Science.gov

Sample records for acid composition similar

  1. Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid compositions and molecular weights but differ in fatty acid acylation.

    PubMed Central

    Luhrs, C A; Pitiranggon, P; da Costa, M; Rothenberg, S P; Slomiany, B L; Brink, L; Tous, G I; Stein, S

    1987-01-01

    A membrane-associated folate binding protein (FBP) and a soluble FBP, which is released into the culture medium, have been purified from human KB cells using affinity chromatography. By NaDodSO4/PAGE, both proteins have an apparent Mr of approximately 42,000. However, in the presence of Triton X-100, the soluble FBP eluted from a Sephadex G-150 column with an apparent Mr of approximately 40,000 (similar to NaDodSO4/PAGE) but the membrane-associated FBP eluted with an apparent Mr of approximately 160,000, indicating that this species contains a hydrophobic domain that interacts with the detergent micelles. The amino acid compositions of both forms of FBP were similar, especially with respect to the apolar amino acids. In addition, the 18 amino acids at the amino termini of both proteins were identical. The membrane FBP, following delipidation with chloroform/methanol, contained 7.1 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein, of which 4.7 mol was amide-linked and 2.4 mol was ester-linked. The soluble FBP contained only 0.05 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein. These studies indicate that the membrane FBP of KB cells contains covalently bound fatty acids that may serve to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. Images PMID:3476960

  2. Using reduced amino acid composition to predict defensin family and subfamily: Integrating similarity measure and structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Li, Qian-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Defensins are essentially ancient natural antibiotics with potent activity extending from lower organisms to humans. They can inhibit the growth or virulence of micro-organisms directly or indirectly enhance the host's immune system. The successful prediction of defensin peptides will provide very useful information and insights for the basic research of defensins. In this study, by selecting the N-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) obtained from structural alphabet named Protein Blocks as the feature parameters, the increment of diversity (ID) is firstly developed to predict defensins family and subfamily. The jackknife test based on 2-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) with 13 reduced amino acids shows that the overall accuracy of prediction are 91.36% for defensin family, and 94.21% for defensin subfamily. The results indicate that ID_RAAA is a simple and efficient prediction method for defensin peptides. PMID:19591890

  3. Effects of trophic similarity on community composition.

    PubMed

    Morlon, Hélène; Kefi, Sonia; Martinez, Neo D

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how ecological processes determine patterns among species coexisting within ecosystems is central to ecology. Here, we explore relationships between species' local coexistence and their trophic niches in terms of their feeding relationships both as consumers and as resources. We build on recent concepts and methods from community phylogenetics to develop a framework for analysing mechanisms responsible for community composition using trophic similarity among species and null models of community assembly. We apply this framework to 50 food webs found in 50 Adirondack lakes and find that species composition in these communities appears to be driven by both bottom-up effects by which the presence of prey species selects for predators of those prey, and top-down effects by which prey more tolerant of predation out-compete less tolerant prey of the same predators. This approach to community food webs is broadly applicable and shows how species interaction networks can inform an increasingly large array of theory central to community ecology. PMID:25292331

  4. Segments of amino acid sequence similarity in beta-amylases.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, F; Rhodes, C

    1988-01-01

    In alpha-amylases from animals, plants and bacteria and in beta-amylases from plants and bacteria a number of segments exhibit amino acid sequence similarity specific to the alpha or to the beta type, respectively. In the case of the beta-amylases the similar sequence regions are extensive and they are disrupted only by short interspersed dissimilar regions. Close to the C terminus, however, no such sequence similarity exist. PMID:2464171

  5. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Compositional Similarities and Distinctions between Titan’s Evaporitic Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, S. M.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-04-01

    We document the similarities in composition between the equatorial basins Tui Regio, Hotei Regio, and other 5-μm-bright materials, notably the north polar evaporites, by investigating the presence and extent of an absorption feature at 4.92 μm. In most observations, Woytchugga Lacuna, Ontario Lacus, MacKay Lacus, deposits near Fensal, some of the lakes and dry lake beds south of Ligeia, and the southern shores of Kraken Mare share the absorption feature at 4.92 μm observed in the spectra of Tui and Hotei. Besides Woytchugga and at Fensal, these 5-μm-bright deposits are geomorphologically substantiated evaporites. Thus, the similarity in composition strengthens the hypothesis that Tui and Hotei once contained liquid. Other evaporite deposits, however, do not show the 4.92 μm absorption, notably Muggel Lacus and the shores of Ligeia Mare at the north pole. This difference in composition suggests that there is more than one kind of soluble material in Titan’s lakes that can create evaporite and/or that the surface properties at the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer wavelength scale are not uniform between the different deposits (crystal size, abundance, etc.). Our results indicate that the surface structure, composition, and formation history of Titan’s evaporites may be at least as dynamic and complex as their Earth counterparts.

  7. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  8. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  9. Assessing intraplate volcano compositional similarities with cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The compositional variation in intraplate volcanoes is commonly assessed as a function of end-members that were recognized as extrema in a 3D space, defined by radiogenic isotope ratios. The specific isotope ratios used are the principle components in the intraplate volcano compositional data set, and by reducing the dimensionality of the data set to 3, groupings and trends in the data can be visually identified. Such groupings can then be used to compare to other geochemical or geophysical data sets (e.g. correlations with seismic models). A complementary approach in examining groupings and trends in a data set is the use of cluster analysis, which can be used to recognize groups of similar intraplate volcanic systems. Since it is not known a priori how many clusters may exist, hierarchical cluster analysis can be used to examine the relationships between individual intraplate volcanic systems. The technique compares the Euclidian distance between the data available at the different locations, and this data can have a large number of dimensions. The results can be visualized as a dendrogram, where individual locations are represented by different branches (or leafs) that join at different distances. We use Matlab to examine the data extracted from pre-compiled GEOROC database files, including location, major elements, large ion lithophile elements, high field strength elements, rare earth elements and radiogenic isotopes. These data do not vary over the same range in values and are therefore first normalized by the total range in the data set for each particular element or isotope ratio. Since multiple samples have been analyzed for most intraplate volcanic systems, we assess the results for the average, the maximum, and the minimum values for each element. In addition, we investigate the robustness of the outcome by removing one element at a time from the data set and recalculating a new dendrogram. One of the outcomes is that the resulting clusters seem to

  10. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  11. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  12. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds - Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Hamill, Patrick; Goodman, Jindra K.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the PSC particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is the inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an Er-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 198 K as found for the Antarctic samples.

  13. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  14. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds: Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, R.F.; Snetsinger, K.G. ); Hamill, P.; Goodman, J.K. ); McCormick, M.P. )

    1990-03-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an ER-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a first appearance temperature T{sub fa} = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a first appearance temperature T{sub fa} = 198 K was found for the Antarctic samples.

  15. Chemical composition of acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Jacob, D.J.; Flagan, R.C.; Morgan, J.J.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1982-11-12

    Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation and evaporation of water vapor on preexisting aerosol and the scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid.

  16. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  17. A primordial origin for the compositional similarity between the Earth and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2015-04-01

    Most of the properties of the Earth-Moon system can be explained by a collision between a planetary embryo (giant impactor) and the growing Earth late in the accretion process. Simulations show that most of the material that eventually aggregates to form the Moon originates from the impactor. However, analysis of the terrestrial and lunar isotopic compositions show them to be highly similar. In contrast, the compositions of other Solar System bodies are significantly different from those of the Earth and Moon, suggesting that different Solar System bodies have distinct compositions. This challenges the giant impact scenario, because the Moon-forming impactor must then also be thought to have a composition different from that of the proto-Earth. Here we track the feeding zones of growing planets in a suite of simulations of planetary accretion, to measure the composition of Moon-forming impactors. We find that different planets formed in the same simulation have distinct compositions, but the compositions of giant impactors are statistically more similar to the planets they impact. A large fraction of planet-impactor pairs have almost identical compositions. Thus, the similarity in composition between the Earth and Moon could be a natural consequence of a late giant impact.

  18. A primordial origin for the compositional similarity between the Earth and the Moon.

    PubMed

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B; Raymond, Sean N

    2015-04-01

    Most of the properties of the Earth-Moon system can be explained by a collision between a planetary embryo (giant impactor) and the growing Earth late in the accretion process. Simulations show that most of the material that eventually aggregates to form the Moon originates from the impactor. However, analysis of the terrestrial and lunar isotopic compositions show them to be highly similar. In contrast, the compositions of other Solar System bodies are significantly different from those of the Earth and Moon, suggesting that different Solar System bodies have distinct compositions. This challenges the giant impact scenario, because the Moon-forming impactor must then also be thought to have a composition different from that of the proto-Earth. Here we track the feeding zones of growing planets in a suite of simulations of planetary accretion, to measure the composition of Moon-forming impactors. We find that different planets formed in the same simulation have distinct compositions, but the compositions of giant impactors are statistically more similar to the planets they impact. A large fraction of planet-impactor pairs have almost identical compositions. Thus, the similarity in composition between the Earth and Moon could be a natural consequence of a late giant impact. PMID:25855458

  19. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-01-01

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

  20. Auger spectroscopy analysis of magnesian calcite overgrowths precipitated from seawater and solutions of similar composition

    SciTech Connect

    Mucci, A.; Morse, J.W.; Kaminsky, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Novel procedures were developed to determine the composition of magnesian calcite overgrowths precipitated on calcite crystals from seawater solutions. A surface sensitive analytical technique, Scanning Auger Microanalysis (SAM), was used to determine the composition of very thin overgrowths (< 0.5 ..mu..m) which could not be analyzed by more conventional techniques. Thin magnesian calcite overgrowths were precipitated by exposing Iceland spar calcite crystals to slightly supersaturated (Omega similarly ordered 1.2) synthetic seawater solutions of various Mg to Ca ratios, at 25/sup 0/C, for various lengths of time. The SAM analysis of these thin overgrowths (30-300 A) reveals that their composition is identical to the composition of much thicker overgrowths (approx. = 4000 A) which were precipitated from highly supersaturated solutions (3 less than or equal to Omega less than or equal to 17) on reagent grade calcite powder. These results strongly suggest that the magnesian calcite overgrowth is in exchange equilibrium with the solution from which it precipitates and that it is representative of the solubility controlling phase. A magnesian calcite overgrowth containing 8 +/- 1 mol percent magnesium carbonate will precipitate from standard composition seawater ((Mg/sup 2 +/)/(Ca/sup 2 +/) = 5.13) under their experimental conditions. The SAM analysis of the surface-most adsorbed layer (approx. = 10 A) on the overgrowths precipitated from seawater solutions of various magnesium-to-calcium concentration ratios reveals that the magnesium-to-calcium concentration ratio in the surface-most region follows a typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm profile. Since it appears that the composition of the surface-most adsorbed layer of a magnesian calcite does not play an active role in determining the composition of the precipitating solid, they speculate that the adsorbed layers on the overgrowth may be viewed as a porous region within which the growth process takes place.

  1. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  2. Temporal Patterns in Bacterioplankton Community Composition in Three Reservoirs of Similar Trophic Status in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiancheng; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Jun; Lei, Anping; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    The bacterioplankton community composition's (BCC) spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir) of similar trophic status in Bao'an District, Shenzhen (China), were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. Water samples were collected monthly in each reservoir during 12 consecutive months. Distinct differences were detected in band number, pattern, and density of DGGE at different sampling sites and time points. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that changes in the bacterial community structure mainly varied with seasons, and the patterns of change indicated that seasonal forces might have a more significant impact on the BCC than eutrophic status in the reservoirs, despite the similar Shannon-Weiner index among the three reservoirs. The sequences obtained from excised bands were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria. PMID:27322295

  3. Amino acid composition of humic substances in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral amino acid fragments of humic and fulvic acid molecules from tundra soils have been identified and quantified. A significant weight fraction of amino acids has been found in humic acid preparations, which exceeds their content in fulvic acids. Features of the amino acid composition of humic substances along the soil profile and depending on the degree of hydromorphism and the proportions of different (neutral, basic, acidic, cyclic) groups in amino acids have been revealed. The molar ratio between the hydroxy and heterocyclic amino acids reflects the degree of humification of the soil.

  4. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  5. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  6. Freshwater bacteria are stoichiometrically flexible with a nutrient composition similar to seston

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotner, James B.; Hall, Edward K.; Scott, J. Thad; Heldal, Mikal

    2010-01-01

    Although aquatic bacteria are assumed to be nutrient-rich, they out-compete other foodweb osmotrophs for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) an apparent contradiction to resource ratio theory. This paradox could be resolved if aquatic bacteria were demonstrated to be nutrient-poor relative other portions of the planktonic food web. In a survey of >120 lakes in the upper Midwest of the USA, the nutrient content of bacteria was lower than previously reported and very similar to the Redfield ratio, with a mean biomass composition of 102:12:1 (C:N:P). Individual freshwater bacterial isolates grown under P-limiting and P-replete conditions had even higher C:P and N:P ratios with a mean community biomass composition ratio of 875C:179N:1P suggesting that individual strains can be extremely nutrient-poor, especially with respect to P. Cell-specific measurements of individual cells from one lake confirmed that low P content could be observed at the community level in natural systems with a mean biomass composition of 259C:69N:1P. Variability in bacterial stoichiometry is typically not recognized in the literature as most studies assume constant and nutrient-rich bacterial biomass composition. We present evidence that bacteria can be extremely P-poor in individual systems and in culture, suggesting that bacteria in freshwater ecosystems can either play a role as regenerators or consumers of inorganic nutrients and that this role could switch depending on the relationship between bacterial biomass stoichiometry and resource stoichiometry. This ability to switch roles between nutrient retention and regeneration likely facilitates processing of terrestrial organic matter in lakes and rivers and has important implications for a wide range of bacterially mediated biogeochemical processes.

  7. Compositionality and the angular gyrus: A multi-voxel similarity analysis of the semantic composition of nouns and verbs.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive and neural systems that enable conceptual processing must support the ability to combine (and recombine) concepts to form an infinite number of ideas. Two candidate neural systems for conceptual combination-the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left angular gyrus (AG)-have been characterized as "semantic hubs" due to both functional and anatomical properties; however, these two regions likely support different aspects of composition. Here we consider two hypotheses for the role of AG in conceptual combination, both of which differ from a putative role for the ATL in "feature-based" combinatorics (i.e., meaning derived by combining concepts' features). Firstly, we examine whether AG is more sensitive to function-argument relations of the sort that arise when a predicate is combined with its arguments. Secondly, we examine the non-mutually exclusive possibility that AG represents information carried on a verb in particular, whether this be information about event composition or about thematic relations denoted uniquely by verbs. We identified voxels that respond differentially to two-word versus one-word stimuli, and we measured the similarity of the patterns in these voxels evoked by (1) pairs of two-word phrases that shared a noun that was an argument, thus sharing function-argument composition (e.g. eats meat and with meat), in comparison with two-word phrases that shared only a noun, not an argument (e.g., eats meat and tasty meat); and (2) stimulus pairs that shared only an event (operationalized here as sharing a verb; e.g. eats meat and eats quickly), in comparison to both of the above. We found that activity patterns in left AG tracked information relating to the presence of an event-denoting verb in a pair of two-word phrases. We also found that the neural similarity in AG voxel patterns between two phrases sharing a verb correlated with subjects' ratings of how similar the meanings of those two verb phrases were. These findings

  8. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  9. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  10. Exploring the Diagnostic Utility of Facial Composites: Beliefs of Guilt Can Bias Perceived Similarity between Composite and Suspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Steve D.; Gregory, Amy Hyman; Carlucci, Marianna

    2009-01-01

    Facial composite research has generally focused on the investigative utility of composites--using composites to find suspects. However, almost no work has examined the diagnostic utility of facial composites--the extent to which composites can be used as evidence against a suspect. For example, detectives and jurors may use the perceived…

  11. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The δ13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  12. New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B; Bairoch, A

    1993-01-01

    301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. J. 280, 309-316]. Approximately half of the families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number), whereas the other half were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). A > 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. On the basis of a comparison of 482 sequences corresponding to 52 EC entries, 45 families, out of which 22 are polyspecific, can now be defined. This classification has been implemented in the SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank. PMID:8352747

  13. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes. PMID:24368211

  14. Relatedness of acyl carrier proteins shown by amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Walker, T A; Ernst-Fonberg, M L

    1982-01-01

    1. Relatedness among the following carrier proteins was assessed on the basis of amino acid compositions: eight acyl carrier proteins (ACP's) associated with fatty acid synthesis, ACP's associated with citrate lyase and citramalate lyase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein and cytochrome 552. Two independent indices of amino acid composition were used. 2. The fatty acid synthesis-associated ACP's of many organisms and the lyase-associated ACP's show a high degree of relatedness among one another. 3. The ACP's show no relatedness to biotin carboxyl carrier protein or cytochrome 552. PMID:7128903

  15. The effect of diet on the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria and myelin in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, L.

    1965-01-01

    1. Three groups of female rats (8–12 weeks old) were maintained respectively on a linoleic acid-rich diet, a linoleic acid-poor predominantly saturated-fatty acid diet and a normal diet. Changes in the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin were observed. 2. Of the serum fatty acids, linoleic acid showed the greatest change in the percentage of the total acids in response to diet; the change in the proportion of oleic acid was considerable. The percentages of arachidonic acid in serum fatty acids in the groups on the linoleic acid-rich and linoleic acid-poor diets were similar, but higher than those in the normal group. 3. Changes in the proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid occurred in brain fatty acids that to some extent paralleled those occurring in the serum. Changes in the proportions of most other acids in the serum fatty acids were not accompanied by corresponding changes in the brain fatty acids. 4. The percentage fatty acid compositions of a mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin are given, and changes in the relative proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and possibly some docosapolyenoic acids were demonstrated to occur as a result of diet. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the possible aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:5881652

  16. Comparison of the Morphology and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Composition of 27 Strains of Nitrifying Bacteria1

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Stanley W.; Mandel, Manley

    1971-01-01

    The gross morphology, fine structure, and per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) composition of deoxyribonucleic acid of 27 strains of nitrifying bacteria were compared. Based on morphological differences, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were separated into four genera. Nitrosomonas species and Nitrosocystis species formed one homogenous group, and Nitrosolobus species and Nitrosospira species formed a second homogenous group in respect to their deoxyribonucleic acid GC compositions. Similarly, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were separated into three genera based on their morphology. The members of two of these nitrite-oxidizing genera, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus, had similar GC compositions, but Nitrospina gracilis had a significantly lower GC composition than the members of the other two genera. Images PMID:4939767

  17. CDC group IIc: phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid composition, and isoprenoid quinone content.

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, D G; Moss, C W; Daneshvar, M I; Wallace-Shewmaker, P L

    1996-01-01

    Twenty strains of glucose-utilizing, small gram-negative slightly pleomorphic rods that grew well aerobically and that were isolated from clinical specimens formed a phenotypically similar group that was designated CDC group IIc. The phenotypic characteristics of CDC group IIc were most similar to those of CDC groups IIe and IIh, the major differences being that CDC group IIc produced acid from sucrose, hydrolyzed esculin, and usually reduced nitrate. The CDC group IIc strains were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for their cellular fatty acid compositions, and all contained relatively large amounts of isobranched hydroxy and nonhydroxy acids. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the quinone extract showed menaquinone-6 as the major component. Both the cellular fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone compositions were consistent with the profiles of CDC groups IIe and IIh. Thirty percent of the isolates were from human blood. PMID:8862612

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  19. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  20. [Effect of organic composition of humic acids on Enterobacteria multiplication].

    PubMed

    Buzoleva, L S; Sidorenko, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enterobacteria have been found to be capable of active multiplication in humic acids isolated from bentonite clays containing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Humic acids fractions have been found to be heterogeneous by their molecular weight and organic composition; consequently, they have been found to produce different influence in the multiplication of bacteria. PMID:11548272

  1. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  2. Adansonian Analysis and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1965-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 89:454–461. 1965.—A total of 33 strains of Serratia marcescens were subjected to Adansonian analysis for which more than 200 coded features for each of the organisms were included. In addition, the base composition [expressed as moles per cent guanine + cytosine (G + C)] of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prepared from each of the strains was determined. Except for four strains which were intermediate between Serratia and the Hafnia and Aerobacter group C of Edwards and Ewing, the S. marcescens species group proved to be extremely homogeneous, and the different strains showed high affinities for each other (mean similarity, ¯S = 77%). The G + C ratio of the DNA from the Serratia strains ranged from 56.2 to 58.4% G + C. Many species names have been listed for the genus, but only a single clustering of the strains was obtained at the species level, for which the species name S. marcescens was retained. S. kiliensis, S. indica, S. plymuthica, and S. marinorubra could not be distinguished from S. marcescens; it was concluded, therefore, that there is only a single species in the genus. The variety designation kiliensis does not appear to be valid, since no subspecies clustering of strains with negative Voges-Proskauer reactions could be detected. The characteristics of the species are listed, and a description of S. marcescens is presented. PMID:14255714

  3. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  4. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. PMID:25186278

  5. [Amino acid composition of rice grain proteins].

    PubMed

    Peruanskiĭ, Iu V; Savich, I M

    1976-01-01

    The composition of the major reserve proteins of rice grain--globulins, prolamines and glutelins--was examined in four rice varieties (Dubovsky 129, Kuban 3, Alakul, Ushtobinsky). Globulins proved to be most heterogeneous whereas glutelins appeared to be least heterogeneous. In regards to the ratio of components globulins showed high variability and glutelins displayed high stability. PMID:1005365

  6. Similar PAH Fate in Anaerobic Digesters Inoculated with Three Microbial Communities Accumulating Either Volatile Fatty Acids or Methane

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10 % to 30 %, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH

  7. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH removal

  8. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  9. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  11. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  14. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  15. Venus, Earth and Mars: Present bounds on similarities and differences in bulk composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettel, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The bulk compositions of the terrestrial planets are constrained in part by rigorous bounds derivable from geophysical data and from chemical data obtained in situ or by remote sensing. In large part, however, the bulk compositions are constrained only by the inferred plausibility of assumptions made about the processes responsible for producing planets. Present data are consistent with Venus, Earth and Mars all having solar ratios of the major, non-volatile elements. The mantle of Mars has a higher FeO content than the Earth's present upper mantle. The FeO content of the Venus mantle is poorly constrained. Abundances of minor elements are virtually unconstrained by geophysical data and only weakly constrained by existing chemical data. Inferences drawn from SNC meteorites suggest that Mars may be enriched in most volatiles relative to the Earth. Simple models in which volatiles are added in a single component probably do not accurately predict bulk volatile inventories of the planets.

  16. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  17. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  18. Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Dong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids are widely distributed in different sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as self-replicating extrachromosomal genetic materials, and have received considerable attention due to their close relationship with many important functions as well as some industrially relevant characteristics of the LAB species. They are interesting with regard to the development of food-grade cloning vectors. This review summarizes new developments in the area of lactic acid bacteria plasmids and aims to provide up to date information that can be used in related future research. PMID:26068451

  19. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  20. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  1. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  2. MATERNAL EFFECTS FOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOYBEAN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) oil accounts for nearly half of the edible vegetable oil production worldwide. The fatty acid composition of soybean seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand to produce soy...

  3. Maternal Effects on Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. The success of developing soybean lines with genetically altered seed oil is greatly determined by the rate of genetic gain through selection. Maternal effec...

  4. Temporal Patterns in Bacterioplankton Community Composition in Three Reservoirs of Similar Trophic Status in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiancheng; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Jun; Lei, Anping; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    The bacterioplankton community composition’s (BCC) spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir) of similar trophic status in Bao’an District, Shenzhen (China), were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. Water samples were collected monthly in each reservoir during 12 consecutive months. Distinct differences were detected in band number, pattern, and density of DGGE at different sampling sites and time points. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that changes in the bacterial community structure mainly varied with seasons, and the patterns of change indicated that seasonal forces might have a more significant impact on the BCC than eutrophic status in the reservoirs, despite the similar Shannon-Weiner index among the three reservoirs. The sequences obtained from excised bands were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria. PMID:27322295

  5. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). PMID:23075272

  6. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  7. Method of preparing and using and composition for acidizing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-08-21

    A composition and method of acidizing or fracturing a subterranean formation comprises contacting the formation with a composition comprising an acid, urea, and a selected gelling agent. The urea is present in an amount sufficient to extend the viscous stability of the gelled acid composition in comparison to the acid and gelling agent alone.

  8. Similar GABAA receptor subunit composition in somatic and axon initial segment synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs) express many GABAAR subunit types and receive GABAergic inputs from distinct interneurons. Previous experiments revealed input-specific differences in α1 and α2 subunit densities in perisomatic synapses, suggesting distinct IPSC decay kinetics. However, IPSC decays evoked by axo-axonic, parvalbumin- or cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells were found to be similar. Using replica immunogold labeling, here we show that all CA1 PC somatic and AIS synapses contain the α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 and γ2 subunits. In CA3 PCs, 90% of the perisomatic synapses are immunopositive for the α1 subunit and all synapses are positive for the remaining five subunits. Somatic synapses form unimodal distributions based on their immunoreactivity for these subunits. The α2 subunit densities in somatic synapses facing Cav2.1 (i.e. parvalbumin) or Cav2.2 (cholecystokinin) positive presynaptic active zones are comparable. We conclude that perisomatic synapses made by three distinct interneuron types have similar GABAA receptor subunit content. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18426.001 PMID:27537197

  9. Similar GABAA receptor subunit composition in somatic and axon initial segment synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs) express many GABAAR subunit types and receive GABAergic inputs from distinct interneurons. Previous experiments revealed input-specific differences in α1 and α2 subunit densities in perisomatic synapses, suggesting distinct IPSC decay kinetics. However, IPSC decays evoked by axo-axonic, parvalbumin- or cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells were found to be similar. Using replica immunogold labeling, here we show that all CA1 PC somatic and AIS synapses contain the α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 and γ2 subunits. In CA3 PCs, 90% of the perisomatic synapses are immunopositive for the α1 subunit and all synapses are positive for the remaining five subunits. Somatic synapses form unimodal distributions based on their immunoreactivity for these subunits. The α2 subunit densities in somatic synapses facing Cav2.1 (i.e. parvalbumin) or Cav2.2 (cholecystokinin) positive presynaptic active zones are comparable. We conclude that perisomatic synapses made by three distinct interneuron types have similar GABAA receptor subunit content. PMID:27537197

  10. [Psychotropic effect of phenibut salts and their compositions with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaia, A N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2011-01-01

    The spectra of psychotropic action of some phenibut salts (succunate, maleate, nicotinate) and a composition of phenibut with glutamic acid were studied. It is established, that the substances studied show psychotropic activity spectrum generally similar to that of phenibut, but different in expressiveness of some particular effects. Compound RSPU-149 exhibited the most pronounced psychotropic action: its anxiolytic effect was below, the antidepressant effect was comparable with, and the nootrope action exceeded that of phenibut. PMID:21476277

  11. Comparison of the fatty-acid compositions of prey items and yolks of Australian insectivorous scincid lizards.

    PubMed

    Speake, Brian K; Herbert, Jacquie F; Thompson, Michael B

    2004-07-01

    The yolk fatty-acid profiles of a range of species of insectivorous scincid lizards generally conform to a common pattern, typified by high proportions of linoleic acid (13.5-18.5% of total fatty acids), substantial proportions of alpha-linolenic acid (2.4-8.2%), and significant amounts of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (1.6-3.3%), eicosapentaenoic (0.7-1.2%) and docosahexaenoic (0.7-1.6%) acids. We characterised the fatty-acid compositions of ten prey taxa that are eaten by female skinks during vitellogenesis. Linoleic acid is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in all prey, excepting Orthoptera where alpha-linolenic acid predominates. To varying extents, alpha-linolenic acid is present in all the prey items. Arachidonic acid forms over 1% of total fatty acids for six of the prey items. Four of the prey items contain eicosapentaenoic acid at over 1%. Most notably, docosahexaenoic acid is essentially absent from all the prey items. There is a general similarity between the fatty-acid profiles of prey and yolk, suggesting that the linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids required for egg formation can be supplied directly from the maternal diet. However, the docosahexaenoic acid of the egg lipids cannot derive from the diet and must, therefore, be formed by biosynthesis in the maternal liver, using dietary alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids as precursors. PMID:15085383

  12. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  13. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  14. Temporal distance decay of similarity of ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a subtropical evergreen forest in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Kawaguchi, Eri; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are known to show spatial distance decay of similarity, which arises from both deterministic niche-based processes and stochastic spatial-based processes (e.g. dispersal limitation). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of incorporating the spatial-based processes in the study of community ecology of ECM fungi. However, few studies have investigated the temporal distance decay of similarity of ECM fungal communities. More specifically, the role of stochastic temporal-based processes, which could drive the temporal distance decay of similarity independently of niche-based processes, in the temporal variation of the communities remains unclear. Here we investigated ECM fungi associated with roots ofCastanopsis sieboldiiat 3-month intervals over a 2-year period. We found that dissimilarity of the ECM fungal community composition was significantly correlated with temporal distance but not with environmental distance among sampling dates. Both climatic and temporal variables significantly explained the temporal variation of the community composition. These results suggest that temporal variations of ECM fungi can be affected not only by niche-based processes but also by temporal-based processes. Our findings imply that priority effects may play important roles in the temporal turnover of ECM fungal community at the site. PMID:26989126

  15. Composite spectra: XX. 45 Cancri. Two stars with very similar masses but quite different evolutionary states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. E. M.; Griffin, R. F.

    2015-02-01

    From accurate radial-velocity measurements covering 11 circuits of the orbit of the composite-spectrum binary 45 Cnc, together with high-resolution spectroscopy spanning nearly 3 circuits, we have (i) isolated cleanly the spectrum of the early-type secondary, (ii) classified the component spectra as G8 III and A3 III, (iii) derived the first double-lined orbit for the system and a mass ratio (M_1/M_2) of 1.035 ± 0.01, and (iv) extracted physical parameters for the component stars, deriving the masses and (log) luminosities of the G star and A star as 3.11 and 3.00 M⊙} R⊙, and 2.34 and 2.28 L⊙, respectively, with corresponding uncertainties of ±0.10 M⊙ R⊙ and ±0.09 L⊙. Since the mass ratio is close to unity, we argue that the more evolved component is unlikely to have been a red giant long enough to have made multiple ascents of the RGB, an argument that is supported somewhat by the rather high eccentricity of the orbit (e = 0.46) and the evolutionary time-scales of the two components, but chiefly by the presence of significant Li I in the spectrum of the cool giant.

  16. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. PMID:26213005

  17. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  18. First-order kinetics analysis of monomer composition dependent polyhydroxyalkanoic acid degradation in Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mun Hwan; Rho, Jong Kook; Lee, Ho-Joo; Song, Jae Jun; Yoon, Sung Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2003-01-01

    The intracellular degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) in pseudomonads was investigated by first-order kinetics analysis using the initial rate method. One type of PHA was accumulated in five Pseudomonas spp., P. oleovorans, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. citronellolis, and P. putida, by growing them on octanoic acid. The monomer compositions of the five PHA were not significantly different from one another: 85-90 mol % 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3HO), 7-12 mol % 3-hydorxycaproic acid (3HC), and 3-6 mol % 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3HD). The first-order degradation rate constants (k(1)) for the octanoate-derived PHA (designated P(3HO)) in the five species were in a similar range between 0.060 and 0.088 h(-1). This may indicate the similar specificities of the five intracellular depolymerases. In addition, the similar k(1) among the different species may correlate with the high degree of amino acid sequence identities (over 85%) among the intracellular PHA depolymerase phaZ genes. Six other chemically different types of PHA were accumulated in P. putida from n-nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, 5-phenyvaleric acid, or 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid as a single or a mixed carbon source. The calculated k(1) values were characteristic to each PHA, reflecting their chemical structures. In comparison with P(3HO), an increase in the levels of the two minor monomers 3HC and 3HD as in P(21 mol % 3HC-co-56 mol % 3HO-co-23 mol % 3HD) significantly slowed the rate of intracellular degradation. From the comparison of k(1) values, it is suggested that the P. putida intracellular depolymerase is most active against P(3HO). PMID:12625741

  19. ADANSONIAN ANALYSIS AND DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF SOME GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Mandel, M.

    1964-01-01

    Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of some gram-negative bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 87:1412–1422. 1964.—The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base compositions and S values for a minimum of 134 coded properties were determined for representative cultures of the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Aerobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, and Flavobacterium. Those cultures having a high degree of similarity by the criterion of numerical taxonomy were found to have similar DNA base compositions. The relative affinities of clusters of cultures suggest taxonomic relations. Eleven species of Xanthomonas might be a single species, and V. metschnikovii was shown to be more closely related to enteric bacteria than to other vibrios which, in turn, were found to be like pseudomonads. Aeromonas was found to be intermediate in similarity to enterics and pseudomonads and divisible into at least two, but possibly three, species. F. aquatile was unlike any of the other organisms studied, and its DNA also differed greatly in composition from other representatives of the genus. PMID:14188722

  20. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  1. Similar glacial and Holocene deep water circulation inferred from southeast Pacific benthic foraminiferal carbon isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    1999-04-01

    We present Holocene and last glacial maximum (LGM) oxygen and carbon isotope measurements on Planulina wuellerstorfi in six southeast Pacific cores. Sedimentation rates are low in this part of the ocean, and measurements were made on individual foraminiferal shells in order to identify the Holocene and glacial individuals on the basis of their extreme δ18O. The new δ13C data were combined with previous P. wuellerstorfi data for interpretation of global thermohaline circulation. Data from the Southern Ocean were examined closely for regional coherency and a few anomalous δ13C values suspected of having productivity overprint were removed. The resulting global δ13C distributions and gradients indicate that the deep water circulation was similar during the Holocene and LGM. This interpretation brings δ13C data to a better agreement with Cd/Ca data and marks a sharp contrast with a widely held view based on δ13C measurements that the glacial Southern Ocean was the terminus of the thermohaline circulation. The proposed presence of glacial North Atlantic Deep Water does not necessarily contradict the postulated presence of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water.

  2. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  3. Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, R; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-11-15

    The construction and performance of bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors for the selective determination of l- or d-amino acids is reported. D- or L-Amino acid oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and the mediator ferrocene were coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of a graphite-70% Teflon electrode matrix. Working conditions including amino acid oxidase loading and pH were optimized. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.00 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different biosensors illustrate the robustness of the bioelectrodes design. Calibration plots by both amperometry in stirred solutions and flow injection with amperometric detection were obtained for L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, D-leucine, D-methionine, D-serine, and D-valine. Differences in sensitivity were discussed in terms of the hydrophobicity of the substrate and of the electrode surface. The bienzyme composite electrode was applied to the determination of L- and D-amino acids in racemic samples, as well as to the estimation of the L-amino acids content in muscatel grapes. PMID:11700983

  4. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  5. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  6. CPAG: software for leveraging pleiotropy in GWAS to reveal similarity between human traits links plasma fatty acids and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liuyang; Oehlers, Stefan H; Espenschied, Scott T; Rawls, John F; Tobin, David M; Ko, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated that the same genetic variants can be associated with multiple diseases and other complex traits. We present software called CPAG (Cross-Phenotype Analysis of GWAS) to look for similarities between 700 traits, build trees with informative clusters, and highlight underlying pathways. Clusters are consistent with pre-defined groups and literature-based validation but also reveal novel connections. We report similarity between plasma palmitoleic acid and Crohn's disease and find that specific fatty acids exacerbate enterocolitis in zebrafish. CPAG will become increasingly powerful as more genetic variants are uncovered, leading to a deeper understanding of complex traits. CPAG is freely available at www.sourceforge.net/projects/CPAG/. PMID:26374098

  7. Fatty acid composition analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao

    2003-04-01

    Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty acid content and composition have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1ω9) and oleic (18:1ω9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic acid (18:1ω11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.

  8. The relationship of certain tymoviruses assessed from the amino acid composition of their coat proteins.

    PubMed

    Paul, H L; Gibbs, A; Wittman-Liebold, B

    1980-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the coat proteins of the following viruses is reported: Andean potato latent, clitoria yellow vein, desmodium yellow mottle, dulcamara mottle, eggplant mosaic, okra mosaic, ononis yellow mosaic, scrophularia mottle, and, as controls, cocksfoot mild mosaic and cocksfoot mottle viruses. These data, together with some already published, were used to compute classifications of the tymoviruses. These classifications show a general similarity to Koenig's serological classification of the tymoviruses, but the correlation is poor, unlike similar comparisons of tobamovirus classifications. Several possible reasons for the poor correlation have been examined and excluded, and its implications are discussed. PMID:7372445

  9. In vitro toxicity of carbon nanotubes, nano-graphite and carbon black, similar impacts of acid functionalization.

    PubMed

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Akono, Céline; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe

    2015-12-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-graphite (NG) are graphene-based nanomaterials which share exceptional physicochemical properties, but whose health impacts are unfortunately still not well understood. On the other hand, carbon black (CB) is a conventional and widely studied material. The comparison of these three carbon-based nanomaterials is thus of great interest to improve our understanding of their toxicity. An acid functionalization was carried out on CNT, NG and CB so that, after a thorough characterization, their impacts on RAW 264.7 macrophages could be compared for a similar surface chemistry (15 to 120 μg·mL(-1) nanomaterials, 90-min to 24-h contact). Functionalized nanomaterials triggered a weak cytotoxicity similar to the pristine nanomaterials. Acid functionalization increased the pro-inflammatory response except for CB which did not trigger any TNF-α production before or after functionalization, and seemed to strongly decrease the oxidative stress. The toxicological impact of acid functionalization appeared thus to follow a similar trend whatever the carbon-based nanomaterial. At equivalent dose expressed in surface and equivalent surface chemistry, the toxicological responses from murine macrophages to NG were higher than for CNT and CB. It seemed to correspond to the hypothesis of a platelet and fiber paradigm. PMID:26381085

  10. Nucleic Acid Similarities Among Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Pseudomonas multivorans, and Actinobacillus mallei1

    PubMed Central

    Rogul, M.; Brendle, J. J.; Haapala, D. K.; Alexander, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Annealing experiments on membrane filters were carried out with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from selected strains of the nomen-species of Pseudomonas, Actinobacillus, Chromobacterium, and Micrococcus, with the use of DNA of Pseudomonas pseudomallei and Actinobacillus mallei as reference materials. Under the usual conditions employed in these experiments, the results were not quantitatively reproducible. Incorporation of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) into the incubation medium greatly increased differences in comparative binding. DNA binding in agar matrices was examined in the presence and absence of DMSO at various incubation temperatures. It was found that the greatest specificity, stability, and total binding for DNA containing high amounts of guanine and cytosine occurred in the presence of DMSO. Under the most stringent annealing conditions permitted in agar, DNA species from P. pseudomallei and A. mallei in the presence of DMSO demonstrated interspecific relative bindings of 76 to 86% when compared to the homologous reactions. The thermal elution midpoints (Em) of these duplexed interspecific DNA species were quite close to the homologous Em values. The relative bindings of P. multivorans DNA types to either reference DNA ranged between 6 to 27%, and the Em values were 4 to 7 C less than those for the homologous reactions. PMID:5438051

  11. Influence of glyphosate on amino acid composition of Egyptian broomrape.

    PubMed

    Nandula, V K; Westwood, J H; Foster, J G; Foy, C L

    2001-03-01

    The parasitic plant broomrape is entirely dependent on its host for reduced carbon and nitrogen and is also susceptible to inhibition by glyphosate that is translocated to the parasite through a host. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of broomrape parasitism on amino acid concentrations of two hosts: common vetch that is tolerant of low levels of glyphosate and oilseed rape that has been genetically engineered for glyphosate resistance. The influence of glyphosate on the amino acid content of broomrape and the two hosts was also examined. Amino acid concentrations in leaves and roots of parasitized common vetch plants were generally similar to those of the corresponding tissues of nonparasitized plants. Amino acid concentrations in broomrape were lower than those of the parasitized common vetch root. For common vetch, glyphosate applied at rates that selectively inhibited broomrape growth did not alter individual amino acid concentrations in the leaves, but generally increased amino acid levels at 0.18 kg ha-1. Glyphosate application also increased the amino acid concentrations, with the exception of arginine, of broomrape growing on common vetch and did not generally influence concentrations in leaves or roots of common vetch. In oilseed rape, parasitization by broomrape generally led to higher amino acid concentrations in leaves but lower concentrations in roots of parasitized plants. Broomrape had higher amino acid concentrations than roots of the parasitized oilseed rape. Glyphosate applied at 0.25 and 0.5 kg ha-1 generally increased the amino acid concentrations in oilseed rape leaves, but the 0.75 kg ha-1 application caused the amino acid concentrations to decrease compared to those of untreated plants. In oilseed rape root the general trend was an increase in the concentration of amino acids at the two highest rates of glyphosate. Individual amino acid concentrations in broomrape attachments growing on oilseed rape were generally increased

  12. Cellular fatty acid composition of cyanobacteria assigned to subsection II, order Pleurocapsales.

    PubMed

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M; Butterfield, J E

    2000-05-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of five of the six genera of unicellular cyanobacteria in subsection II, Pleurocapsales (Dermocarpa, Xenococcus, Dermocarpella, Myxosarcina and the Pleurocapsa assemblage) contained high proportions of saturated straight-chain fatty acids (26-41% of the total) and unsaturated straight chains (40-67%). Isomers of 16:1 were the main monounsaturated acid component (11-59%). Polyunsaturated acids were present at trace levels (0-1% or less) in Xenococcus and Myxosarcina, at concentrations of less than 7% in Dermocarpa, Dermocarpella, Pleurocapsa and CCMP 1489, and at high concentrations (35% or more) in Chroococcidiopsis. Chroococcidiopsis was also different in terms of the percentage of 16:1 isomers (10-12%) compared to other genera (30-59%), and in terms of total 16-carbon and 18-carbon fatty acids. In general, the composition and heterogeneity of fatty acids in the order Pleurocapsales was similar to that reported for the unicellular cyanobacteria of subsection I, order Chroococcales. PMID:10843042

  13. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  14. Associations between a fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphism and blood arachidonic acid compositions in Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Sayaka; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Ishijima, Akiko; Minezaki, Takayuki; Baba, Mamiko; Kontai, Yoshiko; Horikawa, Chika; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism rs174547 (T/C) of the fatty acid desaturase-1 gene, FADS1, is associated with changes in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipid (PL) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition in elderly Japanese participants (n=124; 65 years or older; self-feeding and oral intake). The rs174547 C-allele carriers had significantly lower arachidonic acid (ARA; n-6 PUFA) and higher linoleic acid (LA, n-6 PUFA precursor) levels in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL (15% and 6% ARA reduction, respectively, per C-allele), suggesting a low LA to ARA conversion rate in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL of C-allele carriers. α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA precursor) levels were higher in the plasma PL of C-allele carriers, whereas levels of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were unchanged in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL. Thus, rs174547 genotypes were significantly associated with different ARA compositions of the blood of elderly Japanese. PMID:26869086

  15. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  16. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  17. Fatty-Acid Composition of Seeds and Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Sixteen Sapindaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Diogenes J Gusmão; Barbosa, Mariana O; Silva, Rejane M; da Silva, Suzene I; de Oliveira, Antonio Fernando M

    2015-08-01

    Circumscriptions for the Sapindaceae family and its infrafamilial relationships have been widely discussed. Certain groups are highly morphologically similar; thus, it is difficult to identify certain taxa. DNA Analyses have also indicated complex phylogenetic relationships, and it is difficult to relate such analyses to morphological data. Given the above concerns, this study aimed to investigate the fatty-acid profiles of the seed oils of 16 Sapindaceae species belonging to five tribes and to evaluate their potential chemotaxonomic significance. In total, eleven fatty acids were identified, and eicosenoic acid predominated in nine species. Multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) of the fatty-acid profiles of the seed oils allowed to separate them in two major clusters. The first cluster, characterized by oils with high eicosenoic acid levels, included all species belonging to the Paullinieae tribe (Cardiospermum, Paullinia, and Serjania species). In the second main cluster, the chemical similarity of the oils was lower, and the species belonged to different tribes. Nevertheless, the tree investigated Allophylus species (Thouinieae tribe) constituted a separate subcluster. Thus, the results showed that the fatty-acid composition of the seed oils of Sapindaceae species provide chemotaxonomic support for the separation of the Paullinieae tribe from the other tribes studied. PMID:26265579

  18. Protein location prediction using atomic composition and global features of the amino acid sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Cherian, Betsy Sheena; Nair, Achuthsankar S.

    2010-01-22

    Subcellular location of protein is constructive information in determining its function, screening for drug candidates, vaccine design, annotation of gene products and in selecting relevant proteins for further studies. Computational prediction of subcellular localization deals with predicting the location of a protein from its amino acid sequence. For a computational localization prediction method to be more accurate, it should exploit all possible relevant biological features that contribute to the subcellular localization. In this work, we extracted the biological features from the full length protein sequence to incorporate more biological information. A new biological feature, distribution of atomic composition is effectively used with, multiple physiochemical properties, amino acid composition, three part amino acid composition, and sequence similarity for predicting the subcellular location of the protein. Support Vector Machines are designed for four modules and prediction is made by a weighted voting system. Our system makes prediction with an accuracy of 100, 82.47, 88.81 for self-consistency test, jackknife test and independent data test respectively. Our results provide evidence that the prediction based on the biological features derived from the full length amino acid sequence gives better accuracy than those derived from N-terminal alone. Considering the features as a distribution within the entire sequence will bring out underlying property distribution to a greater detail to enhance the prediction accuracy.

  19. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Particulate-Bound Fatty Acids From the California Borderland Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Campbell, B. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the hydrogen-isotopic composition of fatty acids associated with particulate organic matter (POM) from depth transects in three California Borderland stations. Our goals were to determine (1) the natural variability of δD values in POM-associated fatty acids and (2) the magnitude of isotopic fractionations associated with fatty acid degradation in the marine environment. Some differences in molecular abundance were observed between completely ventilated and occasionally suboxic sites, but no corresponding shifts in δD values were measured. Values of δD for specific fatty acids were generally consistent between stations. Saturated fatty acids (C14, C16, and C18) yielded δD values ranging from -230‰ to -132‰, with δD values generally decreasing with chain length. We found no evidence of extreme D-enrichment of the C18 fatty acid as has been observed in studies of isolated macroalgae (Chikaraishi, et al, 2004). The unsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids showed a similar trend while the polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6 was somewhat enriched in D (δD values ranging from -186‰ to -68‰) relative to 20:5 (-208‰ to -93‰). Unsaturated fatty acids tended to have more positive δD values than their saturated counterparts, opposite the trend observed in sediments from the same location. The bacterial fatty acid C15 showed even greater deuterium enrichment with δD values ranging from - 145‰ to -88‰. This offset can likely be attributed to differences in biosynthetic fractionation between bacteria and eukaryotes, to differences in hydrogen isotopic composition of the food sources of these organisms, or some combination of these two factors. Within the surface waters, fatty acids become enriched with depth by an average of 25‰. The C18:0 acid is a significant exception, becoming depleted by 48‰ over that same interval. Below 100 meters depth, all fatty acids tend to become slightly depleted in D with increasing depth. The difference in δD values

  20. Fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Gomez Zavaglia, A; Disalvo, E A; De Antoni, G L

    2000-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance of eight strains of thermophilic lactobacilli were studied. Seven of these contained the same polar and neutral lipids, the five major components making up 90% of the cellular fatty acid pool being 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1 and C19 cyclopropane (cyc19:0). Strain comparison by means of cluster analysis based on the fatty acid ratios using the overlap coefficient revealed two well defined clusters. One was formed by three strains of species Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, the other included five strains of the species Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus and Lb. helveticus. Resistance of strains with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (66-70%) decreased with increasing cyc19:0 concentrations. In contrast, in strains with a low concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (42-49%), increasing cyc19:0 levels were associated with increased freeze-thaw resistance. PMID:10840678

  1. Adaptive modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and metabolic thermosuppression of brown adipose tissue in heat-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S. K.; Ohno, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    Thermogenesis, especially facultative thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), is less important in high ambient temperature and the heat-acclimated animals show a lower metabolic rate. Adaptive changes in the metabolic activity of BAT are generally found to be associated with a modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition. However, the effect of heat acclimation on membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition is as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the thermogenic activity and phospholipid fatty acid composition of interscapular BAT from heat-acclimated rats (control: 25+/-1°C, 50% relative humidity and heat acclimation: 32+/-0.5°C, 50% relative humidity). Basal thermogenesis and the total thermogenic capacity after noradrenaline stimulation, as estimated by in vitro oxygen consumption of BAT (measured polarographically using about 1-mm3 tissue blocks), were smaller in the heat-acclimated group than in the control group. There was no difference in the tissue content of phospholipids between the groups when expressed per microgram of DNA. The phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by a capillary gas chromatograph. The state of phospholipid unsaturation, as estimated by the number of double bonds per fatty acid molecule, was similar between the groups. The saturated fatty acid level was higher in the heat-acclimated group. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, heat acclimation decreased docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid levels, and increased the arachidonic acid level. The tissue level of docosahexaenoic acid correlated with the basal oxygen consumption of BAT (r=0.6, P<0.01) and noradrenaline-stimulated maximum values of oxygen consumption (r=0.5, P<0.05). Our results show that heat acclimation modifies the BAT phospholipid fatty acids, especially the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, which is possibly involved in the metabolic thermosuppression.

  2. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  3. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods. PMID:26576657

  4. Composition of Humic Acids of the Lake Baikal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakova, O.; Chimitdorzhieva, G.; Andreeva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances are the final stage of the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter in the biosphere. Its natural compounds are found not only in soil, peat, coal, and sediments of basins. Chemical composition and properties of humic substances are determined by the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore the study of the unique Lake Baikal sediments can provide information about their genesis, as well as the processes of organic matter transformation. For this purpose, preparations of humic acids (HA) were isolated by alkaline extraction method. The composition of HA was investigated by the elemental analyzer CHNS/O PerkinElmer Series II. Various located sediments of the Lake Baikal were the objects of the study: 1 - Chivyrkuisky Bay, 2 - Kotovo Bay, 3 - Selenga river delta near Dubinino village, 4 - Selenga river delta near Murzino village. Data on the elemental composition of HA in terms of ash-free portion show that the carbon content (CC) is of 50-53% with a maximum value in a sample 3, and minimum - in a sample 2. Such values are characteristic also for the soils with low biochemical activity. The hydrogen content is of 4,2-5,3%, a maximum value is in a sample 1. Data recalculation to the atomic percentages identified following regularities. The CC of HA is of 35-39 at. %. Hydrogen content is of 37-43 at. %. According to the content of these elements investigated substances are clearly divided into two groups: HA of the sediments of the Lake Baikal and river Selenga delta. The magnitude of the atomic ratio H/C can be seen varying degrees of condensation of the molecules of humic acids. The high atomic ratio H/C in HA of the former group indicates the predominance of aliphatic structures in the molecules. Humic acids of the later group are characterized by a low value H/C (<1), suggesting a large proportion of aromatic components in HA composition. In sediments of the Selenga river delta there is an addition of organic matter of terrigenous

  5. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  6. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  7. Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Hedges, John I.

    2000-08-01

    Compositions and fluxes of amino acids and major chloropigments were measured in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean as part of the US JGOFS EqPac program. Fluxes decreased by several orders of magnitude, from 400 to 0.03 mg amino acid m -2 d -1 and from 9 mg to 0.0004 μg chloropigment m -2 d -1, between production in the surface waters and accumulation at the sea floor. Most rapid losses were in surface waters and at the sediment interface. Losses from the mid-water column were as great as those in surface waters or at the sediment interface, but occurred over a much greater depth range. Export flux estimates based on floating sediment traps were higher near the equator and decreased poleward, similar to primary production. Little meridional difference was apparent in composition of either amino acids or pigments in exported material over the 24° of latitude sampled in spite of the large (factor of 5-6) difference in fluxes. However, pigment composition changed dramatically with depth in the water column, and considerable diagenesis occurred before particles reached the sediment. Pigment compositions suggest that suspended particles were more degraded in the northern than in the southern hemisphere, possibly due to differences in food chain structure. Compositional changes in amino acids occurred in the water column, but were most noticeable at the sediment-seawater interface. Increases in the relative proportions of aspartic acid and glycine with depth were more consistent with preferential preservation within the particulate matrix than with any inherent stability of these compounds to heterotrophic consumption. The contribution of amino acids and pigments to total organic carbon clearly shows that selective degradation of organic matter occurs with depth; this is not evident from total organic carbon data alone. Amino acids contributed about a quarter of the total organic carbon (OC) in surface waters and 16% of the OC in sediment; pigments decreased from 1

  8. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  9. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  10. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%), stearic acid (6.36–7.73%), oleic acid (4.31–6.98%), arachidic acid (ND–3.48%), margaric acid (1.44–2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  11. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  12. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  14. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on bile acid composition in hamster bile.

    PubMed

    Matejka, M; Vescina, C; Carducci, C N; Alayón, A; Dios, A; Scarlatto, E; Mamianetti, A

    1990-01-01

    The modification in the composition of bile acids in hamster by the administration of high dose of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups: a control group, two groups that received 0.5 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days and another two groups that received 1 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days. After ether anaesthesia the gallbladder was removed and bile was immediately aspirated. Bile acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Taurolithocholic (TLCA) and glycolithocholic acids (GLCA) increased significantly in all treated groups. The glyco/tauro ratio of 0.69 in controls became more than 1 in treated animals except in the case of lithocholic acid (LCA) conjugates which remained less than 1. UDCA derivatives increased proportionally to the administered dose and the cholic/cheno ratio diminished significantly. A moderate increase of 3- and 7-keto derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was observed in all treated groups but the above mentioned increment was especially evident in 3-keto derivatives. A high percentage of UDCA administered in the hamster was likely transformed to CDCA and the glyco conjugates of the bile acids were the predominant species except for the LCA derivatives. PMID:2367280

  15. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  16. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  17. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

    2010-10-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon

  18. A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils

    PubMed Central

    Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

  19. Morphology and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes from monkeys exposed to ozone for one year

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, E.C.; Goheen, S.C.; Rao, G.A.

    1983-12-01

    Monkeys (Macaca radiata) were exposed to a low dose (0.64 ppm) of ozone (O/sub 3/) for 8 hr each day over a 1-year period. Control monkeys were exposed to filtered air. The morphology of the red blood cell (RBC) from these monkeys was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Red cells from control monkeys had normal morphology with 69% having biconcave shape (discocytes). In O/sub 3/-exposed animals, blood contained only 35% discocytes. Knizocytes, stomatocytes, and spherocytes each have defined shape which are different from discocytes. The number of knizocytes and stomatocytes in O/sub 3/-exposed monkeys was that of controls. In addition, significant levels of spherocytes were observed while they were absent in the blood of controls. The fatty acid composition of RBC from control and O/sub 3/-exposed monkeys was the same. These were similar to that of human RBC. However, earlier reports of monkey RBC fatty acid composition differ from our results. These are discussed. The authors conclude that low-dose O/sub 3/ exposure changes the morphology, but not the fatty acid composition, of erthrocytes in vivo. 29 references.

  20. trans-3-Chloroacrylic Acid Dehalogenase from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 Shares Structural and Mechanistic Similarities with 4-Oxalocrotonate Tautomerase

    PubMed Central

    Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Saunier, Raymond; Janssen, Dick B.

    2001-01-01

    The genes (caaD1 and caaD2) encoding the trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (CaaD) of the 1,3-dichloropropene-utilizing bacterium Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. strain GJ1. CaaD is a protein of 50 kDa that is composed of α-subunits of 75 amino acid residues and β-subunits of 70 residues. It catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of the β-vinylic carbon-chlorine bond in trans-3-chloroacrylic acid with a turnover number of 6.4 s−1. On the basis of sequence similarity, oligomeric structure, and subunit size, CaaD appears to be related to 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT). This tautomerase consists of six identical subunits of 62 amino acid residues and catalyzes the isomerization of 2-oxo-4-hexene-1,6-dioate, via hydroxymuconate, to yield 2-oxo-3-hexene-1,6-dioate. In view of the oligomeric architecture of 4-OT, a trimer of homodimers, CaaD is postulated to be a hexameric protein that functions as a trimer of αβ-dimers. The sequence conservation between CaaD and 4-OT and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggested that Pro-1 of the β-subunit and Arg-11 of the α-subunit are active-site residues in CaaD. Pro-1 could act as the proton acceptor/donor, and Arg-11 is probably involved in carboxylate binding. Based on these findings, a novel dehalogenation mechanism is proposed for the CaaD-catalyzed reaction which does not involve the formation of a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate. PMID:11418568

  1. Fatty acid composition modulates sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila to warnericin RK, an antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Labanowski, Jérome; Sahr, Tobias; Ferreira, Thierry; Lacombe, Christian; Buchrieser, Carmen; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Héchard, Yann

    2011-04-01

    Warnericin RK is an antimicrobial peptide, produced by a Staphyloccocus warneri strain, described to be specifically active against Legionella, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for Legionnaires' disease. Warnericin RK is an amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, which possesses a detergent-like mode of action. Two others peptides, δ-hemolysin I and II, produced by the same S. warneri strain, are highly similar to S. aureus δ-hemolysin and also display anti-Legionella activity. It has been recently reported that S. aureus δ-hemolysin activity on vesicles is likewise related to phospholipid acyl-chain structure, such as chain length and saturation. As staphylococcal δ-hemolysins were highly similar, we thus hypothesized that fatty acid composition of Legionella's membrane might influence the sensitivity of the bacteria to warnericin RK. Relationship between sensitivity to the peptide and fatty acid composition was then followed in various conditions. Cells in stationary phase, which were already described as less resistant than cells in exponential phase, displayed higher amounts of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and short chain fatty acids. An adapted strain, able to grow at a concentration 33 fold higher than minimal inhibitory concentration of the wild type (i.e. 1μM), was isolated after repeated transfers of L. pneumophila in the presence of increased concentrations of warnericin RK. The amount of BCFA was significantly higher in the adapted strain than in the wild type strain. Also, a transcriptomic analysis of the wild type and adapted strains showed that two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the adapted strain. These genes encode enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids respectively. Their repression was in agreement with the decrease of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid chain length in the adapted strain. Conclusively, our results indicate that the increase of BCFA and the decrease of fatty acid

  2. Influence of dietary partially hydrogenated fat high in trans fatty acids on lipid composition and function of intestinal brush border membrane in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa, S A.I.

    2001-02-01

    The effect of dietary hydrogenated fat (Indian vanaspati) high in trans fatty acids (6 en%) on lipid composition, fluidity and function of rat intestinal brush border membrane was studied at 2 and 8 en% of linoleic acid. Three groups of weanling rats were fed rice-pulse based diet containing 10% fat over a ten week period: Group I (groundnut oil), Group II (vanaspati), Group III (vanaspati + safflower oil). The functionality of the brush border membrane was assessed by the activity of membrane bound enzymes and transport of D-glucose and L-leucine. The levels of total cholesterol and phospholipids were similar in all groups. The data on fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids showed that, at 2 en% of linoleic acid in the diet, trans fatty acids lowered arachidonic acid and increased linoleic acid contents indicating altered polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased while the activities of sucrase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and transport of D-glucose and L-leucine were not altered by dietary trans fatty acids. However at higher intake of linoleic acid in the diet, trans fatty acids have no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal brush border membrane. These data suggest that feeding dietary fat high in trans fatty acids is associated with alteration in intestinal brush border membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and alkaline phosphatase activity only when the dietary linoleic acid is low. PMID:11182555

  3. Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to acidocalcisomes

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Lia Carolina Soares; Gomes, Fabio; Maciel, Luis Renato Maia; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia; Plattner, Helmut; Hentschel, Joachim; Kawazoe, Urara; Barrabin, Hector; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    The structural organization of parasites has been the subject of investigation by many groups and has lead to the identification of structures and metabolic pathways that may represent targets for anti-parasitic drugs. A specific group of organelles named acidocalcisomes has been identified in a number of organisms, including the apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, where they have been shown to be involved in cation homeostasis, polyphosphate metabolism, and osmoregulation. Their structural counterparts in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria have not been fully characterized. In this work, the ultrastructural and chemical properties of acidocalcisomes in Eimeria were characterized. Electron microscopy analysis of Eimeria parasites showed the dense organelles called volutin granules similar to acidocalcisomes. Immunolocalization of the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes, showed labeling in vesicles of size and distribution similar to the dense organelles seen by electron microscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements of the kinetics of proton uptake showed a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity. X-ray mapping revealed significant amounts of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, and Zn in their matrix. The results suggest that volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic, dense organelles and possess structural and chemical properties analogous to those of other acidocalcisomes, suggesting a similar functional role in these parasites. PMID:21699625

  4. Characterization and chemical composition of fatty acids content of watermelon and muskmelon cultivars in Saudi Arabia using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Albishri, Hassan M.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Moussa, Tarek A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The growth in the production of biodiesel, which is principally fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has been phenomenal in the last ten years because of the general desire to cut down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and also as a result of the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Objective: Establish whether there is any relationship between two different species (watermelon and muskmelon) within the same family (Cucurbitaceae) on fatty acid compositions and enumerate the different fatty acids in the two species. Materials and Methods: Extraction of fatty acids from the two species and preparation the extract to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis to determine the fatty acids compositions qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The analyzed plants (watermelon and muskmelon) contain five saturated fatty acids; tetrdecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid with different concentrations, while muskmelon contains an extra saturated fatty acid named eicosanoic acid. The watermelon plant contains five unsaturated fatty acids while muskmelon contains three only, the two plants share in two unsaturated fatty acids named 9-hexadecenoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid, the muskmelon plant contains higher amounts of these two acids (2.04% and 10.12%, respectively) over watermelon plant (0.88% and 0.25%, respectively). Conclusion: The chemical analysis of watermelon and muskmelon revealed that they are similar in saturated fatty acids but differ in unsaturated fatty acids which may be a criterion of differentiation between the two plants. PMID:23661995

  5. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Vaniman, David T.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni (is) approximately 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving (is) approximately 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni (is) approximately 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  6. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  7. Striking similarities are exhibited by two small Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acids and the adenovirus-associated ribonucleic acids VAI and VAII

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M.D.; Gottlieb, E.; Lerner, M.R.; Steitz, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the region of the Epstein-Barr virus genome that specified two small ribonucleic acids (RNAs), EBER 1 and EBER 2, has been determined. Both of these RNAs are encoded by the right-hand 1,000 base pairs of the EcoRI J fragment of EBV deoxyribonucleic acid. EBER 1 is 166 (167) nucleotides long and EBER 2 is 172 +- 1 nucleotides long; the heterogeneity resides at the 3' termini. The EBER genes are separated by 161 base pairs and are transcribed from the same deoxyribonucleic acid strand. In vitro, both EBER genes can be transcribed by RNA polymerase III; sequences homologous to previously identified RNA polymerase III intragenic transcription control regions are present. Striking similarities are therefore apparent both between the EBERs and the two adenovirus-associated RNAs, VAI and VAII, and between the regions of the two viral genomes that specify these small RNAs. We have shown that VAII RNA as well as VAI RNA and the EBERs exist in ribonucleoprotein complexes which are precipitable by anti-La antibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Finally the authors have demonstrated that the binding of protein(s) from uninfected cells confers antigenicity on each of the four virus-encoded small RNAs.

  8. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    PubMed

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration, showed significantly greater concentrations of SFA (26.67 mg/g), MUFA (26.50 mg/g), and PUFA (2.37 mg/g) in LM from AN cattle, as compared with LM from BR and RM cattle (P < 0.001). Interestingly, BR purebreds had the least PUFA concentration (1.49 mg/g; P similar to that of RM (P = 0.924). Regardless of breed, the MUFA proportion was always the greatest (47.58%; P composition (1.49 to 2.37 mg/g and 4.36 to 8.78%; P < 0.001). Beef LM fatty acid composition was characterized by palmitic and oleic acids being the most

  9. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  10. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics. PMID:27083372

  11. Iron oxohydroxide-polyacrylic acid magnetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata-Zamora, M. E.; Arriola, H.; Nava, N.; Saniger, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    Powdered nanometer-sized precipitates of Fe(II)Fe(III) 2O x(OH) y were obtained by reacting solutions of ferrous-ferric salts with a Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratio < 2, with an excess of ammonium hydroxide. These precipitates were then mixed at room temperature with a solution of polyacrylic acid (PAA) in order to obtain a composite material. The XRD analysis showed that the iron oxohydroxide precipitates, with an average size around 10 nm, were crystalline and had a spinel structure resembling to either magnetite or maghemite. The Mössbauer spectra of the iron oxohydroxide particles presented a major magnetic phase with the double Zeeman splitting characteristic of magnetite and a minor paramagnetic phase probably originated by the nanometer size of the particles. Its structure was found to correspond to a disordered spinel, as result of the analysis of the intrinsic magnetic field and its splitting parameters. The composite material PAA-Fe(II)Fe(III) 2O x(OH) y presented a diffractogram close to the original oxohydroxide, but its Mössbauer spectrum showed a major paramagnetic phase. This change was explained as a consequence of the chemical coordination of the nanometer sized iron oxohydroxides particles with the PAA carboxylate groups.

  12. Citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds enhance calvarial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4 mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  13. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance in dairy cows, similar to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Shafran, A; Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Portnick, Y; Arieli, A

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the differential incorporation of various omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) supplemented to dairy cows into ovarian compartments and assess the effects on IVF. Forty-two 256-day pregnant cows were supplemented with encapsulated fats, in treatments designated as i) SFA - saturated fat at 240 and 560 g/day per cow, prepartum and post partum (PP) respectively; ii) FLX - flaxseed oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively; and iii) FO - fish oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively. Commencing at 60 days in lactation, ovum pickup (OPU) was performed twice weekly (20 sessions; five cows per group) and in vitro maturation and IVF were conducted. The proportion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greater in follicular fluid (FF), granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of FLX cows than in other groups (P<0.001). The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was 6.7 times as great in FF of FO as in other groups (P<0.001); docosapentaenoic acid n-3 and DHA were detected in COCs of FO but not in others. The follicle number during OPU was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.05), and the oocyte cleavage rate was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.01). Also, the percentage of oocytes that developed to blastocysts tended to be higher in both n-3 groups than in SFA (P<0.1). In conclusion, both dietary n-3 FAs similarly improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance; therefore, ALA-rich botanical n-3 seems to be a satisfactory approach to improve oocyte quality. PMID:24062566

  14. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  15. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  16. Morphology and Composition of Structured, Phase-Separated Behenic Acid-Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid Monolayer Films.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jeveria; Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; He, Anqiang; Paige, Matthew F

    2016-05-31

    The phase separation of immiscible surfactants in mixed monolayer films provides an approach to physically manipulate important properties of thin films, including surface morphology, microscale composition, and mechanical properties. In this work, we predict, based upon existing miscibility studies and their thermodynamic underpinnings described in the literature, the miscibility and film morphology of mixed monolayers comprised of behenic acid (C21H43COOH) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (C13F27COOH) in various molar ratios. Predictions are tested using a combination of experimental surface characterization methods for probing miscibility and film morphology at the solid/air and air/water interfaces. Film components were immiscible and phase-separated into chemically well-defined domains under a variety of experimental conditions, with monolayer morphology consistent with initial predictions. The extensibility of these basic predictions to other systems is discussed in the context of using these works for different perfluorinated surfactant molecules. PMID:27163482

  17. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  18. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  19. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

  20. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Burns, T S; Stargel, W W; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N; Hurwitz, A

    1991-01-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) consumption has been postulated to increase brain phenylalanine levels by increasing the molar ratio of the plasma phenylalanine concentration to the sum of the plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids (Phe/LNAA). Dietary manipulations with carbohydrate or protein can also produce changes in the Phe/LNAA value. To compare the effects of aspartame and carbohydrate on Phe/LNAA, beverages sweetened with aspartame, sucrose, and aspartame plus sucrose, and unsweetened beverage were ingested by 8 healthy, fasted subjects in a randomized, four-way crossover design. The beverages were sweetened with an amount of aspartame (500 mg) and/or sucrose (100 g) approximately equivalent to that used to sweeten 1 liter of soft drink. The baseline-corrected plasma Phe/LNAA values did not differ significantly following ingestion of aspartame or sucrose. Following aspartame alone, the high mean ratio increased 26% over baseline 1 h after ingestion. Following sucrose alone, the high mean ratio increased 19% at 2.5 h. Sucrose increased the Phe/LNAA value due to an insulin-mediated decrease in the plasma LNAA, while aspartame increased the ratio by increasing the plasma Phe concentration. These findings indicate that similar increases in plasma Phe/LNAA occur when healthy, fasting subjects ingest amounts of equivalent sweetness of sucrose or aspartame. PMID:1771173

  1. Composition of transgenic soybean seeds with higher γ-linolenic acid content is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengyun; Kang, Linzhi; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Song, Jingshen; Zhao, Yinhua

    2012-03-01

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) has been used as a general nutraceutical for pharmacologic applications, particularly in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema. Four transgenic soybean lines that produce GLA at high yields (4.21% of total fatty acids, up to 1002-fold) were generated through the stable insertion of the Delta-6-fatty acid desaturase gene isolated from Borago officinalis into the genome of a conventional soybean cultivar. As part of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops, the transgenic soybean seeds were compared with their parental soybean seeds (nontransgenic) by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring the fatty acids, proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, TDF, and ash contents), amino acids, lectins, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The present results showed that the specific transgenic cultivar studied was similar to the conventional control. PMID:22324875

  2. Prediction of Protein Submitochondrial Locations by Incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's General Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khurshid; Waris, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrion is the key organelle of eukaryotic cell, which provides energy for cellular activities. Submitochondrial locations of proteins play crucial role in understanding different biological processes such as energy metabolism, program cell death, and ionic homeostasis. Prediction of submitochondrial locations through conventional methods are expensive and time consuming because of the large number of protein sequences generated in the last few decades. Therefore, it is intensively desired to establish an automated model for identification of submitochondrial locations of proteins. In this regard, the current study is initiated to develop a fast, reliable, and accurate computational model. Various feature extraction methods such as dipeptide composition (DPC), Split Amino Acid Composition, and Composition and Translation were utilized. In order to overcome the issue of biasness, oversampling technique SMOTE was applied to balance the datasets. Several classification learners including K-Nearest Neighbor, Probabilistic Neural Network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used. Jackknife test is applied to assess the performance of classification algorithms using two benchmark datasets. Among various classification algorithms, SVM achieved the highest success rates in conjunction with the condensed feature space of DPC, which are 95.20 % accuracy on dataset SML3-317 and 95.11 % on dataset SML3-983. The empirical results revealed that our proposed model obtained the highest results so far in the literatures. It is anticipated that our proposed model might be useful for future studies. PMID:26746980

  3. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  4. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  5. Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

    2012-04-18

    This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture. PMID:22443233

  6. Dietary fatty acid composition changes mitochondrial phospholipids and oxidative capacities in rainbow trout red muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Kraffe, E; Bureau, W; Bureau, D P

    2008-03-01

    Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups differed markedly in FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids, with significant dietary effects for virtually all FA. Mean mitochondrial DHA levels were 19, 40 and 33% in trout fed Diets 1, 2 and 3. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities changed with diet, while mitochondrial concentrations of cytochromes and of the adenylate nucleotide translocase (nmol mg(1) protein) did not. Mitochondria from fish fed Diet 1 had higher non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates at 5 degrees C than those fed other diets. When phosphorylating (state 3) rates differed between dietary groups, rates at 5 and 15 degrees C were higher for fish fed the more unsaturated diets. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that FA composition could explain much (42-70%) of the variability of state 4 rates, particularly at 5 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, FA composition explained 16-42% of the variability of states 3 and 4 rates. Similar conclusions were obtained for the complete data set (trout fed diets 1, 2 and 3) and for the data from trout achieving similar growth rates (e.g. those fed Diets 1 and 2). Neither general characteristics of membrane FA, such as % saturates, unsaturation index, n-3, n-6 or n-3/n-6 nor levels of abundant unsaturated FA such as DHA or 18:1(n-9 + n-7), were systematically correlated with mitochondrial capacities even though they differed considerably between trout fed the different diets. Relatively minor FA (20:5n-3, 20:0, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:0 and 15:0) showed better correlations with mitochondrial oxidative capacities. This supports the concept that acyl chain composition modulates mitochondrial

  7. COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES AND RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES AMONG DISSIMILATORY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). f these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA direct...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol copolymer/phosphomolybdic acid-based crosslinked composite polymer electrolyte membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Arfat; Banthia, A. K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are very promising as future energy source due to their high-energy conversion efficiency and will help to solve the environmental concerns of energy production. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is recognised as the key element for an efficient PEMFC. Chemically crosslinked composite membranes consisting of a poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate-co-itaconic acid) (PVACO) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) have been prepared by solution casting and evaluated as proton conducting polymer electrolytes. The proton conductivity of the membranes is investigated as a function of PMA composition, crosslinking density and temperature. The membranes have also been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, AFM and TEM. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes is of the order of 10 -3 S cm -1 and shows better resistance to methanol permeability than Nafion 117 under similar measurement conditions.

  9. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  10. Amino acid nitrogen isotopic composition patterns in lacustrine sedimenting matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Dörte; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2013-11-01

    Amino acids (AAs) comprise a large fraction of organic nitrogen (N) in plankton and sedimenting matter. Aquatic studies of organic N compounds in general and of AAs in particular, mostly concentrate on marine environments. In order to study the cycling and fate of organic N and AAs in lakes, we measured the N isotopic composition (δ15N) of bulk organic matter (OM) and of single hydrolysable AAs in sediment trap and sediment samples from two Swiss lakes with contrasting trophic state: Lake Brienz, an oligotrophic lake with an oxic water column, and Lake Zug a eutrophic, meromictic lake. We also measured the N isotopic composition of water column nitrate, the likely inorganic N source during biosynthesis in both lakes. The δ15N-AA patterns found for the sediment trap material were consistent with published δ15N-AA data for marine plankton. The AA composition and primary δ15N-AA signatures are preserved until burial in the sediments. During early sedimentary diagenesis, the δ15N values of single AAs appear to increase, exceeding those of the bulk OM. This increase in δ15N-AA is paralleled by a decreased contribution of AAs to the total OM pool with progressed degradation, suggesting preferential AA degradation associated with a significant N isotope fractionation. Indicators for trophic level based on δ15N-AAs were determined, for the first time in lacustrine systems. In our samples, the trophic AAs were generally enriched in 15N compared to source AAs and higher trophic δ15N-AA values in Lake Zug were consistent with a higher trophic level of the bulk biomass compared to Lake Brienz. Especially the difference between average trophic δ15N-AAs and average source δ15N-AAs was sensitive to the trophic states of the two lakes. A proxy for total heterotrophic AA re-synthesis (ΣV), which is strongly associated with heterotrophic microbial reworking of the OM, was calculated based on δ15N values of trophic AAs. Higher ΣV in Lake Brienz indicate enhanced

  11. Effect of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid composition of Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Augustini, C; Schwarz, F J

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg initially and approximately 15 months old, were divided into four groups to determine the effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition. Two groups of 18 bulls each were extensively (E) or intensively (I) fed on maize silage and concentrates with a daily gain of 943 g (E) or 1371 g (I). Half of each group were slaughtered after 100 days (S) or 138 days (L) on feed. In addition to carcass fatness parameters, intramuscular FA composition was also measured. Only small differences in the sum of saturated FA (SFA) percentages were found with 47.7 and 47.5% FA methyl esters (FAME) for SE and LE, respectively, and 48.7% FAME for each of SI and LI. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) significantly increased with longer, and higher feeding intensity to 44.2% FAME (LI), whereas the other groups had similar contents of 41.9, 42.2 and 42.0% FAME (SE, LE and SI respectively). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) decreased with higher feeding intensity to 8.39% (SI) and 6.71% (LI) FAME (p < 0.05) in comparison with 9.48% (SE) and 9.54% (LE). Intensive feeding decreased the ratio of PUFA : SFA to 0.17 (SI) and 0.14 (LI, p < 0.05) in comparison with 0.20 (SE and LE). The mean conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration was 0.41% FAME. Time on feed had only a small effect on the FA composition compared with feeding intensity. No significant relationships were detected between meat quality attributes and the pattern of FA. PMID:15189422

  12. Selection of acid compositions in well construction in difficult geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, M. V.; Kamartdinov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Within the scope of the current work we have presented an approach towards selecting and substantiation of acid composition in accordance with petrophysical characteristics of formations for acid treatment of bottom-hole formation zones. Article presents the results of lab tests of selected acid compositions, in conditions, which model thermobaric conditions of a payzone, combined with an evaluation of hydraulic permeability change, and this, in its turn, should allow us to evaluate the quality of impact of the acid composition recipe on the reservoir formation.

  13. Distribution and Stable Isotopic Composition of Amino Acids from Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing the Potential for Meteoritic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Brückner, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The presence of nonprotein α-dialkyl-amino acids such as α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of α-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the α-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four α-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C4 and C5 amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids.

  14. Influence of the chemical composition on gamma ray attenuation by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bhandal, G S; Singh, K

    1992-04-01

    The dependence of gamma ray attenuation on the chemical composition of fatty acids is investigated in the energy range from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients (muF) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff) have been calculated for 27 different fatty acids. They show appreciable variation with the chemical composition of fatty acids in the region of gamma ray energies from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. PMID:1314792

  15. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  16. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  17. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  18. The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2015-05-01

    With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio <5) and those from summer (November) not. This study indicates that Egyptian goose meat does not only vary in nutritional composition but season may also have a substantial effect on the flavor profile and ultimate uniformity of the meat. The season and portion effects were, however, interlinked but the general tendency shows that the portions, especially the breast and thigh do differ concerning the major fatty acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product. PMID:25810407

  19. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  20. Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

  1. Influence of geography on fatty acid composition of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of 24 seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S. was measured to determine the influence of geography on fatty acid distribution. Seed oils were extracted with hexane utilizing the Soxhlet method and fatty acid...

  2. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  3. Genotyping and fatty acid composition analysis in segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (C18:1), a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid is an important seed quality trait in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) because it provides improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, a beneficial effect on human health, and increased shelf life for stored food products. Consequently, an...

  4. Recombinant lactobacilli expressing linoleic acid isomerase can modulate the fatty acid composition of host adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva; Stanton, Catherine; O'Mahony, Liam; Wall, Rebecca; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2011-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oral administration of a metabolically active Bifidobacterium breve strain, with ability to form cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), resulted in modulation of the fatty acid composition of the host, including significantly elevated concentrations of c9, t11 CLA and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether a recombinant lactobacillus expressing linoleic acid isomerase (responsible for production of t10, c12 CLA) from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) could influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues in a mouse model. Linoleic-acid-supplemented diets (2 %, w/w) were fed in combination with either a recombinant t10, c12 CLA-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (Lb338), or an isogenic (vector-containing) control strain, to BALB/c mice for 8 weeks. A third group of mice received linoleic acid alone (2 %, w/w). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by GLC at the end of the trial. Ingestion of the strain expressing linoleic acid isomerase was associated with a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in t10, c12 CLA in adipose tissues of the mice when compared with mice that received the isogenic non-CLA-producing strain. The livers of the mice that received the recombinant CLA-producing Lb338 also contained a 2.5-fold (albeit not significantly) higher concentration of t10, c12 CLA, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that a single gene (encoding linoleic acid isomerase) expressed in an intestinal microbe can influence the fatty acid composition of host fat. PMID:21178166

  5. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  6. A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculant with outstanding flocculation performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yang; Tan, Ying; Liang, Xuecheng; Lu, Cuige; Wang, Haiwei; Liu, Xiusheng; Wang, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Series of anionic flocculants with outstanding flocculation performance, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculants (PAAD) were successfully prepared through aqueous solution copolymerization and applied to flocculate from oil-field fracturing waste-water. The structure of PAAD was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction tests, and its properties were systematically evaluated by viscometer, thermogravimetry analysis and flocculation measurements. Furthermore, the influences of various reaction parameters on the apparent viscosity of flocculant solution were studied, and the optimum synthesis condition was determined. The novel composite flocculants exhibited outstanding flocculation properties. Specifically, the dosage of composite flocculants that could make the transmittance of treated wastewater exceed 90% was only approximately 12-35 ppm, which was far lower than that of conventional flocculants. Meanwhile, the settling time was lower than 5 s, which was similar to that of conventional flocculants. This was because PAAD flocculants had a higher absorption capacity, and larger chain extending space than conventional linear flocculants, which could refrain from the entanglement of linear polymer chains and significantly improve flocculation capacity. PMID:26360748

  7. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

  8. Quantitative analysis of highly similar salvianolic acids with (1)H qNMR for quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xialin; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-05-30

    Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection (SLI), a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) preparation which is used to treat stroke, is composed of multiple salvianolic acids from the aqueous extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and includes mainly protocatechualdehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid D, salvianolic acid E, diastereomer of salvianolic acid E, salvianolic acid Y, lithospermic acid and diastereomer of lithospermic acid. It is difficult to quantitatively control the quality of SLI using traditional high performance liquid chromatography due to the highly similar structure of these constituents including three pairs of diastereomers and the lack of commercial resources for most of these constituents as standards. Thus, a highly reproducible, fast, accurate and simple (1)H quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) method without the need for calibration curves and complex computation was established by optimizing the solvent system and acquisition parameters to simultaneously determine the nine salvianolic acids and mannitol in SLI. This method was validated and successfully used to determine 10 batches of SLI and the qNMR data were further analyzed with a vector including angle cosine and the partial least squares method for the quality control of SLI. The results indicated that qNMR can be used as a routine method for the quality control of SLI and may have potential in the quantification of diastereomers in other TCM preparations. PMID:26970983

  9. Similar Processes but Different Environmental Filters for Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition Turnover on a Broad Spatial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (Landescomposition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  10. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of the monogenean Neobenedenia girellae and comparison between the parasite and host fish species.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Hirayama, T; Hirazawa, N

    2008-07-01

    Neobenedenia girellae, a capsalid monogenean, is a destructive fish parasite. We studied the lipid content and fatty acid composition of N. girellae and the skin and cutaneous mucus of a host fish, the amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae). The lipid content of adult N. girellae was less than one-fourth that of both the skin and cutaneous mucus of its host. Adult N. girellae, S. dumerili skin and mucus had a relatively high weight-percentage of C16:0, C18:1(n-9), C18:0 and C22:6(n-3) fatty acids. When S. dumerili were fed a diet supplemented with [13C] fatty acids, [13C] fatty acids were detected in S. dumerili skin and adult N. girellae on S. dumerili, but no [13C] fatty acids were detected in the S. dumerili cutaneous mucus. In addition, the epidermis of S. dumerili, attached with N. girellae, was markedly thin. These results suggest that N. girellae feeds primarily on host epithelial cells. We then infected 2 host fishes, S. dumerili and the spotted halibut Verasper variegatus (Pleuronectidae; a host less susceptible to N. girellae infection), and compared the fatty acid composition of N. girellae with that of the skin and cutaneous mucus of the hosts. The fatty acid profiles from all samples were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Thus, the fatty acid composition of the host may not contribute to the difference in susceptibility between S. dumerili and V. variegatus. These results may serve to develop new strategies for the control of N. girellae infections. PMID:18598577

  11. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  12. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Baeza, Rosa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Krüger-Johnsen, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2015-05-01

    In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt, and on the percentage of motile sperm. Here, our results suggest that the total volume of extractable milt is a DHA-dependent process, as we found the diets with the highest DHA levels induced the most milt while the diet with the lowest DHA level induced the least amount of milt. The diet with the highest level of ARA induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel and this impacted sperm performance. PMID:25638567

  13. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  14. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  15. Acid Rain Affecting the Electrical Properties of Outdoor Composite Dielectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Kumagai, Seiji; Yoshimura, Noboru

    1998-12-01

    Acid rain is precipitation with acidity, i.e., pH, below 5.6. There is an increasing interest in the degradation of the electrical properties of outdoor composite dielectric materials under severe contaminant conditions such as acid rain. In this study, the degradation effects of acid rain on the outdoor composite dielectrics are investigated by accelerated aging due to artificial acid rain. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the composition of artificial acid rain is chosen to agree with the actual composition of precipitation. The surface potential, breakdown voltage, tracking resistance, and surface discharge current of dielectric materials are studied. Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of electrical properties of composite dielectrics are discussed by investigating the degradation of the chemical and physical microstructures of material surface using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction spectrum (XDS), and the metalloscope. Experimental results show that the outdoor polymeric dielectrics suffer severely and degrade due to acid rain so that their surface electrical properties deteriorate after aging. The erosion, by acid rain, of the energized dielectric materials is larger than that of outdoor materials used for other purposes.

  16. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  17. Influence of Restricted Grazing Time Systems on Productive Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus dorsi in Growing Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (similar in body weight) were divided into 5 groups to investigate the effects of different restricted pasture grazing times and indoor supplementation on the productive performances and fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in growing lambs. The lambs grazed for different periods of time (12 h/d, 8 h/d, 4 h/d, 2 h/d, and 0 h) and received various amounts of supplementary feedings during the 120-day trial. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI), total DMI, average daily gains and the live body weights of the lambs were measured during the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study, their carcass traits were measured, and their longissimus dorsi muscles were sampled to analyze the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid profiles. The results indicated that the different durations of grazing and supplementary feedings affected the animal performances and the composition of fatty acids. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d with the corresponding supplementary concentrate resulted in lambs with higher body weights, carcass weights and IMF contents. Lambs with longer grazing times and less concentrate accumulated more healthy fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and had higher n-3/n-6 ratios. Overall, a grazing allowance of 8 h/d and the corresponding concentrate was recommended to maintain a high quantity and quality of lamb meat. PMID:26104518

  18. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

  19. Differences in the surface composition of seemingly similar F75 cobalt-chromium micron-sized particulates can affect synovial fibroblast viability.

    PubMed

    Kovacik, M W; Mostardi, R A; Neal, D R; Bear, T F; Askew, M J; Bender, E T; Walker, J I; Ramsier, R D

    2008-09-01

    We present data and analyses concerning the cytotoxicity and bioreactivity associated with the surface composition of fine metal particulates that are similar to those commonly released in the body by prostheses used in total joint replacement surgery. Here we study the bulk and surface compositions of three separately procured cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) micron-sized particulate powders, each identified by their corresponding vendor as being ASTM F75 grade material. We use energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to verify the bulk metallic composition and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to examine the surface metallic composition of each CoCrMo powder. Cultured synovial fibroblasts were then exposed to the particulate powders to see how the metallic surfaces might affect cellular viability. Results indicate that while the bulk metallic composition of each CoCrMo powder was similar, the surface metallic compositions were found to be dramatically different and yielded equally dramatic differences in terms of cytotoxicity and bioreactivity of synovial fibroblast in culture. PMID:18583107

  20. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  1. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingzhi; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat. PMID:26761795

  2. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  3. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  4. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

  5. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  6. Mineralogical diversity (spectral reflectance and Moessbauer data) in compositionally similar impact melt rocks from Manicouagan Crater, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Golden, D. C.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic impacts under oxidizing surface conditions occur on both earth and Mars. Oxidative alteration of impact melt sheets is reported at several terrestrial impact structures including Manicouagan, West Clearwater Lake, and the Ries Basin. A number of studies have advocated that a significant fraction of Martian soil may consist of erosional products of oxidatively altered impact melt sheets. If so, the signature of the Fe-bearing mineralogies formed by the process may be present in visible and near infrared reflectivity data for the Martian surface. Of concern is what mineral assemblages form in impact melt sheets produced under oxidizing conditions and what their spectral signatures are. Spectral and Moessbauer data for 19 powder samples of impact melt rock from Manicouagan Crater are reported. Results show for naturally occurring materials that composite hematite-pyroxene bands have minima in the 910-nm region. Thus many of the anomalous Phobos-2 spectra, characterized by a shallow band minimum in the near-IR whose position varies between approximately 850 and 1000 nm, can be explained by assemblages whose endmembers (hematite and pyroxene) are accepted to be present on Mars. Furthermore, results show that a mineralogically diverse suite of rocks can be generated at essentially constant composition, which implies that variations in Martian surface mineralogy do not necessarily imply variations in chemical composition.

  7. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2008-11-15

    Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from 1.6 to 25.8g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.5g/kg dry matter). Quinic acid was the major compound (72.2%), followed by citric acid (13.6%). Significant differences were found in malic and quinic acids relative abundances and total organic acid contents according to collection time, which indicates a possible use of these compounds as maturity markers. Between June and August seems to be the best period to harvest quince leaves for preparation of decoctions or infusions, since organic acids total content is higher in this season. PMID:26047441

  8. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with semen quality. In addition, the composition of fatty acids of spermatozoa has been shown to be important for their function. The aim of the study was to examine the association between BMI and the composition of spermatozoa fatty acids in men spanning a broad BMI range. We also analysed the relation between fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and semen characteristics, and the relationship between serum fatty acids and spermatozoa fatty acids. One hundred forty-four men with unknown fertility status were recruited from the general population, from couples with identified female infertility and from morbid obesity centres. Standard semen analysis (WHO) and sperm DNA integrity (DFI) analysis were performed. Fatty acid compositions were assessed by gas chromatography. When adjusted for possible confounders, BMI was negatively associated with levels of sperm docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p < 0.001) and palmitic acid (p < 0.001). The amount of sperm DHA correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.482), sperm concentration (r = 0.469), sperm vitality (r = 0.354), progressive sperm motility (r = 0.431) and normal sperm morphology (r = 0.265). A negative association was seen between DHA levels and DNA fragmentation index (r = -0.247). Levels of spermatozoa palmitic acid correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.227), while levels of linoleic acid correlated negatively (r = -0.254). When adjusted for possible confounders, only the levels of arachidonic acid showed positive correlation between spermatozoa and serum phospholipids (r = 0.262). Changes in the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa could be one of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between BMI and semen quality. The relationship between fatty acids of spermatozoa and serum phospholipids was minor, which indicates that BMI affects fatty acid composition of spermatozoa through regulation of fatty acid

  9. Impact of Corn Stover Composition on Hemicellulose Conversion during Dilute Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Cellulose Digestibility of the Pretreated Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, N. D.; Farmer, J. D.; Schell, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of corn stover compositional variability on xylose conversion yields during dilute acid pretreatment and on enzymatic cellulose digestibility of the resulting pretreated solids. Seven compositionally-different stovers obtained from various locations throughout the United States were pretreated at three different conditions in triplicate in a pilot-scale continuous reactor. At the same pretreatment severity, a 2-fold increase in monomeric xylose yield and a 1.5-fold increase in enzymatic cellulose digestibility from their lowest values were found. Similar results were observed at the other pretreatment conditions. It was found that xylose conversion yields decreased with increasing acid neutralization capacity or soil content of the corn stover. Xylose yields also increased with increasing xylan content. No other significant correlations between corn stover's component concentrations and conversion yields were found.

  10. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  11. Boronic acid-functionalized core-shell-shell magnetic composite microspheres for the selective enrichment of glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miaorong; Sun, Yangfei; Zheng, Jin; Yang, Wuli

    2013-09-11

    In this work, core-shell-shell-structured boronic acid-functionalized magnetic composite microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2@poly (methyl methacrylate-co-4-vinylphenylbornoic acid) (Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA)) with a uniform size and fine morphology were synthesized. Here, Fe3O4 magnetic particles were prepared by a solvothermal reaction, whereas the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres with a core-shell structure were obtained by a sol-gel process. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 was used as the seed in the emulsion polymerization of MMA and VPBA to form the core-shell-shell-structured magnetic composite microspheres. As the boronic acid groups on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA) could form tight yet reversible covalent bonds with the cis-1,2-diols groups of glycoproteins, the magnetic composite microspheres were applied to enrich a standard glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the results demonstrated that the composite microspheres have a higher affinity for the glycoproteins in the presence of the nonglycoprotein bovine serum albumin (BSA) over HRP. Additionally, different monomer mole ratios of MMA/VPBA were studied, and the results implied that using MMA as the major monomer could reduce the amount of VPBA with a similar glycoprotein enrichment efficiency but a lower cost. PMID:23924282

  12. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

  13. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  14. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  15. Robustness of two-step acid hydrolysis procedure for composition analysis of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Nunez, Angelica; Wyman, Charles E; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-01

    The NREL standard procedure for lignocellulosic biomass composition has two steps: primary hydrolysis in 72% wt sulfuric acid at 30°C for 1h followed by secondary hydrolysis of the slurry in 4wt% acid at 121°C for 1h. Although pointed out in the NREL procedure, the impact of particle size on composition has never been shown. In addition, the effects of primary hydrolysis time and separation of solids prior to secondary hydrolysis on composition have never been shown. Using poplar, it was found that particle sizes less than 0.250mm significantly lowered the glucan content and increased the Klason lignin but did not affect xylan, acetate, or acid soluble lignin contents. Composition was unaffected for primary hydrolysis time between 30 and 90min. Moreover, separating solids prior to secondary hydrolysis had negligible effect on composition suggesting that lignin and polysaccharides are completely separated in the primary hydrolysis stage. PMID:27282557

  16. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  17. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  18. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K; Hayes, K C; DeWitt, G F; Jegathesan, M; Satgunasingam, N; Ong, A S; Tan, D

    1992-08-01

    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma. PMID:1506599

  19. Characterization of a novel organelle in Toxoplasma gondii with similar composition and function to the plant vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Kildare; Pace, Douglas A.; Cintron, Roxana; Rodrigues, Juliany C.F.; Fang, Jianmin; Smith, Alyssa; Rohloff, Peter; Coelho, Elvis; de Haas, Felix; de Souza, Wanderley; Coppens, Isabelle; Sibley, L. David; Moreno, Silvia N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa and is an important cause of congenital disease and infection in immunocompromised patients. Like most apicomplexans, Toxoplasma gondii possesses several plant-like features, such as the chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast. We describe and characterize a novel organelle in T. gondii tachyzoites, which is visible by light microscopy, and possesses a broad similarity to the plant vacuole. Electron tomography shows the interaction of this vacuole with other organelles. The presence of a plant-like vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase (TgVP1), a vacuolar proton ATPase, a cathepsin L-like protease (TgCPL), an aquaporin (TgAQP1), as well as Ca2+/H+ and Na+/H+ exchange activities, supports similarity to the plant vacuole. Biochemical characterization of TgVP1 in enriched fractions shows a functional similarity to the respective plant enzyme. The organelle is a Ca2+ store and appears to have protective effects against salt stress potentially linked to its sodium transport activity. In intracellular parasites, the organelle fragments, with some markers co-localizing with the late endosomal marker, Rab7, suggesting its involvement with the endocytic pathway. Studies on the characterization of this novel organelle will be relevant to the identification of novel targets for chemotherapy against T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites as well. PMID:20398214

  20. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  1. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are differentially modulated by anions dependent on their subunit composition

    PubMed Central

    Kusama, Nobuyoshi; Gautam, Mamta; Harding, Anne Marie S.; Snyder, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are sodium channels gated by extracellular protons. ASIC1a channels possess intersubunit Cl−-binding sites in the extracellular domain, which are highly conserved between ASIC subunits. We previously found that anions modulate ASIC1a gating via these sites. Here we investigated the effect of anion substitution on native ASICs in rat sensory neurons and heterologously expressed ASIC2a and ASIC3 channels by whole cell patch clamp. Similar to ASIC1a, anions modulated the kinetics of desensitization of other ASIC channels. However, unlike ASIC1a, anions also modulated the pH dependence of activation. Moreover, the order of efficacy of different anions to modulate ASIC2a and -3 was very different from that of ASIC1a. More surprising, mutations of conserved residues that form an intersubunit Cl−-binding site in ASIC1a only partially abrogated the effects of anion modulation of ASIC2a and had no effect on anion modulation of ASIC3. The effects of anions on native ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons mimicked those in heterologously expressed ASIC1a/3 heteromeric channels. Our data show that anions modulate a variety of ASIC properties and are dependent on the subunit composition, and the mechanism of modulation for ASIC2a and -3 is distinct from that of ASIC1a. We speculate that modulation of ASIC gating by Cl− is a novel mechanism to sense shifts in extracellular fluid composition. PMID:23135698

  2. Genetic variation in fatness and fatty acid composition of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, W S; Deland, M P B; Siebert, B D; Malau-Aduli, A E O; Bottema, C D K

    2002-11-01

    Mature Hereford cows (766) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1,215 calves born over 4 yr (1994 to 1997). These cattle comprised Australia's 'Southern Crossbreeding Project." Heifers were slaughtered at an average of 16 mo with hot standard carcass weight of 219 kg and 9 mm fat over the rump. Steers were slaughtered at an average of 23 mo with carcass weight of 319 kg and 13 mm fat over the rump. Meat and fat samples were taken from the carcass on the day after slaughter for subsequent laboratory analysis of i.m. fat content and fatty acid composition. Data were analyzed using uni- and bivariate animal models containing fixed effects of cohort, management group, birth month, and sire breed. March-born calves had fat with a 0.5 degrees C lower melting point, 0.6% higher total monounsaturated fatty acids, and 0.7% higher fatty acid desaturation index than calves born in April. Steers born in 1997 were the only cohort finished on pasture, and they had much more yellow fat than the other cohorts. Four heavy breed crosses (Angus, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue) averaged 284 kg carcass weight, followed by purebred Hereford (268 kg), Wagyu (244 kg) and Jersey (236 kg). Angus had the greatest fat depth (14.3 mm), ahead of Hereford and Wagyu (11.9 mm), Jersey (10.7 mm), South Devon and Limousin (9.9 mm) and Belgian Blue (8.0 mm). Jersey, Wagyu, and Angus had themost i.m. fat (4.6%), followed by Hereford and South Devon (3.8%), and Limousin and Belgian Blue (3.1%). The highly marbled Jersey and Wagyu had softer fat (6% lower fat melting point) than the other breeds. Angus were more highly marbled, similar to Jersey and Wagyu, but had harder fat similar to the leaner breeds. Heritabilities for all traits were low to moderate (16 to 36%). Genetic correlations between fatty add composition and carcass traits were not significant, indicating little evidence of antagonisms

  3. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  4. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  5. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

  6. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  7. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  8. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  9. Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

  10. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  11. A semiquantitative X-ray diffraction method to determine mineral composition in stream sediments with similar mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A semiquantitative X-ray diffraction procedure has been developed that can be used to acquire reproducible mineralogic data from geographically unrelated stream-sediment samples having similar mineralogy. Weight percentages for quartz, total-feldspar, and total-clay can be determined by direct comparison of intensities with standard-mineral mixtures of known weight percent. Matrix effects and mass-absorption differences are circumvented by taking the ratio of peak-intensity, in counts per second, for quartz relative to that of other minerals being quantified. Mineral percentages generally are reproducible to within 10 percent.

  12. Effect of an elevated monounsaturated fat diet on pork carcass and meat quality traits and tissue fatty acid composition from York-crossed barrows and gilts.

    PubMed

    Mas, G; Llavall, M; Coll, D; Roca, R; Díaz, I; Oliver, M A; Gispert, M; Realini, C E

    2011-12-01

    Fifty-seven York-crossed barrows and gilts were fed either a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA®). There were no interactions between dietary treatment and gender and there were no differences in intramuscular and subcutaneous fatty acid composition between sexes (P>0.05). Similar primal cut yields, composition of major primal cuts, and carcass and meat quality characteristics were found for HO and CONTROL fed pigs. Apart from a few significant but small differences for some fatty acids, intramuscular fatty acid composition was similar for both dietary treatments. Subcutaneous fat from HO fed pigs had a 6.9% increase in total monounsaturated fatty acids and a 9.3% reduction in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) compared with CONTROL fed animals, without adversely affecting carcass quality and producing suitable hams for processing by the meat industry. PMID:21632183

  13. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  14. Composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seeds: phenolics, organic acids and free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2005-04-01

    Phenolic compounds, organic acids and free amino acids of quince seeds were determined by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/UV and GC/FID, respectively. Quince seeds presented a phenolic profile composed of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol. Six identified organic acids constituted the organic acid profile of quince seeds: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The free amino acid profile was composed of 21 identified free amino acids and the three most abundant were glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. PMID:15702641

  15. [Influence of rations with various linoleic acid contents on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood platelets of rats].

    PubMed

    Atrokhov, V V; Markov, Kh M

    1987-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in platelets of Wistar-Kioto rats which received semisynthetic rations with varying content of linoleic acid, 1 week prenatally and 18 weeks postnatally. In ration I the level of 18:2n6 was lower than 0.1 cal%, ration II contained 9.0 cal%, and ration III -- 16.0 cal%. Ration III, as compared to ration II, induced an increase in the content of linoleic fatty acids, arachidonic fatty acid content being unchanged. Ration I, as compared to ration II induced a decrease in linoleic fatty acid content, and an increase in the content of oleic and linolenic fatty acids attended by the appearance of appreciable amounts of 20:3n9 and 20:5n3. Long-term linoleic acid deficiency induced no changes in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in platelet phospholipids of rats given ration I. This is an evidence of high reserve possibilities of the mechanisms regulating fatty acid metabolism in the mammals. PMID:2894094

  16. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

  17. Free amino acid composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp and peel) and jam.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2004-03-10

    Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121

  18. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  19. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Prasek, Jan; Huska, Dalibor; Jasek, Ondrej; Zajickova, Lenka; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  20. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

    2016-01-12

    The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

  1. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not. PMID:24560061

  2. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque. PMID:27545001

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    PubMed

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  4. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of in-vitro embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Lunn, L A; Kwong, W Y; Wonnacott, K; Linforth, R S T; Craigon, J

    2008-06-01

    The value of using the amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of embryo development was assessed in a bovine model of in-vitro maturation (IVM), IVF and blastocyst culture (IVC). A total of 445 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) aspirated from visually healthy follicles underwent IVM and IVF singly (n = 138) or in groups (n = 307). Of these COC, 349 cleaved (78%) following IVF and 112 went on to form blastocysts (32% of cleaved) following IVC. Culture method (singly or in groups) had no effect on development. In contrast to fatty acids, which had no predictive value, the amino acid composition of follicular fluid was associated with morphological assessments of COC quality and with post-fertilization development to the blastocyst stage. Principal component analysis identified two amino acids (i.e. alanine and glycine) that had the highest value for predicting early post-fertilization development. The predictive value of these two amino acids, in terms of the percentage of oocytes that cleaved following IVF, was greatest for COC with the poorest morphological grades but, with respect to blastocyst yields, was independent of morphological grade, and so may serve as a useful additional non-invasive measure of COC quality. PMID:18549697

  5. Thermoformed protein based composites in presence of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World industrialization has generated substantial quantities of petroleum-based plastics over many years, which are non biodegradable. There is a growing demand for the use of renewable agricultural sources to develop eco-friendly biobased composites. Agriculture-sourced proteins and starches are b...

  6. Similarity in microbial amino acid uptake in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic (sub-)tropical gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Polly G.; Mary, Isabelle; Purdie, Duncan A.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth’s most extensive biomes - the oceanic subtropical gyres - are considered to be expanding with current surface ocean warming. Although it is well established that microbial communities control gyre biogeochemistry, comparisons of their metabolic activities between gyres are limited. In order to estimate metabolic activities including production of microbial communities, the uptake rates of amino acids leucine, methionine and tyrosine at ambient concentrations were estimated in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean using radioisotopically labelled tracers. Data were acquired during six research cruises covering main oceanic provinces herein termed: North and South Atlantic Gyres, Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS), Equatorial region, and Mauritanian Upwelling (off Cape Blanc). Data were divided between provinces, the extents of which were identified by ocean colour data, in order to achieve provincial mean uptake rates. Leucine and methionine uptake rates did not differ between sampling periods, and were comparable between the North and South subtropical gyres. Furthermore, variation in uptake rates measured throughout the two oligotrophic gyres, where sampling covered ∼4 × 10 6 km 2, was considerably lower than that measured within the Mauritanian Upwelling and Equatorial regions, and even at the BATS site. Tyrosine was generally the slowest of the amino acids to be taken up, however, it was assimilated faster than methionine within the Mauritanian Upwelling region. Thus, we propose that one value for leucine (12.6 ± 3.2 pmol L -1 h -1) and methionine (10.0 ± 3.3 pmol L -1 h -1) uptake could be applied to the oligotrophic subtropical gyres of the Atlantic Ocean. However, with the significantly lower uptake rates observed at the BATS site, we would not advise extrapolation to the Sargasso Sea.

  7. Seasonal Variations in Maternal Provisioning of Crepidula fornicata (Gastropoda): Fatty Acid Composition of Females, Embryos and Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Fanny; Meziane, Tarik; Riera, Pascal; Comtet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment success of marine invertebrate populations not only depends on the number of recruits but also on their quality which affects their survival. In species characterized by a mixed development (encapsulated embryonic development and release of planktotrophic larvae), the offspring quality depends on both maternal provisioning and larval feeding. Here, we investigated potential changes of maternal provisioning over the whole reproductive period in a gastropod with a mixed development: Crepidulafornicata. In its introduction area, C. fornicata reproduces from February to October, which implies that both adults and larvae are exposed to different food availabilities. Maternal provisioning was assessed by measuring the fatty acid (FA) composition of females, encapsulated embryos and larvae, in February, May, July and September 2009. FA are essential resources for the development of embryos and larvae, and are key biomarkers of offspring quality. Our results showed differences in FA composition between muscles, visceral masses, and encapsulated embryos. In particular, FA composition of embryos was similar to that of the visceral mass. Seasonal variations in FA composition were observed: in the middle of the reproductive season (May and July), female tissues and embryos showed a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially ω3, as compared to the beginning and end of the reproductive season (February and September). This showed that through maternal provisioning the quality of C. fornicata offspring was higher in the middle of the reproductive season. Whether this would result in an increase of recruitment success and juvenile performance would require further investigations. PMID:24086505

  8. Stable carbon isotopic composition of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids and ketoacids in remote marine aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haobo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2006-04-01

    We determined stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of C2 to C9 dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and some ketoacids in the marine aerosols from the western Pacific and Southern Ocean (35°N to 65°S). On average, oxalic (mean, -16.8‰), adipic (-17.2‰), and glyoxylic (-17.6‰) acids showed heavier δ13C, whereas maleic (-24.2‰), methylmalonic (-23.6‰), and phthalic (-23.1‰) acids were more depleted in 13C. Oxalic acid presented very diverse δ13C values (-27 to -7‰), which increased from midlatitudes toward the equator. A similar latitudinal trend of δ13C was also found for malonic, succinic, and adipic acids. However, such a trend was not observed for phthalic, maleic, and glyoxylic acids. We suggest that the δ13C increase toward the equator is associated with photochemically aged air masses, in which kinetic isotope effects for photochemical degradation of DCAs may be important. Differences in δ13C of some saturated DCAs were also found to increase from midlatitudes to the equator.

  9. Insight into acid-base nucleation experiments by comparison of the chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Praplan, Arnaud P; Sarnela, Nina; Dommen, Josef; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Jokinen, Tuija; Sipilä, Mikko; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, Joao; Breitenlechner, Martin; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Tomé, António; Virtanen, Annele; Viisanen, Yrjö; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Curtius, Joachim; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the nucleation of sulfuric acid together with two bases (ammonia and dimethylamine), at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. The chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters was studied using three Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers: two were operated in positive and negative mode to detect the chamber ions, while the third was equipped with a nitrate ion chemical ionization source allowing detection of neutral clusters. Taking into account the possible fragmentation that can happen during the charging of the ions or within the first stage of the mass spectrometer, the cluster formation proceeded via essentially one-to-one acid-base addition for all of the clusters, independent of the type of the base. For the positive clusters, the charge is carried by one excess protonated base, while for the negative clusters it is carried by a deprotonated acid; the same is true for the neutral clusters after these have been ionized. During the experiments involving sulfuric acid and dimethylamine, it was possible to study the appearance time for all the clusters (positive, negative, and neutral). It appeared that, after the formation of the clusters containing three molecules of sulfuric acid, the clusters grow at a similar speed, independent of their charge. The growth rate is then probably limited by the arrival rate of sulfuric acid or cluster-cluster collision. PMID:25406110

  10. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  11. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  12. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  13. Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekeli, Yener; Sezgin, Mehmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ozmen Guler, Gokalp; Aydin Sanda, Murad

    2010-12-01

    In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps and C. cariensis subsp. microlepis. Generally, C 18:2 ω6 linoleic acid, C 16:0 palmitic acid, C 18:3 ω3 linolenic acid and C 18:1 oleic acid were found to be the major fatty acids in all species. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in all species. PUFAs were determined at 55.10%, 50.25%, 51.41%, 41.02%, 46.18% and 58.80% in C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and C. iberica, respectively. PMID:21108113

  14. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    PubMed

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  15. Temperature independence of the composition of triglyceride fatty acids synthesized de novo by the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Van Handel, E

    1966-01-01

    The hypothesis that depot fat is more unsaturated when it is synthesized at lower temperatures was tested in the mosquito. Female mosquitoes (Aedes sollicitans) were starved until no triglycerides remained. A single dose of sugar was fed and the mosquitoes were maintained at different temperatures. Approximately the same amount of triglyceride was synthesized per mosquito at each temperature, although at different rates. Mosquitoes maintained at low temperatures did not synthesize more unsaturated triglycerides than those at higher temperatures: the fatty acid composition was essentially the same from 10 to 35 degrees. The triglycerides synthesized from sugar contained no poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Total amounts and composition of phospholipid fatty acids remained unaltered during sugar feeding. When deprived of food, the mosquitoes catabolized triglyceride fatty acids randomly; cold-exposure did not cause selective retention or utilization of any individual fatty acid. PMID:4378885

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

  17. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  18. Phagocytosis of hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing oxidized dextrans conjugated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shkurupy, V A; Arkhipov, S A; Troitsky, A V; Luzgina, N G; Zaikovskaja, M V; Ufimceva, E G; Iljine, D A; Akhramenko, E S; Gulyaeva, E P; Bistrova, T N

    2009-12-01

    We studied phagocytic activity of macrophages towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions consisting of 150-800-nm nanoliposomes containing oxidized dextrans with a molecular weight of 35 and 60 kDa obtained by chemical ("permanganate") and radiochemical oxidation of dextran conjugated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (dextrazides, intracellular prolonged antituberculous drugs). Phagocytic activity of macrophages towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing dextrazides obtained by chemical oxidation of dextrans is higher than activity towards hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions containing dextrazides prepared by radiochemical oxidation and depends on the size of hybrid molecular nanosomal compositions and molecular weight of oxidized dextrans. PMID:21116494

  19. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

  20. Differences in tissue fatty acid composition between reared and wild sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti, 1777).

    PubMed

    Rueda, F M; Hernández, M D; Egea, M A; Aguado, F; García, B; Martínez, F J

    2001-11-01

    The fatty acid composition and lipid content of white muscle, liver and mesenteric fat, in reared v. wild sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) were compared. The mesenteric fat index fat weight/body weight) and the lipid contents of both white muscle and liver proved consistently higher in farmed v. wild sharpsnout sea bream (79.0 (SE 13.1) v. 38.7 (SE 5.1) g/kg, 188.4 (SE 30.0) v. 58.2 (SE 3.9) g/kg and 27.2 (SE 3.7) v. 17.3 (SE 1.9) g/kg, respectively). The higher values of linoleic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and n-3 series acids in reared fish muscle make reared sharpsnout more favourable for human consumption. In reared fish mesenteric fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids reached higher levels (32.54 (SE 0.71) g/100 g total fatty acids than those found in wild fish (26.08 (SE 1.38) g/100 g total fatty acids or even present in the diet (28.34 g/100 g total fatty acids). Compared with cultured fish, wild sharpsnout displayed a higher content of n-3 fatty acids in liver fat (31.67 (SE 1.13) g/100 g total fatty acids), but lower in mesenteric fat (20.35 (SE 1.41) g/100 g total fatty acids). Atherogenic index values were similar for wild and reared fish in all tissues, while the index of thrombogenicity of muscle and mesenteric fat (0.353 (SE 0.012) and 0.402 (SE 0.021) respectively) was significantly increased in wild fish probably due to the omnivorous habits of the species and/or to seasonal food variations. Depending on the time of the year or the season, reared fish could be more suitable for human consumption than wild fish. PMID:11737960

  1. Amniotic Fluid or Its Fatty Acids Produce Actions Similar to Diazepam on Lateral Septal Neurons Firing Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G.; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana Idania

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid (AF) contains eight fatty acids (FATs), and both produce anxiolytic-like effects in adult rats and appetitive responses in human newborns. The medial amygdala and lateral septal nucleus function are related to social behavior, but the action of AF or its FATs in this circuit is known. We obtained 267 single-unit extracellular recordings in Wistar rats treated with vehicle (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), human AF (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), a FAT mixture (1 mL, s.c.; n = 13), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 11), and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, p.o.; n = 12). Compared with the vehicle group, the spontaneous septal firing rate in the AF, FAT mixture, and diazepam groups was the lowest and in the fluoxetine group the highest. Cumulative peristimulus histograms indicated that the significant change in septal firing occurred only in the AF and FAT mixture groups and exclusively in those neurons that increased their firing rate during amygdala stimulation. We conclude that human AF and its FATs produce actions comparable to anxiolytic drugs and are able to modify the responsivity of a circuit involved in social behavior, suggesting facilitation of social recognition processes by maternal-fetal fluids. PMID:23864826

  2. So different and still so similar: The plant compound rosmarinic acid mimics bacterial homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Ortega, Alvaro; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apart from inter-bacteria communication quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms also enable inter-domain interactions. To interfere with bacterial QS, plants were found to secrete compounds; most of which of unknown identity. We have identified the plant compound rosmarinic acid (RA) to modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS by binding to the RhlR QS regulator. RA was found to be a homoserine-lactone (HSL) mimic that caused agonistic effects on transcription, resulting ultimately in a stimulation of several RhlR controlled phenotypes like virulence factor synthesis or biofilm formation. Our study was initiated by in silico screening of an RhlR model with compound libraries, demonstrating that this approach is suitable to tackle a major bottleneck in signal transduction research, which is the identification of sensor protein ligands. Previous work has shown that plant compounds interfere with the function of orphan QS regulators. Our study demonstrates that this has not necessarily to be the case since RhlR forms a functional pair with the RhlI synthase. A wide range of structurally dissimilar compounds have been found to mimic HSLs suggesting that this class of QS regulators is characterized by a significant plasticity in the recognition of effector molecules. Further research will show to what extent RA impacts on QS mechanisms of other bacteria. PMID:27195067

  3. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  4. Fatty acid composition of twelve algae from the coastal zones of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Heiba, H I; Al-Easa, H S; Rizk, A F

    1997-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of twelve algal species from two different classes were determined. Three Chlorophyta species (Acetabularia calyculus, Cladophora sericoides and Dictyosphaeria cavernosa) and nine Phaeophyta species (Colpomenia sinuosa, Cystoseria trinodis, Dictyota cervicornis, Hormophysa triquetra, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum binderi, S. boveanum, S. denticulatum and S. heteromorpha) were investigated. Thirty-four fatty acids were identified. Myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, eicosodienic and lignoceric acids were predominant in all examined algal species. Branched saturated fatty acids were also found in all investigated species except Cladophora sericoides. PMID:9498691

  5. SURFACE DEGRADATION OF COMPOSITE RESINS BY ACIDIC MEDICINES AND pH-CYCLING

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; Neves, Beatriz Gonçalves; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic medicines (Dimetapp® and Claritin®), under pH-cycling conditions, on the surface degradation of four composite resins (microhybrid: TPH, Concept, Opallis and Nanofilled: Supreme). Thirty disc-shaped specimens (Ø = 5.0 mm / thickness = 2.0 mm) of each composite were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10): a control and two experimental groups, according to the acidic medicines evaluated. The specimens were finished and polished with aluminum oxide discs, and the surface roughness was measured by using a profilometer. After the specimens were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen and immersion in acidic medicines for 12 days, the surface roughness was measured again. Two specimens for each material and group were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after pH-cycling. Data were analyzed by the Student's-t test, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range test and paired t-test (α=0.05). Significant increase in roughness was found only for TPH in the control group and TPH and Supreme immersed in Claritin® (p<0.05). SEM analyses showed that the 4 composite resins underwent erosion and surface degradation after being subjected to the experimental conditions. In conclusion, although the roughness was slightly affected, the pH-cycling and acidic medicines caused surface degradation of the composite resins evaluated. Titratable acidity seemed to play a more crucial role on surface degradation of composite resins than pH. PMID:19089257

  6. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416518

  7. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  8. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  9. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  10. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites.

    PubMed

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a "blocking effect" between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1~114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  11. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  12. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  13. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of

  14. Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials for possible applications as positive electrode grid in lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Yolshina, V. A.; Yolshin, A. N.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composites which melt at temperature of the melting point of lead were investigated as possible positive current collectors for lead acid batteries in sulfuric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, difference scanning calorimetry, cyclic voltammetry and prolonged corrosion tests were employed to characterize the effect of the newly proposed lead-carbon metallic composites on the structure and electrochemical properties of positive grid material. Both lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials show the similar electrochemical characteristics to metallic lead in the voltage range where the positive electrodes of lead acid batteries operate. It has been shown that carbon both as graphene and graphite does not participate in the electrochemical process but improve corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of both metallic composite materials. No products of interaction of lead with sulfuric acid were formed on the surface of graphene and graphite so as it was not found additional peaks of carbon discharge on voltammograms which could be attributed to the carbon. Graphene inclusions in lead prevent formation of leady oxide nanocrystals which deteriorate discharge characteristics of positive electrode of LAB. Both lead-graphene alloy and lead-graphite metallic composite proved excellent electrochemical and corrosion behavior and can be used as positive grids in lead acid batteries of new generation.

  15. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites. PMID:26405910

  16. Properties of polylactic acid composites reinforced with oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Zakaria, Zainoha; Inuwa, I M; Islam, M S; Jawaid, M

    2013-10-15

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm biomass were successfully prepared through solution casting. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that there are no significant changes in the peak positions, suggesting that incorporation of MCC in PLA did not result in any significant change in chemical structure of PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on the samples. The T50 decomposition temperature improved with addition of MCC, showing increase in thermal stability of the composites. The synthesized composites were characterized in terms of tensile properties. The Young's modulus increased by about 30%, while the tensile strength and elongation at break for composites decreased with addition of MCC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites fractured surface shows that the MCC remained as aggregates of crystalline cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic image of the composite surfaces show clustering of MCC with uneven distribution. PMID:23987327

  17. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  18. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  19. Influence of oxidation on fulvic acids composition and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Kozyatnyk, Ivan; Świetlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, Ursula; Dąbrowska, Agata; Klymenko, Nataliya; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    Oxidation is well-known process of transforming natural organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. Chlorine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide are common oxidants used in water treatment technologies for this purpose. We studied the influence of different doses of these oxidants on by-products formation and changes in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of fulvic acids (FA) with different BDOC content. Chlorination did not significantly change the MWD of FA and disinfection by-products formation. However, higher molecular weight compounds, than those in the initial FA, were formed. It could be a result of chlorine substitution into the FA structure. Chlorine dioxide oxidized FA stronger than chlorine. During ozonation of FA, we found the highest increase of BDOD due to the formation of a high amount of organic acids and aldehydes. FA molecules were transformed into a more biodegradable form. Ozonation is the most preferable process among those observed for pre-treatment of FA before biofiltration. PMID:23746389

  20. Influencing fatty acid composition of yeasts by lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Kolouchova, Irena; Sigler, Karel; Zimola, Michal; Rezanka, Tomas; Matatkova, Olga; Masak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of microorganisms is affected by cultivation conditions, concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources and the presence of trace elements. One of the new possibilities of influencing the production of cell mass or lipids is the use of lanthanides. Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry and their concentration as environmental contaminants is therefore increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants but their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements or operate as potent blockers of Ca(2+) channels. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on traditional biotechnologically useful yeast species (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii), and species capable of high accumulation of lipids (Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp., Yarrowia lipolytica). Low concentrations of lanthanum and monazite were conducive to an increase in cell mass and lipids and also higher production of palmitoleic acid, commonly used in cosmetics and medicine, and ω6-linoleic acid which is a precursor of thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leucotrienes. PMID:27339307

  1. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  2. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  3. Compositional and Temperature Effects of Phosphoric Acid Fractionation on Δ47 Analysis and Implications for Discrepant Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defliese, W.; Hren, M. T.; Lohmann, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    An essential procedure to increase the analytical efficiency of Δ47 measurements requires raising the temperature of phosphoric acid digestion for carbonate materials. This temperature change introduces a fractionation offset in Δ47 that must be accounted for prior to calculation of temperatures of carbonate formation and to allow interlaboratory comparison of results. We measured the phosphoric acid fractionation factor relative to reaction at 25 °C for calcite, aragonite, and dolomite across a temperature range from 25-90 °C. Significantly, all three minerals behave similarly during phosphoric acid digestion, allowing for a single temperature dependent acid fractionation relationship: 1000ln∝𝐶𝑂2(𝐴𝑐𝑖𝑑)-𝛥47=(0.022434±0.001490)∗10^6 𝑇2 -(0.2524±0.0168) where α is the phosphoric acid fractionation factor, and T is in degrees Kelvin. Mineralogical or isotopic compositional effects on the fractionation factor were not observed, suggesting that this acid fractionation factor may be valid for all carbonate minerals. We also present inorganic temperature calibrations for both calcite and aragonite at low temperatures (5-70 °C) and find them to agree with prior published data. Using the new acid fractionation factor, published Δ47-temperature calibrations are recalculated. This analysis confirms a statistically significant Δ47-temperature calibration difference between data analyzed at 25 °C versus higher temperatures. The origin of the discrepancy remains unknown, but it appears that the acid fractionation factor is not the cause.

  4. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  5. Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

    1995-01-01

    In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids. PMID:7784510

  6. Activation of protein kinase C by lysophosphatidic acid: dependence on composition of phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Sando, J J; Chertihin, O I

    1996-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has attracted recent attention as a major serum-derived regulator implicated in responses to vascular injury and inflammation, in tumour invasiveness and in neuronal signalling and remodelling. Although the possibility of a specific G-protein-coupled LPA receptor protein has been suggested, characterization of such a receptor is lacking. Since LPA can activate protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in many cells and PKC activators mimic many LPA effects, the possibility of more direct LPA effects on PKC was investigated. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylserine (PS)/diacylglycerol (DAG) lipid vesicles of defined acyl chain composition were used to activate the enzyme. At total concentrations of saturated PC/PS + DAG vesicles (2-3 mM) that provided maximal PKC activation, 1-10 mol % [18:1]-LPA led to a further approx. 2-fold activation of PKC alpha. At lower lipid concentrations, a greater increase was observed with LPA concentrations up to 16-20 mol %. Higher concentrations of LPA were inhibitory. The LPA activation of PKC was dependent on the presence of DAG, PS and Ca2+. [18:1]-Lysophosphatidylcholine produced similar PKC activation in PC/PS/DAG vesicles. [14:0]-LPA was less effective, and longer-chain saturated lysolipids were ineffective. In unsaturated PC/PS vesicles, very little to no effect of LPA was discernable. These results suggest that physiologically or pathologically relevant concentrations of LPA can contribute to PKC activation depending on the composition of the lipid membrane. We hypothesize that LPA may affect the formation of lipid domains that are recognized by the enzyme. PMID:8713089

  7. Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

    1996-01-01

    One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes

  8. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products. PMID:27432239

  9. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  10. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  11. Identify Secretory Protein of Malaria Parasite with Modified Quadratic Discriminant Algorithm and Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-E

    2016-06-01

    Malaria parasite secretes various proteins in infected red blood cell for its growth and survival. Thus identification of these secretory proteins is important for developing vaccine or drug against malaria. In this study, the modified method of quadratic discriminant analysis is presented for predicting the secretory proteins. Firstly, 20 amino acids are divided into five types according to the physical and chemical characteristics of amino acids. Then, we used five types of amino acids compositions as inputs of the modified quadratic discriminant algorithm. Finally, the best prediction performance is obtained by using 20 amino acid compositions, the sensitivity of 96 %, the specificity of 92 % with 0.88 of Mathew's correlation coefficient in fivefold cross-validation test. The results are also compared with those of existing prediction methods. The compared results shown our method are prominent in the prediction of secretory proteins. PMID:26286010

  12. Acidity and mineral composition of precipitation in Moscow: Influence of deicing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring data and analysis of the variation in acidity and mineral composition of atmospheric precipitation in Moscow in 2012 are presented. We have found that the chloride anions in the precipitation are largely caused by chlorides of deicing salts. Here, the chloride anions, along with metal chlorides (components of deicing salts), are partly caused by dissolved hydrogen chloride. The appearance of hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Moscow has been shown to result from heterophase chemical reactions involving deicing salts. We have obtained preliminary estimates for the scales of the effect of these salts on the mineral composition and acidity of precipitations in Moscow.

  13. Ionic composition and mineral equilibria of acidic groundwater on the west coast of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestroem, J.

    1993-08-01

    The groundwater chemistry of 14 shallow wells and 10 springs in Halland, southwest Sweden, and precipitation have been studied in trilinear diagrams. Ionic strength and saturation index (SI) for selected minerals have been calculated. Five springwaters have similar chemical composition to that of the precipitation, which indicates surficial and rapidly recharged water. The SI of the groundwaters is out of equilibrium (undersaturated) with respect to primary silicates such as mafic minerals, feldspar, K-mica and chlorite, but in equilibrium with solid SiO{sub 2} (quartz, cristobalite, or chalcedony). The SI shows oversaturation conditions for kaolinite, hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite, Na, K, Mg-beidellite, Mg-montmorillonite, and AB-montmorillonite. Concentrations of soluble Al and Si can be governed by Mg, Fe-beidellite, BF-montmorillonite, or Ca-montmorillonite at four springs, and by halloysite at two wells on the coastal plain. For these groundwaters, clay minerals may act as H{sup +} buffers and thus have an influence on pH and toxic Al, i.e., parameters affecting the drinking water quality and environment. The study shows that the soil catena are intensily weathered at the investigated sites. It is further concluded that neither cation exchange nor primary silicate weathering will keep up with buffering the acidic loads into the soils. A general prediction of groundwater quality is presented. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Composition, physiochemical properties, nitrogen fraction distribution, and amino acid profile of donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Pang, K; Zhang, X Y; Zhao, L; Chen, S W; Dong, M L; Ren, F Z

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, and AA profile of milk samples obtained during lactation from the Jiangyue breed of donkey in Northwest China. Results showed that donkey milk contained 9.53% total solids, 1.57% protein, 1.16% fat, 6.33% lactose, and 0.4% ash on average, which is more similar to mare and human milk than to the milk of other mammals. Throughout the lactation investigated, pH and density were constant, protein and ash content showed an apparent negative trend (an increase in lactose content during 120 d postpartum, followed by a decrease), fat content exhibited wide variability, and variations in the content and percentage of whey protein, casein, and AA were small. The casein to whey protein ratio of 52:37 was between the lower value of human milk and the higher value of cow milk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE results demonstrated that donkey milk is rich in beta-lactoglobulin and lysozyme. The percentages of 8 essential AA in protein of donkey milk were 38.2%, higher than those of mare and cow milk; donkey milk also had higher levels of serine (6.2%), glutamic acid (22.8%), arginine (4.6%), and valine (6.5%) and a lower level of cystine (0.4%). PMID:17369203

  15. Multifaceted chitin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite nanogels.

    PubMed

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Biswas, Raja; Chellan, Gopi; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    Cyto-compatible, 80nm sized chitin/PLGA composite nanogels (chit/PLGA-comp NGs) were prepared by regeneration method and characterized. The multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp NGs were surface modified with Au, Fe3O4, CdTe/ZnTe-QDs and umbelliferone, respectively. 185nm sized Au-chit/PLGA-comp NGs, 170nm sized QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 160nm sized Fe3O4-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs showed RF heating. The QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 180nm sized umb-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs were well uptaken by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The chit/PLGA-comp NGs could be useful for microbial monitoring and RF application for cancer therapy. The preliminary data showed that multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp-NGs could be useful for hyperthermia for cancer treatment and microbial labelling and imaging. PMID:24685461

  16. Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P < 0.05). Cattle with the LL genotype had higher palmitic acid (C16:1), triglycerides, and C16 index but lower stearic acid (C18:0) and SFA compared to those with the LS genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 84-bp indel of SREBP1 could be used as a genetic marker for selecting Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

  17. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  18. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

  19. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  20. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  1. Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2013-04-01

    An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

  2. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  3. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzyme using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition in conjunction with probabilistic neural network model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer Ullah; Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Muazzam Ali

    2015-01-21

    Enzyme catalysis is one of the most essential and striking processes among of all the complex processes that have evolved in living organisms. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which play a significant role in industrial applications as well as in medical areas, due to profound specificity, selectivity and catalytic efficiency. Refining catalytic efficiency of enzymes has become the most challenging job of enzyme engineering, into acidic and alkaline. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzymes through experimental approaches is difficult, sometimes impossible due to lack of established structures. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a computational model for discriminating acidic and alkaline enzymes from primary sequences. In this study, we have developed a robust, accurate and high throughput computational model using two discrete sample representation methods Pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and split amino acid composition. Various classification algorithms including probabilistic neural network (PNN), K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machine are applied to predict acidic and alkaline with high accuracy. 10-fold cross validation test and several statistical measures namely, accuracy, F-measure, and area under ROC are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The performance of the model is examined using two benchmark datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The empirical results show that the performance of PNN in conjunction with PseAAC is quite promising compared to existing approaches in the literature so for. It has achieved 96.3% accuracy on dataset1 and 99.2% on dataset2. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be useful for basic research and drug related application areas. PMID:25452135

  4. Beta-galactosidase and selective neutrality. [amino acid composition of proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three hypotheses to explain the amino acid composition of proteins are inconsistent (about 10 to the minus 9th) with the experimental data for beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The exceptional length of this protein, 1021 residues, permits rigorous tests of these hypotheses without complication from statistical artifacts. Either this protein is not at compositional equilibrium, which is unlikely from knowledge about other proteins, or the evolution of this protein and its coding gene have not been selectively neutral. However, the composition of approximately 60% of the molecule is consistent with either a selectively neutral or nonneutral evolutionary process.

  5. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  6. The differential hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants of different fatty acid composition is not mediated by hepatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M S; Avella, M A; Berhane, Y; Shervill, E; Botham, K M

    2001-05-01

    The hypothesis that hepatic lipase mediates the differential hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants of different fatty acid composition, demonstrated in previous work from our laboratory, was tested by investigating the effect of antibodies to the enzyme on the uptake of remnants enriched with saturated or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the perfused rat liver. After perfusion of rat livers with polyclonal antibodies to rat hepatic lipase raised in rabbits or with rabbit non-immune serum for 15 min, [3H]oleate-labelled chylomicron remnants, derived from chylomicrons of rats given a bolus of either palm (rich in saturated fatty acids) oil or fish (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) oil, were added. The disappearance of radioactivity from the perfusate during 120 min and its recovery in the liver at the end of the experiments were then measured. Although the rabbit anti-rat hepatic lipase antiserum was shown to inhibit hepatic lipase activity by up to 90%, and to bind extensively to hepatic sinusoidal surfaces when added to the perfusate, radioactivity from remnants of chylomicrons from rats given a bolus of fish oil as compared with palm oil disappeared from the perfusate and appeared in the liver more rapidly in the presence both the antiserum and the non-immune serum, and the differences between the uptake of the two types of remnants were similar. We conclude, therefore, that differential interaction with hepatic lipase is not responsible for the differences in the rate of removal of chylomicron remnants of different fatty acid composition from the blood. PMID:11348572

  7. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  8. Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Mann, Neil; Pirotta, Yvonne; O'Connell, Stella; Li, Duo; Kelly, Fiona; Sinclair, Andy

    2006-07-01

    High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health. PMID:17069347

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

    2009-01-01

    Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL

  10. Experimental investigation of interfaces in hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid/polycaprolactone composites using photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana; Katti, Dinesh

    2006-04-01

    Molecular interactions in hydroxyapatite (HAP) polymer composites have been studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. HAP is mineralized by wet precipitation under two conditions: first is in the absence of polyacrylic acid (PAAc) (ex-situ HAP) and second in the presence of PAAc (in-situ HAP). Porous and solid composites of ex-situ and in-situ HAP with polycaprolactone (PCL) have also been made to evaluate their applicability as bone scaffolds. Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) spectroscopy studies indicate that both in-situ and ex-situ HAP have HPO4 (2-) in their structure, which leads to Ca2+ deficiency. During crystallization of in-situ HAP, PAAc dissociates to form carboxylate ions, which binds to calcium ions and act as suitable site for nucleation for HAP crystallization. PA-FTIR spectra of porous and solid composites indicate that porous composites adsorb more water, which is hydrogen bonded with carbonyl of PCL. Mechanical tests on solid samples indicate that ex-situ HAP/PCL composites have higher elastic modulus than in-situ HAP/PCL composites. However, in case of porous composites, in-situ HAP/PCL composites are found to have higher elastic modulus. In-situ HAP is chemically and structurally different from ex-situ HAP. This modified HAP causes variation in microstructure of porous composite and hence alteration of its load transfer mechanisms and hence mechanical properties. PMID:16355408

  11. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  12. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  13. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  14. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot-finished beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven Angus crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on pasture- vs. feedlot-finishing beef steers on fatty acid (FA) composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A completely randomized design with repeated measures was used with steers arranged into 3 treatments...

  15. Hepatic fatty acid composition differs between chronic hepatitis C patients with and without steatosis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Prayitno, Nita R; Ma, David W L; Nguyen, Augustin; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition may influence steatosis development in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In a cross-sectional study, we compared the hepatic FA profile in hepatitis C patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 33) steatosis (> or =5% of hepatocytes involved). FA composition of hepatic and RBC total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and plasma, blood biochemistry, and nutritional status were also assessed. Patients with steatosis had more fibrosis, higher necroinflammatory activity of their hepatitis C infection, were more often infected with genotype 3, and had lower serum cholesterol. Monounsaturated FA in the liver were higher and trans FA were lower in patients with steatosis. Lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid in hepatic total lipids suggested higher Delta9-desaturase activity. alpha-Linolenic acid in the liver was higher and the ratios of long-chain PUFA:essential FA precursors were lower for (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA. Plasma vitamin C was lower in steatosis, but RBC FA composition and other parameters did not differ. We conclude that hepatic FA composition is altered in patients with hepatitis C and steatosis, probably due to modulation of enzymatic elongation and desaturation. Oxidative stress or nutritional status does not seem to play a predominant role for development of steatosis in CHC. PMID:19211827

  16. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  17. COMPOSITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF HUMIC ACIDS FROM ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND AMENDED SOILS IN MINNESOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of organic amendments requires an adequate control of the chemical quality of their humic acid (HA)-like fractions and of the effects that these materials may have on the status, quality, chemistry and functions of native soil HAs. In this work, the compositional, functional and structural p...

  18. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  19. Different Oilseed Supplements Alter Fatty Acid Composition of Different Adipose Tissues of Adult Ewes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lamb and mutton are important dietary components in human diets in northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor and flavor and nutritional value of fat for human consumption. Twenty-f...

  20. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  2. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) and pectin composite films intended for application in antimicrobial packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composite films of pectin and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded by extrusion. A model antimicrobial polypeptide, nisin, was loaded into the film by diffusion. The incorporation of pectin into PLA resulted in a heterogeneous biphasic structure as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy, co...

  3. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  4. Gibberellic acid (GA3) effects on late season grapefruit peel oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is commonly applied to citrus fruit in the late summer/early autumn to delay peel maturation and extend late season quality. The effect of August/September GA3 application on oil gland composition of "Marsh" white grapefruit harvested in March 18 and April 16 from three groves...

  5. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  6. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  7. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  8. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax. PMID:24871199

  9. Polyaniline/poly acid acrylic thin film composites: a new gamma radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lima Pacheco, Ana P.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a new and straightforward route to prepare polyaniline/poly acid acrylic (PAA) thin film composites in large areas and on almost any surface. This method was developed to improve the mechanical and adherence properties of polyaniline devices used as ionization radiation sensors. The route consists of the combination of the metal oxidant with polymer acid to form a highly homogeneous and viscous paste, which can be easily spread over any surface. In the second step, an aniline acid solution is brought in contact with the dried paste where polymerization occurs, yielding a high homogeneous and conducting polymer composite. The UV-visible absorption and infrared analysis confirm that a polyaniline/PAA complex is obtained. The four-point conductivity measurements show that the composite conductivity {rho} is the order of 5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Preliminary gamma radiation interaction with the composite shows that the doped composite exhibits a linear response that can be used in the development of real-time radiation sensors for the dose range from 0 to 5000 Gy.

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  11. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  13. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  14. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

  15. Relationship of amino acid composition and molecular weight of antifreeze glycopeptides to non-colligative freezing point depression.

    PubMed

    Schrag, J D; O'Grady, S M; DeVries, A L

    1982-08-01

    Many polar fishes synthesize a group of eight glycopeptides that exhibit a non-colligative lowering of the freezing point of water. These glycopeptides range in molecular weight between 2600 and 33 700. The largest glycopeptides [1-5] lower the freezing point more than the small ones on a weight basis and contain only two amino acids, alanine and threonine, with the disaccharide galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine attached to threonine. The small glycopeptides, 6, 7, and 8, also lower the freezing point and contain proline, which periodically substitutes for alanine. Glycopeptides with similar antifreeze properties isolated from the saffron cod and the Atlantic tomcod contain an additional amino acid, arginine, which substitutes for threonine in glycopeptide 6. In this study we address the question of whether differences in amino acid composition or molecular weight between large and small glycopeptides are responsible for the reduced freezing point depressing capability of the low molecular weight glycopeptides. The results indicate that the degree of amino acid substitutions that occur in glycopeptides 6-8 do not have a significant effect on the unusual freezing point lowering and that the observed decrease in freezing point depression with smaller glycopeptides can be accounted for on the basis of molecular weight. PMID:7115772

  16. Lactic acid fermentation by cells immobilised on various porous cellulosic materials and their alginate/poly-lactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mrinal Nishant; Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Masson, Jean Bernard; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Porous delignified cellulose (or tubular cellulose, abbr. TC) from Indian Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta) wood and Rice husk, and TC/Ca-alginate/polylactic acid composites, were used as Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilisation carriers leading to improvements in lactic acid fermentation of cheese whey and synthetic lactose media, compared to free cells. Specifically, shorter fermentation rates, higher lactic acid yields (g/g sugar utilised) and productivities (g/Ld), and higher amounts of volatile by-products were achieved, while no significant differences were observed on the performance of the different immobilised biocatalysts. The proposed biocatalysts are of food grade purity, cheap and easy to prepare, and they are attractive for bioprocess development based on immobilised cells. Such composite biocatalysts may be used for the co-immobilisation of different microorganisms or enzymes (in separate layers of the biocatalyst), to efficiently conduct different types of fermentations in the same bioreactor, avoiding inhibition problems of chemical or biological (competition) nature. PMID:24690466

  17. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). PMID:22980905

  18. Effect of organic acids in dental biofilm on microhardness of a silorane-based composite

    PubMed Central

    Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Talebi, Mohammad; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the microhardness of a silorane-based composite compared to two methacrylate-based composite resins. Materials and Methods Thirty disc-shaped specimens each were fabricated of Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT. After measuring of Vickers microhardness, they were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) and immersed in lactic acid, acetic acid or distilled water. Microhardness was measured after 48 hr and 7 day of immersion. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). The surfaces of two additional specimens were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after immersion. Results All groups showed a reduction in microhardness after 7 day of immersion (p < 0.001). At baseline and 7 day, the microhardness of Z250 was the greatest, followed by Z350 and P90 (p < 0.001). At 48 hr, the microhardness values of Z250 and Z350 were greater than P90 (p < 0.001 for both), but those of Z250 and Z350 were not significantly different (p = 0.095). Also, the effect of storage media on microhardness was not significant at baseline, but significant at 48 hr and after 7 day (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Lactic acid had the greatest effect. Conclusions The microhardness of composites decreased after 7 day of immersion. The microhardness of P90 was lower than that of other composites. Lactic acid caused a greater reduction in microhardness compared to other solutions. PMID:26295021

  19. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6. PMID:19577791

  20. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  2. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    PubMed

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed. PMID:24171311

  3. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  4. Fine-Scale Vertical Stratification and Guild Composition of Saproxylic Beetles in Lowland and Montane Forests: Similar Patterns despite Low Faunal Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Matthias; Procházka, Jiří; Schlaghamerský, Jiří; Cizek, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The finer scale patterns of arthropod vertical stratification in forests are rarely studied and poorly understood. Further, there are no studies investigating whether and how altitude affects arthropod vertical stratification in temperate forests. We therefore investigated the fine-scale vertical stratification of diversity and guild structure of saproxylic beetles in temperate lowland and montane forests and compared the resulting patterns between the two habitats. Methods The beetles were sampled with flight intercept traps arranged into vertical transects (sampling heights 0.4, 1.2, 7, 14, and 21 m). A triplet of such transects was installed in each of the five sites in the lowland and in the mountains; 75 traps were used in each forest type. Results 381 species were collected in the lowlands and 236 species in the mountains. Only 105 species (21%) were found at both habitats; in the montane forest as well as in the lowlands, the species richness peaked at 1.2 m, and the change in assemblage composition was most rapid near the ground. The assemblages clearly differed between the understorey (0.4 m, 1.2 m) and the canopy (7 m, 14 m, 21 m) and between the two sampling heights within the understorey, but less within the canopy. The stratification was better pronounced in the lowland, where canopy assemblages were richer than those near the forest floor (0.4 m). In the mountains the samples from 14 and 21 m were more species poor than those from the lower heights. The guild structure was similar in both habitats. Conclusions The main patterns of vertical stratification and guild composition were strikingly similar between the montane and the lowland forest despite the low overlap of their faunas. The assemblages of saproxylic beetles were most stratified near ground. The comparisons of species richness between canopy and understorey may thus give contrasting results depending on the exact sampling height in the understorey. PMID:26978783

  5. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  6. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  7. Amino acid composition and crude protein values of some Cyanobacteria from Çanakkale (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgül, Rıza; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Akgül, Füsun; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) form an important component of integrated nutrient managements in agriculture and are exploited in commercial biotechnological ventures. In this study, Rivularia bullata (Poir) Berkeley ex Bornet & Flahault, Nostocs pongiaeforme C. Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault were researched for their amino acid composition and crude protein values. R. bullata was collected from coastal zones of the Gulf of Saros and N. spongiaeforme from the Ayazma Stream. The levels of amino acids were measured in algae samples using EZ: fast kits (EZ: fast GC/FID Protein Hydrolysate Amino Acid Kit) by gas chromatography. The crude proteins of samples were determined by the Kjeldahl method and were calculated using a nitrogen conversion factor of 6.25. Thirty-two amino acids were investigated, for N. spongiaeforme eight free essential amino acids (EAA), eight free non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and eleven other amino acids (OAA); for R. bullata eight EAA, eight NEAA and eight OAA were detected. Aspartic acid is the major constituent for both species. The total protein percents were determined for N. spongiaeforme as % 19.83 and for R. bullata as % 6.15. When considering the increasing world population and reducing natural products; Cyanobacteria will benew feed sources for all living. PMID:26408895

  8. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs. PMID:27166662

  9. Electrochromism of electrochemically codeposited composites of phosphomolybdic acid and tungsten trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, B.H.; Lee, J.Y.

    1996-09-01

    The electrochromism of phosphomolybdic acid (PM) in solution and in a series of solid WO{sub 3}-PM composites is investigated. PM in solution changes color from light yellow to dark blue upon reduction whereas the composites show a change from light yellow to bluish brown under identical conditions. PM could not be deposited as a thin film by itself, and electrochemical codeposition was used to incorporate it into the WO{sub 3} matrix. The basic electrochromatic properties of WO{sub 3} are changed upon the incorporation of PM even in small quantities. The composites have a more intense color, a different cold spectrum, and a slower electrochromic response speed than that of WO{sub 3}. The composites, like WO{sub 3}, are also degraded by slow and continuous potential cycling.

  10. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947

  11. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  12. The effect of dietary amino acid composition on egg production in blue tits

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino acids. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino acid balance close to that required for egg protein formation laid significantly larger clutches (18% greater) than control birds, whereas birds receiving an otherwise identical supplementary diet but without a favourable amino acid balance did not increase egg production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary amino acid composition may limit egg production in free-living birds.

  13. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  14. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Owen J; Bramble, Judith E; Heisler, I Lorraine; Phillips, Christopher A; Cox, David L

    2005-10-01

    Most snakes and lizards produce eggs with flexible shells that interact with the environment to maintain water balance. Geckos produce rigid eggshells that are independent of an external source of water and can be oviposited in more open, dryer locations. In this study, we analyzed and compared the amino acid composition of 24 lizard species, six snake species, and four outgroups (including avian and reptilian elastin and chicken eggshell). Rigid Gecko eggshells had significantly lower levels of seven of the 17 amino acids evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that proline was the most important amino acid in distinguishing between these two groups of eggshells, occurring at significantly higher levels in flexible eggshells. High levels of proline have also been observed in the eggshells of other species. Proline and other amino acids are associated with the alleviation of water and salt stress in plants. PMID:16195850

  15. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  16. Racial Differences in Self-Rated Health at Similar Levels of Physical Functioning: An Examination of Health Pessimism in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N.; Albert, Steven M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. Methods The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70–79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. Results The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. Conclusions The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults. PMID:19176485

  17. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed. PMID:25532360

  18. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Bernhoft, Aksel; Wold, Jens P; Hetland, Harald; Christophersen, Olav A; Sogn, Trine

    2007-01-01

    Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form) per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle). The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5), DPA (22:5) and DHA (22:6), thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form) may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle. PMID:17967172

  19. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  20. Using the concept of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein solubility: an approach with entropies in information theory.

    PubMed

    Xiaohui, Niu; Nana, Li; Jingbo, Xia; Dingyan, Chen; Yuehua, Peng; Yang, Xiao; Weiquan, Wei; Dongming, Wang; Zengzhen, Wang

    2013-09-01

    Protein solubility plays a major role and has strong implication in the proteomics. Predicting the propensity of a protein to be soluble or to form inclusion body is a fundamental and not fairly resolved problem. In order to predict the protein solubility, almost 10,000 protein sequences were downloaded from NCBI. Then the sequences were eliminated for the high homologous similarity by CD-HIT. Thus, there were 5692 sequences remained. Based on protein sequences, amino acid and dipeptide compositions were generally extracted to predict protein solubility. In this study, the entropy in information theory was introduced as another predictive factor in the model. Experiments involving nine different feature vector combinations, including the above-mentioned three kinds of factors, were conducted with support vector machines (SVMs) as prediction engine. Each combination was evaluated by re-substitution test and 10-fold cross-validation test. According to the evaluation results, the accuracies and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) values were boosted by the introduction of the entropy. The best combination was the one with amino acid, dipeptide compositions and their entropies. Its accuracy reached 90.34% and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) value was 0.7494 in re-substitution test, while 88.12% and 0.7945 respectively for 10-fold cross-validation. In conclusion, the introduction of the entropy significantly improved the performance of the predictive method. PMID:23524162

  1. Effect of domperidone supplementation of fescue-fed heifers on plasma and follicular fluid fatty acid composition and oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; King, S S

    2009-07-01

    This study continues a series of investigations evaluating fescue endotoxin exposure in beef heifer production. The objectives were to evaluate fatty acid compositions in plasma and follicular fluid, and to assess oocyte quality from cattle fed fescue diets. The ability of domperidone, a dopamine antagonist, to mitigate these variables was also assessed. Thirty heifers were divided into 3 treatment groups (n = 10/group) and administered treatment regimens for 24 d, at which time blood samples were collected. The treatment regimens were a diet with endophyte-free fescue (EF), a diet with endophyte-infected fescue (EI), or EI supplemented with daily subcutaneous injections of domperidone (0.44 mg/kg of BW; EID). Three heifers/group were administered treatments for an additional 10 d, at which time their luteal phase ovarian follicular fluid and oocytes were collected. Plasma and follicular fluid samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid concentrations. Oocytes were matured in vitro to assess quality. In addition, abattoir oocytes were cultured in plasma from treated heifers. In plasma, arachidonic acid was less (P < 0.001) in EF-fed compared with EI-fed heifers. Decreased (P < 0.05) total n-6 fatty acid concentration was observed in EF-fed compared with EI-fed heifers. Similarly, the EF-containing diets decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and C22:5n-3 (P < 0.05) compared with EI-containing diets. Domperidone supplementation increased (P < 0.05) C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, C17:1n-7, and several C18:1 isomers compared with the diet with EI and no supplementation. No differences between fescue endophyte groups were detected in any of the fatty acid concentrations analyzed in follicular fluid from small follicles. In follicular fluid from large follicles, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3 concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in EI-fed compared with EF-fed heifers. Oocytes cultured in serum (control) or plasma from EF-, EI-, or EID-fed cattle did not differ

  2. Single-crystalline ceramic whisker-reinforced carboxylic acid-resin composites with fluoride release.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Eichmiller, F C; Antonucci, J M; Flaim, G M

    2000-01-01

    Currently available glass-ionomer, resin-modified glass-ionomer, and compomer materials have relatively low strength and toughness and, therefore, are inadequate for use in large stress-bearing posterior restorations. In the present study, ceramic single-crystalline whiskers were mixed with fluorosilicate glass particles and used as fillers to reinforce experimental carboxylic acid-resin composites. The carboxylic acid was a monofunctional methacryloxyethyl phthalate (MEP). Five mass fractions of whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass), and corresponding resin (resin + MEP), were evaluated. Four control materials were also tested for comparison: a glass ionomer, a resin-modified glass ionomer, a compomer, and a hybrid composite resin. Flexural specimens were fabricated to measure the flexural strength, elastic modulus, and work-of-fracture (an indication of toughness). Fluoride release was measured by using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The properties of whisker composites depended on the whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass) mass fraction. At a mass fraction of 0.8, the whisker composite had a flexural strength in MPa (mean +/- sd; n = 6) of 150 +/- 16, significantly higher than that of a glass ionomer (15 +/- 7) or a compomer control (89 +/- 18) (Tukey's multiple comparison test; family confidence coefficient = 0.95). Depending on the ratio of whisker:fluorosilicate glass, the whisker composites had a cumulative fluoride release up to 60% of that of a traditional glass ionomer. To conclude, combining ceramic whiskers and fluorosilicate glass in a carboxylic acid-resin matrix can result in fluoride-releasing composites with significantly improved mechanical properties. PMID:11203805

  3. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair. PMID:20683132

  4. Adaptation of anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans to organic solvents on the level of membrane fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Duldhardt, Ilka; Gaebel, Julia; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Härtig, Claus; Schauer, Frieder; Heipieper, Hermann J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The effect of different solvents and pollutants on the cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial strains: Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans, representatives of diverse predominant anaerobic metabolisms was investigated. As the prevailing adaptive mechanism in cells of T. aromatica and G. sulfurreducens whose cellular fatty acids patterns were dominated by palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1cis), the cells reacted by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of the chemicals. Next to palmitic acid C16:0, the fatty acid pattern of D. multivorans was dominated by anteiso‐branched fatty acids which are characteristic for several sulfate‐reducing bacteria. The cells responded to the solvents with an increase in the ratio of straight‐chain saturated (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0) to anteiso‐branched fatty acids (C15:0anteiso, C17:0anteiso, C17:1anteisoΔ9cis). The results show that anaerobic bacteria react with similar mechanisms like aerobic bacteria in order to adapt their membrane to toxic organic solvents. The observed adaptive modifications on the level of membrane fatty acid composition can only be carried out with de novo synthesis of the fatty acids which is strictly related to cell growth. As the growth rates of anaerobic bacteria are generally much lower than in the so far investigated aerobic bacteria, this adaptive response needs more time in anaerobic bacteria. This might be one explanation for the previously observed higher sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria when compared with aerobic ones. PMID:21255320

  5. Adaptation of anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans to organic solvents on the level of membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Duldhardt, Ilka; Gaebel, Julia; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Härtig, Claus; Schauer, Frieder; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2010-03-01

    The effect of different solvents and pollutants on the cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial strains: Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans, representatives of diverse predominant anaerobic metabolisms was investigated. As the prevailing adaptive mechanism in cells of T. aromatica and G. sulfurreducens whose cellular fatty acids patterns were dominated by palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1cis), the cells reacted by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of the chemicals. Next to palmitic acid C16:0, the fatty acid pattern of D. multivorans was dominated by anteiso-branched fatty acids which are characteristic for several sulfate-reducing bacteria. The cells responded to the solvents with an increase in the ratio of straight-chain saturated (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0) to anteiso-branched fatty acids (C15:0anteiso, C17:0anteiso, C17:1anteisoΔ9cis). The results show that anaerobic bacteria react with similar mechanisms like aerobic bacteria in order to adapt their membrane to toxic organic solvents. The observed adaptive modifications on the level of membrane fatty acid composition can only be carried out with de novo synthesis of the fatty acids which is strictly related to cell growth. As the growth rates of anaerobic bacteria are generally much lower than in the so far investigated aerobic bacteria, this adaptive response needs more time in anaerobic bacteria. This might be one explanation for the previously observed higher sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria when compared with aerobic ones. PMID:21255320

  6. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  7. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  8. Dietary fat in relation to erythrocyte fatty acid composition in men.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, Markus; Agren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition is used in the validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the evaluation of dietary fat quality. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate associations of diet with EMFA. Altogether, 1,033 randomly selected Finnish men, aged from 47 to 75 years filled in a FFQ and their EMFA composition was analyzed. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake correlated positively with erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (r(s) = 0.415 and r(s) = 0.340, respectively, P < 0.001) and inversely with all n-6 PUFA analyzed (P < 0.001). PUFA intake from spreads and cooking fats correlated positively with alpha-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LNA) and nervonic acids (r(s) = 0.229, r(s) = 0.160 and r(s) = 0.143, respectively, P < 0.001). Milk fat intake was associated with myristic and behenic acids (r(s) = 0.186 and r(s) = 0.132, respectively P < 0.001). Butter users had lower ALA and LNA proportions (mol%) than non-users (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05, P < 0.001 and 7.77 ± 1.02 vs. 8.12 ± 1.11, P = 0.001). Higher PUFA intake from meat was related to decreased long-chain n-3 (P < 0.001) and increased n-6 PUFA (P < 0.001) proportions. In conclusion, EMFA composition reflects particularly well the intakes of n-3 PUFA, whereas other associations remained lower. Yet, all main sources of dietary fat were related with EMFA. The dietary effect on the nervonic acid proportion was confirmed. PMID:23975575

  9. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  10. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  11. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions.

  12. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains.

    PubMed

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  13. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle. PMID:7070040

  14. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  15. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  16. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  17. Tartaric Acid-Assisted Self-Assembly of Hybrid Block Copolymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Lin, Ying; Watkins, James

    2014-03-01

    Enantiopure tartaric acid was used as an additive to increase the segregation strength of poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) copolymers through strong, selective interactions with one of the polymer chain segments. Addition of tartaric acid to PEO-b-PtBA exhibiting cylindrical morphologies resulted in the formation of helical superstructures as observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was also found that this small acid additive can also enable phase-selective ultra-high loading of nanoparticles (NPs) into target domains of the block copolymer composites. The loading of tartaric acid can increase enthalpically favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the host domain and mitigate entropic penalties associated with NP incorporation into the target domain. A metal content of over 40 weight percent by mass of the resulting well ordered composites was achieved as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis in PEO-b-PtBA/tartaric acid/4-hydroxythiophenol functionalized Au NP hybrid system. Funding from Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CHM); Facility support from Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at UMass Amherst.

  18. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  19. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2014-11-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, which was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence for products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  20. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  1. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    PubMed Central

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40–80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  2. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids. PMID:14733508

  3. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  4. Influence of Aerosol Acidity on the Chemical Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, A. W.; Schlling, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Edgerton, E. S.; Tanner, R. L.; Shaw, S. L.; Zheng, M.; Knipping, E. M.; Seinfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI- TOFMS). A number of first- , second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde) are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS).

  5. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, A. W. H.; Schilling, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E. O.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Edgerton, E. S.; Tanner, R. L.; Shaw, S. L.; Zheng, M.; Knipping, E. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS). A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde) are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS).

  6. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, A. W. H.; Schilling, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E. O.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Edgerton, E. S.; Tanner, R. L.; Shaw, S. L.; Zheng, M.; Knipping, E. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS). A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increase of acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde) are identified as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS).

  7. POLY(LACTIC ACID) GREEN COMPOSITES USING OILSEED COPRODUCTS AS FILLERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer made from renewable resources with similar mechanical properties to polypropylene. PLA is more expensive than petroleum-based plastics, and the use of low-cost fillers as extenders is desirable. Agricultural co-products of the alternative oilseed ...

  8. GREEN COMPOSITES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND OILSEED CO-PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid)(PLA) is a biodegradable plastic made from renewable resources and has similar mechanical properties to polypropylene. PLA is more expensive than petroleum-based plastics, and the use of low-cost fillers as extenders is desirable. Agricultural co-products (AcP) of oilseed crops we...

  9. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (LACTIC ACID) GREEN COMPOSITES USING AGRICULTURAL CO-PRODUCTS AS FILLERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly (lactic acid) is a biodegradable plastic made from renewable resources and has similar mechanical properties to polypropylene. PLA is more expensive than petroleum-based plastics, and the use of low-cost fillers as extenders is desirable. Agricultural co-products (AcP) of oilseed crops were c...

  10. [Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae)].

    PubMed

    D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Reyes, Dilia; Salazar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33-31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 omega-11, C22:1 omega-9, C18:3 omega-3, C20:5 omega-3 and C22:6 omega-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization. PMID:20527465

  11. [Amino acid composition evaluation of Pleurotus spp. cultivated in banana leaves].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L

    1998-12-01

    The protein quality of edible mushrooms besides being species/strain specific, could also vary with the growth substrate. The aim of this work was to determine the amino acid composition of the protein from edible mushrooms--Pleurotus sp. "Florida" (L1), P. ostreatoroseus (L2) and P. sajor-caju (L3), cultivated on banana leaves (BL) single and, mixed with sugar cane bagasse (BLSCB). Total amino acids, cystine and tryptophan were evaluated; the chemical score index and PDCAAS--"protein digestibility-correct amino acid scoring" were calculated. From both substrates, the studied species contain all essential amino acids; in decreasing order, the amino acids in great amounts were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. The L1 chemical score was 90.4, with limitation in sulfur and aromatic amino acids when from BL substrate; and, from BLSC substrate the chemical score was 88.7 with limitation in aromatics only. The L2 and L3 was 100, 0, independent of cultivation substrate. The calculated PDCAAS value, considering 90% of recommended digestibility, varied between 80.0-96%. The L1 proteins were limiting in sulfur and aromatic amino acids and had the lowest value of PDCAAS (approximately 80.0) in both substrates; the L3 proteins were limiting in aromatic, sulfur and tryptophan, dependent of cultivation substrate; the L2 proteins had the greatest value of PDCAAS (approximately 96%) and were limiting in aromatic and/or sulfur amino acids, dependent of cultivation substrate. Considering the conditions of this study, the protein of the studied species is incomplete, although of high biological value, comparable to meet. PMID:10347700

  12. Poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites: Preparation and viscoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, L. D.; Fakirov, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) from petrochemical-derived polymers have been investigated for several years and the technique can result in significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared with the neat matrix material of the respective composite. The current work applies the technique to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers for potential applications in bioabsorbable medical devices. MFCs were prepared from melt blended poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) via cold drawing then compression molding of extruded yarn. These MFCs were shown to have higher Young's moduli than that of neat PLLA but for load-bearing applications the creep characteristics are of interest. The MFC sheets resulting from compression molding were subjected to tensile relaxation tests at 37°C in the fiber orientation direction. Specimens were also tested via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Neat PLLA specimens were subjected to the same tests for comparison. Results indicate that at 37°C PLLA/PGA MFCs exhibit lower creep resistance than that of neat PLLA due to the more rapid relaxation of stress observed. DMTA results elucidate the loss modulus changes in PLLA/PGA MFCs which occur as the material approaches the glass transition temperature of PGA (˜45°C).

  13. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    PubMed Central

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Vogel, Heiko; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    For sexual communication, moths primarily use blends of fatty acid derivatives containing one or more double bonds in various positions and configurations, called sex pheromones (SPs). To study the molecular basis of novel SP component (SPC) acquisition, we used the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), which uses a blend of mono-, di-, and uncommon triunsaturated fatty acid (3UFA) derivatives as SP. We identified pheromone-biosynthetic fatty acid desaturases (FADs) MsexD3, MsexD5, and MsexD6 abundantly expressed in the M. sexta female pheromone gland. Their functional characterization and in vivo application of FAD substrates indicated that MsexD3 and MsexD5 biosynthesize 3UFAs via E/Z14 desaturation from diunsaturated fatty acids produced by previously characterized Z11-desaturase/conjugase MsexD2. Site-directed mutagenesis of sequentially highly similar MsexD3 and MsexD2 demonstrated that swapping of a single amino acid in the fatty acyl substrate binding tunnel introduces E/Z14-desaturase specificity to mutated MsexD2. Reconstruction of FAD gene phylogeny indicates that MsexD3 was recruited for biosynthesis of 3UFA SPCs in M. sexta lineage via gene duplication and neofunctionalization, whereas MsexD5 representing an alternative 3UFA-producing FAD has been acquired via activation of a presumably inactive ancestral MsexD5. Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. PMID:26417103

  14. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Vogel, Heiko; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-10-13

    For sexual communication, moths primarily use blends of fatty acid derivatives containing one or more double bonds in various positions and configurations, called sex pheromones (SPs). To study the molecular basis of novel SP component (SPC) acquisition, we used the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), which uses a blend of mono-, di-, and uncommon triunsaturated fatty acid (3UFA) derivatives as SP. We identified pheromone-biosynthetic fatty acid desaturases (FADs) MsexD3, MsexD5, and MsexD6 abundantly expressed in the M. sexta female pheromone gland. Their functional characterization and in vivo application of FAD substrates indicated that MsexD3 and MsexD5 biosynthesize 3UFAs via E/Z14 desaturation from diunsaturated fatty acids produced by previously characterized Z11-desaturase/conjugase MsexD2. Site-directed mutagenesis of sequentially highly similar MsexD3 and MsexD2 demonstrated that swapping of a single amino acid in the fatty acyl substrate binding tunnel introduces E/Z14-desaturase specificity to mutated MsexD2. Reconstruction of FAD gene phylogeny indicates that MsexD3 was recruited for biosynthesis of 3UFA SPCs in M. sexta lineage via gene duplication and neofunctionalization, whereas MsexD5 representing an alternative 3UFA-producing FAD has been acquired via activation of a presumably inactive ancestral MsexD5. Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. PMID:26417103

  15. Calcium- and polyphosphate-containing acidic granules of sea urchin eggs are similar to acidocalcisomes, but are not the targets for NAADP

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Isabela B.; Miranda, Kildare; Pace, Douglas A.; Verbist, Katherine C.; Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhang, Yonghui; Oldfield, Eric; Machado, Ednildo A.; De Souza, Wanderley; Docampo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium-storage compartments described from bacteria to humans and characterized by their high content in poly P (polyphosphate), a linear polymer of many tens to hundreds of Pi residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In the present paper we report that millimolar levels of short-chain poly P (in terms of Pi residues) and inorganic PPi are present in sea urchin extracts as detected using 31P-NMR, enzymatic determinations and agarose gel electrophoresis. Poly P was localized to granules randomly distributed in the sea urchin eggs, as shown by labelling with the poly-P-binding domain of Escherichia coli exopolyphosphatase. These granules were enriched using iodixanol centrifugation and shown to be acidic and to contain poly P, as determined by Acridine Orange and DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining respectively. These granules also contained large amounts of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and zinc, as detected by X-ray microanalysis, and bafilomycin A1-sensitive ATPase, pyrophosphatase and exopolyphosphatase activities, as well as Ca2+/H+ and Na+/H+ exchange activities, being therefore similar to acidocalcisomes described in other organisms. Calcium release from these granules induced by nigericin was associated with poly P hydrolysis. Although NAADP (nicotinic acid–adenine dinucleotide phosphate) released calcium from the granule fraction, this activity was not significantly enriched as compared with the NAADP-stimulated calcium release from homogenates and was not accompanied by poly P hydrolysis. GPN (glycyl-L-phenylalanine-naphthylamide) released calcium when added to sea urchin homogenates, but was unable to release calcium from acidocalcisome-enriched fractions, suggesting that these acidic stores are not the targets for NAADP. PMID:20497125

  16. Anti-acids lead to immunological and morphological changes in the intestine of BALB/c mice similar to human food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Yildirim, Ali O; Ackermann, Ute; Knauer, Tanja; Becker, Christoph; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2008-08-01

    We have shown that anti-acid medication for treating dyspeptic disorders can block protein digestion and induce a higher risk for food sensitization. This mechanism was confirmed in human and animal studies on the humoral as well as the cellular level. Here we aimed to investigate the outcome of the treatment with the anti-acid drug sucralfate on the intestine in our murine model, assuming that morphological and immunological changes will occur. BALB/c mice were fed codfish extract plus sucralfate. Antibodies were examined in ELISA, RBL assay and Western blot. Quantitative morphological analysis of the intestine was performed by design-based stereology, focussing on epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscle, eosinophils and CD3(+) cells. Histological analyses were performed after H&E-, PAS- and Congo red-staining, while immune histochemistry was done for detection of CD3(+) cells. Codfish-specific IgE and its activity in RBL assay confirmed the Th2-response after treatment with sucralfate. The reactivity pattern of murine IgE in Western blot was similar to allergic patients' IgE. Histological examination showed more slender villi in the duodenum, and increased goblet cell mucus in the cecum after sucralfate treatment. Stereological analyses of the intestine revealed higher eosinophil/CD3(+) ratios, decreased mean thickness of the epithelium of duodenum and cecum, and thinner smooth muscle cell layer in the colon of food allergic mice. Anti-acid treatment with sucralfate induces changes in the structure of epithelium and villi, and an increase in eosinophils and mucus-producing cells in the intestine. Therefore, this medication leads to sensitization against food with changes typical for food allergy also in the intestine. PMID:18524557

  17. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis in the Martian Regolith with a Microfabricated in situ Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelley, A. M.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in microfabricated "lab-on-a-chip" technologies have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of chemical and biochemical analyzers. The portability and sensitivity of these devices makes them ideal instruments for in situ chemical analysis on other planets. We have focused our initial studies on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more chemically resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker [1]. Previously, we developed a prototype electrophoresis chip, detection system and analysis method where the amino acids were labeled with fluorescein using FITC and then electrophoretically analyzed using g-cyclodextrin as the chiral resolution agent [2]. Extracts of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed, and the D/L ratios determined by microchip CE closely matched those from HPLC and GCMS and exhibited greater precision. Our microchip analyzer has now been further improved by establishing the capability of performing amino acid composition and chirality analyses using fluorescamine rather than FITC [3]. Fluorescamine is advantageous because it reacts more rapidly than FITC, and because excess reagent is hydrolyzed to a non-fluorescent product. Furthermore, the use of fluorescamine facilitates interfacing with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) [4]. Fluorescamine-amino acids are separated using similar conditions as the FITC-aa, resulting in similar separation times and identical elution orders. Fluorescamine-aa are chirally resolved in the presence of hydroxy-propyl-b-cyclodextrin, and typical limits of detection are ˜ 50 nM. This work establishes the feasibility of combining fluorescamine labeling of amino acids with microfabricated CE devices to develop low-volume, high-sensitivity apparatus for extraterrestrial exploration. The stage is now set for the development of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system for amino acid extraction and chiral analysis that will

  18. Predicting lipase types by improved Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ya; Li, Hong-Chun; Gao, Jia-Qiang; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2008-01-01

    By proposing a improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition approach to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences. To avoid redundancy and bias, demonstrations were performed on a dataset where none of the proteins has > or =25% sequence identity to any other. The overall success rate thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test was over 90%, indicating that the improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches. PMID:19075826

  19. Melamine/Stearic Acid Composite Nanowires and Vesicles with an Intercalated Nanostructure Prepared through NCCM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Juan; Chen, Dao-yong

    2012-12-01

    A solvent-non-solvent method invented in our laboratory for preparing non-covalently connected micelles (NCCM) was used to intercalate melamine (MA) molecules into stearic acid (SA) bilayers to form the composite nanoparticles with an intercalated nanostructure in which a melamine bilayer is sandwiched between two stearic acid bilayers, NCCM method helps to sufficiently mix the two components in nanospace and meanwhile inhibits the strong tendency of self-crystallization of MA, leading to the intercalation. Although the nanoparticles have a regular inner structure, the primary MA/SA nanoparticles have an irregular morphology. Regular nanoparticles were obtained through annealing the suspension of the primary nanoparticles. Through annealing at different temperatures, the MA/SA composite nanowires and vesicles with an intercalated structure were prepared respectively. It is proposed that the morphological change results from the change in the intercalated structure.

  20. Preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite microspheres with patterned surface structures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huiyun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu; Gu, Zhongze

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide (AM) and methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer microgels were prepared by a reverse suspension polymerization technique. The microgels were used as templates for the preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [Ag-P(AM-co-MAA)] composite microspheres. The surface structures of the microspheres prepared in this way are characterized by zigzag-like structures. It was found that the composition of the microgels, the nature and dosage of surfactants, the quantity of the metal, and even the reduction methods employed have a significant effect upon the surface structures of the microspheres. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Ag formed during the process is in a crystal state of a face-centered cubic structure. PMID:24058232

  1. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. PMID:22459498

  2. Function of all-trans retinoic acid observation on similar myopia changes in cultivated rabbit retinal pigment epithelium and relation with myopia relevant factors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during the similar myopia changes of cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, as well as the variation changes and relationships with myopic correlation factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and matrix metalloprateinase-2 (MMP-2). Rabbit RPE cells of primary generation were selected and cultured to fifth generation by subculture. Then the morphology of RPE cells were observed and cell vitality was analyzed by using the Trypan blue reject test. The expressions of HGF and MMP-2 in RPE cells were tested by using an immunobistochemistry method. The HGF concentration in RPE cell culture fluid was detected by applying enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). As the ATRA concentration enhanced and action time prolonged, the survival rate of RPE cells was reduced, but the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased, so did the secretion of HGF. ATRA concentration with no less than 5 nM/ml was able to induce the growth inhibition of RPE cells and the decrease in survival rate, which was similar to the changes in RPE cells in myopia. With the actin of ATRA, the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased in RPE cells, with more distinct in HGF increase. PMID:27113312

  3. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  4. [Effect of phenibut and its composition with nicotinic acid on hemostasis in rats with brain ischemia].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Litvinov, A A; Tarasov, A S

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that, in rats with global cerebral ischemia modeled by a complete irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery and forced hypotension, the hemostasis is characterized by a shift toward hypercoagulation. A single preventive introduction of phenibut and, to a greater degree, a composition of phenibut with nicotinic acid, in rats with acute cerebral ischemia reduced the extent of disturbances in the hemostasis system of experimental animals. PMID:22702103

  5. Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid and lubricating oil composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.

    1981-08-11

    An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil composition containing same is provided.

  6. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin Spatangus purpureus elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Barberá, C; Fernández-Jover, D; López Jiménez, J A; González Silvera, D; Hinz, H; Moranta, J

    2011-05-01

    Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments. In the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands S. purpureus occurs in soft red algal beds, and can reach high densities. The diet of S. purpureus is unknown and it is particularly difficult to analyze the stomach contents of this group; therefore, we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of the gonads and potential food resources in order to assess the trophic relationships of this species. The FA profiles of the gonads of S. purpureus agree well with the FA composition of the potential trophic resources (algae and sediment) and reveals changes between localities with different available resources. Three polyunsaturated FAs mainly contributes in the composition in the S. purpureus gonads: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), both abundant in the macroalgal material, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), which is characteristic of sediment samples. Trophic markers of bacterial input and carnivorous feeding were significantly more abundant in sea urchins caught on bottoms with less vegetation. The current study demonstrates that the FA content of S. purpureus gonads is a useful marker of diet, as differences in the profiles reflected the variations in detritus composition. The results of this study show that this species has omnivorous feeding behavior; however, viewed in conjunction with available abundance data the results suggest that phytodetritus found within algal beds is an important carbon source for this species. PMID:21334740

  7. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  8. Polypropylene Glycol-Silver Nanoparticle Composites: A Novel Anticorrosion Material for Aluminum in Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Moses M.; Umoren, Saviour A.; Israel, Aniekemeabasi U.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-11-01

    Admixture of polypropylene glycol and 1 mM AgNO3 together with natural honey as reducing and stabilizing agent was employed to prepare in situ polypropylene glycol/silver nanoparticle (PPG/AgNPs) composite. The prepared PPG/AgNPs composite was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and EDS, while the morphology of the Ag nanoparticles in the composite was obtained by TEM. TEM results revealed that the Ag nanoparticles were spherical in shape. The anticorrosion property of PPG/AgNPs composite was examined by electrochemical, weight loss, SEM, EDS, and water contact angle measurements. Results obtained show that PPG/AgNPs are effective in retarding the dissolution of Al in an acid-induced corrosive environment. Inhibition efficiency increased with the increasing composite concentration but decreased with the increasing temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that PPG/AgNPs functions as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The adsorption of the composite onto Al surface was found to follow El-Awady et al. adsorption isotherm model. SEM, EDS, and water contact angle results confirmed the adsorption of PPG/AgNPs films onto Al surface.

  9. Lactic acid based PEU/HA and PEU/BCP composites: Dynamic mechanical characterization of hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rich, Jaana; Tuominen, Jukka; Kylmä, Janne; Seppälä, Jukka; Nazhat, Showan N; Tanner, K Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid based poly(ester-urethane) (PEU-BDI) and its composites with 20 and 40 vol.% bioceramic filler were characterized prior to their use as biocompatible and bioabsorbable artificial bone materials. Morphological, dynamic mechanical properties, and degradation of these either hydroxyapatite or biphasic calcium phosphate containing composites were determined. Addition of particulate bioactive filler increased the composite stiffness and the glass transition temperature, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Materials were sterilized by gamma-irradiation, which reduced the average molecular weights by 30-40%. However, dynamic mechanical properties were not significantly affected by irradiation. Specimens were immersed in 0.85 w/v saline at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and changes in molecular weights, mass, water absorption, and dynamic mechanical properties were recorded. All the composite materials showed promising dynamic mechanical performance over the 5 weeks of hydrolysis. Average molecular weights of PEU-BDI and its composites did not change substantially during the test period. PEU-BDI retained its modulus values relatively well, and although the moduli of the composite materials were much higher, especially at high filler content, they exhibited faster loss of mechanical integrity. PMID:12115768

  10. Fabrication and biocompatibility of poly(l-lactic acid) and chitosan composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures.

    PubMed

    Lou, Tao; Wang, Xuejun; Yan, Xu; Miao, Yu; Long, Yun-Ze; Yin, Hai-Lei; Sun, Bin; Song, Guojun

    2016-07-01

    The scaffold microstructure is crucial to reconstruct tissue normal functions. In this article, poly(l-lactic acid) and chitosan fiber (PLLA/CTSF) composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures both in fiber and pore sizes were successfully fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The composite scaffolds consisted of a nanofibrous PLLA matrix with diameter of 50-500nm, and chitosan fibers with diameter of about 20μm were homogenously distributed in the PLLA matrix as a microsized reinforcer. The composite scaffolds also had high porosity (>94%) and hierarchical pore size, which were consisted of both micropores (50nm-10μm) and macropores (50-300μm). By tailoring the microstructure and chemical composition, the mechanical property, pH buffer and protein adsorption capacity of the composite scaffold were improved significantly compared with those of PLLA scaffold. Cell culture results also revealed that the PLLA/CTSF composite scaffolds supported MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and penetration. PMID:27127062

  11. Effects of heating on composition, degree of darkness, and stacking nanostructure of soil humic acids.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Koyo; Okazaki, Masanori

    2016-01-15

    Wildfires and prescribed burning can affect both the quality and the quantity of organic matter in soils. In this study, we investigated qualitative and quantitative changes of soil humic substances in two different soils (an Entisol from a paddy field and an Inceptisol from a cedar forest) under several controlled heating conditions. Soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, or 300 °C for 1, 3, 5, or 12h. The humic acid and fulvic acid contents of the soil samples prior to and after heating were determined. The degree of darkness, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of humic acids extracted from the soils before and after heating were measured. The proportion of humic acids in total carbon decreased with increasing heating time at high temperature (300 °C), but increased with increasing heating time at ≤ 250 °C. The degree of darkness of the humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. During darkening, the H/C atomic ratios, the proportion of aromatic C, and the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios increased, whereas the proportions of alkyl C and O-alkyl C decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis verified that a stacking nanostructure developed by heating. Changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids from the heated soils depended on the type of soil. The major structural components of the humic acids from the heated Entisol were aromatic C and carboxylic C, whereas aliphatic C, aromatic C, and carboxylic C structural components were found in the humic acids from the heated Inceptisol. These results suggest that the heat-induced changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids depended on the source plant. PMID:26398447

  12. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  13. Automatic ¹H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by ¹H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  14. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  15. [Prediction of lipases types by different scale pseudo-amino acid composition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangya; Li, Hongchun; Gao, Jiaqiang; Fang, Baishan

    2008-11-01

    Lipases are widely used enzymes in biotechnology. Although they catalyze the same reaction, their sequences vary. Therefore, it is highly desired to develop a fast and reliable method to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences, or even just to confirm whether they are lipases or not. By proposing two scales based pseudo amino acid composition approaches to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to address the problems. The overall success rates thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test were shown as below: for predicting lipases and nonlipase, the success rates were 92.8%, 91.4% and 91.3%, respectively. For lipase types, the success rates were 92.3%, 90.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Among them, the Z scales based pseudo amino acid composition was the best, T scales was the second. They outperformed significantly than 6 other frequently used sequence feature extraction methods. The high success rates yielded for such a stringent dataset indicate predicting the types of lipases is feasible and the different scales pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches. PMID:19256347

  16. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  17. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  18. From Genus to Phylum: Large-Subunit and Internal Transcribed Spacer rRNA Operon Regions Show Similar Classification Accuracies Influenced by Database Composition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the classification accuracy of two sections of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, individually and combined, and the 5′ section (about 600 bp) of the large-subunit rRNA (LSU), using a naive Bayesian classifier and BLASTN. A hand-curated ITS-LSU training set of 1,091 sequences and a larger training set of 8,967 ITS region sequences were used. Of the factors evaluated, database composition and quality had the largest effect on classification accuracy, followed by fragment size and use of a bootstrap cutoff to improve classification confidence. The naive Bayesian classifier and BLASTN gave similar results at higher taxonomic levels, but the classifier was faster and more accurate at the genus level when a bootstrap cutoff was used. All of the ITS and LSU sections performed well (>97.7% accuracy) at higher taxonomic ranks from kingdom to family, and differences between them were small at the genus level (within 0.66 to 1.23%). When full-length sequence sections were used, the LSU outperformed the ITS1 and ITS2 fragments at the genus level, but the ITS1 and ITS2 showed higher accuracy when smaller fragment sizes of the same length and a 50% bootstrap cutoff were used. In a comparison using the larger ITS training set, ITS1 and ITS2 had very similar accuracy classification for fragments between 100 and 200 bp. Collectively, the results show that any of the ITS or LSU sections we tested provided comparable classification accuracy to the genus level and underscore the need for larger and more diverse classification training sets. PMID:24242255

  19. Effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid administration on bile lipid composition in humans.

    PubMed

    Di Padova, C; Di Padova, F; Buzzetti, M; Tritapepe, R

    1984-09-01

    The effects of the lipid-lowering agent 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMGA) on serum lipids and on biliary lipid composition were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in normolipidemic volunteers. After 4 weeks of HMGA administration (1 g three times a day orally) serum total cholesterol showed a significant decrease with regard to both pretreatment values and corresponding values of controls. The bile lipid molar percentage composition and the cholesterol saturation index showed no modification after HMGA and did not differ from the values obtained in the placebo group. These findings indicate that HMGA exerts no adverse effects on bile lipid composition in humans, differing from other hypolipidemic drugs currently in clinical use, which increase the bile cholesterol saturation index. PMID:6083597

  20. Voltammetric detection of phenol at platinum-polytyramine composite electrodes in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Spătaru, Nicolae

    2010-08-15

    A composite obtained by depositing platinum nanoparticles in a polytyramine (PTy) matrix, electrochemically formed on graphite substrate, was used as electrode material for the investigation of phenol oxidation by use of anodic voltammetry. The results show that, in acidic media, the measurement of the oxidation peak current can be used as the basis for a simple, rapid method for the determination of phenol within a concentration range of 0.3-10 mM. A much better resistance to fouling during phenol detection (compared both with smooth platinum and with Pt nanoparticles on bare graphite substrate) is the main advantage of the Pt-PTy composite. These results are also noteworthy because they provide a basis for additional experiments devoted to obtaining new composite materials with improved performances for phenol anodic oxidation. PMID:20462693

  1. Angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor axis activation ameliorates the changes in fatty acid composition in diabetic rats with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Tajinder; Sharma, PL

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with altered fatty acids composition. This study was designed to investigate the role of angiotensin (Ang) (1-7)/Mas receptor in improving fatty acids composition in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Rats treated with STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. once) developed DN after 8 weeks. Fatty acid composition was estimated in renal cortical tissue by gas chromatography. Treatment with Ang (1-7), A-779, and Ang (1-7) plus A-779 was given from week 4 to week 8. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in levels of saturated fatty acids and a significant decrease in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Treatment with Ang (1-7) significantly attenuated these diabetes-induced changes. In diabetic rats, prior administration of A-779 significantly attenuated the increase in PUFAs produced by Ang (1-7); however, for saturated fatty acids, A-779 significantly blocked the decrease in palmitic acid only. Our study, for the first time, documented that endogenous Ang (1-7) modulates fatty acid composition in rats. Further, treatment with Ang (1-7) significantly attenuated diabetes-induced changes in fatty acids composition. This may be an additional mechanism implying the renoprotective role of Ang (1-7) in diabetic rats.

  2. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition of formic and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Like; Huang, Daikuan; An, Ning; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bin

    2013-05-15

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment and in many biological processes. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of formic and acetic acids is important to understanding their biogeochemical cycles. However, it has been faced with poor accuracy and high detection limits due to their low carbon number, high hydrophilicity, and semi-volatility. Here we developed an analytical technique by needle trap and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The organic acids in aqueous solution were extracted using a NeedlEx needle through purge-and-trap and were analyzed by GC-IRMS for δ(13)C. The procedures incur no isotope fractionation. Defined as the point at which the mean δ(13)C is statistically the same as the given value and the analytical error starts rising, the method's detection limits are 200 and 100 mg/L for formic and acetic acids, respectively, with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5‰ in direct extraction and analysis. They were lowered to 1 mg/L with precision of 0.9‰ after samples were subjected to preconcentration. The method was successfully applied to natural samples as diverse as precipitation, vinegars, ant plasma, and vehicle exhaust, which vary considerably in concentration and matrix of the organic acids. It is applicable to the organic acids in not only aqueous solution but also gaseous phase. PMID:23395975

  3. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    PubMed

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  4. Ultrastructural aspects and amino acid composition of the purified inner and outer membranes of human liver mitochondria as compared to rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Poruţiu, D; Hodârnău, A; Ferdinand, W

    1992-05-01

    1. The mitochondria isolated from human or rat liver were fractionated into submitochondrial particles and purified inner and outer membrane. According to different marker enzymes the inner membranes were enriched about 5-6-fold and the outer membranes about 12-14-fold. The electron microscopical appearance of the membranes was that expected on the basis of enzymic characterization. 2. A comparison of the average amino acid composition of the membrane proteins from the two types of mitochondria has been made. In the case of submitochondrial particles there were statistically significant differences between the human and rat hydrolysates for only five amino acids. Analysing the purified mitochondrial membranes there were significant differences between the two species for nine amino acids in the case of outer membranes and for 12 amino acids in the case of inner membranes. 3. With one exception all amino acids that were increased or decreased in the outer membrane exhibited a similar trend in the inner membrane of human compared with rat liver mitochondria. It appears that liver mitochondrial membranes have a species-dependent pattern of amino acid composition of their proteins. PMID:1526116

  5. Does membrane fatty acid composition modulate mitochondrial functions and their thermal sensitivities?

    PubMed

    Lemieux, H; Blier, P U; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modifying fatty acid modification of heart mitochondrial membranes by dietary intervention on the functions and thermal sensitivity of electron transport system complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Four groups of rats were fed diets differing in their fat (coconut, olive or fish oil) and antioxidant (fish oil with or without probucol) contents. After 16 weeks of feeding, the coconut and olive oil groups had lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents and a lower unsaturation index compared to both fish oil groups. These differences in fatty acid composition were not related to any differences in the mitochondrial respiration rate induced at Complexes I, II or IV, or to differences in their thermal sensitivity. The coconut oil group showed a lower mitochondrial affinity for pyruvate at 5 degrees C (k(mapp)=6.4+/-1.8) compared to any other groups (k(mapp)=3.8+/-0.5; 4.7+/-0.8; 3.6+/-1.1, for olive, fish oil and fish oil and probucol groups, respectively). At least in rat heart, our results do not support a major impact of the fatty acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane on the function of mitochondrial enzymatic complexes or on their temperature sensitivity. PMID:17993286

  6. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Trisha L; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2010-04-28

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions obtained from HPLC separation of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) were studied. Thermolysin hydrolysis of pea protein isolate and ultrafiltration (3 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane) yielded a PPH that was separated into five fractions (F1-F5) on a C(18) reverse phase HPLC column. The fractions that eluted later from the column (F3-F5) contained higher contents hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids when compared to fractions that eluted early or the original PPH. Fractions F3-F5 also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities; however, hydrophobic character did not seem to contribute to reducing power of the peptides. In comparison to glutathione, the peptide fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation and chelate metals. In contrast, glutathione had significantly higher (p < 0.05) free radical scavenging properties than the peptide fractions. PMID:20359226

  7. Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-11-15

    Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

  8. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. Effect of trans-10 cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on bovine oocyte competence and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Lapa, M; Marques, C C; Alves, S P; Vasques, M I; Baptista, M C; Carvalhais, I; Silva Pereira, M; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive performance of dairy cows may be improved by feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements during early lactation. The mechanism of action of t10,c12 CLA is not clearly known. Our objective was to investigate the effect of t10,c12 CLA on oocyte maturation and lipid composition of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC). The developmental potential of oocytes incubated in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplemented with t10,c12 CLA to the blastocyst stage and embryo quality were also assessed. In experiment 1, abattoir-derived oocytes were matured in TCM199 + 10% serum supplemented with 100 μM t10,c12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA n = 672) or without it (control n = 672). Mature oocytes were either stained for chromatin configuration or inseminated and cultured for embryo development assessment. In experiment 2, COC and IVM culture media were subjected to fatty acid (FA) analysis prior and after maturation with t10,c12 CLA or without it (control). Total lipids and FA profiles in oocytes, cumulus cells and culture media were determined by gas chromatography. t10,c12 CLA supplementation to IVM medium improved (p = 0.05) embryo quality evaluated morphologically. This effect was associated with t10,c12 CLA presence (3.1 ± 0.7%, p = 0.04) and lower levels of arachidonic acid in FA profile of t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes (immature oocytes = 4.4 ± 1.9%, t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes = 1.0 ± 0.7%, p = 0.05). Differences in myristic and eicotrienoic acids, saturated and unsaturated FA concentrations between oocytes and cumulus cells were detected (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of t10,c12 CLA during maturation interfered on lipid metabolism improving bovine oocyte competence to develop into higher quality embryos. PMID:21366717

  10. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the 'classical' (neutral) and 'alternative' (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. PMID:23391614

  11. Food availability and reproduction affects lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown mussel, Perna perna, raised in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Mirle; Freites, L; Guevara, M; Mendoza, J; Guderley, H; Lodeiros, C J; Salazar, G

    2008-02-01

    We examined the influence of the reproductive cycle and environmental factors on variations of the condition index (CI), tissue dry mass, shell size, total lipid content, and relative percent of fatty acids in the mussel, Perna perna. Spat or juveniles were reared to commercial size (70 mm) in suspension culture in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela between May and October 2004. The dry mass of soft tissues and shell, a visual assessment of gonadal status and the organism lipid profile were established every fortnight. In parallel, we measured the environmental conditions, following chlorophyll a, salinity, temperature and seston levels. After an initial decrease, the CI rose and remained high until August after which it decreased continuously until October. Total lipid values also decreased initially, after which they showed two periods of rapid recuperation and depletion, the first between May and August and the second between August and October. Similar tendencies were noted in the fatty acids, C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3. Correlation analysis found no significant relationships between environmental parameters and the variations in total lipids. However, significant correlations were noted between fatty acids and specific environmental parameters. In particular, temperature was inversely correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7, C18:4n-3 and 20:4n-6. On the other hand, gametogenesis had an effect on C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 and C18:1n-7, while spawned and gonadal regression states had an effect on fatty acid 20:4n-6. Temperature and chlorophyll a levels strongly influenced the proportion of mussels spawning, suggesting that their influence upon lipid composition may be secondary to their impact upon reproduction. Despite the thermal stability of this tropical system, the lipid composition of mussels changed markedly during the study, reflecting the central role of diet

  12. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  13. Fatty acid composition evaluation of edible parts of Eriocheir sinensis in intensive ponds of Gucheng waters.

    PubMed

    Yu, J Y; Yan, P S

    2015-01-01

    In Gucheng Lake, Jiangsu Province, China, randomly selected crabs were fed 2 diet types. Crab crude oil methyl ester analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acid compositions in the 3 edible parts of a crab - the hepatopancreas, gonad, and muscle - were analyzed. C16:1 and C18:2 were significantly higher in most commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs than in small trash fish-feeding crabs, while the opposite was observed for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Phytanic acid reached 1.93% in the hepatopancreas of small trash fish-feeding crabs. Furan fatty-acid-DiMe (11,5) contents in the testes of small trash fish-feeding crabs was 1.49%. These values were higher in male crabs than in female crabs. According to a standard ratio of 1:1:1 which meaning the saturated fathy acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were 33.33 each, fatty acid structure analysis of crab edible parts showed that SFA:MUFA:PUFA of crab edible parts was 2.3-4.1:2.9-5.0:1.3-4.8. The highest muscle score was 29.53 in male trash fish-feeding crabs, and the lowest hepatopancreas score was -40.81 in female commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs. The n-6/n-3 ratio was 0.36-2.48. Muscle ratio was the lowest in female commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs. Thus, small trash fish-feeding and commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs are healthy foods. Overall, for consumption, the males of small trash fish-feeding crabs were better than the females, the muscle was better than the gonads and hepatopancreas, and the testis was better than the ovary. PMID:26125730

  14. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-15

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO{sub 4}, by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}).2H{sub 2}O and Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O fertilizer. - Graphical abstract: A new synthesis scheme for preparation of composite titanium phosphate (TiP) ion-exchangers upon one-stage decomposition process of natural sphene with phosphoric acid is presented. Syntheses of {alpha}-TiP-silica composites proceed via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases. The concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} determines the porosity of final products and their sorption affinities.

  15. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  16. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species. PMID:22005403

  17. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  18. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA' XI. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION AND ELECTROPHORETIC PROTEIN PATTERNS OF 'ARTEMIA' FROM FIVE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cysts of five geographical strains of Artemia were hatched and the newly hatched nauplii were acid hydrolyzed and analyzed for their amino acid content. Strains from Australia, Brazil, Italy, and Utah were similar in amino acid content, whereas the San Pablo Bay, California s...

  19. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fatty acid composition in an Iberian × Landrace cross.

    PubMed

    Ramayo-Caldas, Y; Mercadé, A; Castelló, A; Yang, B; Rodríguez, C; Alves, E; Díaz, I; Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Noguera, J L; Pérez-Enciso, M; Fernández, A I; Folch, J M

    2012-09-01

    The lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profile have an important impact in human health as well as in the technological transformation and nutritional and organoleptic quality of meat. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 144 backcross pigs (25% Iberian × 75% Landrace) was performed for 32 traits associated with intramuscular FA composition and indices of FA metabolism. The GWAS was carried out using Qxpak 5.0 and the genotyping information obtained from the Porcine SNP60K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Signals of significant association considering a false- discovery rate (q-value < 0.05) were observed in 15 of the 32 analyzed traits, and a total of 813 trait-associated SNP (TAS), distributed in 43 chromosomal intervals on almost all autosomes, were annotated. According to the clustering analysis based on functional classification, several of the annotated genes are related to FA composition and lipid metabolism. Some interesting positional concordances among TAS and previously reported QTL for FA compositions and/or other lipid traits were also found. These common genomic regions for different traits suggest pleiotropic effects for FA composition and were found primarily on SSC4, SSC8, and SSC16. These results contribute to our understanding of the complex genetic basis of FA composition and FA metabolism. PMID:22785162

  20. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  1. Study of the organic acids composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit and jam.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Mendes, Gisela C; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2002-04-10

    The organic acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by HPLC. The sample preparation was simple, involving only extraction with methanol (40 degrees C) and filtration through a Sep-pack C18 cartridge. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an ion exclusion column, Nucleogel Ion 300 OA (300 x 7.7 mm), in conjunction with a column heating device at 30 degrees C. An isocratic elution with H(2)SO(4) 0.01 N as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min, and UV detection at 214 nm were used. These analyses showed that all samples presented a similar profile composed of at least six identified organic acids: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids. Several samples also contained oxalic acid. This study suggests that the organic acids levels and ratios may be useful for the determination of percent fruit content of quince jams. The citric acid value can also be used in the differentiation of the type of manufacture of the commercial quince jams (homemade or industrially manufactured). PMID:11929290

  2. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils. PMID:19106316

  3. Fatty acid composition of lipids present in selected lichenized fungi: a chemotyping study.

    PubMed

    Sassaki, G L; Cruz, L M; Gorin, P A; Lacomini, M

    2001-02-01

    The total-lipid composition of 21 lichens of the ascomycetous genera Cladonia (11) and Cladina (1) of the family Cladoniacea, Cladia (1), Parmotrema (3), Ramalina (2), Leptogium (1), Cetraria (1), and the basidiomycetous genus Dictyonema (1) was determined. Analyses of those of Dictyonema glabratum were carried out with a total extract and those obtained after successive extractions with various solvents. Each extract was partitioned between n-heptane/isopropanol and 1 M sulfuric acid, giving triglycerides (TG) in the upper phase. Extracts were methanolyzed and the resulting methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methanolyzates of TG unexpectedly contained esters of 9-oxodecanoic, 9-methyl-tetradecanoic, 6-methyl-tetradecanoic, 3-hydroxy-decanoic, nonanedioic, and decanedioic acids, as well as common fatty acids. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles from the lichens were submitted to cluster analysis, and the resulting dendogram showed a cluster consistent with Cladonia spp., suggesting an efficient aid to lichen taxonomy. The total carbohydrate content of each lipid extract was determined by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method, which compensated for the presence of pigments. PMID:11269697

  4. Diffusion dialysis. Effect of membrane composition on acid/salt separation

    SciTech Connect

    Narebska, A.; Warszawski, A. )

    1992-05-01

    Diffusion dialysis is an energy-saving separation technique. In order to highlight the relationship between membrane composition and ability to separate acid/salt mixtures by diffusion dialysis, a few anion-exchange membranes were examined. Experiments on solubility/diffusivity phenomena were carried out in contact with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solutions (single- and two-solute experiments). Computations using Glueckauf and Tye models have indicated high nonuniformity in the distribution of fixed charged within the membranes and different accessibilities of the internal membrane volumes for the acid and salt. The Neosepta AFN-7 membrane (Tokuymam Soda Co.) has proved effective in differentiating the permeants by sorption (k{sub HCl}/k{sub NaCl} {approx} 2) and diffusivity ({bar D}{sub HCl}/{bar D}{sub NaCl} up to 10). This membrane is also the only one which, when in contact with two-solutes solutions, absorbs the acid preferentially to the salt. For this membrane the preferential sorption and transport of the acid depends not only on the physical structure of the membrane but also on the chemical nature of the polymer which contains pyridine moieties.

  5. Characterization of the bovine gene LIPE and possible influence on fatty acid composition of meat

    PubMed Central

    Goszczynski, Daniel Estanislao; Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Ripoli, María Verónica; Villarreal, Edgardo Leopoldo; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos Alberto; Melucci, Lilia Magdalena; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    LIPE is an intracellular neutral lipase, which is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters and plays a key role in the mobilization of fatty acids from diacylglycerols. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic polymorphism of bovine LIPE gene and to evaluate the possible association between three SNPs in the coding regions of this gene with the fatty acid composition of meat in a cattle population. Forty-three unrelated animals from different cattle breeds were re-sequenced and 21 SNPs were detected over approximately 2600 bp, five of these SNPs were novel. Three SNPs were selected, on the basis of evolutionary conservation, to perform validation and association studies in a crossbred cattle population. Our results may suggest a possible association of SNP1 with contents of oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), and SNP2 and SNP3 with Heneicosylic acid content (p < 0.01), may be helpful to improve the quality of meat and improve health. PMID:25606458

  6. Characterization of lipid and fatty acids composition of Chlorella zofingiensis in response to nitrogen starvation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shunni; Wang, Yajie; Shang, Changhua; Wang, Zhongming; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-08-01

    Cellular biochemical composition of the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis was studied under favorable and nitrogen starvation conditions, with special emphasis on lipid classes and fatty acids distribution. When algal cells were grown in nitrogen-free medium (N stress), the increase in the contents of lipid and carbohydrate while a decrease in protein content was detected. Glycolipids were the major lipid fraction (50.7% of total lipids) under control condition, while neutral lipids increased to be predominant (86.7% of total lipids) under N stress condition. Triacylglycerol (TAG) content in N stressed cells was 27.3% dw, which was over three times higher than that obtained under control condition. Within neutral lipids fraction, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the main group (40.6%) upon N stress, in which oleic acid was the most representative fatty acids (34.5%). Contrarily, glycolipids and phospholipids showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Lipid quality assessment indicated the potential of this alga as a biodiesel feedstock when its neutral lipids were a principal lipid fraction. The results demonstrate that the neutral lipids content is key to determine the suitability of the microalga for biodiesel, and the stress cultivation is essential for lipid quality. PMID:25782619

  7. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series. PMID:22322400

  8. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  9. Breed effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and palatability attributes in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Laborde, F L; Mandell, I B; Tosh, J J; Wilton, J W; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    2001-02-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 136) were used to assess breed differences in growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition (total lipids and phospholipids), and palatability attributes of longissimus muscle. A multiple regression model was applied to crossbreeding data to estimate genetic differences between Simmental and Red Angus at the same level of backfat finish (10 mm). Simmental spent 71 more (P < 0.001) days on feed to acquire the same degree of backfat thickness as Red Angus, had heavier (P < 0.001) slaughter weights, larger (P = 0.002) longissimus muscle area, and increased (P = 0.023) lean yield. Average daily gain did not differ (P = 0.297) between breeds. Simmental were less (P = 0.012) efficient in converting feed to gain than Red Angus. Generally, there were few breed differences in palatability attributes for longissimus and semitendinosus muscles, with the exception of increased (P < 0.05) beef flavor scores for Simmental beef vs Red Angus beef across both muscles. For total lipids, concentrations of myristoleic acid (14:1), palmitoleic acid (16:1), and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), along with n-6 to n-3 fatty acid (n-6:n-3) ratio, were greater (P < 0.05) in Simmental than Red Angus. In contrast, concentrations of margaric acid (17:0), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) were greater (P < 0.05) in Red Angus than Simmental. For phospholipids, Simmental had lower (P < 0.05) amounts of 20:5n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and n-3 PUFA, with a greater (P = 0.017) n-6:n-3 ratio. Activity of delta9-desaturase enzyme in the conversion of palmitic acid (16:0) to 16:1 was greater (P = 0.001) in total lipids from Simmental as compared with Red Angus. A genetic basis for fatty acid differences is suggested, although the biological and practical significance needs to be demonstrated. PMID:11219444

  10. ANALYTICAL VARIATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF STANDARD PREPARATIONS OF BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA: AN INTERLABORATORY EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international interlaboratory exercise was conducted to investigate the variability associated with the preparation and analysis of samples and the reporting of fatty acid composition data for tvo samples of Artemia supplied to the laboratories by the Artemia Reference Center ...

  11. Influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.S.; Lin, Z.J.; Wu, M.Y.; Liu, J.I.; Yuan, C.

    1998-12-31

    This study investigated the influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition both temporally and spatially in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan. During the period of January--December, 1996, both wet and dry deposition samples were collected by automatic acid precipitation samplers at six sampling sites which covered the entire metropolitan area. Major cations (NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}) and anions (F{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}) of acid deposition samples were analyzed in a central laboratory, while the pH value and conductivity of rainwater samples were measured in situ. Results from chemical analysis indicated that Ca{sup +2} was the most abundant cation in acid deposition samples. Major cations were Ca{sup +2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, while major anions were SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. This study also revealed that the pH value, suspended solids, Ca{sup +2}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} of rainwater decreased with rainy time in a sequential rainwater sampling process. It was estimated that approximately 80% of suspended particles could be washed out by rain droplets in the first hour of raining process. Therefore, alkaline suspended particles in the atmosphere played an very important role on the chemical composition of acid precipitation in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan.

  12. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  13. Compositional and petrographic similarities of CV and CK chondrites: A single group with variations in textures and volatile concentrations attributable to impact heating, crushing and oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Isa, Junko; Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-05-01

    Greenwood et al. (2010) gathered data on O-isotopic and elemental compositions and reevaluated literature data for CV and CK chondrites. They concluded that these two chondrite groups originated on the same parent asteroid, with CK chondrites being metamorphosed CV chondrites (which are otherwise missing types 4 through 6). To test this interpretation we have gathered new instrumental neutron-activation-analysis (INAA) data for CV and CK chondrites and reexamined their petrographic features. The new INAA data like the older data show scatter attributable to weathering effects, but we conclude that the refractory lithophile abundances are the same in CV and CK, in agreement with the Greenwood et al. interpretation. Several volatile elements are significantly lower in CK than in CV chondrites. Among the elements we determine, the greatest difference between CV and CK is found for Br, for which the CV/CK ratio is ∼4; As and Sb are about 20% lower in CK than CV and smaller differences are observed for Zn, Ga and Se. It seems likely that volatiles were lost during impact-heating events that also provided the heat responsible for metamorphic recrystallization. Within statistical uncertainty, chondrules in CV and CK chondrites are the same size and have similar textural distributions. A significant petrographic difference between CK and CV chondrites cited by Kallemeyn et al. (1991) was the much higher percentage of igneous rims around CV chondrules. However, we now recognize that many chondrules in CK3.8 NWA 1559 have igneous rims and in CK4 chondrites, igneous rims are recognizable by their associated sulfide-rich rings; there are no quantifiable CV-CK differences in igneous-rim abundances. We used Ca and Al maps to show that CK chondrites have CAI abundances similar to those of CV chondrites. It thus appears that there are no resolvable pre-metamorphic petrographic differences between CV and CK chondrites. We recommend that the “CK” designation be abandoned and

  14. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  15. Differential stability of photosynthetic membranes and fatty acid composition at elevated temperature in Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Almeyda, E.; Thomé, P. E.; El Hafidi, M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.

    2011-03-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by increasing surface seawater temperatures resulting from climate change. Reef-building corals symbiotic with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium experience dramatic reductions in algal densities when exposed to temperatures above the long-term local summer average, leading to a phenomenon called coral bleaching. Although the temperature-dependent loss in photosynthetic function of the algal symbionts has been widely recognized as one of the early events leading to coral bleaching, there is considerable debate regarding the actual damage site. We have tested the relative thermal stability and composition of membranes in Symbiodinium exposed to high temperature. Our results show that melting curves of photosynthetic membranes from different symbiotic dinoflagellates substantiate a species-specific sensitivity to high temperature, while variations in fatty acid composition under high temperature rather suggest a complex process in which various modifications in lipid composition may be involved. Our results do not support the role of unsaturation of fatty acids of the thylakoid membrane as being mechanistically involved in bleaching nor as being a dependable tool for the diagnosis of thermal susceptibility of symbiotic reef corals.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p < .001) and hip (p < .01) circumference,, trunk and leg fat mass (FM; p < .01) and an increase in trunk and leg fat free mass (FFM; p < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (VO2max in ml/kg/min; p < .001) with exercise. However, no significant differences were observed between groups. There was no significant change in RMR, RER, nonexercise PA levels, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals. PMID:26479856

  17. Fatty acid composition of spruce needle lipids after exposure to air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfenden, J.; Wellburn, A.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Alterations in the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids have been observed in long-term experiments using realistic exposures of air pollutants. Monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG), from red spruce, showed a 12% reduction in linolenic acid (18:3) compared with controls, after a 21 week winter fumigation with SO{sub 2} NO{sub 2} (20 ppb each). The composition of phosphatidyl choline from the same trees was unaffected. In Norway spruce exposed to 70 ppb O{sub 3} for 3 consecutive summers there was no treatment effect on 18:3 content of MGDG, which ranged from 70 to 80%, with highest values in November. The percentage of octadecatetranoic acid (18:4) also varied seasonally. Compared with controls, polluted plants had proportionally less 18:4 during autumn, perhaps indicating some effect of O{sub 3} on the winter hardening process. Our observations emphasize the need for long-term experiments to investigate subtle disturbances to seasonal metabolic cycles.

  18. The role of inorganic acidity on templated vanadate composition and dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourmahnad, Anahita; Wenny, Malia B.; Zeller, Matthias; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-04-01

    Compositional and structural differences in two organically templated vanadate compounds are directly ascribed to the acidity of the primary building units from which they are constructed. [C6H16N2][(VO)2(HPO3)3] and [C6H16N2][VO(SeO3)(HSeO3)]2 were synthesized under analogous conditions with either phosphorous or selenous acid. The acidities of these primary building units are reflected in both their relative protonation states and the compositions of the resulting solids. Differences in intermolecular interactions cause deviations in dimensionality of the resulting [(V O) 2(H P O3) 3 ] n 2 n - layers and [ V O (S e O3)(H S e O3) ] n n - chains, as identified and visualized using non-covalent interaction index calculations. Steric repulsions between adjacent [ V O (S e O3)(H S e O3) ] n n - chains preclude the formation of two-dimensional layers, such repulsions are absent in [C6H16N2][(VO)2(HPO3)3], as visualized using non-covalent interaction index calculations.

  19. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of SiN-AlN Composites for Ultra Low Wet Etch Rates in Hydrofluoric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongmin; Provine, J; Walch, Stephen P; Park, Joonsuk; Phuthong, Witchukorn; Dadlani, Anup L; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Kihyun; Prinz, Fritz B

    2016-07-13

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposited (ALD) of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etch resistant and electrically insulating films for sidewall spacer processing. Silicon nitride (SiN) has been the prototypical material for this need and extensive work has been conducted into realizing sufficiently lower wet etch rates (WERs) as well as leakage currents to meet industry needs. In this work, we report on the development of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) composites of SiN and AlN to minimize WER and leakage current density. In particular, the role of aluminum and the optimum amount of Al contained in the composite structures have been explored. Films with near zero WER in dilute HF and leakage currents density similar to pure PEALD SiN films could be simultaneously realized through composites which incorporate ≥13 at. % Al, with a maximum thermal budget of 350 °C. PMID:27295338

  20. Molecular level computational studies of polyethylene and polyacrylonitrile composites containing single walled carbon nanotubes: effect of carboxylic acid functionalization on nanotube-polymer interfacial properties

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatpanah, Shayesteh; Bohlén, Martin; Bolton, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular mechanics (MM) methods have been used to investigate additive-polymer interfacial properties in single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)—polyethylene and SWNT—polyacrylonitrile composites. Properties such as the interfacial shear stress and bonding energy are similar for the two composites. In contrast, functionalizing the SWNT with carboxylic acid groups leads to an increase in these properties, with a larger increase for the polar polyacrylonitrile composite. Increasing the percentage of carbon atoms that were functionalized from 1 to 5% also leads to an increase in the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial properties depend on the location of the functional groups on the SWNT wall. PMID:25229056

  1. Active Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 or Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 administration positively influences liver fatty acid composition in mice on a HFD regime.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Djuricic, Ivana; Radojevic Skodric, Sanja; Zivkovic, Irena; Sobajic, Sladjana; Djordjevic, Brizita

    2016-06-15

    Western life style, and high calorie diet in particular is causing major health problems such as insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and heart disease in the modern age. High fat diet (HFD) induces similar changes in mice, such as increased body weight, hypercholesterolemia and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. These changes can be ameliorated by the administration of some Lactobacillus species. The focus of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content of liver, heart and brain tissues of mice fed HFD and administered with either Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68, and to analyze the fatty acid content of these organs after a two months washout period. The fatty acid composition of mouse liver tissue changed significantly due to probiotic administration during a 12 weeks HFD regime and active Lactobacillus administration had a slightly reversing effect toward the standard mouse diet group, but after the washout period these changes disappeared. The fatty acid composition of the heart and brain tissues was significantly changed in the HFD regime but probiotic administration had no significant influence on the fatty acid profile of these two organs. Upon the 8 weeks washout period the only remaining beneficial effect was the significantly lower mouse weight in the supplemented groups compared to the HFD group. PMID:27231730

  2. Differentiation of free-living Anabaena and Nostoc cyanobacteria on the basis of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M

    1992-04-01

    The cellular fatty acids of free-living, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Anabaena and Nostoc were analyzed to differentiate the genera. The fatty acid compositions of 10 Anabaena strains and 10 Nostoc strains that were grown for 12 days on BG-11o medium were determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Of the 53 fatty acids detected, 17 were major components; the average level for each of these 17 fatty acids was at least 0.9% of the total fatty acids (in at least one of the genera). These fatty acids included (with mean percentages in the Anabaena and Nostoc strains, respectively) the saturated fatty acids 16:0 (30.55 and 23.23%) and 18:0 (0.77 and 1.27%); several unsaturated fatty acids, including 14:1 cis-7 (2.50 and 0.11%), 14:1 cis-9 (3.10 and 3.41%), a polyunsaturated 16-carbon (sites undetermined) fatty acid with an equivalent chain length of 15.30 (1.20 and 1.03%), 16:4 cis-4 (0.95 and 0.87%), 16:3 cis-6 (2.16 and 1.51%), 16:1 cis-7 (1.44 and 0.36%), 16:1 cis-9 (6.53 and 18.76%), 16:1 trans-9 (4.02 and 1.35%), 16:1 cis-11 (1.62 and 0.42%), 18:2 cis-9 (10.16 and 12.44%), 18:3 cis-9 (18.19 and 17.25%), 18:1 cis-9 (4.01 and 5.10%), and 18:1 trans-9 (0.92 and 1.94%); and the branched-chain fatty acids iso-16:0 (2.50 and 1.14%) and iso-15:1 (0.34 and 2.05%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1581185

  3. Oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate in commercial fertilizers, nitric acid, and reagent salts.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Greg; Kolanowski, Michelle; Riha, Krystin M

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a key component of synthetic fertilizers that can be beneficial to crop production in agro-ecosystems, but can also cause damage to natural ecosystems if it is exported in large amounts. Stable isotopes, both oxygen and nitrogen, have been used to trace the sources and fate of nitrate in various ecosystems. However, the oxygen isotope composition of synthetic and organic nitrates is poorly constrained. Here, we present a study on the N and O isotope composition of nitrate-based fertilizers. The δ(15)N values of synthetic and natural nitrates were 0 ± 2 ‰ similar to the air N2 from which they are derived. The δ(18)O values of synthetic nitrates were 23 ± 3 ‰, similar to air O2, and natural nitrate fertilizer δ(18)O values (55 ± 5 ‰) were similar to those observed in atmospheric nitrate. The Δ(17)O values of synthetic fertilizer nitrate were approximately zero following a mass-dependent isotope relationship, while natural nitrate fertilizers had Δ(17)O values of 18 ± 2 ‰ similar to nitrate produced photochemically in the atmosphere. These narrow ranges of values can be used to assess the amount of nitrate arising from fertilizers in mixed systems where more than one nitrate source exists (soil, rivers, and lakes) using simple isotope mixing models. PMID:26181213

  4. A Systems Genetics Approach Identifies Gene Regulatory Networks Associated with Fatty Acid Composition in Brassica rapa Seed.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Ram Kumar; Del Carpio, Dunia Pino; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Jin, Mina; Boyle, Kerry; Fobert, Pierre; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids in seeds affect seed germination and seedling vigor, and fatty acid composition determines the quality of seed oil. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fatty acid and transcript abundance was integrated with gene network analysis to unravel the genetic regulation of seed fatty acid composition in a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population from a cross between a yellow sarson oil type and a black-seeded pak choi. The distribution of major QTLs for fatty acids showed a relationship with the fatty acid types: linkage group A03 for monounsaturated fatty acids, A04 for saturated fatty acids, and A05 for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using a genetical genomics approach, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) hotspots were found at major fatty acid QTLs on linkage groups A03, A04, A05, and A09. An eQTL-guided gene coexpression network of lipid metabolism-related genes showed major hubs at the genes BrPLA2-ALPHA, BrWD-40, a number of seed storage protein genes, and the transcription factor BrMD-2, suggesting essential roles for these genes in lipid metabolism. Three subnetworks were extracted for the economically important and most abundant fatty acids erucic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Network analysis, combined with comparison of the genome positions of cis- or trans-eQTLs with fatty acid QTLs, allowed the identification of candidate genes for genetic regulation of these fatty acids. The generated insights in the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and the underlying complex gene regulatory networks in B. rapa seeds are discussed. PMID:26518343

  5. Authentication of Tunisian virgin olive oils by chemometric analysis of fatty acid compositions and NIR spectra. Comparison with Maghrebian and French virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Laroussi-Mezghani, S; Vanloot, P; Molinet, J; Dupuy, N; Hammami, M; Grati-Kamoun, N; Artaud, J

    2015-04-15

    Six Tunisian virgin olive oil (VOO) varieties, Chemlali Sfax, Chetoui, Chemchali, Oueslati, Zarrazi and Zalmati, were characterised by two analytical methods. The gas chromatography allowed the determination of 14 fatty acids and squalene amounts. With fatty acids of each variety, a characteristic "morphotypes" for each oil variety was established. Chemlali Sfax and Zalmati showed strong similarities. Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and near infrared (NIR) spectra of oils, associated to chemometric treatment, allowed the study of the inter-varietal variability and the verification of the variety origins of some Tunisian commercial VOOs. The specificity of Tunisian VOOs was evaluated by comparing the samples to Algerian, Moroccan and French Protected Designation of Origin VOOs. Classification in varietal origins by SIMCA used the FAME compositions and NIR spectra of the most represented varieties (Chemlali Sfax, Chetoui and Oueslati) showed a high potential to authenticate the varietal origin of Tunisian VOOs. PMID:25466003

  6. In silico Proteome-wide Amino aCid and Elemental Composition (PACE) Analysis of Expression Proteomics Data Provides A Fingerprint of Dominant Metabolic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Good, David M.; Mamdoh, Anwer; Budamgunta, Harshavardhan; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2013-01-01

    Proteome-wide Amino aCid and Elemental composition (PACE) analysis is a novel and informative way of interrogating the proteome. The PACE approach consists of in silico decomposition of proteins detected and quantified in a proteomics experiment into 20 amino acids and five elements (C, H, N, O and S), with protein abundances converted to relative abundances of amino acids and elements. The method is robust and very sensitive; it provides statistically reliable differentiation between very similar proteomes. In addition, PACE provides novel insights into proteome-wide metabolic processes, occurring, e.g., during cell starvation. For instance, both Escherichia coli and Synechocystis down-regulate sulfur-rich proteins upon sulfur deprivation, but E. coli preferentially down-regulates cysteine-rich proteins while Synechocystis mainly down-regulates methionine-rich proteins. Due to its relative simplicity, flexibility, generality and wide applicability, PACE analysis has the potential of becoming a standard analytical tool in proteomics. PMID:23917074

  7. Thermal properties of extruded injection-molded poly (lactic acid) and milkweed composites: degradation kinetics and enthalpic relaxation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  8. Green composites of poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp. II. Structural and mechanical property analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp were compounded by twin-screw extrusion and injection molded into composite forms. Specific mechanical energy decreased with the addition of SBP during processing. PLA-SBP composites retained more tensile strength than expected based on the Nicolais-Narkis mod...

  9. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. PMID:26470187

  10. Bioplastic composite foam prepared from poly(lactic acid) and natural wood flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannakas, Pokkes; Petrchwattana, Nawadon; Covavisaruch, Sirijutaratana

    2016-03-01

    The major drawbacks of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) bioplastic are its cost and brittleness. This study aims to reduce the cost by foaming PLA reinforced with wood flour. A series of PLA/ natural fiber (WF) composite was prepared by using WF of selected conifers up to 5 wt%; each composite formulation was then foamed using 2 wt% of Azodicarbonamide (ADC) as chemical foaming agent. ADC effectively reduced the density of PLA and the PLA/WF composite foam by about 45% to 0.64 g/cm3 from 1.24 g/cm3 of neat PLA and 1.26 g/cm3 of PLA/WF composites when 2 wt% ADC was applied. Mechanical behaviors in terms of compressive and impact properties were investigated. With the presence of WF, the compressive stress increased with the WF content due to the good interfacial adhesion between the PLA matrix and the WF. This was verified by microscopic observation, leading to efficient stress transfer at the interface between PLA matrix and the WF. The presence of WF raised the specific compressive modulus and strength of PLA/WF composites to around 0.94 GPa.cm3/g and 2.65 MPa.cm3/g but foaming the PLA or the PLA/WF composites led to a dramatic reduction of the compressive modulus to 0.2-0.4 GPa.cm3/g, implying that the PLA and the PLA/WF foams had become softened. This was evidently observed in the significant reduction of hardness coupled with the vast drop of stress required to compressively deform the foams.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of commercially sourced naphthenic acids by TiO2-graphene composite nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juncheng; Wang, Lin; Tang, Jingchun; Ma, Jianli

    2016-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to the toxicity in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which is produced by hot water extraction of bitumen. NAs are extremely difficult to be degraded due to its complex ring and side chain structure. Photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technology in the removal of refractory organic pollutants. In this work, TiO2-graphene (P25-GR) composites were synthesized by means of solvothermal method. The results showed that P25-GR composite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than pure P25. The removal efficiency of naphthenic acids in acid solution was higher than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. It was the first report ever known on the photodegradation of NAs based on graphene, and this process achieved a higher removal rate than other photocatalysis degradation of NAs in a shorter reaction time. LC/MS analysis showed that macromolecular NAs (carbon number 17-22, z value -2) were easy to be degraded than the micromolecular ones (carbon number 11-16, z value -2). Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species that play the main role in the photocatalysis system were studied. It was found that holes and ·OH were the main reactive species in the UV/P25-GR photocatalysis system. Given the high removal efficiency of refractory organic pollutants and the short degradation time, photodegradation based on composite catalysts has a broad and practical prospect. The study on the photodegradation of commercially sourced NAs may provide a guidance for the degradation of OSPW NAs by this method. PMID:26874061

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  13. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

  14. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers. PMID:24373665

  15. Chemical composition and bile acid binding activity of products obtained from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Tiengo, Andréa; Motta, Eliana Maria Pettirossi; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2011-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are currently the greatest cause of mortality in the world, and dislipidemia is appearing as one of the most important risk factors. The binding of bile acids (BAs) has been hypothesized as a possible mechanism by which dietary fibers lower blood cholesterol levels. Besides the fibers, other components in the amaranth seeds may be related to this hypocholesterolemic effect. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the BA binding capacity of some products obtained from defatted amaranth flour (DAF) and from the amaranth protein concentrate (APC). The alkaline residue, rich in fibers (8.6%), presented the lowest binding activity for the BAs tested, with the exception of glycocholic acid. The DAF showed intermediary binding activity for all the BAs tested, although similar to that of the APC for deoxycholic acid, and to that of the amaranth protein hydrolysate (APH) for taurocholic acid. The DAF and APC showed binding activity for secondary bile acids toxic to the intestinal mucus. From the results, amaranth products were shown to have the ability to bind BAs, but it was not possible to affirm whether the main component responsible for this activity was the proteins, fibers or eventually some other non-evaluated component. PMID:21901402

  16. [Changes in the collagen amino acid composition of calf skin after gamma-irradiation in an aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Duzhenkova, N A; Savich, A V

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the amino acid composition of calf skin collagen after gamma-irradiation (60Co) of 2.5 X 10(-6) M aerated aqueous protein solution within the dose range from 30 to 2000 Gy. The radiosensitivity of amino acid residues was compared. PMID:6657935

  17. Case Study: A snapshot of fatty acids composition of grass herbage as affected by time of day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manipulation of functional poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in ruminant products depends on rumen biohydrogenation and the net amount and composition of fatty acid ingested. Total non-structural carbohydrates and DM concentrations of herbage increase during the day; however, it is not known if fat...

  18. Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties.

    PubMed

    Ramos, María Jesús; Fernández, Carmen María; Casas, Abraham; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Pérez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil weight; molar ratio methanol/oil, 6/1; reaction temperature, 60 degrees C). Biodiesel quality was tested according to the standard [UNE-EN 14214, 2003. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods]. Some critical parameters like oxidation stability, cetane number, iodine value and cold filter plugging point were correlated with the methyl ester composition of each biodiesel, according to two parameters: degree of unsaturation and long chain saturated factor. Finally, a triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition. PMID:18693011

  19. Preparation and characterization of a composite hydrogel with graphene oxide as an acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Sui, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Quan-Sheng; Zhang, Xuetong; Han, Bao-Hang

    2015-04-28

    In this study, a facile method for synthesizing a novel graphene oxide/pyrrole-formaldehyde (GOP-1) composite hydrogel was developed via in situ polymerization of pyrrole and formaldehyde in the presence of graphene oxide sheets without any additional catalyst. During the polymerization, graphene oxide can act as a two-dimensional template to regulate the aggregation state of polymer and as an acid catalyst to accelerate the reaction rate of pyrrole and formaldehyde. The morphology and microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The chemical properties were analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The freeze-dried GOP-1 composite hydrogel exhibited a large specific surface area, high nitrogen content, and three-dimensional network structure. Based on the above features, the freeze-dried GOP-1 composite hydrogel used as a gas adsorbent showed a high carbon dioxide uptake capacity at 1.0 bar and 273 K (11.1 wt%), in sharp contrast to that of graphene oxide (7.4 wt%). Furthermore, the as-prepared composite hydrogel may possess attractive potential in the fields of electrode material, tissue engineering, and water treatment. PMID:25760407

  20. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  1. Influence of vegetable oils fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Mata-Granados, J M; Lopez-Gimenez, F J; Luque de Castro, M D; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines produced through transesterification of oleaginous feedstocks. To analyze the influence of the fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization, transesterification of several vegetable oils has been studied. Reactions were carried out in flasks filled with vegetable oils, heated to the reaction temperature and stirred at 1100 rpm. The reactions started when the methanol and potassium hydroxide solutions were added to the flasks. Concentration of catalyst, amount of methanol, reaction temperature and time were optimized using a factorial design and a surface response design. Also, a kinetics study was carried out to optimize the reaction time. Results showed that reaction parameters optimal values depend on the oil chemical and physical properties. It can be concluded from this field trial that the effect of both catalyst concentration and reaction time over the transesterification yield is greatly influenced by the saturation degree and fatty-acid chain length. PMID:20826083

  2. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability. PMID:27474635

  3. Effect of infused volatile fatty acids and caseinate on milk composition and coagulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Rulquin, H; Verite, R

    1993-10-01

    Milk protein secretion is changed by increasing the proportion of energy, mainly as propionic acid, or the availability of AA. Whether associative effects exist between energy nature and protein amounts is unknown. Therefore, ruminal isoenergetic infusions of low or high propionate mixtures were combined factorially with duodenal infusion of sodium caseinate or control. Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated Holstein cows were used. The diet was limited and consisted of 70% forage and 30% concentrate. Caseinate infusion increased milk yield and protein and casein contents and decreased milk fat content; curd yields and coagulation properties of milk were improved. The infusion of propionic acid caused a large increase in rumen propionate. Milk yield tended to decrease, and milk fat decreased, but protein, casein, and curd yields were unchanged; milk-coagulating properties were improved. No interaction existed between energy and protein amounts. Alteration of VFA had little effect on milk composition, but increasing the protein supply to the duodenum increased milk protein. PMID:8227627

  4. Preparation and characterization of aligned carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid composite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yuxia; Yuan, Jie; Qiu, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Aligned functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid (MWNTs-PCL/PLA) composite fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning processing. The MWNTs bonded with the polycaprolactone chains exhibited excellent uniform dispersion in PLA solution by comparing with the acid-functionalized MWNTs and amino-functionalized MWNTs. Optical microscopy was used to study the aligned degree of the fibers and to investigate the influences of the electrodes distance on the alignment and structure of the fibers, and results showed that the best quality of aligned fibers with dense structure and high aligned degree were obtained at an electrodes distance of 3 cm. Moreover, the MWNTs embedded inside the MWNTs-PCL/PLA fibers displayed well orientation along the axes of the fibers, which was demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hongyang'). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  6. Correlated Strontium and Barium Isotopic Compositions of Acid-cleaned Single Mainstream Silicon Carbides from Murchison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Savina, Michael R.; Gallino, Roberto; Davis, Andrew M.; Bisterzo, Sara; Gyngard, Frank; Käppeler, Franz; Cristallo, Sergio; Dauphas, Nicolas; Pellin, Michael J.; Dillmann, Iris

    2015-04-01

    We present strontium, barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 61 acid-cleaned presolar SiC grains from Murchison. Comparison with previous data shows that acid washing is highly effective in removing both strontium and barium contamination. For the first time, by using correlated 88Sr/86Sr and 138Ba/136Ba ratios in mainstream SiC grains, we are able to resolve the effect of 13C concentration from that of 13C-pocket mass on s-process nucleosynthesis, which points toward the existence of large 13C pockets with low 13C concentrations in asymptotic giant branch stars. The presence of such large 13C pockets with a variety of relatively low 13C concentrations seems to require multiple mixing processes in parent asymptotic giant branch stars of mainstream SiC grains.

  7. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) composite hollow spheres containing calcium carbonates.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hirotaka; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2006-07-01

    Poly(lactic acid) composite hollow spheres containing calcium carbonate were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion evaporation to develop injectable bone substitutes incorporated with cells. The spheres were approximately 1.2mm in diameter and had a shell with a thickness in the range of 50-150microm. The hollow in the spheres was presumed to be formed by CO(2) gas generated by the decomposition of vaterite used as a starting material. An open channel approximately 800microm in diameter was formed in the spheres by chemical etching utilizing the rapid dissolution of poly(lactic acid) at the thin portion of the shell. Cells could migrate into the hollow spheres through the open channel and attach to the inner surface. PMID:16765880

  8. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet. PMID:9161466

  9. Novel composite material polyoxovanadate@MIL-101(Cr): a highly efficient electrocatalyst for ascorbic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Diana M; Barbosa, André D S; Pires, João; Balula, Salete S; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Freire, Cristina

    2013-12-26

    A novel hybrid composite material, PMo10V2@MIL-101 was prepared by the encapsulation of the tetra-butylammonium (TBA) salt of the vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdate [PMo10V2O40](5-) (PMo10V2) into the porous metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr). The materials characterization by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preparation of the composite material without disruption of the MOF porous structure. Pyrolytic graphite electrodes modified with the original components (MIL-101(Cr), PMo10V2), and the composite material PMo10V2@MIL-101 were prepared and their electrochemical responses were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Surface confined redox processes were observed for all the immobilized materials. MIL-101(Cr) showed one-electron reduction process due to chromium centers (Cr(III) → Cr(II)), while PMo10V2 presented five reduction processes: the peak at more positive potentials is attributed to two superimposed 1-electron vanadium reduction processes (V(V) → V(IV)) and the other four peaks to Mo-centred two-electron reduction processes (Mo(VI) → Mo(V)). The electrochemical behavior of the composite material PMo10V2@MIL-101 showed both MIL-101(Cr) and PMo10V2 redox features, although with the splitting of the two vanadium processes and the shift of the Mo- and Cr- centered processes to more negative potentials. Finally, PMo10V2@MIL-101 modified electrode showed outstanding enhanced vanadium-based electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid oxidation, in comparison with the free PMo10V2, as a result of its immobilization into the porous structure of the MOF. Furthermore, PMo10V2@MIL-101 modified electrode showed successful simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid and dopamine. PMID:24308331

  10. Ammonia Gas Sensing Behavior of Tanninsulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline-TiO2 Composite

    PubMed Central

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E.; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C.; Biris, Alexandru S.; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-01-01

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO2 composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO2 in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO2 and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO2 composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported. PMID:26501291

  11. Ammonia gas sensing behavior of tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite.

    PubMed

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C; Biris, Alexandru S; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-01-01

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO₂ in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO₂. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO₂ and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO₂ composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported. PMID:26501291

  12. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  13. Influence of the composition of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine based microemulsions on the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Ettl, Hanna; Holper, Evelyn; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-11-20

    Although microemulsions are one of the most promising dermal carrier systems, their clinical use is limited due to their skin irritation potential. Therefore, microemulsions based on naturally derived monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) were developed. The influence of the water, oil and surfactant content on dermal delivery of flufenamic acid was systematically investigated for the first time. A water-rich microemulsion led to significantly higher in vitro skin penetration of flufenamic acid compared to other microemulsions. The superiority of the water-rich microemulsion over a marketed flufenamic acid containing formulation was additionally confirmed. Differences in drug delivery could be explained by alterations of the microemulsions after application. Evaporation of isopropanol led to crystal-like structures of MAPL on the skin surface from the surfactant- or oleic acid-rich microemulsions. In contrast, the formation of this additional barrier was hindered in case of the water-rich microemulsion. The skin penetration of MAPL was additionally analyzed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments, where MAPL itself penetrated only into the initial layers of the stratum corneum, independent of the microemulsion composition. Since a surfactant must penetrate the skin to cause irritation, MAPL can be presumed as a skin-friendly emulsifier with the ability to stabilize pharmaceutically acceptable microemulsions. PMID:25178824

  14. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2В±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3В±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0В±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5В±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1В±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2В±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1В±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0В±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2В±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material. PMID:25341255

  15. Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

    2012-06-01

    Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

  16. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    PubMed Central

    Gebrelul, Sebhatu

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran. PMID:26904643

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altuntaş, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  18. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  19. The heparan and heparin metabolism pathway is involved in regulation of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Pan, Zengxiang; MacNeil, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Six genes involved in the heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism pathway, DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like), EXTL1 (exostoses (multiple)-like 1), HS6ST1 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1), HS6ST3 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3), NDST3 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3), and SULT1A1 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 1), were investigated for their associations with muscle lipid composition using cattle as a model organism. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/multiple nucleotide length polymorphisms (MNLPs) were identified in five of these six genes. Six of these mutations were then genotyped on 246 Wagyu x Limousin F(2) animals, which were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. Association analysis revealed that DSEL, EXTL1 and HS6ST1 significantly affected two stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices, the amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). In particular, HS6ST1 joined our previously reported SCD1 and UQCRC1 genes to form a three gene network for one of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices. These results provide evidence that genes involved in heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism are also involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in bovine muscle. Whether the SNPs affected heparan sulfate proteoglycan structure is unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:21647334

  20. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency. PMID:22519122

  1. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  2. Polyol-acid anhydride-n-alkyl-alkylene diamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Jenkins, R.H. Jr.

    1987-02-17

    A fuel composition for an internal combustion engine comprising: (a) a major portion of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and (b) a minor amount, as a deposit inhibitor additive, of a reaction product of a process comprising: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyol, thereby forming an ester of maleic acid; (ii) reacting the ester of maleic acid with an N-alkyl-alkylene diamine, thereby forming the reaction product; and (iii) recovering the reaction product.

  3. DNase I hypersensitivity sites and nuclear protein binding on the fatty acid synthase gene: identification of an element with properties similar to known glucose-responsive elements.

    PubMed Central

    Foufelle, F; Lepetit, N; Bosc, D; Delzenne, N; Morin, J; Raymondjean, M; Ferré, P

    1995-01-01

    We have shown previously that fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression is positively regulated by glucose in rat adipose tissue and liver. In the present study, we have identified in the first intron of the gene a sequence closely related to known glucose-responsive elements such as in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes, including a putative upstream stimulatory factor/major late transcription factor (USF/MLTF) binding site (E-box) (+ 292 nt to + 297 nt). Location of this sequence corresponds to a site of hypersensitivity to DNase I which is present in the liver but not in the spleen. Moreover, using this information from a preliminary report of the present work, others have shown that a + 283 nt to + 303 nt sequence of the FAS gene can confer glucose responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. The protein binding to this region has been investigated in vitro by a combination of DNase I footprinting and gel-retardation experiments with synthetic oligonucleotides and known nuclear proteins. DNase I footprinting experiments using a + 161 nt to + 405 nt fragment of the FAS gene demonstrate that a region from + 290 nt to + 316 nt is protected by nuclear extracts from liver and spleen. This region binds two ubiquitous nuclear factors, USF/MLTF and the CAAT-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor 1 (CTF/NF1). Binding of these factors is similar in nuclear extracts from liver which does or does not express the FAS gene as observed for glucose-responsive elements in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes. This suggests a posttranslational modification of a factor of the complex after glucose stimulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7772036

  4. Nitrate and the Origin of Saliva Influence Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production of Oral Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jessica E; Buijs, Mark J; Brandt, Bernd W; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate is emerging as a possible health benefactor. Especially the microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the oral cavity and the subsequent conversion to nitric oxide in the stomach are of interest in this regard. Yet, how nitrate influences the composition and biochemistry of the oral ecosystem is not fully understood. To investigate the effect of nitrate on oral ecology, we performed a 4-week experiment using the multiplaque artificial mouth (MAM) biofilm model. This model was inoculated with stimulated saliva of two healthy donors. Half of the microcosms (n = 4) received a constant supply of nitrate, while the other half functioned as control (n = 4). Additionally, all microcosms received a nitrate and sucrose pulse, each week, on separate days to measure nitrate reduction and acid formation. The bacterial composition of the microcosms was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. The origin of the saliva (i.e., donor) showed to be the strongest determinant for the development of the microcosms. The supplementation of nitrate was related to a relatively high abundance of Neisseria in the microcosms of both donors, while Veillonella was highly abundant in the nitrate-supplemented microcosms of only one of the donors. The lactate concentration after sucrose addition was similarly high in all microcosms, irrespective of treatment or donor, while the concentration of butyrate was lower after nitrate addition in the nitrate-receiving microcosms. In conclusion, nitrate influences the composition and biochemistry of oral microcosms, although the result is strongly dependent on the inoculum. PMID:27155967

  5. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    This study explores the geochronological utility and analytical reproducibility of separating the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMW) from eggshells of the extinct late Pleistocene ratite, Genyornis, using disposable, prepacked gel-filtration columns. The superior integrity of ratite eggshell for the retention of amino acids indicates that this biomineral is better suited for this type of investigation than previously studied molluscan shell. To evaluate the reproducibility of the gel-filtration technique, we analyzed triplicate subsamples of three eggshells of different ages. The reproducibility, based on the average intrashell variation (coefficient of variation; CV) in the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile) in the HMW (enriched in molecules ca. >10,000 MW) is 3%, well within the range appropriate for geochronological purposes. The average intrashell variation in the total amino acid concentration (Σ[aa]) of the HMW is 5%, somewhat better than for the total acid hydrolysate (TOTAL) of the same samples (7%). To evaluate the relation between molecular weight and the rate of isoleucine epimerization, three molecular-weight fractions were separated using gel filtration, plus the naturally hydrolyzed free fraction (FREE), for each of four fossil eggshells. AIle/Ile increases with decreasing molecular weight in all shells, with a ca. sixfold to ninefold difference in ratios between the HMW andFREE, and a ca. fivefold difference between the HMW andTOTAL. Although linear correlations between aIle/Ile measured in each molecular-weight fraction and in theTOTAL are all highly significant (r ⩾ 0.951), the relation between the extent of epimerization in the HMW and in the TOTAL is best expressed as an exponential function (r = 0.951). This relation is consistent with the idea that, as the epimerization reaction approaches equilibrium in theTOTAL (ca. aIle/Ile > 1.1), its rate decreases beyond that of the HMW. The amino acid composition (relative percent of

  6. New type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane for gallic acid encapsulation and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Radu, G L

    2014-01-01

    A new type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of gallic acid. The morphology of the composite membrane was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas swelling gallic acid and release properties were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The release behavior with pH changes was also explored. The composite membrane based on chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with gallic acid included showed improved antioxidant capacities compared to plain chitosan membrane. The information obtained in this study will facilitate the design and preparation of composite membrane based on chitosan and could open a wide range of applications, particularly its use as an antioxidant in food, food packaging, biomedical (biodegradable soft porous scaffolds for enhance the surrounding tissue regeneration), pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:24664323

  7. Evaluation of microwave acid digestion for determination of fiber-volume contents in carbon-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.C.; McLaughlin, V.N.; El-Amin, L.; Ilias, S.

    1995-06-01

    The analysis of carbon-epoxy composites for fiber-volume contents is significant in determining the quality and strength of a given composite. The method commonly being used is acid digestion in a hot water bath, which takes about 2.5 hours for digestion alone. A study has been done using a new technique, what is known as Microwave Acid Digestion (MAD) for quick determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites. This technique uses a specially designed teflon bomb for digestion. The bomb allows for temperatures up to 250 C and pressures up to 1,200 psi. Under such operating conditions, the MAD technique reduces digestion time to about 70 seconds. The study demonstrated that the microwave acid digestion (MAD) is an efficient means for determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites.

  8. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  9. 3D composites based on the blends of chitosan and collagen with the addition of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Kaczmarek, Beata; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Grabska, Sylwia; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Drewa, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    3D porous composites based on blends of chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid were obtained through the lyophilization process. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior and thermal stability of the blends were studied. Moreover, SEM images were taken and the structure of the blends was studied. Biological properties of the materials obtained were investigated by analyzing of proliferation rate of fibroblast cells incubated with biomaterial extract using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). The results showed that the properties of 3D composites based on the blends of chitosan and collagen were altered after the addition 1%, 2% and 5% of hyaluronic acid. Mechanical properties and thermal stability of chitosan/collagen blends were improved in the presence of hyaluronic acid in the composite. New 3D materials based on the blends of chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid were non-toxic and did not significantly affect cell morphology. PMID:27151670

  10. Limited effect of reactive oxygen species on the composition of susceptible essential amino acids in the midguts of Lymantria dispar caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Niewiadomski, Julie; Kochmanski, Joseph; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-11-01

    The essential amino acids (EAAs) arginine, histidine, lysine, and methionine, as well as cysteine (semiessential), are believed to be susceptible to reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. The decreased availability of these EAAs could harm insect nutrition, since several of them can also be limiting for protein synthesis. However, no in vivo studies have quantified the effect of ROS in the midguts of insect herbivores on EAA composition. This study examined the association between elevated levels of ROS in the midgut fluid of Lymantria dispar caterpillars and the compositions of EAAs (protein-bound + protein-free) in their midgut fluid and frass. Contrary to expectation, the compositions of EAAs were not significantly decreased by ROS in midgut fluid ex vivo when incubated with phenolic compounds. Two in vivo comparisons of low- and high-ROS-producing leaves also showed similar results: there were no significant decreases in the compositions of EAAs in the midgut fluids and/or frass of larvae with elevated levels of ROS in their midguts. In addition, waste nitrogen excretion was not significantly increased from larvae on high-ROS treatments, as would be expected if ROS produced unbalanced EAA compositions. These results suggest that L. dispar larvae are able to tolerate elevated levels of ROS in their midguts without nutritionally significant changes in the compositions of susceptible EAAs in their food. PMID:22961657

  11. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p < 0.05). In bacterial growth inhibition test, all experimental groups containing UA resulted in complete inhibition. Conclusions Within the limitations of the experiments, UA included in the composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  12. Changes in diet, body mass and fatty acid composition during pre-hibernation in a subtropical bat in relation to NPY and AgRP expression.

    PubMed

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Hefetz, Abraham; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, mammals accumulate large amounts of fat in their bodies. In temperate mammalian species, hibernation is improved by increasing the levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the body. The saturation of fatty acids (FA) in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and membrane phospholipids of mammals often reflects their diet composition. We found that the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) accumulates large amounts of fat at the end of summer by gradually shifting to a fat-rich diet (queen carpenter ants, Camponotus felah). PUFA are almost absent in this diet (<1 % of total FA), which contains a high fraction of saturated (SFA) and mono-unsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. We found similar low levels of PUFA in mouse-tailed bat WAT, but not in their heart total lipids. The expression of two appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) hypothalamic neuropeptides, AgRP and NPY, increased in parallel to the shift in diet and with fat gain in these bats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only documented example of specific pre-hibernation diet in bats, and one which reveals the most saturated FA composition ever documented in a mammal. We suggest that the increase in expression levels of NPY and AgRP may contribute to the observed diet shift and mass gain, and that the FA composition of the bat's specialized diet is adaptive in the relatively high temperatures we recorded in both their winter and summer roosts. PMID:22843120

  13. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk