conditions, the circulation pattern is also influenced by the salinity impact on the equation of state and hence on the lake density. This results in a partly increased flow but influences the turnover time scale not significantly. Now, the freshwater flux due to melting of glacial ice stabilizes the stratification of the lake leading to a more pronounced temperature gradient over the water column. Colder water now overrides warmer water portions near bottom, which to a certain degree isolates the resident water mass from the circulation driven by meltig and freezing. In either saline or fresh water conditions approximately 200 m of refrozen ice accumulates beneath Vostok Station, which suggests either possibility is plausible under the current state of knowledge regarding the lake cavity and the hydrochemnistry. Our model results, however, show that the habitat of Lake Vostok will be

  6. Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate applications.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Erkin; Planell, Josep A; Hasirci, Vasif

    2011-11-01

    Novel PLLA composite fibers containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with or without surface lactic acid grafting were produced by extrusion for use as reinforcements in PLLA-based bone plates. Fibers containing 0-50% (w/w) HAp nanorods, aligned parallel to fiber axis, were extruded. Lactic acid surface grafting of HAp nanorods (lacHAp) improved the tensile properties of composites fibers better than the non-grafted ones (nHAp). Best tensile modulus values of 2.59, 2.49, and 4.12 GPa were obtained for loadings (w/w) with 30% lacHAp, 10% nHAp, and 50% amorphous HAp nanoparticles, respectively. Bone plates reinforced with parallel rows of these composite fibers were molded by melt pressing. The best compressive properties for plates were obtained with nHAp reinforcement (1.31 GPa Young's Modulus, 110.3 MPa compressive strength). In vitro testing with osteoblasts showed good cellular attachment and spreading on composite fibers. In situ degradation tests revealed faster degradation rates with increasing HAp content. To our knowledge, this is the first study containing calcium phosphate-polymer nanocomposite fibers for reinforcement of a biodegradable bone plate or other such implants and this biomimetic design was concluded to have potential for production of polymer-based biodegradable bone plates even for load bearing applications.

  7. Ammonia gas sensing behavior of tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite.

    PubMed

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C; Biris, Alexandru S; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-16

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO₂ in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO₂. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO₂ and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO₂ composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported.

  8. Effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid composition of ryegrass and corn experimental silages.

    PubMed

    Alves, S P; Cabrita, A R J; Jerónimo, E; Bessa, R J B; Fonseca, A J M

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted using laboratory mini-silos to study the effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid (FA) composition, including minor or unusual FA, of ryegrass and corn silages. Ryegrass was ensiled for 12 wk with no additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or formic acid. Corn was ensiled for 9 wk without additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or calcium formate. Ensiling affected both total FA content and FA composition of ryegrass silages. Total FA concentration increased (P < 0.001) during ryegrass ensiling. The proportions (g/100 g of total FA) of the major unsaturated FA, 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, were not affected (P > 0.05) by ensiling. However, their concentration (mg/g of DM) in silages was greater (P=0.017 and P=0.001, respectively) than in fresh ryegrass. Two 18:2 FA (trans-11,cis-15 and cis-9,cis-15) that were not originally present in the fresh ryegrass were detected in silages. Silage additives affected the FA composition of ryegrass silages, mostly by increasing the proportions of SFA, but not on total FA concentration. Ensiling did not affect (P=0.83) total FA content of corn silages; however, FA composition was affected, mostly by decreasing the proportions of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Silage additives had no effect on corn silage FA composition. Exposing corn silages to air resulted in no oxidation of FA or reduction in total FA content or composition.

  9. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes.

  10. Effect of environmental salinity manipulation on uptake rates and distribution patterns of waterborne amino acids in the Pacific hagfish.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    Among vertebrates, hagfish are the only known iono- and osmoconformers, and the only species thus far documented to absorb amino acids directly across the skin. In the current study, short-term (6h) manipulations of exposure salinities (75-125% seawater) were conducted to determine whether changes in osmotic demands influenced the uptake and tissue distribution of waterborne amino acids (alanine, glycine and phenylalanine), in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. No changes in erythrocyte or muscle amino acid accumulation rates were noted, but the patterns of plasma amino acid accumulation were suggestive of regulation. Contrary to expectations, glycine transport across the skin in vitro was enhanced in the lowest exposure salinity, but no other salinity-dependent changes were demonstrated. Overall, this study indicates that uptake and distribution of amino acids varies with salinity, but not in a manner that is consistent with a role for the studied amino acids in maintaining osmotic balance in hagfish.

  11. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues and M. longissimus dorsi of Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Smith, S B

    1992-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to document the fatty acid composition of tissues from purebred Wagyu cattle from Japan and North American crossbred Wagyu. In experiment 1, subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissues (n = 23) were obtained from Japanese cattle representing the five Japanese fat quality grades. The monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio (MUFA:SFA) was greatest in fat quality grade 5 samples (2·57) and least in the fat quality grade 3 samples (2·08; P < 0·05). In experiment 2, M. longissimus dorsi and the associated intramuscular (i.m.) and s.c. adipose tissues were obtained from carcasses of Wagyu crossbred steers (1/2-7/8) raised in the USA. Fatty acid composition varied among depots, but the MUFA:SFA ratio in s.c. adipose tissue (1·46) was not different from values reported for other breeds of cattle. In experiment 3, samples of M. longissimus dorsi ribsteaks were obtained from three regions in Japan. Samples from the Gunma region had the greatest (P < 0·05) MUFA:SFA ratio (2·10), relative to samples from the Kagoshima (1·82) and Miyazaki (1·65) regions. The data indicate that beef from purebred Wagyu cattle raised in Japan is enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids, and that the degree of enrichment depends upon the region of Japan from which the samples were obtained.

  12. The heparan and heparin metabolism pathway is involved in regulation of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Pan, Zengxiang; MacNeil, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Six genes involved in the heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism pathway, DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like), EXTL1 (exostoses (multiple)-like 1), HS6ST1 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1), HS6ST3 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3), NDST3 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3), and SULT1A1 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 1), were investigated for their associations with muscle lipid composition using cattle as a model organism. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/multiple nucleotide length polymorphisms (MNLPs) were identified in five of these six genes. Six of these mutations were then genotyped on 246 Wagyu x Limousin F(2) animals, which were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. Association analysis revealed that DSEL, EXTL1 and HS6ST1 significantly affected two stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices, the amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). In particular, HS6ST1 joined our previously reported SCD1 and UQCRC1 genes to form a three gene network for one of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices. These results provide evidence that genes involved in heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism are also involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in bovine muscle. Whether the SNPs affected heparan sulfate proteoglycan structure is unknown and warrants further investigation.

  13. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  14. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  16. Influence of ethanol and temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Baleiras Couto, M M; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1995-03-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile of Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains, isolated from different sources, after growth at increasing concentrations of ethanol and/or decreasing temperatures were determined. Differences in fatty acid composition between Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains at standard conditions (25 degrees C, 0% initial ethanol) were observed and could be related to ethanol tolerance. Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain isolated from wine showed the highest ethanol tolerance in relation to growth rate. Surprisingly, an increase in ethanol concentration or a decrease in growth temperature caused a decrease in the degree of unsaturation of total cellular fatty acids. On the other hand, the mean chain length increased (high ethanol concentration) or decreased (low temperature) depending on the stress factor. When both stress situations (high ethanol concentration and low temperature) were present at the same time, the degree of unsaturation remained approximately constant. With decreasing temperatures, the C16/C18 ratio increased in studies of initial ethanol content below 5%, and above 5% ethanol, decreased.

  17. Bioactive enzyme-metal composites: the entrapment of acid phosphatase within gold and silver.

    PubMed

    Ben-Knaz, Racheli; Avnir, David

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the entrapment of an enzyme within an aggregated metallic matrix and the development of a bioactive enzyme-metal composite. Whereas the use of organic polymers and metal oxides for the preparation of enzymatically active materials is well developed, the third principle enzyme-material combination, namely protein-metal bulk, has not yet been reported. A new methodology for the entrapment of organic molecules and polymers within metals has been employed for the preparation of bioactive acid phosphatase@gold and acid phosphatase@silver, according to which room temperature reduction of the metal cation is carried out in the presence of the enzyme to be entrapped. Protectability of the entrapped enzyme against harsh conditions is shown: the acidic enzyme is kept alive under basic conditions.

  18. Nucleic acid distribution pattern in avian erythrocytes and mammalian lymphocytes: comparative studies by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Isitor, G N; Asgarali, Z; Pouching, K

    2008-12-01

    Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, as well as immature duck erythrocytes, as delineated spherical nuclear bodies that mostly corresponded with euchromatin zones of the cells in routine Wright-stain blood smears. The nuclear DNA of the rat lymphocytes, on the other hand, was observed as a more diffuse green fluorescing nuclear areas, with punctate variably-sized diffuse areas of RNA red fluorescence. RNA red color fluorescence was also evident in the narrow cytoplasm of the lymphocytes, especially in large lymphocytes, in comparison with the cytoplasm of the mature avian erythrocytes that completely lacked any nucleic acid fluorescence. Nuclear RNA fluorescence was lacking in the mature chicken erythrocytes, compared with those of the mature and immature duck erythrocytes as well as lymphocytes of both avian and rats blood. The significance of these findings lies in the establishment of normal benchmarks for the nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acid pattern in eukaryotic cells. These normal benchmarks become valuable in rapid diagnostic situations associated with pathologies, such as the presence of viral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can alter the nucleic acid pattern of the host cells, and in conditions of cellular abnormal protein aggregations. Variability of cellular nucleic acid pattern can also aid in prognostic assessments of neoplastic conditions.

  19. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species. PMID:26515033

  20. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  1. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-30

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced (13)C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  2. Development of palm-based reference materials for the quantification of fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm stearin.

  3. Membrane crystallinity and fuel crossover in direct ethanol fuel cells with Nafion composite membranes containing phosphotungstic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hongjun; Lee, Sunghwan; Kim, Suran; Oh, Chungik; Ryu, Jeongjae; Kim, Jaegyu; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2016-11-01

    Interest has been growing in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) due to their non-toxicity, low cost and potential contribution to energy issues in third world countries. A reduction in fuel cross-over is of key importance to enhance the performance of DEFCs that operate at low temperatures (<100 °C). We report on the effect of the addition of phosphotungstic acid (PWA) in Nafion membrane on the ethanol-crossover for DEFC application. A set of PWANafion composite membranes (PWA 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt%) was prepared by solution casting and their microstructures, diffraction patterns and permeability were systematically characterized. The significant reduction in ethanol-crossover was observed with increasing PWA concentration in PWA-Nafion membranes, which was mainly attributed to an improvement in crystallinity of the membrane. PWA provides additional nucleation sites during solidification leading to higher crystallinity, which is supported by the membrane permeability tests. These PWA-Nafion composites were implemented in proto-type DEFC devices as a membrane and the maximum power density achieved was 22% higher than that of commercial Nafion-117 device.

  4. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  5. Downward biogenic fluxes in the SW Black Sea: dynamics of their compositional and temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubassi, I.; Gogou, A.; Stavrakakis, S.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Grégoire, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Black Sea, downward fluxes of biogenic elements in the water column were monitored during a 1 yr (2007-2008) sediment trap deployment in the SW basin (at 1000 and 2000 m water depth) aiming at appraising their amplitude, seasonal variability and prime controlling factors, and thus better assessing the biogeochemical functioning of this environment. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and carbonate fluxes display a strong seasonal pattern, with peak values in late autumn (POC) and early summer (carbonates). Mean POC fluxes at 1000 and 2000 m were 11.3 and 6 mg/m2/d, respectively, corresponding to 1.8 and 1 % of the estimated primary production. We used source-specific lipid biomarkers in order to determine the major phytoplankton contributors to the biogenic fluxes, as well as terrestrial organic inputs, and to shed light into the composition and variability of the biological system. These molecular data clearly demonstrate that diatoms (in particular Rhizosolenia species) are foremost drivers of the peak POC flux in late autumn. As expected, diatom productivity is also closely related with the patterns of the export opal fluxes. Furthermore, biomarkers document a major bloom of Emiliania Huxleyi in late spring/early summer, likely sustained by riverine nutrient inputs and/or regenerated nutrients. However, POC export is less strong during the coccolithophorid bloom. In contract, this bloom controls the unique peak value of carbonate flux. Dinoflagellate-specific biomarkers reveal a less prominent seasonal pattern, with higher values in late autumn and summer. In all the aforementioned periods biomarker tracers also evidence that zooplankton (and its fecal pellets) are important constituents of the export POC flux. As for the terrestrial inputs, they are mostly characterized by a high peak in late spring/early summer, when enhanced riverine discharges occur. Our findings demonstrate that the export of biogenic elements is closely linked to the structure of the

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids