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Sample records for acid composition similar

  1. Similar bacterial community composition in acidic mining lakes with different pH and lake chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kampe, Heike; Dziallas, Claudia; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kamjunke, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    As extreme environmental conditions strongly affect bacterial community composition (BCC), we examined whether differences in pH-even at low pH-and in iron and sulfate concentrations lead to changes in BCC of acidic mining lakes. Thereby, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) diversity of the bacterial community in acidic lakes decreases with reducing pH, (2) BCC differs between epilimnion and hypolimnion, and (3) BCC in extremely acidic environments does not vary much over time. Therefore, we investigated the BCC of three acidic lakes with different pH values (2.3, 2.7, and 3.2) by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and subsequent sequencing of DGGE bands as well as catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH). BCC did not significantly vary among the studied lakes nor differ much between water layers. In contrast, BCC significantly changed over time, which is contradictory to our hypotheses. Bacterial communities were dominated by Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Actino- and Acidobacteria rarely occurred. Cell numbers of both free and attached bacteria were positively related to DOC concentration. Overall, low pH and extreme chemical conditions of the studied lakes led to similar assemblages of bacteria with pronounced temporal differences. This notion indicates that temporal changes in environmental conditions including food web structure also affect unique communities of bacteria thriving at low pH.

  2. Compositional similarities of non-solvent extractable fatty acids from recent marine sediments deposited in differing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Mitsugu; Baker, Earl W.

    1987-06-01

    Five recent sediment samples from a variety of North American continental shelves were analyzed for fatty acids (FAs) in the solvent-extractable (SOLEX) lipids as well as four types of non-solvent extractable (NONEX) lipids. The NONEX lipids were operationally defined by the succession of extraction procedure required to recover them. The complete procedure included (i) very mild acid treatment, (ii) HF digestion and (iii) saponification of the sediment residue following exhaustive solvent extraction. The distribution pattern and various compositional parameters of SOLEX FAs in the five sediments were divided into three different groups, indicating the difference of biological sources and also diagenetic factors and processes among the three groups of samples. Nevertheless, the compositions of the corresponding NONEX FAs after acid treatment were surprisingly very similar. This was also true for the remaining NONEX FA groups in the five sediment samples. The findings implied that most of the NONEX FAs reported here are derived directly from living organisms. It is also concluded that a large part of NONEX FAs are much more resistant to biodegradation than we have thought, so that they can form the large percentage of total lipids with increasing depth of water and sediments.

  3. Compositional similarities of non-solvent extractable fatty acids from recent marine sediments deposited in differing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Baker, E.W.

    1987-06-01

    Five recent sediment samples from a variety of North American continental shelves were analyzed for fatty acids (FAs) in the solvent-extractable (SOLEX) lipids as well as four types of non-solvent extractable (NONEX) lipids. The NONEX lipids were operationally defined by the succession of extraction procedure required to recover them. The complete procedure included (i) very mild acid treatment, (ii) HF digestion and (iii) saponification of the sediment residue following exhaustive solvent extraction. The distribution pattern and various compositional parameters of SOLEX FAs in the five sediments were divided into three different groups, indicating the difference of biological sources and also diagenetic factors and processes among the three groups of samples. Nevertheless, the compositions of the corresponding NONEX FAs after acid treatment were surprisingly very similar. This was also true for the remaining NONEX FA groups in the five sediment samples. The findings implied that most of the NONEX FAs reported here are derived directly from living organisms. It is also concluded that a large part of NONEX FAs are much more resistant to biodegradation than the authors have thought, so that they can form the large percentage of total lipids with increasing depth of water and sediments.

  4. Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid compositions and molecular weights but differ in fatty acid acylation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, C.A.; Pitiranggon, P.; Costa, M.D.; Rothenberg, S.P.; Slomiany, B.L.; Brink, L.; Tous, G.I.; Stein, S.

    1987-09-01

    A membrane-associated folate binding protein (FBP) and a soluble FBP, which is released into the culture medium, have been purified from human KB cells using affinity chromatography. By NaDodSO/sub 4/PAGE, both proteins have an apparent M/sub r/ of approx. 42,000. However, in the presence of Triton X-100, the soluble FBP eluted from a Sephadex G-150 column with an apparent M/sub r/ of approx. 40,000 (similar to NaDodSO/sub 4/PAGE) but the membrane-associated FBP eluted with an apparent M/sub r/ of approx. = 160,000, indicating that this species contains a hydrophobic domain that interacts with the detergent micelles. The amino acid compositions of both forms of FBP were similar, especially with respect to the apolar amino acids. In addition, the 18 amino acids at the amino termini of both proteins were identical. The membrane FBP, following delipidation with chloroformmethanol, contained 7.1 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein, of which 4.7 mol was amide-linked and 2.4 mol was ester-linked. The soluble FBP contained only 0.05 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein. These studies indicate that the membrane FBP of KB cells contains covalently bound fatty acids that may serve to anchor the protein in the cell membrane.

  5. Predict protein structural class for low-similarity sequences by evolutionary difference information into the general form of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Zhao, Xiqiang; Kong, Liang

    2014-08-21

    Knowledge of protein structural class plays an important role in characterizing the overall folding type of a given protein. At present, it is still a challenge to extract sequence information solely using protein sequence for protein structural class prediction with low similarity sequence in the current computational biology. In this study, a novel sequence representation method is proposed based on position specific scoring matrix for protein structural class prediction. By defined evolutionary difference formula, varying length proteins are expressed as uniform dimensional vectors, which can represent evolutionary difference information between the adjacent residues of a given protein. To perform and evaluate the proposed method, support vector machine and jackknife tests are employed on three widely used datasets, 25PDB, 1189 and 640 datasets with sequence similarity lower than 25%, 40% and 25%, respectively. Comparison of our results with the previous methods shows that our method may provide a promising method to predict protein structural class especially for low-similarity sequences.

  6. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Similar compositional biases are caused by very different mutational effects

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo P.C.; Touchon, Marie; Feil, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Compositional replication strand bias, commonly referred to as GC skew, is present in many genomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses. Although cytosine deamination in ssDNA (resulting in C→T changes on the leading strand) is often invoked as its major cause, the precise contributions of this and other substitution types are currently unknown. It is also unclear if the underlying mutational asymmetries are the same among taxa, are stable over time, or how closely the observed biases are to mutational equilibrium. We analyzed nearly neutral sites of seven taxa each with between three and six complete bacterial genomes, and inferred the substitution spectra of fourfold degenerate positions in nonhighly expressed genes. Using a bootstrap procedure, we extracted compositional biases associated with replication and identified the significant asymmetries. Although all taxa showed an overrepresentation of G relative to C on the leading strand (and imbalances between A and T), widely variable substitution asymmetries are noted. Surprisingly, all substitution types show significant asymmetry in at least one taxon, but none were universally biased in all taxa. Notably, in the two most biased genomes, A→G, rather than C→T, shapes the compositional bias. Given the variability in these biases, we propose that the process is multifactorial. Finally, we also find that most genomes are not at compositional equilibrium, and suggest that mutational-based heterotachy is deeply imprinted in the history of biological macromolecules. This shows that similar compositional biases associated with the same essential well-conserved process, replication, do not reflect similar mutational processes in different genomes, and that caution is required in inferring the roles of specific mutational biases on the basis of contemporary patterns of sequence composition. PMID:17068325

  8. COMPOSITIONAL SIMILARITIES AND DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN TITAN’S EVAPORITIC TERRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, S. M.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-04-10

    We document the similarities in composition between the equatorial basins Tui Regio, Hotei Regio, and other 5-μm-bright materials, notably the north polar evaporites, by investigating the presence and extent of an absorption feature at 4.92 μm. In most observations, Woytchugga Lacuna, Ontario Lacus, MacKay Lacus, deposits near Fensal, some of the lakes and dry lake beds south of Ligeia, and the southern shores of Kraken Mare share the absorption feature at 4.92 μm observed in the spectra of Tui and Hotei. Besides Woytchugga and at Fensal, these 5-μm-bright deposits are geomorphologically substantiated evaporites. Thus, the similarity in composition strengthens the hypothesis that Tui and Hotei once contained liquid. Other evaporite deposits, however, do not show the 4.92 μm absorption, notably Muggel Lacus and the shores of Ligeia Mare at the north pole. This difference in composition suggests that there is more than one kind of soluble material in Titan’s lakes that can create evaporite and/or that the surface properties at the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer wavelength scale are not uniform between the different deposits (crystal size, abundance, etc.). Our results indicate that the surface structure, composition, and formation history of Titan’s evaporites may be at least as dynamic and complex as their Earth counterparts.

  9. Mouse Vk gene classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Strohal, R; Helmberg, A; Kroemer, G; Kofler, R

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region gene usage in the immune response, estimates of V gene germline complexity, and other nucleic acid hybridization-based studies depend on the extent to which such genes are related (i.e., sequence similarity) and their organization in gene families. While mouse Igh heavy chain V region (VH) gene families are relatively well-established, a corresponding systematic classification of Igk light chain V region (Vk) genes has not been reported. The present analysis, in the course of which we reviewed the known extent of the Vk germline gene repertoire and Vk gene usage in a variety of responses to foreign and self antigens, provides a classification of mouse Vk genes in gene families composed of members with greater than 80% overall nucleic acid sequence similarity. This classification differed in several aspects from that of VH genes: only some Vk gene families were as clearly separated (by greater than 25% sequence dissimilarity) as typical VH gene families; most Vk gene families were closely related and, in several instances, members from different families were very similar (greater than 80%) over large sequence portions; frequently, classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity diverged from existing classifications based on amino-terminal protein sequence similarity. Our data have implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and describe potentially important differences in sequence organization between VH and Vk genes.

  10. Assessing intraplate volcano compositional similarities with cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The compositional variation in intraplate volcanoes is commonly assessed as a function of end-members that were recognized as extrema in a 3D space, defined by radiogenic isotope ratios. The specific isotope ratios used are the principle components in the intraplate volcano compositional data set, and by reducing the dimensionality of the data set to 3, groupings and trends in the data can be visually identified. Such groupings can then be used to compare to other geochemical or geophysical data sets (e.g. correlations with seismic models). A complementary approach in examining groupings and trends in a data set is the use of cluster analysis, which can be used to recognize groups of similar intraplate volcanic systems. Since it is not known a priori how many clusters may exist, hierarchical cluster analysis can be used to examine the relationships between individual intraplate volcanic systems. The technique compares the Euclidian distance between the data available at the different locations, and this data can have a large number of dimensions. The results can be visualized as a dendrogram, where individual locations are represented by different branches (or leafs) that join at different distances. We use Matlab to examine the data extracted from pre-compiled GEOROC database files, including location, major elements, large ion lithophile elements, high field strength elements, rare earth elements and radiogenic isotopes. These data do not vary over the same range in values and are therefore first normalized by the total range in the data set for each particular element or isotope ratio. Since multiple samples have been analyzed for most intraplate volcanic systems, we assess the results for the average, the maximum, and the minimum values for each element. In addition, we investigate the robustness of the outcome by removing one element at a time from the data set and recalculating a new dendrogram. One of the outcomes is that the resulting clusters seem to

  11. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  12. Dictyostelium cells migrate similarly on surfaces of varying chemical composition.

    PubMed

    McCann, Colin P; Rericha, Erin C; Wang, Chenlu; Losert, Wolfgang; Parent, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    During cell migration, cell-substrate binding is required for pseudopod anchoring to move the cell forward, yet the interactions with the substrate must be sufficiently weak to allow parts of the cell to de-adhere in a controlled manner during typical protrusion/retraction cycles. Mammalian cells actively control cell-substrate binding and respond to extracellular conditions with localized integrin-containing focal adhesions mediating mechanotransduction. We asked whether mechanotransduction also occurs during non-integrin mediated migration by examining the motion of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, which is thought to bind non-specifically to surfaces. We discovered that Dictyostelium cells are able to regulate forces generated by the actomyosin cortex to maintain optimal cell-surface contact area and adhesion on surfaces of various chemical composition and that individual cells migrate with similar speed and contact area on the different surfaces. In contrast, during collective migration, as observed in wound healing and metastasis, the balance between surface forces and protrusive forces is altered. We found that Dictyostelium collective migration dynamics are strongly affected when cells are plated on different surfaces. These results suggest that the presence of cell-cell contacts, which appear as Dictyostelium cells enter development, alter the mechanism cells use to migrate on surfaces of varying composition.

  13. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  14. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  15. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds - Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Hamill, Patrick; Goodman, Jindra K.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the PSC particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is the inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an Er-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 198 K as found for the Antarctic samples.

  16. Fabrication and characterisation of composites materials similar optically and in composition to native dental tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredin, P. V.; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Prutskij, T.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.

    This study investigated the luminescence characteristics of synthesized biocomposites similar in organic and mineral composition to native dental tissues, enamel and dentine. It was found that the luminescence spectrum of intact enamel is similar to that of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) used to synthesize biomimetic materials. Despite the morphological differences between the synthesized biocomposite and native tissue, their luminescence spectra suggest that the shape of the luminescence spectrum is more influenced by defects in the crystal structure of the employed hydroxyapatite than by the structure and order of the apatite nanocrystals typical of native dental tissues. The spectrum of intact human dentine possessed a wider luminescence band, unlike that of enamel, with a maximum typical of intact dentine. Analysis of the spectra of biomimetic material modelling the properties of dentine indicated that both the organic and non-organic components contribute to their luminescence.

  17. Compositions for acid treating subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E. Jr.; Swanson, B.L.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a high viscosity acid composition. It comprises: an aqueous acid solution; one or more acrylamide polymers dissolved in the acid solution in an amount sufficient to increase the viscosity of the acid solution; a liquid hydrocarbon dispersed in the acid solution; and one or more nonionic surface active agents having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per molecule present in the composition in an amount sufficient to interact with the acrylamide polymer or polymers in the presence of the liquid hydrocarbon whereby the viscosity of the acid solution is further increased and stabilized.

  18. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  19. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    PubMed

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  20. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-05

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA.

  1. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.

    PubMed

    Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

    2008-11-01

    Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county.

  2. ORAL AND INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED AMINO ACIDS PRODUCE SIMILAR EFFECTS ON MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN THE ELDERLY

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B.B.; Wolfe, R.R.; Volpi, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in the elderly when amino acid availability is increased. OBJECTIVE To determine which mode of delivery of amino acids (intravenous vs. oral ingestion) is more effective in stimulating the rate of muscle protein synthesis in elderly subjects. DESIGN Fourteen elderly subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Following insertion of femoral arterial and venous catheters, subjects were infused with a primed, continuous infusion of L-[ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained to measure muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) with the precursor-product model, phenylalanine kinetics across the leg with the three-pool model, and whole body phenylalanine kinetics. Protein metabolism parameters were measured in the basal period, and during the administration of oral amino acids (n=8) or a similar amount of intravenous amino acids (n=6). RESULTS Enteral and parenteral amino acid administration increased amino acid arterial concentrations and delivery to the leg to a similar extent in both groups. Muscle protein synthesis as measured by both FSR, and the three-pool model, increased during amino acid administration (P < 0.05 vs. basal) in both groups with no differences between groups. Whole body proteolysis did not change with the oral amino acids whereas it increased slightly during parenteral amino acid administration. CONCLUSIONS Increased amino acid availability stimulates the rate of muscle protein synthesis independent of the route of administration (enteral vs. parenteral). PMID:12459885

  3. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A

    1967-11-01

    A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.

  4. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-01-01

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

  5. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-10-04

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome "fingerprinting" to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars.

  6. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  7. Using compound similarity and functional domain composition for prediction of drug-target interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; He, Zhi-Song; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2010-11-01

    Study of interactions between drugs and target proteins is an essential step in genomic drug discovery. It is very hard to determine the compound-protein interactions or drug-target interactions by experiment alone. As supplementary, effective prediction model using machine learning or data mining methods can provide much help. In this study, a prediction method based on Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and a novel metric, which was obtained by combining compound similarity and functional domain composition, was proposed. The target proteins were divided into the following groups: enzymes, ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and nuclear receptors. As a result, four predictors with the optimal parameters were established. The overall prediction accuracies, evaluated by jackknife cross-validation test, for four groups of target proteins are 90.23%, 94.74%, 97.80%, and 97.51%, respectively, indicating that compound similarity and functional domain composition are very effective to predict drug-target interaction networks.

  8. Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

  9. Manipulation of Galactolipid Fatty Acid Composition with Substituted Pyridazinones

    PubMed Central

    John, Judith B. St.

    1976-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the major lipids of the chloroplast membranes, the mono- and digalactosyl diglycerides, can be definably altered with various substituted pyridazinones. Galactolipid fatty acid composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be altered so that there is a decrease in linolenic acid accompanied by an increase in linoleic acid without a shift in the relative proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids; the fatty acid composition can be shifted toward a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids; or the fatty acid composition of the monogalactosyl diglycerides can be altered in preference to the digalactosyl diglycerides. Also, the light-mediated parallel accumulation of chlorophyll and linolenic acid can be separated with a substituted pyridazinone. The substituted pyridazinones may be useful tools in clarifying the role the galactolipids and their component fatty acids play in the structure and function of chloroplast membranes in higher plants. PMID:16659420

  10. Amino acid composition predicts prion activity.

    PubMed

    Afsar Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir; Ross, Eric D; Ben-Hur, Asa

    2017-04-10

    Many prion-forming proteins contain glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich domains, and there are conflicting opinions as to the role of primary sequence in their conversion to the prion form: is this phenomenon driven primarily by amino acid composition, or, as a recent computational analysis suggested, dependent on the presence of short sequence elements with high amyloid-forming potential. The argument for the importance of short sequence elements hinged on the relatively-high accuracy obtained using a method that utilizes a collection of length-six sequence elements with known amyloid-forming potential. We weigh in on this question and demonstrate that when those sequence elements are permuted, even higher accuracy is obtained; we also propose a novel multiple-instance machine learning method that uses sequence composition alone, and achieves better accuracy than all existing prion prediction approaches. While we expect there to be elements of primary sequence that affect the process, our experiments suggest that sequence composition alone is sufficient for predicting protein sequences that are likely to form prions. A web-server for the proposed method is available at http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/prank.html, and the code for reproducing our experiments is available at http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.167136.

  11. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them

  12. Composition and acidification of the culture medium influences chronological aging similarly in vineyard and laboratory yeast.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Christopher J; Wall, Valerie; Basisty, Nathan; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Chronological aging has been studied extensively in laboratory yeast by culturing cells into stationary phase in synthetic complete medium with 2% glucose as the carbon source. During this process, acidification of the culture medium occurs due to secretion of organic acids, including acetic acid, which limits survival of yeast cells. Dietary restriction or buffering the medium to pH 6 prevents acidification and increases chronological life span. Here we set out to determine whether these effects are specific to laboratory-derived yeast by testing the chronological aging properties of the vineyard yeast strain RM11. Similar to the laboratory strain BY4743 and its haploid derivatives, RM11 and its haploid derivatives displayed increased chronological life span from dietary restriction, buffering the pH of the culture medium, or aging in rich medium. RM11 and BY4743 also displayed generally similar aging and growth characteristics when cultured in a variety of different carbon sources. These data support the idea that mechanisms of chronological aging are similar in both the laboratory and vineyard strains.

  13. Three N-Glycosylation Sites of Human Acetylcholinesterase Shares Similar Glycan Composition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miranda L; Luk, Wilson K W; Lau, Kei M; Bi, Cathy W C; Cheng, Anthony W M; Gong, Amy G W; Lin, Huangquan; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is a glycoprotein possessing three conserved N-linked glycosylation sites in mammalian species, locating at 296, 381, and 495 residues of the human sequence. Several lines of evidence demonstrated that N-glycosylation of AChE affected the enzymatic activity, as well as its biosynthesis. In order to determine the role of three N-glycosylation sites in AChE activity and glycan composition, the site-directed mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in wild-type human AChE(T) sequence was employed to generate the single-site mutants (i.e., AChE(T) (N296Q), AChET (N381Q), and AChE(T) (N495Q)) and all site mutant (i.e., AChE(T) (3N→3Q)). The mutation did not affect AChE protein expression in the transfected cells. The mutants, AChE(T) (3N→3Q) and AChE(T) (N381Q), showed very minimal enzymatic activity, while the other mutants showed reduced activity. By binding to lectins, Con A, and SNA, the glycosylation profile was revealed in those mutated AChE. The binding affinity with lectins showed no significant difference between various N-glycosylation mutants, which suggested that similar glycan composition should be resulted from different N-glycosylation sites. Although the three glycosylation sites within AChE sequence have different extent in affecting the enzymatic activity, their glycan compositions are very similar.

  14. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  15. Freshwater bacteria are stoichiometrically flexible with a nutrient composition similar to seston

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotner, James B.; Hall, Edward K.; Scott, J. Thad; Heldal, Mikal

    2010-01-01

    Although aquatic bacteria are assumed to be nutrient-rich, they out-compete other foodweb osmotrophs for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) an apparent contradiction to resource ratio theory. This paradox could be resolved if aquatic bacteria were demonstrated to be nutrient-poor relative other portions of the planktonic food web. In a survey of >120 lakes in the upper Midwest of the USA, the nutrient content of bacteria was lower than previously reported and very similar to the Redfield ratio, with a mean biomass composition of 102:12:1 (C:N:P). Individual freshwater bacterial isolates grown under P-limiting and P-replete conditions had even higher C:P and N:P ratios with a mean community biomass composition ratio of 875C:179N:1P suggesting that individual strains can be extremely nutrient-poor, especially with respect to P. Cell-specific measurements of individual cells from one lake confirmed that low P content could be observed at the community level in natural systems with a mean biomass composition of 259C:69N:1P. Variability in bacterial stoichiometry is typically not recognized in the literature as most studies assume constant and nutrient-rich bacterial biomass composition. We present evidence that bacteria can be extremely P-poor in individual systems and in culture, suggesting that bacteria in freshwater ecosystems can either play a role as regenerators or consumers of inorganic nutrients and that this role could switch depending on the relationship between bacterial biomass stoichiometry and resource stoichiometry. This ability to switch roles between nutrient retention and regeneration likely facilitates processing of terrestrial organic matter in lakes and rivers and has important implications for a wide range of bacterially mediated biogeochemical processes.

  16. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  17. Compositionality and the angular gyrus: a multi-voxel similarity analysis of the semantic composition of nouns and verbs

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive and neural systems that enable conceptual processing must support the ability to combine (and recombine) concepts to form an infinite number of ideas. Two candidate neural systems for conceptual combination—the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left angular gyrus (AG)—have been characterized as “semantic hubs” due to both functional and anatomical properties; however, these two regions likely support different aspects of composition. Here we consider two hypotheses for the role of AG in conceptual combination, both of which differ from a putative role for the ATL in “feature-based” combinatorics (i.e., meaning derived by combining concepts’ features). Firstly, we examine whether AG is more sensitive to function-argument relations of the sort that arise when a predicate is combined with its arguments. Secondly, we examine the non-mutually exclusive possibility that AG represents information carried on a verb in particular, whether this be information about event composition or about thematic relations denoted uniquely by verbs. We identified voxels that respond differentially to two-word versus one-word stimuli, and we measured the similarity of the patterns in these voxels evoked by (1) pairs of two-word phrases that shared a noun that was an argument, thus sharing function-argument composition (e.g. eats meat and with meat), in comparison with two-word phrases that shared only a noun, not an argument (e.g., eats meat and tasty meat); and (2) stimulus pairs that shared only an event (operationalized here as sharing a verb; e.g. eats meat and eats quickly), in comparison to both of the above. We found that activity patterns in left AG tracked information relating to the presence of an event-denoting verb in a pair of two-word phrases. We also found that the neural similarity in AG voxel patterns between two phrases sharing a verb correlated with subjects’ ratings of how similar the meanings of those two verb phrases were. These

  18. Amino Acids Composition of Teucrium Nutlet Proteins and their Systematic Significance

    PubMed Central

    JUAN, R.; PASTOR, J.; MILLÁN, F.; ALAIZ, M.; VIOQUE, J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant species are considered as a good source of dietary proteins, although the nutritional quality of proteins depends on their amino acid composition. In this work the protein content and amino acid composition of nutlets of 21 Teucrium taxa (Lamiaceae) from Spain were analysed and their nutritional quality was compared with the minimum values established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). In addition, the amino acid composition was evaluated as a chemical character to clarify the taxonomic complexity in this genus. • Methods Amino acid content of nutlets was determined after derivatization with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Previously, nutlets samples were hydrolysed and incubated in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. • Key Results The protein content was variable, ranging from 6·4 % in T. dunense to 43·8 % in T. algarbiense. According to the FAO values all taxa contain satisfactory amounts of leucine, threonine and valine and are deficient in lysine. The similarity analysis of Teucrium taxa using amino acid composition data did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of this genus. • Conclusions Annual species, such as T. spinosum, T. aristatum and T. resupinatum showed a better balanced amino acid composition. The dendrogram partly matched with the karyological complexity of Teucrium. No correlation between amino acid composition and habitat has been observed, showing that Teucrium nutlet amino acid composition may not be strongly influenced by the environment. PMID:15329333

  19. Exploring the Diagnostic Utility of Facial Composites: Beliefs of Guilt Can Bias Perceived Similarity between Composite and Suspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Steve D.; Gregory, Amy Hyman; Carlucci, Marianna

    2009-01-01

    Facial composite research has generally focused on the investigative utility of composites--using composites to find suspects. However, almost no work has examined the diagnostic utility of facial composites--the extent to which composites can be used as evidence against a suspect. For example, detectives and jurors may use the perceived…

  20. Amino acid composition of cadmium-binding protein induced in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Y.; Kawaguchi, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Organisms living in environments polluted with heavy metals develop tolerance against these contaminants. The tolerance has been attributed to the ability to synthesize metal binding substances. These recent findings imply metal binding complexes from animals and plants, although having very similar functional properties, may have entirely different amino acid compositions. Researchers reported that cadystin from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was composed of only glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A year later, a heavy metal binding substance was isolated from Rauwolfia serpetina which contains only Glu, Cys, and Gly. Heavy metal binding complexes isolated from the water hyacinth and morning glory Datura innoxia also showed an amino acid composition similar to cadystin or phytochelatin. In this study, the cadmium binding protein induced in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was isolated and purified and its amino acid composition determined.

  1. Direct infusion analysis of nucleotide mixtures of very similar or identical elemental composition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Ryan; Basanta-Sanchez, Maria; Rose, Rebecca E.; Fabris, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The challenges posed by the analysis of mono-nucleotide mixtures by direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) were examined in the context of recent advances of MS technologies. In particular, we evaluated the merits of high-resolution mass analysis, multistep gas-phase dissociation, and ion mobility determinations for the characterization of species with very similar or identical elemental composition. The high resolving power afforded by a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-orbitrap allowed the complete differentiation of overlapping isotopic distributions produced by nucleotides that differed by a single mass unit. Resolving 12C signals from nearly overlapped 13C contributions provided the exact masses necessary to calculate matching elemental compositions for unambiguous formulae assignment. However, it was the ability to perform sequential steps of gas-phase dissociation (i.e., MSn-type analysis) that proved more valuable for discriminating between truly isobaric nucleotides, such as the AMP/dGMP and UMP/ψMP couples, which were differentiated in the mixture from their unique fragmentation patterns. The identification of diagnostic fragments enabled the deconvolution of dissociation spectra containing the products of coexisting isobars that could not be individually isolated in the mass-selection step. Approaches based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS provided another dimension upon which isobaric nucleotides could be differentiated according to their distinctive mobility behaviors. Subtle structural variations, such as the different positions of an oxygen atom in AMP/dGMP or the glycosidic bond in UMP/ψMP, produced detectable differences in the respective ion mobility profiles, which enabled the differentiation of the isobaric couples in the mixture. Parallel activation of all ions emerging from the ion mobility element provided an additional dimension for differentiating these analytes on the basis of both mobility and fragmentation properties. PMID

  2. Direct infusion analysis of nucleotide mixtures of very similar or identical elemental composition.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Ryan; Basanta-Sanchez, Maria; Rose, Rebecca E; Fabris, Daniele

    2013-06-01

    The challenges posed by the analysis of mono-nucleotide mixtures by direct infusion electrospray ionization were examined in the context of recent advances of mass spectrometry (MS) technologies. In particular, we evaluated the merits of high-resolution mass analysis, multistep gas-phase dissociation, and ion mobility determinations for the characterization of species with very similar or identical elemental composition. The high resolving power afforded by a linear trap quadrupole-orbitrap allowed the complete differentiation of overlapping isotopic distributions produced by nucleotides that differed by a single mass unit. Resolving (12)C signals from nearly overlapped (13)C contributions provided the exact masses necessary to calculate matching elemental compositions for unambiguous formulae assignment. However, it was the ability to perform sequential steps of gas-phase dissociation (i.e. MS(n)-type analysis) that proved more valuable for discriminating between truly isobaric nucleotides, such as the AMP/dGMP and UMP/ΨMP couples, which were differentiated in the mixture from their unique fragmentation patterns. The identification of diagnostic fragments enabled the deconvolution of dissociation spectra containing the products of coexisting isobars that could not be individually isolated in the mass-selection step. Approaches based on ion mobility spectrometry-MS provided another dimension upon which isobaric nucleotides could be differentiated according to their distinctive mobility behaviors. Subtle structural variations, such as the different positions of an oxygen atom in AMP/dGMP or the glycosidic bond in UMP/ΨMP, produced detectable differences in the respective ion mobility profiles, which enabled the differentiation of the isobaric couples in the mixture. Parallel activation of all ions emerging from the ion mobility element provided an additional dimension for differentiating these analytes on the basis of both mobility and fragmentation properties.

  3. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  4. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  5. Relative Amino Acid Composition Signatures of Organisms and Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandra; Savageau, Michael A.; Alves, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying organism-environment interactions at the molecular level is crucial to understanding how organisms adapt to and change the chemical and molecular landscape of their habitats. In this work we investigated whether relative amino acid compositions could be used as a molecular signature of an environment and whether such a signature could also be observed at the level of the cellular amino acid composition of the microorganisms that inhabit that environment. Methodologies/Principal Findings To address these questions we collected and analyzed environmental amino acid determinations from the literature, and estimated from complete genomic sequences the global relative amino acid abundances of organisms that are cognate to the different types of environment. Environmental relative amino acid abundances clustered into broad groups (ocean waters, host-associated environments, grass land environments, sandy soils and sediments, and forest soils), indicating the presence of amino acid signatures specific for each environment. These signatures correlate to those found in organisms. Nevertheless, relative amino acid abundance of organisms was more influenced by GC content than habitat or phylogeny. Conclusions Our results suggest that relative amino acid composition can be used as a signature of an environment. In addition, we observed that the relative amino acid composition of organisms is not highly determined by environment, reinforcing previous studies that find GC content to be the major factor correlating to amino acid composition in living organisms. PMID:24204807

  6. Bee communities along a prairie restoration chronosequence: similar abundance and diversity, distinct composition.

    PubMed

    Tonietto, Rebecca K; Ascher, John S; Larkin, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the midwestern United States, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to provide ancillary benefits to bees through increased foraging and nesting resources. We investigated community assembly of bees across a chronosequence of restored eastern tallgrass prairies and compared patterns to those in control and reference habitats (old fields and prairie remnants, respectively). We collected bees for 3 yr and measured diversity and abundance of in-bloom flowering plants, vegetation structure, ground cover, and surrounding land use as predictors of bee abundance and bee taxonomic and functional diversity. We found that site-level variables, but not site type or restoration age, were significant predictors of bee abundance (bloom diversity, P = 0.004; bare ground cover, P = 0.02) and bee diversity (bloom diversity, P = 0.01). There were significant correlations between overall composition of bee and blooming plant communities (Mantel test, P = 0.002), and both plant and bee assemblages in restorations were intermediate between those of old fields and remnant prairies. Restorations exhibited high bee beta diversity, i.e., restored sites' bee assemblages were taxonomically and functionally differentiated from each other. This pattern was strong in younger restorations (<20 yr old), but absent from older restorations (>20 yr), suggesting restored prairie bee communities become more similar to one another and more similar to remnant prairie bee communities over time with the arrival of more species and functional groups of

  7. Detection and Visualization of Compositionally Similar cis-Regulatory Element Clusters in Orthologous and Coordinately Controlled Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jegga, Anil G.; Sherwood, Shawn P.; Carman, James W.; Pinski, Andrew T.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Pestian, John P.; Aronow, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved noncoding genomic sequences represent a potentially rich source for the discovery of gene regulatory regions. However, detecting and visualizing compositionally similar cis-element clusters in the context of conserved sequences is challenging. We have explored potential solutions and developed an algorithm and visualization method that combines the results of conserved sequence analyses (BLASTZ) with those of transcription factor binding site analyses (MatInspector) (http://trafac.chmcc.org). We define hits as the density of co-occurring cis-element transcription factor (TF)-binding sites measured within a 200-bp moving average window through phylogenetically conserved regions. The results are depicted as a Regulogram, in which the hit count is plotted as a function of position within each of the two genomic regions of the aligned orthologs. Within a high-scoring region, the relative arrangement of shared cis-elements within compositionally similar TF-binding site clusters is depicted in a Trafacgram. On the basis of analyses of several training data sets, the approach also allows for the detection of similarities in composition and relative arrangement of cis-element clusters within nonorthologous genes, promoters, and enhancers that exhibit coordinate regulatory properties. Known functional regulatory regions of nonorthologous and less-conserved orthologous genes frequently showed cis-element shuffling, demonstrating that compositional similarity can be more sensitive than sequence similarity. These results show that combining sequence similarity with cis-element compositional similarity provides a powerful aid for the identification of potential control regions. PMID:12213778

  8. Detection and visualization of compositionally similar cis-regulatory element clusters in orthologous and coordinately controlled genes.

    PubMed

    Jegga, Anil G; Sherwood, Shawn P; Carman, James W; Pinski, Andrew T; Phillips, Jerry L; Pestian, John P; Aronow, Bruce J

    2002-09-01

    Evolutionarily conserved noncoding genomic sequences represent a potentially rich source for the discovery of gene regulatory regions. However, detecting and visualizing compositionally similar cis-element clusters in the context of conserved sequences is challenging. We have explored potential solutions and developed an algorithm and visualization method that combines the results of conserved sequence analyses (BLASTZ) with those of transcription factor binding site analyses (MatInspector) (http://trafac.chmcc.org). We define hits as the density of co-occurring cis-element transcription factor (TF)-binding sites measured within a 200-bp moving average window through phylogenetically conserved regions. The results are depicted as a Regulogram, in which the hit count is plotted as a function of position within each of the two genomic regions of the aligned orthologs. Within a high-scoring region, the relative arrangement of shared cis-elements within compositionally similar TF-binding site clusters is depicted in a Trafacgram. On the basis of analyses of several training data sets, the approach also allows for the detection of similarities in composition and relative arrangement of cis-element clusters within nonorthologous genes, promoters, and enhancers that exhibit coordinate regulatory properties. Known functional regulatory regions of nonorthologous and less-conserved orthologous genes frequently showed cis-element shuffling, demonstrating that compositional similarity can be more sensitive than sequence similarity. These results show that combining sequence similarity with cis-element compositional similarity provides a powerful aid for the identification of potential control regions.

  9. Amino acid sequence similarity between rabies virus glycoprotein and snake venom curaremimetic neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Wilson, P T; Hawrot, E; Speicher, D W

    1984-11-16

    Evidence was presented earlier that a host-cell receptor for the highly neurotropic rabies virus might be the acetylcholine receptor. The amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein of rabies virus was compared by computer analysis with that of snake venom curaremimetic neurotoxins, potent ligands of the acetylcholine receptor. A statistically significant sequence relation was found between a segment of the rabies glycoprotein and the entire sequence of long neurotoxins. The greatest identity occurs with residues considered most important in neurotoxicity, including those interacting with the acetylcholine binding site of the acetylcholine receptor. Because of the similarity between the glycoprotein and the receptor-binding region of the neurotoxins, this region of the viral glycoprotein may function as a recognition site for the acetylcholine receptor. Direct binding of the rabies virus glycoprotein to the acetylcholine receptor could contribute to the neurotropism of this virus.

  10. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  11. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-04

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes.

  12. Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hormoz, Sahand

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of amino acid occurrence frequencies in proteins (composition) is not yet fully understood. We suggest that protein composition works alongside the genetic code to minimize impact of mutations on protein structure. First, we propose a novel method for estimating thermodynamic stability of proteins whose sequence is constrained to a fixed composition. Second, we quantify the average deleterious impact of substituting one amino acid with another. Natural proteome compositions are special in at least two ways: 1) Natural compositions do not generate more stable proteins than the average random composition, however, they result in proteins that are less susceptible to damage from mutations. 2) Natural proteome compositions that result in more stable proteins (i.e. those of thermophiles) are also tuned to have a higher tolerance for mutations. This is consistent with the observation that environmental factors selecting for more stable proteins also enhance the deleterious impact of mutations. PMID:24108121

  13. Biodegradable composites from sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Liu, LinShu; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B; Liu, Cheng-Kung

    2005-11-16

    Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were prepared by compression-heating. The resultant thermoplastics had a lower density, but they had tensile strength similar to that of pure PLA specimens as well as the same geometric properties. Tensile properties depended on the initial water content of sugar beet pulp and the process by which composites were manufactured. In comparison with sugar beet pulp, the composite showed improved water resistance. This can be attributed to the hydrophobic character of PLA and pulp-matrix interactions. The composite thermoplastics showed suitable properties for potential use as lightweight construction materials.

  14. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  15. The effect of diet on the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria and myelin in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, L.

    1965-01-01

    1. Three groups of female rats (8–12 weeks old) were maintained respectively on a linoleic acid-rich diet, a linoleic acid-poor predominantly saturated-fatty acid diet and a normal diet. Changes in the fatty acid compositions of serum, brain, brain mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin were observed. 2. Of the serum fatty acids, linoleic acid showed the greatest change in the percentage of the total acids in response to diet; the change in the proportion of oleic acid was considerable. The percentages of arachidonic acid in serum fatty acids in the groups on the linoleic acid-rich and linoleic acid-poor diets were similar, but higher than those in the normal group. 3. Changes in the proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid occurred in brain fatty acids that to some extent paralleled those occurring in the serum. Changes in the proportions of most other acids in the serum fatty acids were not accompanied by corresponding changes in the brain fatty acids. 4. The percentage fatty acid compositions of a mitochondria-rich fraction and myelin are given, and changes in the relative proportions of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and possibly some docosapolyenoic acids were demonstrated to occur as a result of diet. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the possible aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:5881652

  16. Steady-state composition of a two-component gas bubble growing in a liquid solution: self-similar approach.

    PubMed

    Gor, G Yu; Kuchma, A E

    2009-12-21

    The paper presents an analytical description of the growth of a two-component bubble in a binary liquid-gas solution. We obtain asymptotic self-similar time dependence of the bubble radius and analytical expressions for the nonsteady profiles of dissolved gases around the bubble. We show that the necessary condition for the self-similar regime of bubble growth is the constant, steady-state composition of the bubble. The equation for the steady-state composition is obtained. We reveal the dependence of the steady-state composition on the solubility laws of the bubble components. Besides, the universal, independent from the solubility laws, expressions for the steady-state composition are obtained for the case of strong supersaturations, which are typical for the homogeneous nucleation of a bubble.

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites.

  18. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  19. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  20. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  1. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  2. Amino acid composition of human milk is not unique.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Nguyen, H V; Garcia-Bravo, R; Fiorotto, M L; Jackson, E M; Lewis, D S; Lee, D R; Reeds, P J

    1994-07-01

    To determine whether the amino acid pattern of human milk is unique, we compared the amino acid pattern of human milk with the amino acid patterns of the milks of great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), lower primates (baboon and rhesus monkey) and nonprimates (cow, goat, sheep, llama, pig, horse, elephant, cat and rat). Amino acid pattern was defined as the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) (in mg) to the total amino acids (in g). Total amino acid concentration was lower in primate milk than in nonprimate milk. There were commonalities in the overall amino acid pattern of the milks of all species sampled; the most abundant amino acids were glutamate (plus glutamine, 20%), proline (10%) and leucine (10%). Essential amino acids were 40%, branched-chain amino acids 20%, and sulfur amino acids 4% of the total amino acids. The amino acid pattern of human milk was more similar to those of great apes than to those of lower primates. For example, cystine was higher and methionine was lower in primate milks than in nonprimate milks, and in great ape and human milks than in lower primate milks. Because the milk amino acid patterns of the human and elephant, both slow-growing species, were dissimilar, the amino acid pattern of human milk seems unrelated to growth rate.

  3. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  4. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase.

  5. Similar PAH Fate in Anaerobic Digesters Inoculated with Three Microbial Communities Accumulating Either Volatile Fatty Acids or Methane

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10 % to 30 %, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH

  6. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH removal

  7. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia [Gainesville, FL; Nong, Guang [Gainesville, FL; Rice, John D [Gainesville, FL; John, Franz J [Baltimore, MD

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  8. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

    2013-04-01

    The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54 g (per 100 g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1 n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2 n-6). The α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34% ± 0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47% ± 0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied.

  10. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints.

  11. Essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and fatty acid composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Flávia; Torres, Alexandre G; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this study. Breast milk and blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Fatty acid composition of breast milk, erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma NEFA were determined by GC. Indices of fatty acid status (mean melting point (MMP); EFA status index; DHA status indices, 22 : 5n-6:22 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3:22 : 5n-6 ratios) were calculated from EM fatty acid composition. Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids was low when compared with current recommendations for lactating women. MMP was associated with indices of DHA status, some individual fatty acids in EM and years post-menarche and weeks postpartum, suggesting the use of erythrocyte MMP as a possible comprehensive biochemical marker of LCPUFA status in this physiological condition. The DHA status of lactating adolescents and their milk DHA concentrations were similar to the values of Brazilian lactating adults, but lower compared with the values of lactating adults from other countries. Therefore, these lactating adolescents were apparently not disadvantaged, as compared with the Brazilian adults, when EM and breast milk fatty acid composition were considered. In general, PUFA in milk from adolescents presented few associations with their concentrations in plasma NEFA and with maternal status. However, milk DHA was associated with maternal LCPUFA and DHA states.

  12. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  13. mim3 and nam3 omnipotent suppressor genes similarly affect the polypeptide composition of yeast mitoribosomes.

    PubMed

    Mieszczak, M; Zagórski, W

    1987-05-01

    Yeast informational suppressors of mit- mutations coded for by nuclear (nam3-1, nam3-2) or by mitochondrial DNA (mim3-1) affect the mitoribosome. Nuclear mutations result in the appearance of an additional polypeptide called SI in the small mitoribosomal subunit. An identical polypeptide, not detected in the wild type 37S subunit, is present in crude preparations of mitoribosomes isolated from a mim3-1 suppressor carrying strain. Traces of the SI polypeptide may be found in highly purified small subunits from the mim3-1 strain. Therefore, mutations affecting either mitochondrial rRNA (mim3-1) or mitochondrial r-proteins (nam3-1, nam3-2) could be followed by similar changes in overall mitoribosome structure. This may explain the functional similarity of nuclear and mitochondrially coded suppressors.

  14. Temporal Patterns in Bacterioplankton Community Composition in Three Reservoirs of Similar Trophic Status in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiancheng; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Jun; Lei, Anping; Hu, Zhangli

    2016-01-01

    The bacterioplankton community composition’s (BCC) spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir) of similar trophic status in Bao’an District, Shenzhen (China), were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. Water samples were collected monthly in each reservoir during 12 consecutive months. Distinct differences were detected in band number, pattern, and density of DGGE at different sampling sites and time points. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that changes in the bacterial community structure mainly varied with seasons, and the patterns of change indicated that seasonal forces might have a more significant impact on the BCC than eutrophic status in the reservoirs, despite the similar Shannon-Weiner index among the three reservoirs. The sequences obtained from excised bands were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria. PMID:27322295

  15. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Davison, F D; Mackenzie, D W; Owen, R J

    1980-06-01

    DNA was extracted and purified from 55 dermatophyte isolates representing 34 species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. The base compositions of the chromosomal DNA were determined by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and were found to be in the narrow range of 48.7 to 50.3 mol % G + C. A satellite DNA component assumed to be of mitochondrial origin was present in most strains, with a G + C content ranging from 14.7 to 30.8 mol % G + C. Heterogeneity in microscopic and colonial characteristics was not reflected in differences in the mean G + C content of the chromosomal DNAs. Strains varied in the G + C contents of satelite DNA, but these did not correlate with traditional species concepts.

  16. Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Bobr, Aleh; Yao, Dan; Lu, Yuwei; Nelson, Valerie M; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-15

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.

  17. Similar estimates of population genetic composition and sex ratio derived from carcasses and faeces of Eurasian otter Lutra lutra.

    PubMed

    Dallas, John F; Coxon, Karen E; Sykes, Tim; Chanin, Paul R F; Marshall, Freda; Carss, David N; Bacon, Philip J; Piertney, Stuart B; Racey, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    Collecting faeces is viewed as a potentially efficient way to sample elusive animals. Nonetheless, any biases in estimates of population composition associated with such sampling remain uncharacterized. The goal of this study was to compare estimates of genetic composition and sex ratio derived from Eurasian otter Lutra lutra spraints (faeces) with estimates derived from carcasses. Twenty per cent of 426 wild-collected spraints from SW England yielded composite genotypes for 7-9 microsatellites and the SRY gene. The expected number of incorrect spraint genotypes was negligible, given the proportions of allele dropout and false allele detection estimated using paired blood and spraint samples of three captive otters. Fifty-two different spraint genotypes were detected and compared with genotypes of 70 otter carcasses from the same area. Carcass and spraint genotypes did not differ significantly in mean number of alleles, mean unbiased heterozygosity or sex ratio, although statistical power to detect all but large differences in sex ratio was low. The genetic compositions of carcass and spraint genotypes were very similar according to confidence intervals of theta and two methods for assigning composite genotypes to groups. A distinct group of approximately 11 carcass and spraint genotypes was detected using the latter methods. The results suggest that spraints can yield unbiased estimates of population genetic composition and sex ratio.

  18. Amino acid composition determined using multiple hydrolysis times for three goat milk formulations.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Lowry, Dianne; Prosser, Colin G

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid composition of goat milk formulations with varying protein and carbohydrate concentrations were determined. Proteins in goat milk infant formula, goat milk growing-up formula and goat whole milk powder were hydrolysed using multiple hydrolysis time intervals. A least-squares non-linear regression model was used to predict the free and protein bound amino acid concentrations. The amino acid composition of goat infant formula was compared with human milk reference values. There was good agreement between the multiple hydrolysis and single 24-h hydrolysis methods for approximately one-half of the amino acids. Tryptophan, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, isoleucine, valine, serine and alanine contents were underestimated by 10.6, 5.6, 5.6, 4.7, 4.4, 3.7, 3.7 and 3.6%, respectively, by the single 24-h hydrolysis. The study provides accurate reference data on the amino acid composition of goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula has amino acids in amounts similar to human milk reference values, when expressed on a per-energy basis.

  19. Similar GABAA receptor subunit composition in somatic and axon initial segment synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs) express many GABAAR subunit types and receive GABAergic inputs from distinct interneurons. Previous experiments revealed input-specific differences in α1 and α2 subunit densities in perisomatic synapses, suggesting distinct IPSC decay kinetics. However, IPSC decays evoked by axo-axonic, parvalbumin- or cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells were found to be similar. Using replica immunogold labeling, here we show that all CA1 PC somatic and AIS synapses contain the α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 and γ2 subunits. In CA3 PCs, 90% of the perisomatic synapses are immunopositive for the α1 subunit and all synapses are positive for the remaining five subunits. Somatic synapses form unimodal distributions based on their immunoreactivity for these subunits. The α2 subunit densities in somatic synapses facing Cav2.1 (i.e. parvalbumin) or Cav2.2 (cholecystokinin) positive presynaptic active zones are comparable. We conclude that perisomatic synapses made by three distinct interneuron types have similar GABAA receptor subunit content. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18426.001 PMID:27537197

  20. Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Dong, Aijun

    2015-06-10

    Plasmids are widely distributed in different sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as self-replicating extrachromosomal genetic materials, and have received considerable attention due to their close relationship with many important functions as well as some industrially relevant characteristics of the LAB species. They are interesting with regard to the development of food-grade cloning vectors. This review summarizes new developments in the area of lactic acid bacteria plasmids and aims to provide up to date information that can be used in related future research.

  1. Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Dong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids are widely distributed in different sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as self-replicating extrachromosomal genetic materials, and have received considerable attention due to their close relationship with many important functions as well as some industrially relevant characteristics of the LAB species. They are interesting with regard to the development of food-grade cloning vectors. This review summarizes new developments in the area of lactic acid bacteria plasmids and aims to provide up to date information that can be used in related future research. PMID:26068451

  2. Temporal distance decay of similarity of ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a subtropical evergreen forest in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Kawaguchi, Eri; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are known to show spatial distance decay of similarity, which arises from both deterministic niche-based processes and stochastic spatial-based processes (e.g. dispersal limitation). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of incorporating the spatial-based processes in the study of community ecology of ECM fungi. However, few studies have investigated the temporal distance decay of similarity of ECM fungal communities. More specifically, the role of stochastic temporal-based processes, which could drive the temporal distance decay of similarity independently of niche-based processes, in the temporal variation of the communities remains unclear. Here we investigated ECM fungi associated with roots of Castanopsis sieboldii at 3-month intervals over a 2-year period. We found that dissimilarity of the ECM fungal community composition was significantly correlated with temporal distance but not with environmental distance among sampling dates. Both climatic and temporal variables significantly explained the temporal variation of the community composition. These results suggest that temporal variations of ECM fungi can be affected not only by niche-based processes but also by temporal-based processes. Our findings imply that priority effects may play important roles in the temporal turnover of ECM fungal community at the site.

  3. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  4. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  5. New chemical determinations of zinc in basalts, and rocks of similar composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rader, L.F.; Swadley, W.C.; Huffman, C.; Lipp, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    New determinations of zinc in 124 basalts by the chemical method described (Huff-Man et al. 1963) are reported. Average zinc values, in per cent, for basalts from diverse regions are as follows: Idaho, 28 samples, 0.013; Hawaii, 33 samples, 0.010; Connecticut, 27 samples, 0.0090; Oregon, 17 samples, 0.0081; California, 8 samples, 0.0071; and New Mexico, 11 samples, 0.0086; average, all samples, 0.0099 per cent zinc. A plot of differentiation indicator ratios calculated from the conventional rock analyses, CaO/(Na2O + K2O) as the ordinate and SiO2/MgO as the abscissa, was used to select, from different localities, samples essentially the same in chemical composition that were to be used for comparisons of zinc and other minor elements. Zinc correlates with MnO and with total iron as FeO. An inverse relationship found for zinc and manganese is related to the total iron content of the basalts. Thus for a given iron concentration as zinc increases, manganese decreases and vice versa. Ratios of zinc, the common denominator, to 11 other minor elements determined spectro-graphically show correlations with cobalt, gallium, scandium, yttrium, and zirconium. ?? 1963.

  6. Subgrouping of Pseudomonas cepacia by cellular fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Mukwaya, G M; Welch, D F

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions were determined for 42 strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from five cystic fibrosis centers in North America. All isolates contained significant (20%) amounts of hexadecanoic (C16:0), and cis-9 hexadecenoic (C16:1 cis9) acids and an isomer of octadecenoic acid (C18:1). None had hydroxy acids containing fewer than 14 carbon atoms. The quantitative data from the fatty acid analysis were highly reproducible and provided a basis for numerical analysis. Five subgroups comprising all the strains were obtained by cluster analysis and further characterized by principal-component analysis. With minor exceptions, the predominant subgroup identified in each center was different from that identified in other centers and accounted for one-half of the isolates within each center. Cellular fatty acid composition is a useful adjunct to biochemical characterization for the identification of P. cepacia isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Numerical analysis of the fatty acid data can separate P. cepacia into subgroups, which may provide useful epidemiologic information or a basis for further analysis by more complex techniques such as DNA probe analysis. PMID:2687315

  7. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  8. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  9. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD).

  10. Method of preparing and using and composition for acidizing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-08-21

    A composition and method of acidizing or fracturing a subterranean formation comprises contacting the formation with a composition comprising an acid, urea, and a selected gelling agent. The urea is present in an amount sufficient to extend the viscous stability of the gelled acid composition in comparison to the acid and gelling agent alone.

  11. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena.

  12. Evolution of proteomes: fundamental signatures and global trends in amino acid compositions

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj; Yeramian, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    Background The evolutionary characterization of species and lifestyles at global levels is nowadays a subject of considerable interest, particularly with the availability of many complete genomes. Are there specific properties associated with lifestyles and phylogenies? What are the underlying evolutionary trends? One of the simplest analyses to address such questions concerns characterization of proteomes at the amino acids composition level. Results In this work, amino acid compositions of a large set of 208 proteomes, with significant number of representatives from the three phylogenetic domains and different lifestyles are analyzed, resorting to an appropriate multidimensional method: Correspondence analysis. The analysis reveals striking discrimination between eukaryotes, prokaryotic mesophiles and hyperthemophiles-themophiles, following amino acid usage. In sharp contrast, no similar discrimination is observed for psychrophiles. The observed distributional properties are compared with various inferred chronologies for the recruitment of amino acids into the genetic code. Such comparisons reveal correlations between the observed segregations of species following amino acid usage, and the separation of amino acids following early or late recruitment. Conclusion A simple description of proteomes according to amino acid compositions reveals striking signatures, with sharp segregations or on the contrary non-discriminations following phylogenies and lifestyles. The distribution of species, following amino acid usage, exhibits a discrimination between [high GC]-[high optimal growth temperatures] and [low GC]-[moderate temperatures] characteristics. This discrimination appears to coincide closely with the separation of amino acids following their inferred early or late recruitment into the genetic code. Taken together the various results provide a consistent picture for the evolution of proteomes, in terms of amino acid usage. PMID:17147802

  13. [Psychotropic effect of phenibut salts and their compositions with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaia, A N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2011-01-01

    The spectra of psychotropic action of some phenibut salts (succunate, maleate, nicotinate) and a composition of phenibut with glutamic acid were studied. It is established, that the substances studied show psychotropic activity spectrum generally similar to that of phenibut, but different in expressiveness of some particular effects. Compound RSPU-149 exhibited the most pronounced psychotropic action: its anxiolytic effect was below, the antidepressant effect was comparable with, and the nootrope action exceeded that of phenibut.

  14. Fatty Acid Composition and Community Structure of Plankton from the San Lorenzo Channel, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, B. E.; López-Cortés, D.

    1997-12-01

    The structure of the plankton community and fatty acid composition of nano-, micro- and zooplankton are described during four seasons of 1994 from the San Lorenzo Channel. During August, the warmest temperature in the surface water was observed and a thermocline developed between 20 and 30 m. In the remaining months, a well-mixed layer occurred in the upper 30 m. The chlorophyllacontent of the nanoplankton fraction (<38 μm) was higher than the microplanktonic fraction (38-200 μm) year round. Maximal chlorophyll values (1·5-3 μ l-1) occurred in January, which may be associated with organic matter, since phytoplankton was lower than at other seasons. The relative abundance of diatoms increased from January (57% of phytoplankton) to November (99%). The increment was mainly due toNitzschiaandChaetoceros. Dinoflagellates were always low (0·03-1·36 cells ml-1). Copepods (mainlyEucalanus) dominated the zooplankton in winter and fall, while in spring and summer, the abundance of doliolids was similar to the copepods (Nannocalanus minordominated). Four fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1) were the most conspicuous in the plankton, representing usually between 40 and 80% of the total fatty acids throughout the water column. In winter, higher fatty acid content and higher relative amounts of 16:0 and 16:1 were observed than in the warm months. Stearic acid (18:0) peaked during fall. The major seasonal differences occurred in the nanoplankton, which had peaks of 20:5 during January, and 16:4 in April. A strong decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) occurred during the warm months. The fatty acid composition of microplankton and larger zooplankton was similar in winter-spring. Individual copepods of selected species (Eucalanus sewelli,Rhincalanus nasutus,Centropages furcatusandLabidocera acuta) showed fatty acid profiles similar to the mixed zooplankton, with some differences in content of PUFA.

  15. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  16. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes.

  17. Is the fatty acid composition of freshwater zoobenthic invertebrates controlled by phylogenetic or trophic factors?

    PubMed

    Makhutova, Olesia N; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Gladyshev, Michail I; Ageev, Alexander V; Pryanichnikova, Ekaterina G; Kalachova, Galina S

    2011-08-01

    We studied the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of ten zoobenthic species of several taxonomic groups from different freshwater bodies. Special attention was paid to essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6); and the n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios, which are important for consumers of higher trophic levels, i.e., fish. The content and ratios of these FA varied significantly in the studied zoobenthic species, consequently, the invertebrates were of different nutritional quality for fish. Eulimnogammarus viridis (Crustacea) and Dendrocoelopsis sp. (Turbellaria) had the highest nutrition value for fish concerning the content of EPA and DHA and n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios. Using canonical correspondence analysis we compared the FA profiles of species of the studied taxa taking into account their feeding strategies and habitats. We gained evidence that feeding strategy is of importance to determine fatty acid profiles of zoobenthic species. However, the phylogenetic position of the zoobenthic species is also responsible and may result in a similar fatty acid composition even if species or populations inhabit different water bodies or have different feeding strategies.

  18. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  19. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  20. Genetic effects on fatty acid composition of carcass fat of Japanese Black Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Oka, A; Iwaki, F; Dohgo, T; Ohtagaki, S; Noda, M; Shiozaki, T; Endoh, O; Ozaki, M

    2002-04-01

    Two hundred ninety-three Japanese Black Wagyu steers derived from 34 sires were used to investigate genetic effects on the fatty acid composition of carcass fat. All steers were fed identical diets for 365 d and slaughtered at similar ages. If the percentage of genetic contribution of sire A, B, or C was not lower than 25%, steers were classified into groups A, B, and C, respectively. Fatty acid compositions differed depending on deposit sites. Mean percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) tended to be higher in the outer parts than in the inner parts of the body. Percentage of MUFA in carcass fat was negatively correlated with withers height and BW and positively correlated with meat quality score and marbling score. Fatty acid compositions of the 34 sire groups varied, and mean percentages of MUFA in i.m. fat ranged from 47.71 to 54.77%. Steers in the C group grew larger than those in the A or B group. Mean percentages of MUFA for i.m. fat in the A, B, and C groups (52.83, 51.88, and 50.33%, respectively) differed (P < 0.05) from each other. Steers in the C group had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of saturated fatty acids than those in the A or B groups. Percentages of genetic contribution of sires B (P < 0.05) and C (P < 0.001) were negatively correlated with percentage of MUFA in i.m. fat. These results suggested that genetic factors affected fatty acid composition of carcass fat in Japanese Black Wagyu cattle and that some sires had potent genetic factors affecting this composition.

  1. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Sheard, P R; Richardson, R I; Hughes, S I; Whittington, F M

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the factors affecting the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in pigs, sheep and cattle and shows that a major factor is the total amount of fat. The effects of fatty acid composition on meat quality are also reviewed. Pigs have high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the long chain (C20-22) PUFA in adipose tissue and muscle. The full range of PUFA are also found in sheep adipose tissue and muscle whereas cattle 'conserve' long chain PUFA in muscle phospholipid. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is a major ingredient of feeds for all species. Its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle in relation to the amount in the diet is greater than for other fatty acids. It is deposited in muscle phospholipid at a high level where it and its long chain products eg aracidonic acid (20:4n-6) compete well for insertion into phospholipid molecules. Its proportion in pig adipose tissue declines as fat deposition proceeds and is an index of fatness. The same inverse relationships are not seen in ruminant adipose tissue but in all species the proportion of 18:2n-6 declines in muscle as fat deposition increases. The main reason is that phospholipid, where 18:2n-6 is located, declines as a proportion of muscle lipid and the proportion of neutral lipid, with its higher content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, increases. Oleic acid (18:1cis-9), formed from stearic acid (18:0) by the enzyme stearoyl Co-A desaturase, is a major component of neutral lipid and in ruminants the same enzyme forms conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an important nutrient in human nutrition. Like 18:2n-6, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is an essential fatty acid and is important to ruminants since it is the major fatty acid in grass. However it does not compete well for insertion into phospholipid compared with 18:2n-6 and its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle is less efficient. Greater biohydrogenation of 18:3n-3 and a long rumen transit time

  2. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  3. In vitro toxicity of carbon nanotubes, nano-graphite and carbon black, similar impacts of acid functionalization.

    PubMed

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Akono, Céline; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe

    2015-12-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-graphite (NG) are graphene-based nanomaterials which share exceptional physicochemical properties, but whose health impacts are unfortunately still not well understood. On the other hand, carbon black (CB) is a conventional and widely studied material. The comparison of these three carbon-based nanomaterials is thus of great interest to improve our understanding of their toxicity. An acid functionalization was carried out on CNT, NG and CB so that, after a thorough characterization, their impacts on RAW 264.7 macrophages could be compared for a similar surface chemistry (15 to 120 μg·mL(-1) nanomaterials, 90-min to 24-h contact). Functionalized nanomaterials triggered a weak cytotoxicity similar to the pristine nanomaterials. Acid functionalization increased the pro-inflammatory response except for CB which did not trigger any TNF-α production before or after functionalization, and seemed to strongly decrease the oxidative stress. The toxicological impact of acid functionalization appeared thus to follow a similar trend whatever the carbon-based nanomaterial. At equivalent dose expressed in surface and equivalent surface chemistry, the toxicological responses from murine macrophages to NG were higher than for CNT and CB. It seemed to correspond to the hypothesis of a platelet and fiber paradigm.

  4. Neonatal jaundice and fatty acid composition of the maternal diet.

    PubMed

    Uhari, M; Alkku, A; Nikkari, T; Timonen, E

    1985-11-01

    The role of serum fatty acid composition in neonatal jaundice was studied by comparing the incidence of jaundice among 332 newborn infants receiving breast milk from mothers on a diet with either a low (0.1, n = 145) or a high (1.5, n = 187) polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio. The diet was started immediately after delivery. The composition of fatty acids in the breast milk and sera of the mothers and in the sera of the newborns was evaluated from a random sample of 15 mother-newborn pairs on the control diet (low P/S ratio) and 19 pairs on the experimental diet. Five days after delivery the relative amounts of fatty acids, especially that of linoleate, in the sera of the mothers differed significantly depending on the diet. Differences were also observed in breast milk samples taken three, four or five days after delivery and in the sera of the newborns sampled at the age of four or five days. Nine of the 145 newborn infants (6.2%) in the control group had to be treated with light therapy compared with 12 out of 187 (6.4%) of the newborn infants in the experimental group (high P/S ratio). Serum bilirubin concentrations were 142.5 mumol/l (SD 65.8) and 140.7 mumol/l (SD 73.5) in the experimental and control groups, respectively, at the age of five days. It appears that the changes in the composition of serum fatty acids reached in this study had no effect on the neonatal jaundice.

  5. Fatty acid composition of symbiotic zooxanthellae in relation to their hosts.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D G; Kenrick, J R

    1980-10-01

    Gymnodinoid dinoflagellate symbionts, commonly referred to as zooxanthellae, are widely distributed among marine invertebrates. It has been assumed that they represent only one species,Gymnodinium microadriaticum. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and galactolipids of zooxanthellae isolated from 8 species of corals, 3 species of clams and a foraminiferan have been analyzed and found to vary according to the host. For example, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in clam zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol was less than 2%, whereas in the same lipid from coral zooxanthellae, the content ranged from 9 to 22%. Corresponding values for the acid in digalactosyl-diacylglycerol were 1-8% from clam zooxanthellae and 23-40% from coral zooxanthellae. Coral zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol contain higher levels of octadecatetraenoic acid than are found in digalactosyldiacylglycerol, whereas the reverse is true in clam zooxanthellae. The fatty acid composition of the lipids of an axenic culture of zooxanthellae isolated from the clamTridacna maxima are similar to those of cells freshly isolated from the host. The results suggest either that the host is capable of affecting the fatty acid metabolism of the symbiont or that different strains of zooxanthellae occur in corals and clams.

  6. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  7. Prediction of retention times of proteins in hydrophobic interaction chromatography using only their amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Salgado, J Cristian; Rapaport, Ivan; Asenjo, Juan A

    2005-12-09

    This paper focuses on the prediction of the dimensionless retention time of proteins (DRT) in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) by means of mathematical models based, essentially, only on aminoacidic composition. The results show that such prediction is indeed possible. Our main contribution was the design of models that predict the DRT using the minimal information concerning a protein: its aminoacidic composition. The performance is similar to that observed in models that use much more sophisticated information such as the three-dimensional structure of proteins. Three models that, in addition to the amino acid composition, use different assumptions about the amino acids tendency to be exposed to the solvent, were evaluated in 12 proteins with known experimental DRT. In all the cases analyzed, the model that obtained the best results was the one based on a linear estimation of the aminoacidic surface composition. The models were adjusted using a collection of 74 vectors of aminoacidic properties plus a set of 6388 vectors derived from these using two mathematical tools: k-means and self-organizing maps (SOM) algorithms. The best vector was generated by the SOM algorithm and was interpreted as a hydrophobicity scale based partly on the tendency of the amino acids to be hidden in proteins. The prediction error (MSE(JK)) obtained by this model was almost 35% smaller than that obtained by the model that supposes that all the amino acids are completely exposed and 40% smaller than that obtained by the model that uses a simple correction factor considering the general tendency of each amino acid to be exposed to the solvent. In fact, the performance of the best model based on the aminoacidic composition was 5% better than that observed in the model based on the three-dimensional structure of proteins.

  8. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  9. Amino acid composition analysis of human secondary transport proteins and implications for reliable membrane topology prediction.

    PubMed

    Saidijam, Massoud; Azizpour, Sonia; Patching, Simon G

    2016-07-08

    Secondary transporters in humans are a large group of proteins that transport a wide range of ions, metals, organic and inorganic solutes involved in energy transduction, control of membrane potential and osmotic balance, metabolic processes and in the absorption or efflux of drugs and xenobiotics. They are also emerging as important targets for development of new drugs and as target sites for drug delivery to specific organs or tissues. We have performed amino acid composition (AAC) and phylogenetic analyses and membrane topology predictions for 336 human secondary transport proteins and used the results to confirm protein classification and to look for trends and correlations with structural domains and specific substrates and/or function. Some proteins showed statistically high contents of individual amino acids or of groups of amino acids with similar physicochemical properties. One recurring trend was a correlation between high contents of charged and/or polar residues with misleading results in predictions of membrane topology, which was especially prevalent in Mitochondrial Carrier family proteins. We demonstrate how charged or polar residues located in the middle of transmembrane helices can interfere with their identification by membrane topology tools resulting in missed helices in the prediction. Comparison of AAC in the human proteins with that in 235 secondary transport proteins from Escherichia coli revealed similar overall trends along with differences in average contents for some individual amino acids and groups of similar amino acids that are presumed to result from a greater number of functions and complexity in the higher organism.

  10. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  11. Protein packing: dependence on protein size, secondary structure and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P J; Richards, F M

    2000-06-02

    We have used the occluded surface algorithm to estimate the packing of both buried and exposed amino acid residues in protein structures. This method works equally well for buried residues and solvent-exposed residues in contrast to the commonly used Voronoi method that works directly only on buried residues. The atomic packing of individual globular proteins may vary significantly from the average packing of a large data set of globular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that these variations in protein packing are due to a complex combination of protein size, secondary structure composition and amino acid composition. Differences in protein packing are conserved in protein families of similar structure despite significant sequence differences. This conclusion indicates that quality assessments of packing in protein structures should include a consideration of various parameters including the packing of known homologous proteins. Also, modeling of protein structures based on homologous templates should take into account the packing of the template protein structure.

  12. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

    2010-10-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon

  13. Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low

  14. Adaptive modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and metabolic thermosuppression of brown adipose tissue in heat-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S. K.; Ohno, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    Thermogenesis, especially facultative thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), is less important in high ambient temperature and the heat-acclimated animals show a lower metabolic rate. Adaptive changes in the metabolic activity of BAT are generally found to be associated with a modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition. However, the effect of heat acclimation on membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition is as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the thermogenic activity and phospholipid fatty acid composition of interscapular BAT from heat-acclimated rats (control: 25+/-1°C, 50% relative humidity and heat acclimation: 32+/-0.5°C, 50% relative humidity). Basal thermogenesis and the total thermogenic capacity after noradrenaline stimulation, as estimated by in vitro oxygen consumption of BAT (measured polarographically using about 1-mm3 tissue blocks), were smaller in the heat-acclimated group than in the control group. There was no difference in the tissue content of phospholipids between the groups when expressed per microgram of DNA. The phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by a capillary gas chromatograph. The state of phospholipid unsaturation, as estimated by the number of double bonds per fatty acid molecule, was similar between the groups. The saturated fatty acid level was higher in the heat-acclimated group. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, heat acclimation decreased docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid levels, and increased the arachidonic acid level. The tissue level of docosahexaenoic acid correlated with the basal oxygen consumption of BAT (r=0.6, P<0.01) and noradrenaline-stimulated maximum values of oxygen consumption (r=0.5, P<0.05). Our results show that heat acclimation modifies the BAT phospholipid fatty acids, especially the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, which is possibly involved in the metabolic thermosuppression.

  15. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  16. Genome Compositional Organization in Gars Shows More Similarities to Mammals than to Other Ray-Finned Fish.

    PubMed

    Symonová, Radka; Majtánová, Zuzana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Mořkovský, Libor; Kořínková, Tereza; Cavin, Lionel; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Doležálková, Marie; Flajšhans, Martin; Normandeau, Eric; Ráb, Petr; Meyer, Axel; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-12-30

    Genomic GC content can vary locally, and GC-rich regions are usually associated with increased DNA thermostability in thermophilic prokaryotes and warm-blooded eukaryotes. Among vertebrates, fish and amphibians appeared to possess a distinctly less heterogeneous AT/GC organization in their genomes, whereas cytogenetically detectable GC heterogeneity has so far only been documented in mammals and birds. The subject of our study is the gar, an ancient "living fossil" of a basal ray-finned fish lineage, known from the Cretaceous period. We carried out cytogenomic analysis in two gar genera (Atractosteus and Lepisosteus) uncovering a GC chromosomal pattern uncharacteristic for fish. Bioinformatic analysis of the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) confirmed a GC compartmentalization on GC profiles of linkage groups. This indicates a rather mammalian mode of compositional organization on gar chromosomes. Gars are thus the only analyzed extant ray-finned fishes with a GC compartmentalized genome. Since gars are cold-blooded anamniotes, our results contradict the generally accepted hypothesis that the phylogenomic onset of GC compartmentalization occurred near the origin of amniotes. Ecophysiological findings of other authors indicate a metabolic similarity of gars with mammals. We hypothesize that gars might have undergone convergent evolution with the tetrapod lineages leading to mammals on both metabolic and genomic levels. Their metabolic adaptations might have left footprints in their compositional genome evolution, as proposed by the metabolic rate hypothesis. The genome organization described here in gars sheds new light on the compositional genome evolution in vertebrates generally and contributes to better understanding of the complexities of the mechanisms involved in this process.

  17. A moderate change in temperature induces changes in fatty acid composition of storage and membrane lipids in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Ellers, Jacintha

    2010-02-01

    A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to be able to maintain homeoviscosity. Although different in function, storage lipids (triacylglycerol fatty acids) are expected to respond to temperature changes in a similar way. Age-specific differences, however, could influence this temperature response between different life stages. Here, we investigate if fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids responds similarly to temperature changes for two different life stages of Orchesella cincta. Juveniles and adults were cold acclimated (15 degrees C-->5 degrees C) for 28 days and then re-acclimated (5 degrees C-->15 degrees C) for another 28 days. We found adult membranes had a more unsaturated fatty acid composition than juveniles. Membrane lipids became more unsaturated during cold acclimation, and a reversed response occurred during warm acclimation. Membrane lipids, however, showed no warm acclimation, possibly due to the moderate temperature change. The ability to adjust storage lipid composition to moderate changes in ambient temperature may be an underestimated fitness component of temperature adaptation because fluidity of storage lipids permits accessibility of enzymes to energy reserves.

  18. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  19. Influence of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 membrane lipid composition, verotoxin secretion, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Marshall, Douglas L

    2005-04-01

    The effect of organic acid (acetic, citric, and lactic acids) adaptation at equivalent initial pH values (6.4 and 5.4) on changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5, 37 degrees C) was determined for Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (HEC) and an rpoS mutant of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (RM, FRIK 816-3). For HEC, lactic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the greatest D-value (32.2 min) and acetic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the smallest D-value (16.6 min) in simulated gastric fluid. For RM, D-values of citric and acetic acid-adapted cells were similar to those for nonadapted cells grown at pH 7.3, but D-values increased from 13.1 to 27.9 min in lactic acid-adapted cells (from pH 7.3 to pH 5.4). For both strains, the ratio of cis-vaccenic to palmitic acids decreased for citric and lactic acid-adapted cells, but the ratio increased for acetic acid-adapted cells at pH 5.4. Organic acid-adapted cells produced less total verotoxin than did nonadapted cells at approximately 10(8) CFU/ml. Extracellular verotoxin concentration proportionally decreased with decreasing pH for both HEC and RM. Changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in HEC and RM were dependent on both pH and organic acid. Deletion of the rpoS gene did not affect these changes but did decrease acid resistance in citric acid-adapted cells. Results indicate that decreased membrane fluidity may have caused increased acid resistance and decreased verotoxin secretion.

  20. Chemical composition and amino acid profiles of goose muscles from native Polish breeds.

    PubMed

    Okruszek, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Orkusz, A; Werenska, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the chemical and amino acid composition of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles in 17-wk-old geese from 2 Polish conservative flocks: Rypińska (Ry, n = 20) and Garbonosa (Ga, n = 20). The geese were fed ad libitum during the experimental period on the same complete feed. Genotypes affected the moisture and fat content of breast and thigh meat. The Ga geese were characterized by higher moisture as well as lower fat lipid content compared with the Ry breast and thigh muscles. The amino acid proportions of meat proteins depended on the goose flock and type of muscles, where significant differences were found. The proteins of Ga breast muscles contained more glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, tryptophan, histidine, and methionine, and less aspartic acid, proline, serine, leucine, valine, phenyloalanine, tyrosine, and threonine than the Ry geese (P ≤ 0.05). The proteins of Ry thigh muscles were characterized by higher content of proline, serine, and essential amino acids (without lysine and methionine) and lower glutamic and asparagine acid, alanine, and glycine compared with the Ga flock. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (1991) standard, tryptophan was the amino acid limiting the nutritional value of meat proteins of Ry breast muscles (amino acid score for tryptophan = 90%). Except for tryptophan, the meat proteins of the investigated raw materials contained more essential amino acids than the standard. The total content of essential amino acids for all investigated muscles was also higher (52.51 to 55.54%) than the standard (33.90%). It is evident that muscle protein from both flocks of geese have been characterized by high nutritional value. The values of the essential amino acid index of breast muscle proteins were similar in both flocks.

  1. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  2. Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Hedges, John I.

    2000-08-01

    Compositions and fluxes of amino acids and major chloropigments were measured in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean as part of the US JGOFS EqPac program. Fluxes decreased by several orders of magnitude, from 400 to 0.03 mg amino acid m -2 d -1 and from 9 mg to 0.0004 μg chloropigment m -2 d -1, between production in the surface waters and accumulation at the sea floor. Most rapid losses were in surface waters and at the sediment interface. Losses from the mid-water column were as great as those in surface waters or at the sediment interface, but occurred over a much greater depth range. Export flux estimates based on floating sediment traps were higher near the equator and decreased poleward, similar to primary production. Little meridional difference was apparent in composition of either amino acids or pigments in exported material over the 24° of latitude sampled in spite of the large (factor of 5-6) difference in fluxes. However, pigment composition changed dramatically with depth in the water column, and considerable diagenesis occurred before particles reached the sediment. Pigment compositions suggest that suspended particles were more degraded in the northern than in the southern hemisphere, possibly due to differences in food chain structure. Compositional changes in amino acids occurred in the water column, but were most noticeable at the sediment-seawater interface. Increases in the relative proportions of aspartic acid and glycine with depth were more consistent with preferential preservation within the particulate matrix than with any inherent stability of these compounds to heterotrophic consumption. The contribution of amino acids and pigments to total organic carbon clearly shows that selective degradation of organic matter occurs with depth; this is not evident from total organic carbon data alone. Amino acids contributed about a quarter of the total organic carbon (OC) in surface waters and 16% of the OC in sediment; pigments decreased from 1

  3. Composition, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty acids in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique

    2003-12-01

    The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty acids as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty acid composition with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty acid analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty acids and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty acids. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty acids, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty acid compositions of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.

  4. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  5. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  6. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  7. Hybridoma anti-DNA autoantibodies from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrate similar nucleic acid binding characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rauch, J; Massicotte, H; Tannenbaum, H

    1985-01-01

    Hybridoma anti-DNA antibodies have been generated from the fusion of the GM 4672 lymphoblastoid line with peripheral blood lymphocytes from four normal subjects, nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 13 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 441 hybridoma clones were obtained, of which 37 secreted anti-DNA autoantibodies. The nucleic acid binding characteristics of the anti-DNA antibodies produced by two hybridomas from normal subjects, nine hybridomas from RA patients, and 18 hybridomas from SLE patients are reported. The hybridoma anti-DNA antibodies from all three groups showed similar antigen-binding characteristics for denatured DNA (dDNA), native DNA (nDNA), poly(I), poly(dT), and cardiolipin, by both direct binding and competitive binding analyses. One difference noted between normal-derived anti-DNA antibodies and autoimmune-derived antibodies was the inability of the former to react with z-DNA. However, this requires further substantiation with larger numbers of normal-derived clones. The broad overlap of reactivity to nucleic acid antigens among individual anti-DNA autoantibodies found in two clinically different autoimmune diseases, namely RA and SLE, suggests that the pathogenicity of anti-DNA autoantibodies may bear no relationship to their nucleic acid antigen-binding characteristics.

  8. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  9. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment.

  10. Enhanced proton conductivity of Nafion composite membrane by incorporating phosphoric acid-loaded covalent organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yongheng; Li, Zhen; Yang, Xin; Cao, Li; Wang, Chongbin; Zhang, Bei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-11-01

    Design and fabrication of efficient proton transport channels within solid electrolytes is crucial and challenging to new energy-relevant devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) molecules are impregnated into SNW-1-type covalent organic frameworks (COFs) via vacuum assisted method. High loading of H3PO4 in SNW-1 and low guest leaching rate are achieved due to the similar diameter between H3PO4 and micropores in SNW-1. Then the COF-based composite membranes are fabricated for the first time with impregnated COFs (H3PO4@SNW-1) and Nafion matrix. For the composite membranes, the acid-base pairs formed between H3PO4@SNW-1 networks and Nafion optimize the interfacial interactions and hydrophilic domains. The acidic -PO3H2 groups in pores of H3PO4@SNW-1 provide abundant proton transfer sites. As a result, the continuous proton transfer channels with low energy barrier are created. At the filler content of 15 wt%, the composite membrane exhibits a superior proton conductivity of 0.0604 S cm-1 at 51% relative humidity and 80 °C. At the same time, the maximum power density of single fuel cell is 60.3% higher than that of the recast Nafion membrane.

  11. A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils

    PubMed Central

    Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

  12. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries.

  13. Effect of steam-flaked corn and soybeans on muscle and intramuscular fatty acid composition in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Q; He, D C; Meng, Q X; Wang, D C

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of steam-flaked corn grains and soybeans on muscle fatty acid composition. Thirty Holstein bull calves (21 ± 3 d) were divided into 3 groups according to birth date and BW and were randomly assigned to receive fresh milk and a commercial pelleted starter diet containing extruded corn and soybean (ECS), steam-flaked corn and soybean (SFCS), or ground corn and raw soybean (GCS). The calves were fed the designated diet from 3 to 13 wk of age, after which they were slaughtered. The supraspinatus (CTM), longissimus lumborum (RLM), and spinalis dorsi (ERM) were analyzed to determine the chemical and intramuscular fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition of muscle and its deposition differed among calves fed different starter feeds. Medium-chain fatty acid levels of the RLM and CTM were greater in GCS-fed calves than in ECS- and SFCS-fed calves ( < 0.05). Extruded processing increased the content of linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids of the RLM ( < 0.05). The palmitoleic and -vaccenic acid content of the ERM were greater in GCS-fed calves than in ECS- or SFCS-fed calves ( < 0.05). No significant differences were observed among the 3 diets with respect to the stearic, oleic, linoleic, -9 -11 CLA, or arachidonic acid content of the ERM ( > 0.05). The levels of -3 and -6 fatty acids were similar among the 3 groups; a lower -6:-3 PUFA ratio was observed in GCS-fed calves ( < 0.05). The cereal processing method of the calf starter feed had no significant effect on the chemical composition of the CTM, RLM, or ERM. Therefore, different methods of processing corn and soybean in calf starter feeds had no effect on the chemical composition of the RLM, CTM, or ERM but had a significant effect on the intramuscular fatty acid composition.

  14. Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to acidocalcisomes

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Lia Carolina Soares; Gomes, Fabio; Maciel, Luis Renato Maia; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia; Plattner, Helmut; Hentschel, Joachim; Kawazoe, Urara; Barrabin, Hector; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    The structural organization of parasites has been the subject of investigation by many groups and has lead to the identification of structures and metabolic pathways that may represent targets for anti-parasitic drugs. A specific group of organelles named acidocalcisomes has been identified in a number of organisms, including the apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, where they have been shown to be involved in cation homeostasis, polyphosphate metabolism, and osmoregulation. Their structural counterparts in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria have not been fully characterized. In this work, the ultrastructural and chemical properties of acidocalcisomes in Eimeria were characterized. Electron microscopy analysis of Eimeria parasites showed the dense organelles called volutin granules similar to acidocalcisomes. Immunolocalization of the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes, showed labeling in vesicles of size and distribution similar to the dense organelles seen by electron microscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements of the kinetics of proton uptake showed a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity. X-ray mapping revealed significant amounts of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, and Zn in their matrix. The results suggest that volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic, dense organelles and possess structural and chemical properties analogous to those of other acidocalcisomes, suggesting a similar functional role in these parasites. PMID:21699625

  15. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  16. Poly(L-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/collagen composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Lin; Yan, Yu-Hua; Wan, Tao; Yang, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Surface modification of biomedical magnesium alloy using composite coating shows an attemptable approach for the development of Mg-based biomaterials with excellent cytocompatibility. Hydroxyapatite/collagen composite was preliminarily fabricated by biomineralization, the bioactive poly(l-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/collagen composite coatings were spin coated on AZ31 magnesium alloy using poly(l-lactic acid) solution mixed with hydroxyapatite/collagen particles, and the resultant materials and coatings were characterized in structure and related properties; furthermore, the in vitro degradation behavior of modified magnesium alloy in 1.5-fold Hank's solution was investigated. The results show that hydroxyapatite/collagen composite achieved chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite and collagen similar to natural bone; composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy retained the bioactive functional groups of the componential materials and improved the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy; the mass fraction of hydroxyapatite/collagen particles incorporated into the composite affected the porous structure, interfacial adhesion and thus the corrosion resistance of the composite coating due to phase separation as well as volume concentration effects of polymer solution. Composite coatings suppressed the sharp rising of pH value and the released Mg(2+) from substrate to extensive degree, and the degradation behavior of the modified magnesium alloy was supposed to be correlated to microstructure of the coating as well as the synergistic reactions among alkaline- and acidic-degraded products.

  17. Characterization and chemical composition of fatty acids content of watermelon and muskmelon cultivars in Saudi Arabia using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Albishri, Hassan M.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Moussa, Tarek A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The growth in the production of biodiesel, which is principally fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has been phenomenal in the last ten years because of the general desire to cut down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and also as a result of the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Objective: Establish whether there is any relationship between two different species (watermelon and muskmelon) within the same family (Cucurbitaceae) on fatty acid compositions and enumerate the different fatty acids in the two species. Materials and Methods: Extraction of fatty acids from the two species and preparation the extract to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis to determine the fatty acids compositions qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The analyzed plants (watermelon and muskmelon) contain five saturated fatty acids; tetrdecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid with different concentrations, while muskmelon contains an extra saturated fatty acid named eicosanoic acid. The watermelon plant contains five unsaturated fatty acids while muskmelon contains three only, the two plants share in two unsaturated fatty acids named 9-hexadecenoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid, the muskmelon plant contains higher amounts of these two acids (2.04% and 10.12%, respectively) over watermelon plant (0.88% and 0.25%, respectively). Conclusion: The chemical analysis of watermelon and muskmelon revealed that they are similar in saturated fatty acids but differ in unsaturated fatty acids which may be a criterion of differentiation between the two plants. PMID:23661995

  18. Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

    2007-05-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.

  19. CisMols Analyzer: identification of compositionally similar cis-element clusters in ortholog conserved regions of coordinately expressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Jegga, Anil G.; Gupta, Ashima; Gowrisankar, Sivakumar; Deshmukh, Mrunal A.; Connolly, Steven; Finley, Kevin; Aronow, Bruce J.

    2005-01-01

    Combinatorial interactions of sequence-specific trans-acting factors with localized genomic cis-element clusters are the principal mechanism for regulating tissue-specific and developmental gene expression. With the emergence of expanding numbers of genome-wide expression analyses, the identification of the cis-elements responsible for specific patterns of transcriptional regulation represents a critical area of investigation. Computational methods for the identification of functional cis-regulatory modules are difficult to devise, principally because of the short length and degenerate nature of individual cis-element binding sites and the inherent complexity that is generated by combinatorial interactions within cis-clusters. Filtering candidate cis-element clusters based on phylogenetic conservation is helpful for an individual ortholog gene pair, but combining data from cis-conservation and coordinate expression across multiple genes is a more difficult problem. To approach this, we have extended an ortholog gene-pair database with additional analytical architecture to allow for the analysis and identification of maximal numbers of compositionally similar and phylogenetically conserved cis-regulatory element clusters from a list of user-selected genes. The system has been successfully tested with a series of functionally related and microarray profile-based co-expressed ortholog pairs of promoters and genes using known regulatory regions as training sets and co-expressed genes in the olfactory and immunohematologic systems as test sets. CisMols Analyzer is accessible via a Web interface at . PMID:15980500

  20. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  1. Closely related intertidal and deep-sea Halomonhystera species have distinct fatty acid compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Vanreusel, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The deep-sea free-living nematode Halomonhystera hermesi, dominant in the sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (1280 m, Barent sea slope), is part of the mainly estuarine Halomonhystera disjuncta species complex consisting of five cryptic species (GD1-GD5). Cryptic species have a very similar morphology raising questions on their specific environmental differences. This study analyzed total fatty acid (FA) compositions of H. hermesi and GD1, one of H. hermesi's closest relatives. Additionally, we experimentally investigated the effect of a temperature reduction, salinity increase and sulphide concentrations on GD1's FA composition. Because nematodes are expected to have low amounts of storage FA, total FA compositions most likely reflect FA contents of cellular membranes. The deep-sea nematode H. hermesi had significantly lower saturation levels and increased highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFAs) proportions due to the presence of docosahexanoic acid (DHA—22:6ω3) and higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA—20:5ω3) proportions. HUFAs were absent in H. hermesi's food source indicating the ability and need for this nematode to synthesize HUFAs in a deep-sea environment. Our experimental data revealed that only a decrease in temperature resulted in lower saturated fatty acids proportions, indicating that the FA content of H. hermesi is most likely a response to temperature but not to sulphide concentrations or salinity differences. In experimental nematodes, EPA proportions were low and DHA was absent indicating that other factors than temperature, salinity and sulphides mediate the presence of these HUFAs in H. hermesi.

  2. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Vaniman, David T.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni (is) approximately 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving (is) approximately 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni (is) approximately 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  4. Coaxial electrospinning with acetic acid for preparing ferulic acid/zein composite fibers with improved drug release profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Mao; Zha, Liu-sheng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Liu, Jianyun

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated drug/zein composite fibers prepared using a modified coaxial electrospinning process. With unspinnable acetic acid as sheath liquid and an electrospinnable co-dissolving solution of zein and ferulic acid (FA) as core fluid, the modified coaxial process could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. Compared with those from the single-fluid electrospinning process, the FA-loaded zein fibers from the modified process were rounder and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopic observations of their surface and cross-section. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed that fibers from both processes similarly formed a composite with the FA present in the zein matrix in an amorphous state. The driving force of encapsulation of FA into zein fibers was hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. However, in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the fibers from the coaxial process exhibited better sustained-release profiles with a smaller initial burst effect and less tailing-off release compared with those from the single process. The modified coaxial electrospinning process is a useful tool for generating nanofibers with higher quality and improved functional performance.

  5. The effects of dietary oils on the fatty acid composition and osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, M; Stangl, G I; Reichlmayr-Lais, A M; Eder, K

    1994-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different dietary oils representing special fatty acids which varied in chain length, position and number of double bonds on fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and on the osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes after incubation in NaCl solutions of different concentrations. For this purpose all animals were initially fed a control diet (CO) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.4% safflower oil for 28 days. After that 10 groups of 10 animals each were switched to test diets for another 20 days in which 50% or 100% of the coconut oil was exchanged for one of the following oils: olive oil (OO 5, OO 10), safflower oil (SFO 5, SFO 10), evening primrose oil (EPO 5, EPO 10), linseed oil (LO 5, LO 10) or salmon oil (SLO 5, SLO 10). The results show that the fatty acid composition of rat erythrocyte membranes was affected by the fatty acid composition of the dietary fats. Rats fed OO 10, EPO 10, LO 5 and LO 10 had a slightly lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in erythrocyte membranes than control rats. Groups fed olive oil showed the highest level of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the erythrocyte membrane. This increase in MUFA at the expense of SFA and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was most pronounced with respect to 18:1 and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Rats fed SFO, EPO or LO had higher linoleic acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane than control rats. This increase in 18:2 (n-6) was mainly at the expense of 18:1 and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. The proportion of 20:4 (n-6) did not remarkably change feeding diets with (n-6) PUFA-rich oils. The (n-3) PUFA concentration in the erythrocyte membranes considerably increased, whereas (n-6) PUFA decreased feeding linseed oil or salmon oil rich in (n-3) PUFA. Linseed oil and salmon oil caused similar changes in the membrane, which were more pronounced in rats fed salmon oil than in rats fed linseed oil. The

  6. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  7. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatacids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  8. Striking similarities are exhibited by two small Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acids and the adenovirus-associated ribonucleic acids VAI and VAII

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M.D.; Gottlieb, E.; Lerner, M.R.; Steitz, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the region of the Epstein-Barr virus genome that specified two small ribonucleic acids (RNAs), EBER 1 and EBER 2, has been determined. Both of these RNAs are encoded by the right-hand 1,000 base pairs of the EcoRI J fragment of EBV deoxyribonucleic acid. EBER 1 is 166 (167) nucleotides long and EBER 2 is 172 +- 1 nucleotides long; the heterogeneity resides at the 3' termini. The EBER genes are separated by 161 base pairs and are transcribed from the same deoxyribonucleic acid strand. In vitro, both EBER genes can be transcribed by RNA polymerase III; sequences homologous to previously identified RNA polymerase III intragenic transcription control regions are present. Striking similarities are therefore apparent both between the EBERs and the two adenovirus-associated RNAs, VAI and VAII, and between the regions of the two viral genomes that specify these small RNAs. We have shown that VAII RNA as well as VAI RNA and the EBERs exist in ribonucleoprotein complexes which are precipitable by anti-La antibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Finally the authors have demonstrated that the binding of protein(s) from uninfected cells confers antigenicity on each of the four virus-encoded small RNAs.

  9. Fatty acid concentration, proximate composition, and mineral composition in fishbone flour of Nile Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Petenuci, Maria Eugênia; Stevanato, Flávia Braidoti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Matsushita, Makoto; Garcia, Edivaldo Egea; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2008-03-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochormis niloticus) fishbone is a fish part with unknown composition. After elaboration of flour fishbone of tilapia it was analysede. The results in 100 g of flour were: moisture (14.2%), protein (40.8%), total lipids (25.3%), and ash (18.3%), and mineral (in 100 g) was 2715.9 mg (calcium), 1.3 mg (iron), and 1132.7 mg (phosphorus). A total of 22 fatty acids were detected in fishbone flour total lipids (TL), being the major ones in (g) of total lipids: 16:0 (208.5 mg); 18:1n-9 (344.3 mg); and 18:2n-6 (109.6 mg). The concentration of linolenic acid--LNA (18:3n-3); eicopentaenoic acid--EPA (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid--DHA (22:6n-3) were (29.9 mg), (3.3 mg), and (12.9 mg), respectively. The content to saturated (SFA) were (296.2 mg), monounsaturated (MUFA) 415.0 mg, and polyunsaturated (PUFA) 175.6 mg. The ratio PUFA:MUFA:SFA was 1:2.4:1.7, and the ratio omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 2.8. The last is within the recommended values. The results show low concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in flour. The value caloric and calcium, iron, phosphorus, and protein content the fishbone flour of tilapia may results a valuable alternative food in the human diet.

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  11. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-05

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics.

  12. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  13. Fatty acid composition of goat diets vs intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K S; Waldron, D F; Ziprin, Y A; Rhee, K C

    2000-04-01

    Twenty Boer x Spanish goats, at the age range of 90-118 days, were assigned to two dietary treatments, with 10 animals fed a grain ration (G) and the other 10 grazed in rangeland. The grain ration contained sorghum grain (67.5%), cottonseed hulls, dehydrated alfalfa meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, molasses, and mineral and vitamin supplements. Animals were slaughtered at the age range of 206-234 days. Intramuscular fat (IF) and the diet specimens - representative samples of G and the parts of range plants (RPs) that goats were expected to have consumed - were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The percentage of 16:0 was higher in RPs than in G, but not different between IF from range goats and that from grain-fed goats. Total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) percentage was higher in G than in RPs. The major UFAs were 18:2 and 18:3 in RPs, and 18:1 and 18:2 in G. In IF, 18:1 constituted more than two-thirds of UFAs, regardless of diet type.

  14. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs. PMID:28115909

  15. Unusual fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, N M; Reyes, M; Sostre, A; Huang, H; Verhagen, M F; Adams, M W

    1997-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic microorganisms Thermotoga maritima and Pyrococcus furiosus were studied and compared. A total of 37 different fatty acids were identified in T. maritima, including the novel 13,14-dimethyloctacosanedioic acid. In contrast, a total of 18 different fatty acids were characterized, as minor components, in P. furiosus, and these included saturated, monounsaturated, and dicarboxylic acids. This is the first report of fatty acids from an archaeon. PMID:9098079

  16. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  17. Drosophila TRF2 and TAF9 regulate lipid droplet size and phospholipid fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lam, Sin Man; Xin, Jingxue; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Shui, Guanghou; Huang, Xun

    2017-03-01

    The general transcription factor TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and its associated factors (TAFs) together form the TFIID complex, which directs transcription initiation. Through RNAi and mutant analysis, we identified a specific TBP family protein, TRF2, and a set of TAFs that regulate lipid droplet (LD) size in the Drosophila larval fat body. Among the three Drosophila TBP genes, trf2, tbp and trf1, only loss of function of trf2 results in increased LD size. Moreover, TRF2 and TAF9 regulate fatty acid composition of several classes of phospholipids. Through RNA profiling, we found that TRF2 and TAF9 affects the transcription of a common set of genes, including peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes that affect phospholipid fatty acid composition. We also found that knockdown of several TRF2 and TAF9 target genes results in large LDs, a phenotype which is similar to that of trf2 mutants. Together, these findings provide new insights into the specific role of the general transcription machinery in lipid homeostasis.

  18. Drosophila TRF2 and TAF9 regulate lipid droplet size and phospholipid fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wei; Lam, Sin Man; Xin, Jingxue; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Shui, Guanghou

    2017-01-01

    The general transcription factor TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and its associated factors (TAFs) together form the TFIID complex, which directs transcription initiation. Through RNAi and mutant analysis, we identified a specific TBP family protein, TRF2, and a set of TAFs that regulate lipid droplet (LD) size in the Drosophila larval fat body. Among the three Drosophila TBP genes, trf2, tbp and trf1, only loss of function of trf2 results in increased LD size. Moreover, TRF2 and TAF9 regulate fatty acid composition of several classes of phospholipids. Through RNA profiling, we found that TRF2 and TAF9 affects the transcription of a common set of genes, including peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes that affect phospholipid fatty acid composition. We also found that knockdown of several TRF2 and TAF9 target genes results in large LDs, a phenotype which is similar to that of trf2 mutants. Together, these findings provide new insights into the specific role of the general transcription machinery in lipid homeostasis. PMID:28273089

  19. A rapid food screener ranks potential renal acid load of renal stone formers similarly to a diet history questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Dietary acid load was reported to be inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The calcium renal stone formers (RSFs) should be recommended to lower their dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) to reduce stone recurrence. Reduction of dietary PRAL also showed a promising role for the prevention of other metabolic diseases. However, clinicians often fail to provide nutritional screening and counseling due to lack of simple tools to obtain a reliable dietary history. A one-page food screener (LAKE score) was recently designed to obtain a reliable measure of dietary PRAL in short time. We report the testing of such an instrument in the evaluation of PRAL: in a population of 135 healthy subjects (60 males, 75 females; age range 18-73), living in the area of Milan, Italy. Each participant received both the one-page LAKE food screener and an extensive 24-h dietary questionnaire. We examined agreement between the LAKE food screener scores, and estimates of PRAL and other nutrients produced by the computerized processing of thorough 24-h dietary histories. Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (r > 0.50) showed that LAKE score ranked subjects quite well with respect to dietary PRAL. LAKE positive subscore ranked patients with respect to dietary intake of total protein (r = 0.642) and phosphate (r = 0.648). We also obtained an excellent correlation of LAKE negative subscore with potassium intake (r = -0.531) and vitamin C (r = -0.554) as estimated by 24 h recalls. The LAKE score ranked patients similar to the estimates of 24-h dietary recalls, used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of dietary PRAL. This rapid, simple and inexpensive food screener for the evaluation of dietary PRAL could provide a "snapshot" of the diet of the RSFs to allow an immediate feedback to the patient during office consultation.

  20. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  1. Identification of a locality in snake venom alpha-neurotoxins with a significant compositional similarity to marine snail alpha-conotoxins: implications for evolution and structure/activity.

    PubMed

    Dufton, M J; Bladon, P; Harvey, A L

    1989-10-01

    alpha-neurotoxins from elapid snake venoms and alpha-conotoxins from marine snails bind specifically and with high affinity to nicotinic cholinoceptors. Although both types of toxin are polypeptides, there is more than a fourfold difference in size between the two and no clear sequence homology is evident. A systematic computer search of the three-dimensional structure of erabutoxin b (an alpha-neurotoxin from the false sea snake Laticauda semifasciata) was performed to identify the locality that most closely matched the amino acid compositions of the smaller alpha-conotoxins (from the marine snails Conus magus and Conus geographus). The area of greatest similarity centered on residue position 25 of erabutoxin b, a locale that is conserved throughout the snake alpha-neurotoxins and their homologues. Six proteins unrelated to erabutoxin b were compared to the alpha-conotoxins to show that the extent of the erabutoxin b/alpha-conotoxin match was too high to be coincidental. Homologues of erabutoxin b, namely alpha-cobratoxin from Naja naja siamensis and cytotoxin VII4 from Naja mossambica mossambica, were also analyzed. The extent of the matching with the alpha-conotoxins decreased in the series erabutoxin b greater than alpha-cobratoxin greater than cytotoxin VII4, and this also relates the order of similarity to the pharmacological properties of the alpha-conotoxins. The alpha-conotoxin-like area of the snake alpha-neurotoxins is peripheral to the site previously considered important for binding to the cholinoceptor, even though it seems to represent the focus of evolutionary convergence between the two types of neurotoxin. The area of resemblance does, however, have strong associations with the conformational behavior of the snake toxins. Hence, the outcome of this study has important consequences for the current ideas on snake alpha-neurotoxin structure/activity relationships and the evolutionary origins of neurotoxicity.

  2. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  3. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  4. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  5. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  6. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  7. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  8. Fatty acid composition of lymphocytes and macrophages from rats fed fiber-rich diets: a comparison between oat bran- and wheat bran-enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Felippe, C R; Calder, P C; Vecchia, M G; Campos, M R; Mancini-Filho, J; Newsholme, E A; Curi, R

    1997-06-01

    The effect of oat bran- (OBD) and wheat bran-enriched diets (WBD) on fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids of rat lymphocytes and macrophages was investigated. In neutral lipids of lymphocytes, OBD reduced the proportion of palmitoleic acid (48%), whereas WBD reduced by 43% palmitoleic acid and raised oleic (18%), linoleic (52%), and arachidonic (2.5-fold) acids. In neutral lipids of macrophages, OBD increased palmitic (16%) and linoleic (29%) acids and slightly decreased oleic acid (15%). The effect of WBD, however, was more pronounced: It reduced myristic (60%), stearic (24%) and arachidonic (63%) acids, and it raised palmitic (30%) and linoleic (2.3-fold) acids. Neither OBD nor WBD modified the composition of fatty acids in phospholipids of lymphocytes. In contrast, both diets had a marked effect on composition of fatty acids in macrophage phospholipids. OBD raised the proportion of myristic (42%) and linoleic (2.4-fold) acids and decreased that of lauric (31%), palmitoleic (43%), and arachidonic (29%) acids. WBD increased palmitic (18%) and stearic (23%) acids and lowered palmitoleic (35%) and arachidonic (78%) acids. Of both cells, macrophages were more responsive to the effect of the fiber-rich diets on fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The high turnover of fatty acids in macrophage membranes may explain the differences between both cells. The modifications observed due to the effects of both diets were similar in few cases: an increase in palmitic and linoleic acids of total neutral lipids occurred and a decrease in palmitoleic and arachidonic acids of phospholipid. Therefore, the mechanism involved in the effect of both diets might be different.

  9. Enhanced Osteoblast Functions on Nanophase Titania in Poly-lactic-co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Poly - lactic -co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) Composites Huinan Liu’, Elliott B. Slamovich’ and Thomas J. Webster’ 2 1School of Materials Engineering, 501...collagen matrix. For this purpose, poly - lactic -co- glycolic acid (PLGA) was dissolved in chloroform and nanometer grain size titania was dispersed by...gelatin, fibrin or collagen [4-6]), synthetic bioresorbable polymers (e.g., polylactic acid , polyglycolic acid and poly - lactic -co-glycolic acid [7-9

  10. Effects of Polypropylene Carbonate/Poly(D,L-lactic) Acid/Tricalcium Phosphate Elastic Composites on Improving Osteoblast Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsu-Wei; Kao, Wei-Yu; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Guang-Wei; Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bone tissue engineering utilizing biomaterials to improve osteoblast growth has provided de novo consideration for therapy of bone diseases. Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is a polymer with a low glass transition temperature but high elasticity. In this study, we developed a new PPC-derived composite by mixing poly-lactic acid (PLA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), called PPC/PLA/TCP elastic (PPTE) scaffolds. We also evaluated the beneficial effects of PPTE composites on osteoblast growth and maturation and the possible mechanisms. Compared to PPC polymers, PPTE composites had similar pore sizes and porosities but possessed better hydrophilic surface structures. Biological evaluations further revealed that PPTE composites attracted adhesion of mouse osteoblasts, and these bone cells extended along the porous scaffolds to produce accurate fibroblast-like morphologies. In parallel, seeding mouse osteoblasts onto PPTE composites time-dependently increased cell growth. Sequentially, PPTE composites augmented DNA replication and cell proliferation. Consequently, PPTE composites significantly improved osteoblast mineralization. As to the mechanism, treatment with PPTE composites induced osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. Taken together, this study showed that PPTE composites with porous and hydrophilic surfaces can stimulate osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and maturation through an OPN-dependent mechanism. Therefore, the de novo PPTE scaffolds may have biomaterial potential for bone regeneration.

  11. Ontogenetic trends in aspartic acid racemization and amino acid composition within modern and fossil shells of the bivalve Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Weidman, Christopher R.

    2001-06-01

    Ontogenetic trends (umbo to growth edge of shell) in aspartic acid (Asp) racemization and amino acid composition and their evolution over time are examined in serial samples of annual growth bands from a time-series of three live-collected and two fossil (ca. 500 and 1000 y BP) shells of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica. The rate of Asp racemization is shown to be higher in the umbonal portion of the shells (laid down when the clams are young) but constant from a biological age of 10 to 20 y to more than 100 y. Corresponding changes are also seen in amino acid composition and concentration: with increasing biological age of the clam: total amino acid concentration increases substantially, the acidic amino acids Asp, glutamic acid, and alanine decrease in relative concentration (mole-percent) and more basic amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine increase in relative concentration. These ontogenetic trends are generally retained in the fossil shells. These trends may reflect changing protein composition related to changes in growth rate. Clams grow considerably faster in their youth than when they are older, as indicated by changes in the annual growth increments. Production of more acidic proteins, which play a role in crystal growth, may be favored during the phase of faster growth, whereas more structural proteins, perhaps enhancing structural strength of the shell, may be favored during later growth. These ontogenetic differences in protein composition affect the observed rates of racemization of the protein pool. Some weak diagenetic trends in amino acid composition and abundance may be represented in the time series of shells. These results emphasize the importance of standardization of the location from which samples are taken from shells for dating by amino acid racemization analysis.

  12. Similar Processes but Different Environmental Filters for Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition Turnover on a Broad Spatial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (Landescomposition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  13. Similar processes but different environmental filters for soil bacterial and fungal community composition turnover on a broad spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Dequiedt, Samuel; Thioulouse, Jean; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Saby, Nicolas P A; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Plassart, Pierre; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Spatial scaling of microorganisms has been demonstrated over the last decade. However, the processes and environmental filters shaping soil microbial community structure on a broad spatial scale still need to be refined and ranked. Here, we compared bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers through a biogeographical approach on the same soil sampling design at a broad spatial scale (area range: 13300 to 31000 km2): i) to examine their spatial structuring; ii) to investigate the relative importance of environmental selection and spatial autocorrelation in determining their community composition turnover; and iii) to identify and rank the relevant environmental filters and scales involved in their spatial variations. Molecular fingerprinting of soil bacterial and fungal communities was performed on 413 soils from four French regions of contrasting environmental heterogeneity (Landescomposition turnovers. The relative importance of processes and filters was assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. This study demonstrates significant community composition turnover rates for soil bacteria and fungi, which were dependent on the region. Bacterial and fungal community composition turnovers were mainly driven by environmental selection explaining from 10% to 20% of community composition variations, but spatial variables also explained 3% to 9% of total variance. These variables highlighted significant spatial autocorrelation of both communities unexplained by the environmental variables measured and could partly be explained by dispersal limitations. Although the identified filters and their hierarchy were dependent on the region and organism, selection was systematically based on a common group of environmental variables: pH, trophic resources, texture and land use. Spatial autocorrelation was also important at coarse (80 to

  14. Effect of changes in the composition of cellular fatty acids on membrane fluidity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eui-Jin; Lee, Jeong K

    2015-02-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition is important for metabolic plasticity in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We explored the effects of changing the cellular ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in R. sphaeroides by overexpressing several key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes through the use of expression plasmid pRK415. Bacteria containing the plasmid pRKfabI1 with the fabI1 gene that encodes enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase showed a reduction in the cellular UFA to SFA ratio from 4 (80% UFA) to 2 (65% UFA) and had decreased membrane fluidity and reduced cell growth. Additionally, the ratio of UFA to SFA of the chromatophore vesicles from pRKfabI1 -containing cells was similarly lowered, and the cell had decreased levels of light-harvesting complexes, but no change in intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) content or photosynthetic (PS) gene expression. Both inhibition of enoyl- ACP reductase with diazaborine and addition of exogenous UFA restored membrane fluidity, cell growth, and the UFA to SFA ratio to wild-type levels in this strain. R. sphaeroides containing the pRKfabB plasmid with the fabB gene that encodes the enzyme β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I exhibited an increased UFA to SFA ratio from 4 (80% UFA) to 9 (90% UFA), but showed no change in membrane fluidity or growth rate relative to control cells. Thus, membrane fluidity in R. sphaeroides remains fairly unchanged when membrane UFA levels are between 80% and 90%, whereas membrane fluidity, cell growth, and cellular composition are affected when UFA levels are below 80%.

  15. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  16. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  17. Migration of Co-cultured Endothelial Cells and Osteoblasts in Composite Hydroxyapatite/Polylactic Acid Scaffolds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-16

    Migration of Co-cultured Endothelial Cells and Osteoblasts in Composite Hydroxyapatite/ Polylactic Acid Scaffolds AMITA R. SHAH,1,2,3 SARITA R. SHAH,2...bone. A scaffold design consisting of a hydroxy apatite (HA) ring surrounding a polylactic acid (PLA) core simulates the structure of bone and provides...and osteoblasts in composite hydroxyapatite/ polylactic acid scaffolds. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  18. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  19. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

  20. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption.

  1. GLC analysis of Indian rapeseed-mustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Agnihotri, A

    2000-12-01

    Rapeseed-mustard is one of the most economically important oilseed crops in India. Speciality oils having high amounts of a specific fatty acid are of immense importance for both nutritional and industrial purposes. Oil high in oleic acid has demand in commercial food-service applications due to a long shelf-life and cholesterol-reducing properties. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; however, less than 3% linolenic acid is preferred for oil stability. High erucic acid content is beneficial for the polymer industry, whereas low erucic acid is recommended for food purposes. Therefore, it is important to undertake systematic characterization of the available gene pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes. In the present study the Indian rapeseed-mustard germplasm and some newly developed low-erucic-acid strains were analysed by GLC to study the fatty acid composition in these lines. The GLC analysis revealed that the rapeseed-mustard varieties being commonly grown in India are characterized by high erucic acid content (30-51%) in the oil with low levels of oleic acid (13-23%). However, from among the recently developed low-erucic-acid strains, several lines were identified with comparatively high oleic acid (60-70%), moderate to high linoleic acid (13-40%) and low linolenic acid (< 10%) contents. Work is in progress at TERI (New Delhi, India) to utilize these lines for development of strains with particular fatty acid compositions for specific purposes.

  2. Fatty acids from seeds of Pinus pinea L.: composition and population profiling.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Fady, Bruno; Triki, Saida

    2005-07-01

    Pinus pinea L. is widely disseminated all over the Mediterranean Basin. Qualitatively, P. pinea fatty acid seed composition is identical and typical of the genus Pinus. This composition is made of unsaturated oil with several unusual polymethylene-interrupted unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Quantitatively, for all Mediterranean populations, total amounts of fatty acids seem to be fairly constant and independent from their origin. When applying principal component analysis, it seems that there is not a distinct geographical variability. Tunisian populations appear to be integral part of the Mediterranean populations without any particular structuring. Taking into account this research and the data reported in the literature, we can confirm that P. pinea expresses no significant variability. This low genetic diversity revealed by fatty acid composition can be explained by anthropogenetic diffusion of genetically homogeneous reproductive material as early as the first explorations.

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Unicellular Strains of Blue-Green Algae1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, C. N.

    1972-01-01

    The fatty acids of 34 strains of unicellular blue-green algae provisionally assigned to the genera Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, Gloeocapsa, Microcystis, and Chlorogloea by Stanier et al. have been chemically characterized. The strains analyzed can be divided into a series of compositional groups based upon the highest degree of unsaturation of the major cellular fatty acids. Twenty strains fall into the group characterized by one trienoic fatty acid isomer (α-linolenic acid), and seven strains fall into a group characterized by another trienoic acid isomer (γ-linolenic acid). These groups in many cases correlate well with groupings based upon other phenotypic characters of the strains, e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid base composition. The assignment of a strain to a compositional group is not altered when the strain is grown under a variety of different culture conditions. All strains contain glycolipids with the properties of mono- and digalactosyldiglycerides. PMID:4621688

  4. Gender Differences in Rat Erythrocyte and Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition: Role of Ovarian Hormones and Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The two-fold higher prevalence rate of major depression in females may involve vulnerability to omega-3 fatty acid deficiency secondary to a dysregulation in ovarian hormones. However, the role of ovarian hormones in the regulation of brain omega-3 fatty acid composition has not been directly evaluated. Here we determined erythrocyte and regional brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in intact male and female rats, and in chronically ovariectomized (OVX) rats with or without cyclic estradiol treatment (2 μg/4 d). All groups were maintained on diets with or without the DHA precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We report that both male (−21%) and OVX (−19%) rats on ALA+ diet exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte DHA composition relative to female controls. Females on ALA+ diet exhibited lower DHA composition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) relative males (−5%). OVX rats on ALA+ diet exhibited significantly lower DHA composition in the hippocampus (−6%), but not in the PFC, hypothalamus, or midbrain. Lower erythrocyte and hippocampus DHA composition in OVX rats was not prevented by estrogen replacement. All groups maintained on ALA− diet exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte and regional brain DHA composition relative to groups on ALA+ diet, and these reductions were greater in males but not in OVX rats. These preclinical data corroborate clinical evidence for gender differences in peripheral DHA composition (female>male), demonstrate gender differences in PFC DHA composition (male>female), and support a link between ovarian hormones and erythrocyte and region-specific brain DHA composition. PMID:19046819

  5. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  6. Anxiety-related threat bias in recognition memory: the moderating effect of list composition and semantic-similarity effects.

    PubMed

    White, Corey N; Ratcliff, Roger; Vasey, Michael W

    2015-08-05

    Individuals with high anxiety show bias for threatening information, but it is unclear whether this bias affects memory. Recognition memory studies have shown biases for recognising and rejecting threatening items in anxiety, prompting the need to identify moderating factors of this effect. This study focuses on the role of semantic similarity: the use of many semantically related threatening words could increase familiarity for those items and obscure anxiety-related differences in memory. To test this, two recognition memory experiments varied the proportion of threatening words in lists to manipulate the semantic-similarity effects. When similarity effects were reduced, participants with high trait anxiety were biased to respond "new" to threatening words, whereas when similarity effects were strong there was no effect of anxiety on memory bias. Analysis of the data with the drift diffusion model showed that the bias was due to differences in processing of the threatening stimuli rather than a simple response bias. These data suggest that the semantic similarity of the threatening words significantly affects the presence or absence of anxiety-related threat bias in recognition memory. The results indicate that trait anxiety is associated with a bias to decide that threatening stimuli were not previously studied, but only when semantic-similarity effects are controlled. Implications for theories of anxiety and future studies in this domain are discussed.

  7. Fatty acid composition including cis-9, trans-11 CLA of cooked ground lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effect of cooking on beneficial fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The objective of this study was to examine impact of cooking on the FA composition of ground lamb of two different muscles. Samples were p...

  8. The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2015-05-01

    With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio <5) and those from summer (November) not. This study indicates that Egyptian goose meat does not only vary in nutritional composition but season may also have a substantial effect on the flavor profile and ultimate uniformity of the meat. The season and portion effects were, however, interlinked but the general tendency shows that the portions, especially the breast and thigh do differ concerning the major fatty acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product.

  9. Fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane in relation to menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Tworek; Muti; Micheli; Krogh; Riboli; Berrino

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Menopausal status effects female anatomical functioning at a variety of system-wide and cellular levels, including cellular membrane composition. This study analyzed a nested case-control ORDET data set of 433 pre and post-menopausal breast cancer controls to examine the effects of menopausal status on the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane.METHODS: ORDET is a prospective cohort study conducted in Italy to investigate the etiologic role of hormones and diet in breast cancer development. The fatty acid composition was measured and analyzed by gas chromotography, comparing retention time with standard measurement. Twenty-two individual fatty acids were measured, recorded, and categorized into four fatty acid groups: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated n-6 (PUFA n-6), and polyunsaturated (PUFA n-3) fatty acids.RESULTS: Post-menopausal women had consistently lower mean values for all four fatty acid categories and all individual fatty acids. Statistically significant mean differences, by menopausal status, were observed for three of the four fatty acid categories: saturated fatty acids (p = 0.006), PUFA n-6 acids (p = 0.001), and PUFA n-3 acids (p = 0.000). The biggest statistically significant differences in mean values among individual fatty acids for each category were observed for Palmitic acid (p = 0.009), Oleic acid (p = 0.040), Linoleic acid (p = 0.000), and Docosahexaenoic acid (p = 0.000). Individual fatty acids were also less highly correlated among post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: There was an observed relationship between menopausal status and the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane that warrants further study. This relationship may contribute to the physiological and psychological changes that occur during and after menopause, and may have far-reaching implications for women's health.

  10. A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculant with outstanding flocculation performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yang; Tan, Ying; Liang, Xuecheng; Lu, Cuige; Wang, Haiwei; Liu, Xiusheng; Wang, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Series of anionic flocculants with outstanding flocculation performance, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculants (PAAD) were successfully prepared through aqueous solution copolymerization and applied to flocculate from oil-field fracturing waste-water. The structure of PAAD was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction tests, and its properties were systematically evaluated by viscometer, thermogravimetry analysis and flocculation measurements. Furthermore, the influences of various reaction parameters on the apparent viscosity of flocculant solution were studied, and the optimum synthesis condition was determined. The novel composite flocculants exhibited outstanding flocculation properties. Specifically, the dosage of composite flocculants that could make the transmittance of treated wastewater exceed 90% was only approximately 12-35 ppm, which was far lower than that of conventional flocculants. Meanwhile, the settling time was lower than 5 s, which was similar to that of conventional flocculants. This was because PAAD flocculants had a higher absorption capacity, and larger chain extending space than conventional linear flocculants, which could refrain from the entanglement of linear polymer chains and significantly improve flocculation capacity.

  11. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  12. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  13. Correlation between the Circadian Rhythm of Resistance to Extreme Temperatures and Changes in Fatty Acid Composition in Cotton Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Rikin, A.; Dillwith, J. W.; Bergman, D. K.

    1993-01-01

    Fluctuations in fatty acid composition were examined in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Deltapine 50) leaves during light-dark cycles of 12:12 h and under continuous light and were correlated to the rhythmic changes in chilling (5[deg]C) resistance (CR) and heat (53[deg]C) resistance (HR). The chilling-resistant and chilling-sensitive phases developed in the dark or the light period, respectively, and this rhythm persisted under continuous light for three cycles. The heat-resistant phase developed in the light period and an additional peak of HR occurred in the middle of the dark period. Under continuous light, only one peak of HR developed, lasting from the middle of the subjective night to the middle of the subjective day. The amounts of palmitic and oleic acids were constant during the light-dark cycle and under continuous light, but those of linoleic and linolenic acids fluctuated, attaining a high level in the middle of the dark period or the subjective night, and a low level in the middle of the light period or the subjective day. A low temperature of 20[deg]C induced CR and affected changes in fatty acid composition similar to those that occurred during the daily CR phase. A high temperature of 40[deg]C induced HR but did not affect changes in fatty acid composition. The results in their entirety show that the CR that develops rhythmically as well as the low-temperature-induced CR coincide with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. No correlation is found between changes in fatty acid composition and the HR that develops rhythmically or the high-temperature-induced HR. PMID:12231662

  14. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    PubMed

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed.

  15. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  16. Mineralogical diversity (spectral reflectance and Moessbauer data) in compositionally similar impact melt rocks from Manicouagan Crater, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Golden, D. C.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic impacts under oxidizing surface conditions occur on both earth and Mars. Oxidative alteration of impact melt sheets is reported at several terrestrial impact structures including Manicouagan, West Clearwater Lake, and the Ries Basin. A number of studies have advocated that a significant fraction of Martian soil may consist of erosional products of oxidatively altered impact melt sheets. If so, the signature of the Fe-bearing mineralogies formed by the process may be present in visible and near infrared reflectivity data for the Martian surface. Of concern is what mineral assemblages form in impact melt sheets produced under oxidizing conditions and what their spectral signatures are. Spectral and Moessbauer data for 19 powder samples of impact melt rock from Manicouagan Crater are reported. Results show for naturally occurring materials that composite hematite-pyroxene bands have minima in the 910-nm region. Thus many of the anomalous Phobos-2 spectra, characterized by a shallow band minimum in the near-IR whose position varies between approximately 850 and 1000 nm, can be explained by assemblages whose endmembers (hematite and pyroxene) are accepted to be present on Mars. Furthermore, results show that a mineralogically diverse suite of rocks can be generated at essentially constant composition, which implies that variations in Martian surface mineralogy do not necessarily imply variations in chemical composition.

  17. Taxonomic and functional composition of the algal benthos exhibits similar successional trends in response to nutrient supply and current velocity.

    PubMed

    Larson, Chad A; Passy, Sophia I; Laanbroek, Riks

    2012-05-01

    In an effort to identify the causes and patterns of temporal change in periphytic communities, we examined biomass accumulation, taxonomic and functional composition, rate of species turnover, and pairwise species correlations in response to variability in current velocity and nutrient supply in artificial stream flumes. Divergent patterns in community growth and succession were observed between nutrient treatments and, to a lesser extent, between flow treatments best described by shifts in taxonomic and functional composition. Specifically, understory low profile species, tolerant to low resource supply, became dominant under low nutrients, while overstory high profile and motile species with higher nutrient demands dominated the high nutrient treatments. Increased resource supply or current velocity did not influence the species turnover rate, measured by a time-lag analysis. Interspecific interactions, especially competition, did not appear to be driving community dynamics, as the number of positive and negative pairwise species correlations ranged between low and extremely low, respectively. The overwhelming majority of correlations were not significant, indicating that species within the biofilm matrix were not perceptibly influencing one another. Thus, temporal trends in taxonomic and functional composition were largely environmentally driven, signifying that coexistence in biofilms is defined by the same mechanism along the hierarchy from species to functional groups.

  18. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  19. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  20. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  1. Self-Representations in Early Adolescence: Variations in Sibling Similarity by Sex Composition and Sibling Relationship Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Card, Noel A.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2010-01-01

    Self-representations play an important role in adolescent development. This study compared self-representations for siblings and explored whether sibling relationship characteristics are associated with similarities or differences in sibling self-concepts. We examined self-representations of 438 adolescent sibling dyads (M age younger sibling =…

  2. Fatty acid composition of seed oils from sixAdansonia species with particular reference to cyclopropane and cyclopropene acids.

    PubMed

    Ralaimanarivo, A; Gaydou, E M; Bianchini, J P

    1982-01-01

    The oil content of sixAdansonia species (Bombacaceae family) of Madagascar (Adansonia grandidieri, A. za, A. digitata, A. fony, A. madagascariensis andA. suarenzensis) and Africa (A. digitata) ranges from 8 to 46%. All the oils give a positive response to the Halphen test. Malvalic, sterculic and dihydrosterculic acids were detected using gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Epoxy or hydroxy fatty acids were not found in these oils. Fatty acid composition was determined by GLC using glass capillary columns coated with BDS and Carbowax 20 M. Results obtained for cyclopropenic fatty acids (CPEFA) were compared to those given by glass capillary GLC after derivatization with silver nitrate in methanol, by hydrogen bromide titration and by proton magnetic resonance (PMR). Good agreement was observed for the results given by the various methods. Malvalic acid content ranges from 3 to 28%, sterculic acid from 1 to 8% and dihydrosterculic acid from 1.5 to 5.1%. Odd-numbered fatty acids (Pentadecanoic and hepatadecanoic) were also observed in minute amounts (0.1-1.1%). Among the normal fatty acids, we observed mainly palmitic (21-46%), oleic (15-40%) and linoleic (12-32%). The relationship between fatty acid composition andAdansonia species is discussed.

  3. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  4. Trends for isolated amino acids and dipeptides: Conformation, divalent ion binding, and remarkable similarity of binding to calcium and lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropo, M.; Blum, V.; Baldauf, C.

    2016-11-01

    We derive structural and binding energy trends for twenty amino acids, their dipeptides, and their interactions with the divalent cations Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+. The underlying data set consists of more than 45,000 first-principles predicted conformers with relative energies up to ~4 eV (~400 kJ/mol). We show that only very few distinct backbone structures of isolated amino acids and their dipeptides emerge as lowest-energy conformers. The isolated amino acids predominantly adopt structures that involve an acidic proton shared between the carboxy and amino function. Dipeptides adopt one of two intramolecular-hydrogen bonded conformations C5 or . Upon complexation with a divalent cation, the accessible conformational space shrinks and intramolecular hydrogen bonding is prevented due to strong electrostatic interaction of backbone and side chain functional groups with cations. Clear correlations emerge from the binding energies of the six divalent ions with amino acids and dipeptides. Cd2+ and Hg2+ show the largest binding energies–a potential correlation with their known high acute toxicities. Ca2+ and Pb2+ reveal almost identical binding energies across the entire series of amino acids and dipeptides. This observation validates past indications that ion-mimicry of calcium and lead should play an important role in a toxicological context.

  5. Trends for isolated amino acids and dipeptides: Conformation, divalent ion binding, and remarkable similarity of binding to calcium and lead

    PubMed Central

    Ropo, M.; Blum, V.; Baldauf, C.

    2016-01-01

    We derive structural and binding energy trends for twenty amino acids, their dipeptides, and their interactions with the divalent cations Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+. The underlying data set consists of more than 45,000 first-principles predicted conformers with relative energies up to ~4 eV (~400 kJ/mol). We show that only very few distinct backbone structures of isolated amino acids and their dipeptides emerge as lowest-energy conformers. The isolated amino acids predominantly adopt structures that involve an acidic proton shared between the carboxy and amino function. Dipeptides adopt one of two intramolecular-hydrogen bonded conformations C5 or . Upon complexation with a divalent cation, the accessible conformational space shrinks and intramolecular hydrogen bonding is prevented due to strong electrostatic interaction of backbone and side chain functional groups with cations. Clear correlations emerge from the binding energies of the six divalent ions with amino acids and dipeptides. Cd2+ and Hg2+ show the largest binding energies–a potential correlation with their known high acute toxicities. Ca2+ and Pb2+ reveal almost identical binding energies across the entire series of amino acids and dipeptides. This observation validates past indications that ion-mimicry of calcium and lead should play an important role in a toxicological context. PMID:27808109

  6. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  7. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  8. Biocompatibility of electrospun halloysite nanotube-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruiling; Cao, Xueyan; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Yu, Jianyong; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid nanofiber systems have generated great interest in the area of tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, halloysite nanotube (HNT)-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning and the influence of the incorporation of HNTs within PLGA nanofibers on their in vitro biocompatibility was investigated. The morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The adhesion and proliferation of mouse fibroblast cells cultured on both PLGA and HNT-doped PLGA fibrous scaffolds were compared through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay of cell viability and SEM observation of cell morphology. We show that the morphology of the PLGA nanofibers does not appreciably change with the incorporation of HNTs, except that the mean diameter of the fibers increased with the increase of HNT incorporation in the composite. More importantly, the mechanical properties of the nanofibers were greatly improved. Similar to electrospun PLGA nanofibers, HNT-doped PLGA nanofibers were able to promote cell attachment and proliferation, suggesting that the incorporation of HNTs within PLGA nanofibers does not compromise the biocompatibility of the PLGA nanofibers. In addition, we show that HNT-doped PLGA scaffolds allow more protein adsorption than those without HNTs, which may provide sufficient nutrition for cell growth and proliferation. The developed electrospun HNT-doped composite fibrous scaffold may find applications in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical sciences.

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiru; Sun, Min; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora; Fisher, Gary J.; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (<24 mm2 for mice and <12 mm2 for humans) skin specimens that can be readily obtained from live mice and humans. We determined mouse skin FA composition after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of consuming a control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Fish oil markedly enhanced EPA and DHA in mouse skin within 2 weeks, and this increase plateaued after 4 weeks. The FA composition in mouse skin was different from that of serum, indicating that skin has homeostatic control of FA metabolism. Mice fed the control diet designed to simulate Western human diet displayed similar skin FA composition as that of humans. The present study presents a validated method for FA quantification that is needed to investigate the mechanisms of actions of dietary treatments in both mouse and human skin. PMID:28195161

  10. Effect of dietary alpine butter rich in conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat composition of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.

  11. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant.

  12. A semiquantitative X-ray diffraction method to determine mineral composition in stream sediments with similar mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A semiquantitative X-ray diffraction procedure has been developed that can be used to acquire reproducible mineralogic data from geographically unrelated stream-sediment samples having similar mineralogy. Weight percentages for quartz, total-feldspar, and total-clay can be determined by direct comparison of intensities with standard-mineral mixtures of known weight percent. Matrix effects and mass-absorption differences are circumvented by taking the ratio of peak-intensity, in counts per second, for quartz relative to that of other minerals being quantified. Mineral percentages generally are reproducible to within 10 percent.

  13. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  14. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  15. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  16. Robustness of two-step acid hydrolysis procedure for composition analysis of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Nunez, Angelica; Wyman, Charles E; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-01

    The NREL standard procedure for lignocellulosic biomass composition has two steps: primary hydrolysis in 72% wt sulfuric acid at 30°C for 1h followed by secondary hydrolysis of the slurry in 4wt% acid at 121°C for 1h. Although pointed out in the NREL procedure, the impact of particle size on composition has never been shown. In addition, the effects of primary hydrolysis time and separation of solids prior to secondary hydrolysis on composition have never been shown. Using poplar, it was found that particle sizes less than 0.250mm significantly lowered the glucan content and increased the Klason lignin but did not affect xylan, acetate, or acid soluble lignin contents. Composition was unaffected for primary hydrolysis time between 30 and 90min. Moreover, separating solids prior to secondary hydrolysis had negligible effect on composition suggesting that lignin and polysaccharides are completely separated in the primary hydrolysis stage.

  17. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance.

  18. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  19. Chronic administration of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid changes microsomal membrane lipid content and fatty acid compositions in rats.

    PubMed

    Bellentani, S; Chao, Y C; Ferretti, I; Panini, R; Tiribelli, C

    1996-03-27

    We studied the effect of oral supplementation with ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) or tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat hepatic microsomes. UDCA and TUDCA significantly increased the total amount of lipids with the exception of cholesteryl-esters. UDCA significantly increased the triglycerides and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) microsomal content, and decreased the cholesterol/phospholipids and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PE ratio. Both treatments increased the percentage oleic acid and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in each class of lipids. UDCA and TUDCA had a different action on PUFA microsomal molar percentage of phospholipids: UDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PE fraction, while TUDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PC fraction. These changes in the hepatic lipid content and composition might in part explain both cytoprotective action of these hydrophillic bile acids and their effect on membrane fluidity.

  20. Ascorbic acid treatment, similarly to fluoxetine, reverses depressive-like behavior and brain oxidative damage induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Morgana; Colla, André; de Oliveira Balen, Grasiela; dos Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Budni, Josiane; de Freitas, Andiara Espíndola; Farina, Marcelo; Severo Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia

    2012-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Taking into account that experimental chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induces depressive-like behavior and that ascorbic acid has antidepressant-like effect in animals, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on depressive-like behavior induced by CUS paradigm, serum corticosterone levels and markers of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Animals were submitted to CUS procedure during 14 days. From the 8th to the 14th day mice received ascorbic acid (10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, conventional antidepressant, positive control) once a day by oral route. On 15th day behavioral and biochemical parameters were analyzed. CUS exposure caused a depressive-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in the tail suspension test and decreased time in which mice spent grooming in the splash test. Depressive-like behavior induced by CUS was accompanied by a significant increased lipid peroxidation (cerebral cortex and hippocampus), decreased catalase (CAT) (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) and glutathione reductase (GR) (hippocampus) activities and reduced levels of glutathione (cerebral cortex). Repeated ascorbic acid or fluoxetine administration significantly reversed CUS-induced depressive-like behavior and oxidative damage. No alteration was observed in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. These findings indicate a rapid and robust effect of ascorbic acid in reversing behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by CUS in mice, suggesting that this vitamin may be an alternative approach for the management of depressive symptoms.

  1. Influence of fine process particles enriched with metals and metalloids on Lactuca sativa L. leaf fatty acid composition following air and/or soil-plant field exposure.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Eva; Laplanche, Christophe; Le Guédard, Marina; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Austruy, Annabelle; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the effect of both foliar and root uptake of a mixture of metal(loid)s on the fatty acid composition of plant leaves. Our objectives are to determine whether both contamination pathways have a similar effect and whether they interact. Lactuca sativa L. were exposed to fine process particles enriched with metal(loid)s in an industrial area. Data from a first experiment were used to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis which findings were successfully cross-validated by using the data from a second one. Both foliar and root pathways impact plant leaf fatty acid composition and do not interact. Z index (dimensionless quantity), weighted product of fatty acid concentration ratios was built up from the statistical analyses. It provides new insights on the mechanisms involved in metal uptake and phytotoxicity. Plant leaf fatty acid composition is a robust and fruitful approach to detect and understand the effects of metal(loid) contamination on plants.

  2. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  3. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  4. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  5. Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

  6. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  7. Pervaporation dehydration of ethanol by hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate two-active-layer composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengyun; Zhang, Minhua; Ding, Jianwu; Pan, Fusheng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Li, Yifan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The composite membranes with two-active-layer (a capping layer and an inner layer) were prepared by sequential spin-coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support layer. The SEM showed a mutilayer structure and a distinct interface between the HA layer and the NaAlg layer. The coating sequence of two-active-layer had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. When the operation temperature was 80 °C and water concentration in feed was 10 wt.%, the permeate fluxes of HA/Alg/PAN membrane and Alg/HA/PAN membrane were similar, whereas the separation factor were 1130 and 527, respectively. It was found that the capping layer with higher hydrophilicity and water retention capacity, and the inner layer with higher permselectivity could increase the separation performance of the composite membranes. Meanwhile, effects of operation temperature and water concentration in feed on pervaporation performance as well as membrane properties were studied.

  8. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  9. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  10. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  11. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  12. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  13. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osage orange wood was combined with poly(lactic acid) to form a polymer composite intendedfor use as an agricultural mulch film. The mechanical properties were comparable to existing products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing season. PLA-OO composites...

  14. Graphene-carbon nanotube composite aerogel for selective detection of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Tang, Jie; Wang, Zonghua; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-12-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite aerogel has been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The restacking of graphene is effectively reduced by SWNTs inserted in between graphene layers in order to make available more active sites and reactive surface area. Electrochemical experiments show that the graphene-SWNT composite electrode has superior catalytic performance in selective detection of uric acid (UA).

  15. [A simple method of synthesis of triterpene glycosides similar to glycyrrhizic acid and their hepatoprotective activity in vitro].

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, L R; Baltina, L A; Baltina, L A; Kondratenko, R M; Nepogodiev, S A; Field, R A; Kunert, O; Yin, M Ch

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method of synthesis of triterpene l,2-trans-glycosides was developed using the glycosylation of glycyrrhetic acid (GLA) and 18,19-dehydro-GLA by beta-pyranose peracetates in the presence of SnCl(4) and molecular sieves 4 A. The synthesized glycosides exhibited hepatoprotective activity toward the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line on the model of alcohol hepatitis and decreased the level of TNF-alpha protein.

  16. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  17. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study. PMID:27835687

  18. Short communication: The effect of substituting fish oil in dairy cow diets with docosahexaenoic acid-micro algae on milk composition and fatty acids profile.

    PubMed

    Abughazaleh, A A; Potu, R B; Ibrahim, S

    2009-12-01

    The effects of substituting fish oil (FO) with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-micro algae on milk chemical and fatty acid composition were examined in this study. Twenty-four Holstein cows in mid lactation grazing on an alfalfa-grass based pasture were divided into 4 treatment groups (6 cows/treatment) and supplemented with 7 kg/d grain mix plus 350 g of soybean oil and one of the following: 1) 150 g of FO, 2) 100 g of FO plus 50 g of algae, 3) 50 g of FO plus 100 g of algae, or 4) 150 g of algae. Cows were fed treatment diets for 3 wk, and milk samples were collected from each cow during the last 3 d of the study. Milk production (17.96, 17.56, 17.55, and 19.26 kg/d for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively), milk fat percentages (3.17, 3.49, 3.74, and 3.43%), and milk protein percentages (3.35, 3.50, 3.71, and 3.42%) were similar between treatment diets. Concentrations (g/100 g of fatty acids) of milk cis-9 trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 3.41, 3.69, 4.47, and 4.21 for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively) and vaccenic acid (11.80, 12.83, 13.87, and 13.53) were similar between treatment diets. Results of this study suggest that DHA-micro algae can partially or fully substitute FO in a cow's diet without any adverse effects on milk production, milk composition, or milk c9t11 CLA content. The DHA-micro algae may be used as a viable alternative for FO in cow's diet to modify rumen biohydrogenation to increase milk c9t11 CLA content.

  19. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  20. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    PubMed

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  1. Genetic variation in fatness and fatty acid composition of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, W S; Deland, M P B; Siebert, B D; Malau-Aduli, A E O; Bottema, C D K

    2002-11-01

    Mature Hereford cows (766) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1,215 calves born over 4 yr (1994 to 1997). These cattle comprised Australia's 'Southern Crossbreeding Project." Heifers were slaughtered at an average of 16 mo with hot standard carcass weight of 219 kg and 9 mm fat over the rump. Steers were slaughtered at an average of 23 mo with carcass weight of 319 kg and 13 mm fat over the rump. Meat and fat samples were taken from the carcass on the day after slaughter for subsequent laboratory analysis of i.m. fat content and fatty acid composition. Data were analyzed using uni- and bivariate animal models containing fixed effects of cohort, management group, birth month, and sire breed. March-born calves had fat with a 0.5 degrees C lower melting point, 0.6% higher total monounsaturated fatty acids, and 0.7% higher fatty acid desaturation index than calves born in April. Steers born in 1997 were the only cohort finished on pasture, and they had much more yellow fat than the other cohorts. Four heavy breed crosses (Angus, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue) averaged 284 kg carcass weight, followed by purebred Hereford (268 kg), Wagyu (244 kg) and Jersey (236 kg). Angus had the greatest fat depth (14.3 mm), ahead of Hereford and Wagyu (11.9 mm), Jersey (10.7 mm), South Devon and Limousin (9.9 mm) and Belgian Blue (8.0 mm). Jersey, Wagyu, and Angus had themost i.m. fat (4.6%), followed by Hereford and South Devon (3.8%), and Limousin and Belgian Blue (3.1%). The highly marbled Jersey and Wagyu had softer fat (6% lower fat melting point) than the other breeds. Angus were more highly marbled, similar to Jersey and Wagyu, but had harder fat similar to the leaner breeds. Heritabilities for all traits were low to moderate (16 to 36%). Genetic correlations between fatty add composition and carcass traits were not significant, indicating little evidence of antagonisms

  2. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Humphries, D J; Reynolds, C K; Morgan, R; Givens, D I

    2017-02-01

    Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further studies are required involving whole herds varying in management practices. In experiment 1, three oilseed supplements (extruded linseed (EL), calcium salts of palm and linseed oil (CPLO) and milled rapeseed (MR)) were included in grass silage-based diets formulated to provide cows with ~350 g oil/day, and compared with a negative control (Control) diet containing no supplemental fat, and a positive control diet containing 350 g/cow per day oil as calcium salt of palm oil distillate (CPO). Diets were fed for 28-day periods in a 5×4 Latin Square design, and milk production, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed at the end of each period. Compared with Control, all lipid supplemented diets decreased milk fat SFA concentration by an average of 3.5 g/100 g FA, by replacement with both cis- and trans-MUFA/PUFA. Compared with CPO, only CPLO and MR resulted in lower milk SFA concentrations. In experiment 2, 24 commercial dairy farms (average herd size±SEM 191±19.3) from the south west of the United Kingdom were recruited and for a 1 month period asked to supplement their herd diets with either CPO, EL, CPLO or MR at the same inclusion level as the first study. Bulk tank milk was analysed weekly to determine FA concentration by Fourier Transform mid-IR spectroscopy prediction. After 4 weeks, EL, CPLO and MR all decreased herd milk SFA and increased MUFA to a similar extent (average -3.4 and +2.4 g/100 g FA, respectively) when compared with CPO. Differing responses

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium sp. Strain IPPAS B-1200 with a Unique Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Starikov, Alexander Y.; Usserbaeva, Aizhan A.; Sinetova, Maria A.; Sarsekeyeva, Fariza K.; Zayadan, Bolatkhan K.; Ustinova, Vera V.; Kupriyanova, Elena V.; Los, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS strain B-1200, isolated from Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan, and characterized by the unique fatty acid composition of its membrane lipids, which are enriched with myristic and myristoleic acids. The approximate genome size is 3.4 Mb, and the predicted number of coding sequences is 3,119. PMID:27856596

  4. Effects of alcohol inhalation on the fatty acid composition of rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, D.M.; Karanian, J.W.; Salem, N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in rat tissues are altered by alcohol exposure. Therefore, rats were exposed to ethanol vapor using an inhalation system designed in their laboratory and capable of producing rats with blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 50-400 mg%, as desired. Mean BEC were determined after 7 or 14 days of exposure and the lipids were extracted from brains, hearts, livers and aortas by the method of Bligh and Dyer. These total lipid extracts were transmethylated with BF/sub 3/ in methanol and analyzed using a fused silica capillary column. The largest compositional changes were observed in the liver after 14 days of exposure; 18:0, 18:2w6 and 20:4w6 decreased by 7, 18, and 20%, respectively, whereas 16:1w7, 18:1w9, 18:3w3 and 22:6w3 increased by 42, 19, 9, and 11%, respectively. A similar, although quantitatively smaller, effect was observed after only 7 days of alcohol inhalation. Little change was observed in the total lipid extract fatty acyl distribution in the brain or heart, however, the aorta showed losses in the polyunsaturates 20:4w6 and 22:6w3. More detailed data will be presented for the fatty acid distributional changes in individual phospholipid classes. It appears that the direction and magnitude of compositional changes depend upon both the duration of exposure and the blood concentration of alcohol.

  5. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  6. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  7. [Amino acid composition and biologic value of the proteins of several sorts of buckwheat].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, N E; Kirilenko, S K

    1976-01-01

    The amino acids composition of summary proteins in unground buckwheat of four common and promising varieties grown in the Ukraine was investigated by using ion-exchange chromatography with an automatic analyzor Hd-1200 E. Between individual varieties of buckweheat no essential differences in the amino acids content were in evidence. The total proteins of the buckwheat grit contain high quantities of lysine, treonine, leucine, glutamic acid and arginine. The amino acids score was instrumental in determining the biological value and in eliciting amino acids limiting this value in different grits. These data may be made use of in the practice of public catering for estimating formulae of meals prepared with grits differently combined with other products securing an improved amino acids composition of ready-to-eat meals.

  8. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F

    2017-03-23

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as resistance to (a)biotic stress. Efforts to identify SA effector proteins have revealed that SA binds to and alters the activity of multiple plant proteins-this represents a shift from the paradigm that hormones mediate their functions via one or a few receptors. SA and its derivatives also have multiple targets in animals; some of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with pathological processes. Together, these findings suggest that SA exerts its defense-associated effects in both kingdoms via a large number of targets.

  9. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well.

  10. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  11. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

    2016-01-12

    The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

  12. Fatty acid composition and extreme temperature tolerance following exposure to fluctuating temperatures in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Suring, Wouter; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-09-01

    Ectotherms commonly adjust their lipid composition to ambient temperature to counteract detrimental thermal effects on lipid fluidity. However, the extent of lipid remodeling and the associated fitness consequences under continuous temperature fluctuations are not well-described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated temperature fluctuations on fatty acid composition and thermal tolerance. We exposed the springtail Orchesella cincta to two constant temperatures of 5 and 20°C, and a continuously fluctuating treatment between 5 and 20°C every 2 days. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between constant low and high temperatures. As expected, animals were most cold tolerant in the low temperature treatment, while heat tolerance was highest under high temperature. Under fluctuating temperatures, fatty acid composition changed with temperature initially, but later in the experiment fatty acid composition stabilized and closely resembled that found under constant warm temperatures. Consistent with this, heat tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was comparable to the constant warm treatment. Cold tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was intermediate compared to animals acclimated to constant cold or warmth, despite the fact that fatty acid composition was adjusted to warm conditions. This unexpected finding suggests that in animals acclimated to fluctuating temperatures an additional underlying mechanism is involved in the cold shock response. Other aspects of homeoviscous adaptation may protect animals during extreme cold. This paper forms a next step to fully understand the functioning of ectotherms in more thermally variable environments.

  13. Wheat rolls fortified with microencapsulated L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid or equimolar folic acid increase blood folate concentrations to a similar extent in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Liu, Yazheng; Dadgar, Samira; Li, Wangyang; Böhni, Ruth; Kitts, David D

    2013-06-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification of grains such as wheat flour has been introduced in several countries to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. There are concerns, however, that folic acid could mask the hematologic signs of vitamin B-12 deficiency and lead to other adverse health outcomes in the population. Calcium L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (L-5-MTHF), a synthetic form of reduced folate, should not mask vitamin B-12 deficiency and may be safer than folic acid. Unfortunately, L-5-MTHF is not stable in most food matrices such as bread. Microencapsulation of L-5-MTHF with sodium ascorbate and a modified starch is effective at preventing loss of the vitamin during baking and storage. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of wheat rolls fortified with microencapsulated L-5-MTHF or equimolar folic acid compared with wheat rolls containing no added folate (placebo) at increasing blood folate concentrations during 16 wk. Healthy men and women aged 18-45 y (n = 45) were randomly assigned to consume wheat rolls that contained L-5-MTHF (452 μg/d), the molar equivalent of folic acid (400 μg/d), or placebo. At 16 wk, the mean (95% CI) erythrocyte folate was 0.48 (0.27, 0.71) and 0.37 (0.17, 0.57) μmol/L higher in the L-5-MTHF (P < 0.001) and folic acid wheat roll (P = 0.001) groups, respectively, than in the placebo group. Likewise, the mean plasma folate was 23 (12, 34) and 23 (12, 34) nmol/L higher in the L-5-MTHF (P < 0.001) and folic acid wheat roll (P < 0.001) groups, respectively, than in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in blood folate concentrations between the L-5-MTHF and folic acid wheat roll groups. Both microencapsulated L-5-MTHF and folic acid-fortified wheat rolls increased blood folate concentrations compared with placebo.

  14. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Escherichia coli as a Possible Controlling Factor of the Minimal Growth Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Maxwell K.; Ingraham, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Shaw, Maxwell K. (University of California, Davis), and John L. Ingraham. Fatty acid composition of Escherichia coli as a possible controlling factor of the minimal growth temperature. J. Bacteriol. 90:141–146. 1965.—If Escherichia coli ML30 is shifted from 37 to 10 C during exponential growth in glucose minimal medium, a 4.5-hr lag results. During this lag, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increases in the cellular lipids. However, the adjustment of the fatty acid composition does not appear to be prerequisite to growth at 10 C. If shifts are made to 10 C into minimal medium containing glucose after starvation for glucose at 37 C for 0.5 and 16 hr, the lag periods at 10 C are 4.5 and 6 hr, respectively. Withholding glucose during the lag periods does not affect the duration of the lag periods, but no change in fatty acid composition occurs if glucose is not present. Supplementing the medium with glucose after the lag period permits immediate growth at 10 C; however, the fatty acid composition is still typical of cells grown at 37 C. It is concluded that the fatty acid composition of cells does not determine the minimal temperature of growth. PMID:16562009

  16. Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Lindberg, G L; Beitz, D C

    2003-10-01

    Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower (n = 5) in their proportion of milk unsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were collected a week after testing, and butter was prepared from the individual samples. Milk and butter samples were again analyzed for fatty acid composition. Butter at 5 degrees C was evaluated by a sensory panel for spreadability and by a texture analyzer at both 5 and 23 degrees C for hardness and adhesiveness. Milk and butter samples from cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition had a lower atherogenic index, and the butter samples were more spreadable, softer, and less adhesive. Thus, phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet is sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties.

  17. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-12-02

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12+/-1 g day(-1)) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils.

  18. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance.

  19. Lactic acid fermentation by cells immobilised on various porous cellulosic materials and their alginate/poly-lactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mrinal Nishant; Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Masson, Jean Bernard; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Porous delignified cellulose (or tubular cellulose, abbr. TC) from Indian Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta) wood and Rice husk, and TC/Ca-alginate/polylactic acid composites, were used as Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilisation carriers leading to improvements in lactic acid fermentation of cheese whey and synthetic lactose media, compared to free cells. Specifically, shorter fermentation rates, higher lactic acid yields (g/g sugar utilised) and productivities (g/Ld), and higher amounts of volatile by-products were achieved, while no significant differences were observed on the performance of the different immobilised biocatalysts. The proposed biocatalysts are of food grade purity, cheap and easy to prepare, and they are attractive for bioprocess development based on immobilised cells. Such composite biocatalysts may be used for the co-immobilisation of different microorganisms or enzymes (in separate layers of the biocatalyst), to efficiently conduct different types of fermentations in the same bioreactor, avoiding inhibition problems of chemical or biological (competition) nature.

  20. Similarity in microbial amino acid uptake in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic (sub-)tropical gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Polly G.; Mary, Isabelle; Purdie, Duncan A.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth’s most extensive biomes - the oceanic subtropical gyres - are considered to be expanding with current surface ocean warming. Although it is well established that microbial communities control gyre biogeochemistry, comparisons of their metabolic activities between gyres are limited. In order to estimate metabolic activities including production of microbial communities, the uptake rates of amino acids leucine, methionine and tyrosine at ambient concentrations were estimated in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean using radioisotopically labelled tracers. Data were acquired during six research cruises covering main oceanic provinces herein termed: North and South Atlantic Gyres, Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS), Equatorial region, and Mauritanian Upwelling (off Cape Blanc). Data were divided between provinces, the extents of which were identified by ocean colour data, in order to achieve provincial mean uptake rates. Leucine and methionine uptake rates did not differ between sampling periods, and were comparable between the North and South subtropical gyres. Furthermore, variation in uptake rates measured throughout the two oligotrophic gyres, where sampling covered ∼4 × 10 6 km 2, was considerably lower than that measured within the Mauritanian Upwelling and Equatorial regions, and even at the BATS site. Tyrosine was generally the slowest of the amino acids to be taken up, however, it was assimilated faster than methionine within the Mauritanian Upwelling region. Thus, we propose that one value for leucine (12.6 ± 3.2 pmol L -1 h -1) and methionine (10.0 ± 3.3 pmol L -1 h -1) uptake could be applied to the oligotrophic subtropical gyres of the Atlantic Ocean. However, with the significantly lower uptake rates observed at the BATS site, we would not advise extrapolation to the Sargasso Sea.

  1. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  2. In vitro biostability evaluation of polyurethane composites in acidic, basic, oxidative, and neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Suping; Schley, James; Loy, Brian; Luo, Lian; Hobot, Chris; Sparer, Randall; Untereker, Darrel; Krzeszak, Jason

    2008-05-01

    New and improved properties can often be achieved by compounding two or more different but compatible materials. But, can failure possibility also be increased by such a compounding strategy? In this article, we compared the in vitro biostability of composites with that of the pure polymer. We tested three model composites in oxidative, acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. We found that oxidation degradation was much more profound in the composites than in the corresponding pure polymer. This degradation seemed to be an intrinsic property of composite materials. We also observed the well documented interfacial debonding between filler and matrix and its effects on the mechanical reinforcement of the hydrated composites. The improvements in acid and base resistance were also observed.

  3. Seasonal Variations in Maternal Provisioning of Crepidula fornicata (Gastropoda): Fatty Acid Composition of Females, Embryos and Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Fanny; Meziane, Tarik; Riera, Pascal; Comtet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment success of marine invertebrate populations not only depends on the number of recruits but also on their quality which affects their survival. In species characterized by a mixed development (encapsulated embryonic development and release of planktotrophic larvae), the offspring quality depends on both maternal provisioning and larval feeding. Here, we investigated potential changes of maternal provisioning over the whole reproductive period in a gastropod with a mixed development: Crepidulafornicata. In its introduction area, C. fornicata reproduces from February to October, which implies that both adults and larvae are exposed to different food availabilities. Maternal provisioning was assessed by measuring the fatty acid (FA) composition of females, encapsulated embryos and larvae, in February, May, July and September 2009. FA are essential resources for the development of embryos and larvae, and are key biomarkers of offspring quality. Our results showed differences in FA composition between muscles, visceral masses, and encapsulated embryos. In particular, FA composition of embryos was similar to that of the visceral mass. Seasonal variations in FA composition were observed: in the middle of the reproductive season (May and July), female tissues and embryos showed a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially ω3, as compared to the beginning and end of the reproductive season (February and September). This showed that through maternal provisioning the quality of C. fornicata offspring was higher in the middle of the reproductive season. Whether this would result in an increase of recruitment success and juvenile performance would require further investigations. PMID:24086505

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    PubMed

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects.

  5. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  6. Photocaging of Single and Dual (Similar or Different) Carboxylic and Amino Acids by Acetyl Carbazole and its Application as Dual Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Yarra; Rajesh, Y; Karthik, S; Chetan, A C; Mandal, Mahitosh; Jana, Avijit; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2016-11-18

    A new fluorescent photoremovable protecting group (FPRPG) based on acetylcarbazole framework has been explored for the first time release of single and dual (similar or different) substrates from single chromophore. Mechanistic studies of the photorelease process revealed that photorelease of two (similar or different) substrates from acetyl carbazole proceeds via a stepwise pathway. Further, we constructed photoresponsive dual drug delivery system (DDS) to release two different anticancer drugs (caffeic acid and chlorambucil, 1 equiv each). In vitro study reveals that our DDS exhibit excellent properties like biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and photoregulated dual drug release.

  7. Enhanced in vitro cell activity on silicon-doped vaterite/poly(lactic acid) composites.

    PubMed

    Obata, Akiko; Tokuda, Shingo; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2009-01-01

    A biodegradable composite with silicon-species releasability was prepared using poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and silicon-doped vaterite (SiV) particles. SiV with particle diameters of approximately 1 mum was prepared using aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the silicon species by a carbonation process and then mixed with PLLA in methylene chloride according to a SiV to PLLA weight ratio of 1:2, resulting in the preparation of composite slurry. A composite film was prepared by dipping a cover glass in the slurry. The composite films were incubated in a culture medium for 7 days and the silicon concentration of the medium was measured to estimate the species releasability of the composites. A trace amount of silicon species was continuously released from the composites for 7 days, the amount depending on the content of APTES in SiV. On the composite releasing silicon species, mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) were significantly stimulated to proliferate and differentiate in comparison with those on a composite containing no silicon species. The proliferation of the cells on the composites releasing larger amounts of silicon species (0.51mgl(-1)day(-1)) was higher than that on the composites releasing smaller amount of the species (0.21mgl(-1)day(-1)). The silicon species in the composites were effective in enhancing the cellular functions. The composites were expected to be useful as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

  9. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  10. Impact of prebiotic synthesis and diagenesis on the distribution, stereochemistry, and stable isotope composition of amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael H.

    2013-09-01

    Simulation experiments for prebiotic synthesis result in racemic mixtures (D/L = 1.0) for protein and non-protein amino acids, irrespective of the composition of the precursor gas mixtures or the energy sources employed. It is therefore not surprising that it was commonly assumed that if amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites were formed by similar reactions they would also be racemic. Engel and Nagy1 and more recently Glavin et al.2 have shown that protein amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites often exhibit a moderate to strong L-amino acid excess (D/L ˂ 1.0). Engel3 hypothesized that this extraterrestrial L-excess might be the precursor material from which life as we know it originated. Stable isotope analysese.g 4 confirmed that the L-amino acid excess in meteorites was indigenous rather than the result of contamination subsequent to impact on Earth. A key question that arises is that since there are no known mechanisms for the direct prebiotic synthesis of amino acids with an L-enantiomer excess, how did these compounds come to exist in carbonaceous meteorites? It has been proposed5 and references therein that a series of diagenetic reactions subsequent to synthesis are responsible for the L-enantiomer excess. In this paper, this hypothesis is further explored with respect to explaining the range of D/L values for amino acids in the various types of carbonaceous meteorites as well as in different stones of the same meteorite. Possible effects of diagenesis on the stable isotope compositions of these compounds are also addressed.

  11. Effect of κ-casein B relative content in bulk milk κ-casein on Montasio, Asiago, and Caciotta cheese yield using milk of similar protein composition.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Di Martino, G; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect exerted by the relative content of κ-casein (κ-CN) B in bulk milk κ-CN on coagulation properties and cheese yield of 3 Italian cheese varieties (Montasio, Asiago, and Caciotta). Twenty-four cheese-making experiments were carried out in 2 industrial and 1 small-scale dairy plant. Detailed protein composition of bulk milk of 380 herds providing milk to these dairies was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC. To obtain 2 experimental milks differing in the relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN, herds were selected on the basis of bulk milk protein composition and relative content of κ-CN genetic variants. Milk was collected and processed separately for the 2 groups of selected herds. A difference of 20% in the relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN was obtained for the 2 experimental milks for Montasio and a difference of 15% for Asiago and Caciotta. The 2 experimental milks were of similar protein and CN content, casein number, pH, CN composition, and β-CN genetic composition. For each cheese-making trial, amounts of milk, ranging from 2,000 to 6,000kg, were manufactured. Each vat contained milk collected at least from 4 dairy herds. Cheese yield after brining and at the end of the aging was recorded. Milk with a greater proportion of κ-CN B in κ-CN (HIGHB) exhibited similar coagulation properties and greater cheese yield compared with milk with a lower proportion of κ-CN B in κ-CN (LOWB). The increased cheese yield observed for HIGHB when manufacturing Montasio cheese was ascribed to a greater fat content compared with LOWB. The probability of HIGHB giving a cheese yield 5% greater than that of LOWB ranged from 51 to 67% for Montasio cheese, but was less than 21% for Asiago and Caciotta cheeses. Variation in relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN content did not relevantly affect industrial cheese yield when milks of similar CN composition were processed. An indirect effect due to the increased κ-CN content of κ

  12. Effect of botanical composition of silages on rumen fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, M; De Smet, S; Raes, K; Fievez, V

    2007-07-01

    To study the effect of feeding silages with different botanical composition, on rumen and lamb fat, 30 male lambs were assigned to five different silage groups for 11 weeks: botanically diverse silage (BDS); white clover silage (WCS); red clover silage (RCS), intensive English ryegrass silage (IRS) and crushed linseed and maize silage (MSL). Besides the silages, animals received organic wheat and barley and the MSL group additionally received bicarbonate (15 g/day). Silages were sampled when the bales were opened and analysed for fatty acid (FA) content and chemical composition. At slaughter, ruminal contents were sampled and 24 h after slaughter, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous (SC) fat were sampled. All samples were analysed for FA composition. The MSL group ingested the highest amount of FA (35.8 g/day v. 13.5, 19.4, 17.2 and 30.4 g/day for MSL v. BDS, WCS, RCS and IRS, respectively) and the sum of the major polyunsaturated FA, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, was similar for groups BDS, WCS, RCS and MSL (61.3 g/100 g, 62.3 g/100 g, 62.3 g/100 g, 63.7 g/100 g of FA methylesters (FAME), respectively), while group IRS ingested higher proportions of these FA (74.5 g/100 g of FAME). Rumen data showed that animals fed BDS presented higher proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates, particularly C18:1 t11 and CLA c9t11, suggesting partial inhibition of rumen biohydrogenation. In the MSL group, the content of C18:3 n-3 in the rumen was highest, most probably due to reduced lipolysis and hence biohydrogenation through the combined effect of esterified C18:3 n-3 and seed protection. Additionally, C18:3 n-3 proportions were higher in rumen contents of RCS animals compared with WCS animals, which could be due to the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in the RC silages. Proportions of C18:3 n-3 were similar between treatments both for SC and intramuscular (IM) fat, whereas CLA c9t11 content was higher in the SC fat of BDS animals and lower in the IM fat of IRS animals

  13. Modulation of fatty acid composition and growth in Sporosarcina species in response to temperatures and exogenous branched-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kentaro; Nagano, Hideaki; Ando, Akinori; Shima, Jun; Ogawa, Jun

    2017-03-22

    Psychrotolerant endospore-forming Sporosarcina species have been predominantly isolated from minced fish meat (surimi), which is stored under refrigeration after heat treatment. To develop a better method for preserving surimi-based food products, we studied the growth and fatty acid compositions of the isolated strain S92h as well as Sporosarcina koreensis and Sporosarcina aquimarina at cold and moderate temperatures. The growth rates of strain S92h and S. koreensis were the fastest and slowest at cold temperatures, respectively, although these strains grew at a similar rate at moderate temperatures. In all three strains, the proportions of anteiso-C15:0 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) were significantly higher at cold temperatures than at moderate temperatures. Furthermore, supplementation with valine, leucine, and isoleucine resulted in proportional increases in iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, and anteiso-C15:0, respectively, among the fatty acid compositions of these strains. The proportions of the UFAs were also altered by the supplementation. At cold temperatures, the growth rates of strain S92h and S. koreensis, but not of S. aquimarina, were affected by supplementation with leucine. Supplementation with isoleucine enhanced the growth of S. koreensis at cold temperatures but not that of the other strains. Valine did not affect the growth of any strain. These results indicate that anteiso-C15:0 and UFAs both play important roles in the cold tolerance of the genus Sporosarcina and that these bacteria modulate their fatty acid compositions in response to the growth environment.

  14. Insight into acid-base nucleation experiments by comparison of the chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Praplan, Arnaud P; Sarnela, Nina; Dommen, Josef; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Jokinen, Tuija; Sipilä, Mikko; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, Joao; Breitenlechner, Martin; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Tomé, António; Virtanen, Annele; Viisanen, Yrjö; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Curtius, Joachim; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-12-02

    We investigated the nucleation of sulfuric acid together with two bases (ammonia and dimethylamine), at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. The chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters was studied using three Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers: two were operated in positive and negative mode to detect the chamber ions, while the third was equipped with a nitrate ion chemical ionization source allowing detection of neutral clusters. Taking into account the possible fragmentation that can happen during the charging of the ions or within the first stage of the mass spectrometer, the cluster formation proceeded via essentially one-to-one acid-base addition for all of the clusters, independent of the type of the base. For the positive clusters, the charge is carried by one excess protonated base, while for the negative clusters it is carried by a deprotonated acid; the same is true for the neutral clusters after these have been ionized. During the experiments involving sulfuric acid and dimethylamine, it was possible to study the appearance time for all the clusters (positive, negative, and neutral). It appeared that, after the formation of the clusters containing three molecules of sulfuric acid, the clusters grow at a similar speed, independent of their charge. The growth rate is then probably limited by the arrival rate of sulfuric acid or cluster-cluster collision.

  15. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  16. Effects of calcium soaps of rapeseed fatty acids and protected methionine on milk yield and composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Pisulewski, P M; Spanghero, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing the diets of dairy cows with Ca soaps of rapeseed fatty acids (CSRFA) and rumen-protected (RP) methionine on their milk yield and composition, including milk protein fractions and fatty acids. Twelve Polish Red Lowland cows were used in a complete balanced two period changeover experiment. The four treatment diets were a control consisting of a total mixed ration of grass silage and concentrates, and the total mixed ration supplemented with RP methionine, CSRFA or RP methionine plus CSRFA. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Milk yield increased when cows were given the diet with CSRFA, but supplementation of diets with RP methionine did not affect milk yield. Milk protein content, but not milk protein yield, decreased when CSRFA was given. The addition of RP methionine to the control diet and the CSRFA diet produced similar increases in the milk protein content. Supplementation of the diet with CSRFA significantly changed the milk fatty acid profile: the proportions of 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 15:0 and 16:0 in milk fat decreased, but those of 18:0 and cis-18:1 increased. We conclude that CSRFA can be used in practical dairy diets to increase milk yield and manipulate its fatty acid composition.

  17. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque.

  18. Snorkeling preferences foster an amino acid composition bias in transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Aaron K; Lee, Yohan; Kim, Sanguk; Bowie, James U

    2004-05-28

    By analyzing transmembrane (TM) helices in known structures, we find that some polar amino acids are more frequent at the N terminus than at the C terminus. We propose the asymmetry occurs because most polar amino acids are better able to snorkel their polar atoms away from the membrane core at the N terminus than at the C terminus. Two findings lead us to this proposition: (1) side-chain conformations are influenced strongly by the N or C-terminal position of the amino acid in the bilayer, and (2) the favored snorkeling direction of an amino acid correlates well with its N to C-terminal composition bias. Our results suggest that TM helix predictions should incorporate an N to C-terminal composition bias, that rotamer preferences of TM side-chains are position-dependent, and that the ability to snorkel influences the evolutionary selection of amino acids for the helix N and C termini.

  19. Composition of fatty acids triacylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter in Calophyllum calaba L. oil from Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Crane, Sylvie; Aurore, Guylène; Joseph, Henry; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Bourgeois, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The composition of the kernel oils of two Calophyllum species (Calophyllum calaba L. and Calophyllum inophyllum L.) was investigated. The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the kernel oils were examined. In two species, oleic acid C18:1 (39.1-50%) is the dominating fatty acid followed by linoleic acid C18:2 (21.7-31.1%) as the second major fatty acid. Stearic C18:0 (13.4-14.3%) and palmitic C16:0 (11-13.7%) acids are the major saturates. The oils contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (70.8-73.10%). Most of the fatty acids are present as triacylglycerol (76.7-84%), twenty one triacylglycerols are detected with predominantly unsaturated triacylglycerols. The total unsaponifiable content, its general composition and the identity of the components of the sterol and tocopherol fractions are presented. In both species, analysis of the unsaponifiable fractions revealed the preponderance of phytosterols, mainly stigmasterol (35.8-45.1%) and beta-sitosterol (41.1-43.1%). Among the eight tocopherols and tocotrienols present in two species, variations exist; alpha-tocopherol (183 mg/kg) is the main tocopherol in Calophyllum calaba L. and Delta-tocotrienol (236 mg/kg) is the dominant tocotrienol in Calophyllum inophyllum L.

  20. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Frare, Carla; Strijkstra, Arjen; Boerema, Ate; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b)) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+-)ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b) in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3). SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b) during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b) tolerated by hibernators.

  1. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  2. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  3. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of glass composition in the behaviour of glass acetic acid and glass lactic acid cements.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saroash; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    2008-02-01

    Cements have recently been described, made from glass ionomer glass reacted with acetic and lactic acid instead of polymeric carboxylic acid. From their behaviour a theory relating to a possible secondary setting mechanism of glass ionomer has been adduced. However, only one glass (G338) was used throughout. In this study a much simpler glass ionomer glass (MP4) was compared with G338. This produced very different results. With acetic acid G338 formed cement which became resistant to water over a period of hours, as previously reported, MP4 formed cement which was never stable to water. With lactic acid G338 behaved similarly to G338 with acetic acid, again as reported, but MP4 produced a cement which was completely resistant to water at early exposure and unusually became slightly less resistant if exposure was delayed for 6 h or more. These findings indicate that the theories relating to secondary setting in glass ionomer maturation may need revision.

  5. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration.

  6. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  7. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria.

  8. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  9. Molecular similarity and property similarity.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Frédérique; Horvath, Dragos

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the main efforts undertaken up to date in order to understand, rationalize and apply the similarity principle (similar compounds=>similar properties) as a computational tool in modern drug discovery. The best suited mathematical expression of this classical working hypothesis of medicinal chemistry needs to be carefully chosen (out of the virtually infinite possible implementations in terms of molecular descriptors and molecular similarity metrics), in order to achieve an optimal validation of the hypothesis that molecules that are neighbors in the Structural Space will also display similar properties. This overview will show why no single "absolute" measure of molecular similarity can be conceived, and why molecular similarity scores should be considered tunable tools that need to be adapted to each problem to solve.

  10. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites.

  11. Properties of polylactic acid composites reinforced with oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Zakaria, Zainoha; Inuwa, I M; Islam, M S; Jawaid, M

    2013-10-15

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm biomass were successfully prepared through solution casting. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that there are no significant changes in the peak positions, suggesting that incorporation of MCC in PLA did not result in any significant change in chemical structure of PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted on the samples. The T50 decomposition temperature improved with addition of MCC, showing increase in thermal stability of the composites. The synthesized composites were characterized in terms of tensile properties. The Young's modulus increased by about 30%, while the tensile strength and elongation at break for composites decreased with addition of MCC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites fractured surface shows that the MCC remained as aggregates of crystalline cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic image of the composite surfaces show clustering of MCC with uneven distribution.

  12. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  13. Genome-wide association study for carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition, sugar, and the effects of related candidate genes in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasago, Nanae; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene analysis to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of the GWAS in our small population by performing GWAS for carcass weight (CW) and fatty acid composition; (ii) detect novel candidate regions affecting non-CW carcass traits, chemical composition and sugar; and (iii) evaluate the association of the candidate genes previously detected in CW and fatty acid composition with other economically important traits. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle and 40 657 Single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. In addition, candidate gene analyses were performed to evaluate the association of three CW-related genes and two fatty acid-related genes with carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition and sugar. The significant regions with the candidate genes were detected for CW and fatty acid composition, and these results showed that a significant region would be detectable despite the small sample size. The novel candidate regions were detected on BTA23 for crude protein and on BTA19 for fructose. CW-related genes associated with the rib-eye area and fatty acid composition were identified, and fatty acid-related genes had no relationship with other traits. Moreover, the favorable allele of CW-related genes had an unfavorable effect on fatty acid composition.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility of a calcium phosphate/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Gala-García, A; Carneiro, M B H; Silva, G A B; Ferreira, L S; Vieira, L Q; Marques, M M; Sinisterra, R D; Cortes, M E

    2012-07-01

    This study assess the effects of bioceramic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite (BCP/PLGA) on the viability of cultured macrophages and human dental pulp fibroblasts, and we sought to elucidate the temporal profile of the reaction of pulp capping with a composite of bioceramic of calcium phosphate and biodegradable polymer in the progression of delayed dentine bridge after (30 and 60 days) in vivo. Histological evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate and dentin bridge formation were performed after 30 and 60 days. There was similar progressive fibroblast growth in all groups and the macrophages showed viability. The in vivo study showed that of the three experimental groups: BCP/PLGA composite, BCP and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dentin bridging was the most prevalent (90 %) in the BCP/PLGA composite after 30 days, mild to moderate inflammatory response was present throughout the pulp after 30 days. After 60 days was observed dentine bridging in 60 % and necrosis in 40 %, in both groups. The results indicate that understanding BCP/PLGA composite is biocompatible and by the best tissue response as compared to calcium hydroxide in direct pulp capping may be important in the mechanism of delayed dentine bridge after 30 and 60 days.

  15. Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials for possible applications as positive electrode grid in lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Yolshina, V. A.; Yolshin, A. N.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composites which melt at temperature of the melting point of lead were investigated as possible positive current collectors for lead acid batteries in sulfuric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, difference scanning calorimetry, cyclic voltammetry and prolonged corrosion tests were employed to characterize the effect of the newly proposed lead-carbon metallic composites on the structure and electrochemical properties of positive grid material. Both lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials show the similar electrochemical characteristics to metallic lead in the voltage range where the positive electrodes of lead acid batteries operate. It has been shown that carbon both as graphene and graphite does not participate in the electrochemical process but improve corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of both metallic composite materials. No products of interaction of lead with sulfuric acid were formed on the surface of graphene and graphite so as it was not found additional peaks of carbon discharge on voltammograms which could be attributed to the carbon. Graphene inclusions in lead prevent formation of leady oxide nanocrystals which deteriorate discharge characteristics of positive electrode of LAB. Both lead-graphene alloy and lead-graphite metallic composite proved excellent electrochemical and corrosion behavior and can be used as positive grids in lead acid batteries of new generation.

  16. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  17. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of

  18. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  19. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  20. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco A; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  1. Children after fontan have strength and body composition similar to healthy peers and can successfully participate in daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Corey, M; Faulkner, G; Russell, J L; McCrindle, B W

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the active lifestyle capacity (daily physical activity, strength, flexibility, body composition) of children after the Fontan procedure; hypothesized to be lower than healthy peers. Participants (n = 64, 25 females) were 9.0 ± 1.7 years of age (range 6.0-11.7 years). Fontan completion occurred at 3.3 ± 1.4 years of age (5.7 ± 2.0 years prior). Canadian Health Measures Survey protocols assessed aerobic endurance (paced walking up/down steps), strength (handgrip), flexibility (sit and reach), body composition (body mass index), and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (7-day accelerometry). Difference scores compared participant data to published norms (t tests). Linear regression evaluated age/gender/demographic factor associations. Children after Fontan had strength scores similar (mean difference 1.1 kg) to their peers were less likely to be obese (mean difference of body mass index = 1.1 ± 2.5, p = 0.001) and performed 50 min of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day (12 ± 17 min/day below healthy peers, p < 0.001). Estimated peak endurance (61 % of expected) and flexibility (64 % of expected) were lower than peers (p < 0.001). Almost all (60/63) participants demonstrated the capacity to perform at least 20 min of MVPA per day. Difference from norms was smaller among children younger at Fontan completion (4 ± 2 min/year) and taking antithrombotic medication (7 ± 18 and 22 ± 17 min/day for taking/not taking, respectively). Children after Fontan demonstrate the capacity for the daily physical activity associated with optimal health. They have similar strength and good body composition. We recommend that children after Fontan be counselled that they can successfully participate in healthy, active lifestyles and physically active peer play.

  2. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres.

  3. Influence of a peracetic acid-based immersion on indirect composite resin.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Fracaro, Gisele Baggio; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Campregher, Ulisses Bastos

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of immersion in a 0.2% peracetic acid-based disinfectant on the three-point flexural strength, water sorption and water solubility of an indirect composite resin. Specimens were produced according to ISO 4049:2000 specifications and were divided in two groups: Control group, with no disinfection and Disinfected group, with three 10 min immersions in the peracetic acid intercalated with 10 min immersions in sterile distilled water. All evaluations were conducted in compliance with ISO specifications. Three-point flexural strength, water sorption and solubility of indirect composite resin before and after immersion showed no statistical significant differences (p > 0.05) and met ISO standard requirements. Immersion in peracetic acid solution showed no influence in indirect composite resin tested properties.

  4. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  5. The influence of dietary essential fatty acids on uterine C20 and C22 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Howie, A; Leaver, H A; Wilson, N H; Yap, P L; Aitken, I D

    1992-06-01

    The effect of dietary fatty acids on uterine fatty acid composition was studied in rats fed control diet or semi-synthetic diet supplemented with 1.5 microliter/g/day evening primrose oil (EPO) or fish oil (FO). Diet-related changes in uterine lipid were detected within 21 days. Changes of 2- to 20-fold were detected in the uterine n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) and in certain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The FO diet was associated with higher uterine C20 and C22 n-3, and the EPO diet, with higher uterine n-6 fatty acid. High uterine C18:2 n-6 was detected in neutral lipid (NL) of rats fed high concentrations of this fatty acid, but there was little evidence of selective incorporation or retention of C18:2 n-6 by uterine NL. The incorporation of EFA into uterine phospholipids (PL) was greater than NL EFA incorporation, and uterine PL n-3/n-6 ratios showed greater diet dependence. Tissue/diet fatty acid ratios in NL and PL also indicated preferential incorporation/synthesis of C16:1 n-9, and C16:0, and there was greater incorporation of C12:0 and C14:0 into uteri of rats fed EPO and FO. Replacement of 50-60% of arachidonate with n-3 EFA in uterine PL may inhibit n-6 EFA metabolism necessary for uterine function at parturition.

  6. Composites of manganese oxide with carbon materials as catalysts for the ozonation of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Orge, C A; Órfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R

    2012-04-30

    Manganese oxide and manganese oxide-carbon composites were prepared and tested as catalysts for the removal of oxalic acid by ozonation. Their performances were compared with the parent carbon material (activated carbon or carbon xerogel) used to prepare the composites. Oxalic acid degradation by carbon materials is slower than that attained with manganese oxide or manganese oxide-carbon composites. A complete degradation after 90 and 45 min of reaction was obtained for carbon materials and for the catalysts containing manganese, respectively. The ozonation in the presence of the prepared composites are supposed to occur mainly by surface reactions, following a direct oxidation mechanism by molecular ozone and/or surface oxygenated radicals.

  7. Activation of protein kinase C by lysophosphatidic acid: dependence on composition of phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Sando, J J; Chertihin, O I

    1996-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has attracted recent attention as a major serum-derived regulator implicated in responses to vascular injury and inflammation, in tumour invasiveness and in neuronal signalling and remodelling. Although the possibility of a specific G-protein-coupled LPA receptor protein has been suggested, characterization of such a receptor is lacking. Since LPA can activate protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in many cells and PKC activators mimic many LPA effects, the possibility of more direct LPA effects on PKC was investigated. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylserine (PS)/diacylglycerol (DAG) lipid vesicles of defined acyl chain composition were used to activate the enzyme. At total concentrations of saturated PC/PS + DAG vesicles (2-3 mM) that provided maximal PKC activation, 1-10 mol % [18:1]-LPA led to a further approx. 2-fold activation of PKC alpha. At lower lipid concentrations, a greater increase was observed with LPA concentrations up to 16-20 mol %. Higher concentrations of LPA were inhibitory. The LPA activation of PKC was dependent on the presence of DAG, PS and Ca2+. [18:1]-Lysophosphatidylcholine produced similar PKC activation in PC/PS/DAG vesicles. [14:0]-LPA was less effective, and longer-chain saturated lysolipids were ineffective. In unsaturated PC/PS vesicles, very little to no effect of LPA was discernable. These results suggest that physiologically or pathologically relevant concentrations of LPA can contribute to PKC activation depending on the composition of the lipid membrane. We hypothesize that LPA may affect the formation of lipid domains that are recognized by the enzyme. PMID:8713089

  8. Method and compositions for reducing corrosion in the removal of acidic gases from gaseous mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    DuPart, M.S.; Cringle, D.C.; Oakes, B.D.

    1984-05-01

    A corrosion inhibited composition containing a gas conditioning solution such as an alkanol amine with water or with organic solvents and with small amounts of soluble thiocyanate compounds, soluble trivalent bismuth compounds with or without soluble divalent nickel or cobalt compounds. The compositions are useful to separate acid gases such as carbon dioxide from hydrocarbon feed streams in gas conditioning apparatus with minimum amounts of corrosion of the ferrous surfaces.

  9. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  10. Influencing fatty acid composition of yeasts by lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Kolouchova, Irena; Sigler, Karel; Zimola, Michal; Rezanka, Tomas; Matatkova, Olga; Masak, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of microorganisms is affected by cultivation conditions, concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources and the presence of trace elements. One of the new possibilities of influencing the production of cell mass or lipids is the use of lanthanides. Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry and their concentration as environmental contaminants is therefore increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants but their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements or operate as potent blockers of Ca(2+) channels. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on traditional biotechnologically useful yeast species (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulospora delbrueckii), and species capable of high accumulation of lipids (Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp., Yarrowia lipolytica). Low concentrations of lanthanum and monazite were conducive to an increase in cell mass and lipids and also higher production of palmitoleic acid, commonly used in cosmetics and medicine, and ω6-linoleic acid which is a precursor of thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leucotrienes.

  11. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P < 0.05) lower cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P < 0.05) in dry heating than in moist heating, and was characterized by the prevalence of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. On the whole, the response to cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  12. The folding type of a protein is relevant to the amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, H; Nishikawa, K; Ooi, T

    1986-01-01

    The folding types of 135 proteins, the three-dimensional structures of which are known, were analyzed in terms of the amino acid composition. The amino acid composition of a protein was expressed as a point in a multidimensional space spanned with 20 axes, on which the corresponding contents of 20 amino acids in the protein were represented. The distribution pattern of proteins in this composition space was examined in relation to five folding types, alpha, beta, alpha/beta, alpha + beta, and irregular type. The results show that amino acid compositions of the alpha, beta, and alpha/beta types are located in different regions in the composition space, thus allowing distinct separation of proteins depending on the folding types. The points representing proteins of the alpha + beta and irregular types, however, are widely scattered in the space, and the existing regions overlap with those of the other folding types. A simple method of utilizing the "distance" in the space was found to be convenient for classification of proteins into the five folding types. The assignment of the folding type with this method gave an accuracy of 70% in the coincidence with the experimental data.

  13. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  14. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  15. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  16. Ionic composition and mineral equilibria of acidic groundwater on the west coast of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestroem, J.

    1993-08-01

    The groundwater chemistry of 14 shallow wells and 10 springs in Halland, southwest Sweden, and precipitation have been studied in trilinear diagrams. Ionic strength and saturation index (SI) for selected minerals have been calculated. Five springwaters have similar chemical composition to that of the precipitation, which indicates surficial and rapidly recharged water. The SI of the groundwaters is out of equilibrium (undersaturated) with respect to primary silicates such as mafic minerals, feldspar, K-mica and chlorite, but in equilibrium with solid SiO{sub 2} (quartz, cristobalite, or chalcedony). The SI shows oversaturation conditions for kaolinite, hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite, Na, K, Mg-beidellite, Mg-montmorillonite, and AB-montmorillonite. Concentrations of soluble Al and Si can be governed by Mg, Fe-beidellite, BF-montmorillonite, or Ca-montmorillonite at four springs, and by halloysite at two wells on the coastal plain. For these groundwaters, clay minerals may act as H{sup +} buffers and thus have an influence on pH and toxic Al, i.e., parameters affecting the drinking water quality and environment. The study shows that the soil catena are intensily weathered at the investigated sites. It is further concluded that neither cation exchange nor primary silicate weathering will keep up with buffering the acidic loads into the soils. A general prediction of groundwater quality is presented. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Ionic composition and mineral equilibria of acidic groundwater on the west coast of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, J.

    1993-08-01

    The groundwater chemistry of 14 shallow wells and 10 springs in Halland, southwest Sweden, and precipitation have been studied in trilinear diagrams. Ionic strength and saturation index (SI) for selected minerals have been calculated. Five springwaters have similar chemical composition to that of the precipitation, which indicates surficial and rapidly recharged water. The SI of the groundwaters is out of equilibrium (undersaturated) with respect to primary silicates such as mafic minerals, feldspar, K-mica and chlorite, but in equilibrium with solid SiO2 (quartz, cristobalite, or chalcedony). The SI shows oversaturation conditions for kaolinite, hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite, Na,K,Mg-beidellite, Mg-montmorillonite, and AB-montmorillonite. Concentrations of soluble Al and Si can be governed by Mg,Fe-beidellite, BF-montmorillonite, or Ca-montmorillonite at four springs, and by halloysite at two wells on the coastal plain. For these groundwaters, clay minerals may act as H+ buffers and thus have an influence on pH and toxic Al, i.e., parameters affecting the drinking water quality and environment. The study shows that the soil catena are intensily weathered at the investigated sites. It is further concluded that neither cation exchange nor primary silicate weathering will keep up with buffering the acidic loads into the soils. A general prediction of groundwater quality is presented.

  18. RNAi targeting putative genes in phosphatidylcholine turnover results in significant change in fatty acid composition in Crambe abyssinica seed oil.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Li, Xueyuan; Hofvander, Per; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Danni; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of three enzymes, LPCAT, PDCT and PDAT, involved in acyl turnover in phosphatidylcholine in order to explore the possibility of further increasing erucic acid (22:1) content in Crambe seed oil. The complete coding sequences of LPCAT1-1 and LPCAT1-2 encoding lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), PDCT1 and PDCT2 encoding phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), and PDAT encoding phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) were cloned from developing Crambe seeds. The alignment of deduced amino acid sequences displayed a high similarity to the Arabidopsis homologs. Transgenic lines expressing RNA interference (RNAi) targeting either single or double genes showed significant changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. An increase in oleic acid (18:1) was observed, to varying degrees, in all of the transgenic lines, and a cumulative effect of increased 18:1 was shown in the LPCAT-PDCT double-gene RNAi. However, LPCAT single-gene RNAi led to a decrease in 22:1 accumulation, while PDCT or PDAT single-gene RNAi had no obvious effect on the level of 22:1. In agreement with the abovementioned oil phenotypes, the transcript levels of the target genes in these transgenic lines were generally reduced compared to wild-type levels. In this paper, we discuss the potential to further increase the 22:1 content in Crambe seed oil through downregulation of these genes in combination with fatty acid elongase and desaturases.

  19. Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

    1995-01-01

    In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids. PMID:7784510

  20. An Alignment-Free Algorithm in Comparing the Similarity of Protein Sequences Based on Pseudo-Markov Transition Probabilities among Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushuang; Song, Tian; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel alignment-free method for comparing the similarity of protein sequences. We first encode a protein sequence into a 440 dimensional feature vector consisting of a 400 dimensional Pseudo-Markov transition probability vector among the 20 amino acids, a 20 dimensional content ratio vector, and a 20 dimensional position ratio vector of the amino acids in the sequence. By evaluating the Euclidean distances among the representing vectors, we compare the similarity of protein sequences. We then apply this method into the ND5 dataset consisting of the ND5 protein sequences of 9 species, and the F10 and G11 datasets representing two of the xylanases containing glycoside hydrolase families, i.e., families 10 and 11. As a result, our method achieves a correlation coefficient of 0.962 with the canonical protein sequence aligner ClustalW in the ND5 dataset, much higher than those of other 5 popular alignment-free methods. In addition, we successfully separate the xylanases sequences in the F10 family and the G11 family and illustrate that the F10 family is more heat stable than the G11 family, consistent with a few previous studies. Moreover, we prove mathematically an identity equation involving the Pseudo-Markov transition probability vector and the amino acids content ratio vector.

  1. An Alignment-Free Algorithm in Comparing the Similarity of Protein Sequences Based on Pseudo-Markov Transition Probabilities among Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yushuang; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel alignment-free method for comparing the similarity of protein sequences. We first encode a protein sequence into a 440 dimensional feature vector consisting of a 400 dimensional Pseudo-Markov transition probability vector among the 20 amino acids, a 20 dimensional content ratio vector, and a 20 dimensional position ratio vector of the amino acids in the sequence. By evaluating the Euclidean distances among the representing vectors, we compare the similarity of protein sequences. We then apply this method into the ND5 dataset consisting of the ND5 protein sequences of 9 species, and the F10 and G11 datasets representing two of the xylanases containing glycoside hydrolase families, i.e., families 10 and 11. As a result, our method achieves a correlation coefficient of 0.962 with the canonical protein sequence aligner ClustalW in the ND5 dataset, much higher than those of other 5 popular alignment-free methods. In addition, we successfully separate the xylanases sequences in the F10 family and the G11 family and illustrate that the F10 family is more heat stable than the G11 family, consistent with a few previous studies. Moreover, we prove mathematically an identity equation involving the Pseudo-Markov transition probability vector and the amino acids content ratio vector. PMID:27918587

  2. Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; McGhee, Fiona; Dick, James R; Porter, Allan; Smullen, Richard P; Sargent, John R

    2002-02-01

    Supplies of marine fish oils (FO) are limited and continued growth in aquaculture production dictates that substitutes must be found that do not compromise fish health and product quality. In this study the suitability of crude palm oil (PO) as a replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon was investigated. Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed four practical-type diets in which the added lipid was either 100% FO and 0% crude PO (0% PO); 75% FO and 25% PO (25% PO); 50% FO and 50% PO (50% PO); and 100% PO, for 30 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate or feed conversion ratio nor were any histopathological lesions found in liver, heart or muscle. Lipid deposition was greatest in fish fed 0% PO and was significantly greater than in fish fed 50% and 100% PO. Fatty acid compositions of muscle total lipid were correlated with dietary PO inclusion such that the concentrations of 16:0, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), total saturated fatty acids and total monoenoic fatty acids increased linearly with increasing dietary PO. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] was reduced significantly with increasing levels of dietary PO but the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was significantly reduced only in fish fed 100% PO, compared with the other three treatments. Similar diet-induced changes were seen in liver total lipid fatty acid compositions. Hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation activities were approximately 10-fold greater in fish fed 100% PO than in those fed 0% PO. This study suggests that PO can be used successfully as a substitute for FO in the culture of Atlantic salmon in sea water. However, at levels of PO inclusion above 50% of dietary lipid, significant reductions in muscle 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio occur, resulting in reduced availability of these essential (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids to the consumer.

  3. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  5. Comparison of near and medium infrared spectroscopy to predict fatty acid composition on fresh and thawed milk.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Mauro; Revello-Chion, Andrea; Giaccone, Daniele; Ferlay, Anne; Tabacco, Ernesto; Borreani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Near (NIR) and medium (MIR) infrared reflectance spectroscopy (IR) predictions of fatty acid (FA) composition, expressed as g/kg of milk or g/100g of FA, on fresh and thawed milk were compared. Two-hundred-and-fifty bulk cow milks, collected from 70 farms in northwest Italy, were scanned by MIR in liquid form and by NIR in liquid and oven-dried forms. MIR and NIR FA (g/100g FA) predictions on oven-dried milk were similar for the sum of even chain-saturated FA (ECSFA), odd chain-FA (OCFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 FA, and C18:1cis9 to C16 ratio. The monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-6 to n-3 ratio, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and n-6 FA were predicted better by NIR on oven-dried milk. The NIR showed worse predictions than MIR for almost all FA, when expressed as g/kg of milk. The NIR predictions on fresh liquid and oven-dried milk were similar, but the reliability decreased for thawed liquid milk. The high performance shown by NIR and MIR allows their use for routine milk FA composition recording.

  6. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

  7. Amino Acid compositions of 27 food fishes and their importance in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal; Mahanty, Arabinda; Ganguly, Satabdi; Sankar, T V; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N; Akhtar, M S; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K K; Laxmanan, P T; Sharma, A P

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

  8. Fatty acid composition of umbilical arteries and veins: possible implications for the fetal EFA-status.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, G; van Houwelingen, A C; Simonis, M; Gerrard, J M

    1989-06-01

    Fatty acid compositions were determined of phospholipids, isolated from umbilical arteries and veins, obtained from Dutch neonates after vaginal delivery, terminating normal pregnancy. The fatty acid profiles of the cord vessels were characterized by the absence of eicosapentaenoic (timnodonic) acid, a low (2-3%) content of linoleic acid and reasonable amounts of arachidonic acid (10-15%) and docosahexaenoic (cervonic) acid (3-5%). Significant amounts of Mead acid (1-4%) and its direct elongation product (0.5-2%) were also observed. In each cord, the efferent blood vessels contained significantly more Mead acid and other fatty acids of the oleic acid (n-9) family and less fatty acids of the linoleic (n-6) and linolenic (n-3) families than the afferent blood vessel. This indicates that the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of 'downstream' neonatal tissue may be marginal. No signs of EFA-deficiency were observed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture, or in blood vessels from adults. In all cords 22:5(n-6) was significantly higher in the artery compared to the vein, whereas for all other (n-6) fatty acids this difference was negative. Since the synthesis of 22:5(n-6) is known to be stimulated when the required amount of cervonic acid, 22:6(n-3), is too low, our observations also suggest that the cervonic acid status of the neonates investigated was not optimal. Further studies are in progress to relate these findings to maternal EFA status and complications of pregnancy.

  9. Effect of the fatty acid composition of acclimated oenological Lactobacillus plantarum on the resistance to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L; Tymczyszyn, E E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes due to acclimation to ethanol on the fatty acid composition of three oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains and their effect on the resistance to ethanol and malic acid consumption (MAC). Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 133, UNQLp 65.3 and UNQLp 155 were acclimated in the presence of 6 or 10% v/v ethanol, for 48 h at 28°C. Lipids were extracted to obtain fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy. The influence of change in fatty acid composition on the viability and MAC in synthetic wine was analysed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient. Acclimated strains showed a significant change in the fatty composition with regard to the nonacclimated strains. Adaptation to ethanol led to a decrease in the unsaturated/saturated ratio, mainly resulting from an increase in the contribution of short-length fatty acid C12:0 and a decrease of C18:1. The content of C12:0 was related to a higher viability after inoculation of synthetic wine. The MAC increased at higher contents in saturated fatty acid, but its efficiency was strain dependent.

  10. Concentration of Nitric Acid Strongly Influences Chemical Composition of Graphite Oxide.

    PubMed

    Jankovsky, Ondrej; Novacek, Michal; Luxa, Jan; Sedmidubsky, David; Bohacova, Marie; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdenek

    2017-02-28

    Graphite oxide is the most widely used precursor for the synthesis of graphene by top-down methods. We demonstrate a significant influence of nitric acid concentration on the structure and composition of the graphite oxide prepared by graphite oxidation. In general, two main chlorate based oxidation methods are currently used for graphite oxide synthesis, Staudenmaier method dealing with 98 wt.% nitric acid and Hofmann method dealing with 68 wt.% nitric acid. However a gradual change of nitric acid concentration allowed for the continuous change of the graphite oxide composition. The prepared samples were thoroughly characterized by microscopic techniques as well as various spectroscopic and analytical methods. Lowering of nitric acid concentration led to an increase of oxidation degree and in particular to a concentration of epoxy and hydroxyl groups. This knowledge is not only useful for the large scale synthesis of graphite oxide with tunable size and chemical composition, but the use of nitric acid in lower concentration can also significantly reduce the overall cost of the synthesis.

  11. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  12. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  13. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  14. Relationship between membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance of acid and cold stressed Salmonella senftenberg CECT 4384.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the adaptative response to heat (63 degrees C) and the modifications in membrane fatty acid composition of Salmonella senftenberg after its growth in an acidified medium and after its exposure to combinations of acid and cold stresses. Cells were grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.0 and acidified up to pH 4.5 (fresh cultures) and kept at refrigeration temperature (4 degrees C) for 7 days (refrigerated cultures). The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, but combinations of sublethal stresses reduced S. senftenberg heat tolerance, specially when the growth medium pH was decreased. Acid-adapted cells showed D(63)-values ranging from 3.10 to 6.27 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed D(63)-values of 1.07 min. As pH decreased, over the pH range studied (7.4-4.5), D(63)-values of the resulting cells increased. However, refrigerated acid-adapted cells showed lower D(63)-values, which ranged from 0.95 to 0.49 min. A linear relationship between the thermotolerance of S. senftenberg cells and the previous growth medium pH was found in both fresh and refrigerated cultures, which allowed us to predict changes in heat resistance of S. senftenberg that occur at any pH value within the range used in the present study in which most foodstuffs are included. Both acidification of the growth medium and refrigeration storage of cells induced modifications in membrane fatty acid composition, which were clearly linked to their heat resistance. Acid-adapted cells, regardless of the pH value of the growth medium, showed the lowest UFA/SFA ratio and a CFA content 1.5-2-fold higher than that observed for non-acid-adapted cells. On the other hand, the UFA/SFA ratio found for S. senftenberg cells exposed to a cold stress was 1.2-1.8-fold higher than that observed for non-refrigerated cultures. This increase in the UFA/SFA ratio was specially high for acid-adapted cells. The highest

  15. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  16. Evaluation of cooling strategies for pumping of milk - impact of fatty acid composition on free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Wiking, Lars; Bertram, Hanne C; Björck, Lennart; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2005-11-01

    Cooling strategies for pumping of raw milk were evaluated. Milk was pumped for 450 s at 31 degrees C, or pumped after cooling to 4 degrees C and subsequently subjected to various incubation times. Two types of milk were used; i.e. milk from cows fed a diet high in saturated fat supplements resulting in significantly larger milk fat globules than the other type of milk which comes from cows fed a low-fat diet that stimulates high de novo fat synthesis. The content of liquid fat was determined by low-field 1H NMR, which showed that milk from cows given the saturated fat diet also contained less liquid fat at both 4 degrees and 31 degrees C than the other type of milk. This can be ascribed to the differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk as a result of the fatty acid composition of the diets. After pumping of the milk at 31 degrees C, measurement of fat globule size distribution revealed a significant coalescence of milk fat globules in the milk obtained from the saturated fat diet due to pumping. Pumping at 4 degrees C or pumping the other type of milk did not result in coalescence of milk fat globules. Formation of free fatty acids increased significantly in both types of milk by pumping at 31 degrees C. Cooling the milk to 4 degrees C immediately before pumping inhibited an increased content of free fatty acids. However, when the milk was incubated at 4 degrees C for 60 min after cooling and then subjected to pumping, a significant increase in the formation of free fatty acids was observed in both types of milk. It is suggested that this increase in free fatty acids is caused by transition of polymorphic crystal forms or higher level of attached lipoprotein lipases to the milk fat globule before pumping.

  17. Fine-Scale Vertical Stratification and Guild Composition of Saproxylic Beetles in Lowland and Montane Forests: Similar Patterns despite Low Faunal Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Matthias; Procházka, Jiří; Schlaghamerský, Jiří; Cizek, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The finer scale patterns of arthropod vertical stratification in forests are rarely studied and poorly understood. Further, there are no studies investigating whether and how altitude affects arthropod vertical stratification in temperate forests. We therefore investigated the fine-scale vertical stratification of diversity and guild structure of saproxylic beetles in temperate lowland and montane forests and compared the resulting patterns between the two habitats. Methods The beetles were sampled with flight intercept traps arranged into vertical transects (sampling heights 0.4, 1.2, 7, 14, and 21 m). A triplet of such transects was installed in each of the five sites in the lowland and in the mountains; 75 traps were used in each forest type. Results 381 species were collected in the lowlands and 236 species in the mountains. Only 105 species (21%) were found at both habitats; in the montane forest as well as in the lowlands, the species richness peaked at 1.2 m, and the change in assemblage composition was most rapid near the ground. The assemblages clearly differed between the understorey (0.4 m, 1.2 m) and the canopy (7 m, 14 m, 21 m) and between the two sampling heights within the understorey, but less within the canopy. The stratification was better pronounced in the lowland, where canopy assemblages were richer than those near the forest floor (0.4 m). In the mountains the samples from 14 and 21 m were more species poor than those from the lower heights. The guild structure was similar in both habitats. Conclusions The main patterns of vertical stratification and guild composition were strikingly similar between the montane and the lowland forest despite the low overlap of their faunas. The assemblages of saproxylic beetles were most stratified near ground. The comparisons of species richness between canopy and understorey may thus give contrasting results depending on the exact sampling height in the understorey. PMID:26978783

  18. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-09

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon.

  19. Variations in fatty acid composition of neem seeds collected from the Rajasthan state of India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Vir, S

    2000-12-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a multipurpose tree native to the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asian countries. Products derived from neem have been used for centuries, particularly in India, for medicinal and pest-management purposes. Azadirachtin and neem oil are the two major commercially important products derived from the tree. The oil contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in good proportion. Although there is growing demand for quality planting material for plantation of neem, efforts are lacking for the selection of neem trees based on their biochemical composition. In the present study, 60 Neem seed samples were collected from different provinances of the Rajasthan state in India. These samples were analysed by GLC to study the variability of fatty acid composition. Significant variability in individual fatty acids was observed. The palmitic acid ranged from 16 to 34%, stearic acid from 6 to 24%, oleic acid from 25 to 58% and linoleic acid from 6 to 17%. This variability can be exploited for selection of trees and for studying the genetic variability in neem. These selections can also be utilized for genetic improvement of the tree.

  20. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  1. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  2. Gasoline compositions containing reaction products of fatty acid esters and amines as carburetor detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicht, R.C.; Herbstman, S.; Levin, M.D.; Sung, R.L.

    1988-03-08

    A motor fuel composition is described comprising (a) a major portion of a fuel consisting essentially of a hydrocarbon boiling in the gasoline boiling range; and (b) a minor effective amount of, as detergent additive, a reaction product of C/sub 6/-C/sub 20/ fatty acid and a mono- or di-(hydroxy hydrocarbyl) amine.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  4. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osage orange wood(OO)was combined with poly(lactic acid)(PLA)to form a polymer composite intended for use as an agricultural mulch film. The PLA-OO mechanical properties were comparable to existing mulch film products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing ...

  5. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  6. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  7. Pseudo and true visible light photocatalytic activity of nanotube titanic acid/graphene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Min; Li, Qiuye; Yu, Laigui; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-09-01

    Nanotube titanic acid/graphene (NTA/Gr) composites were prepared by an easy hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) and NTA in a mixed solvent of ethanol-water. As-prepared NTA/Gr composites and GO were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, diffuse-reflection spectrometry, thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Besides, the photocatalytic activities of as-prepared NTA/Gr composites were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It has been found that extending hydrothermal reaction time (24 h instead of 3 h) leads to great changes in the morphology and crystal structure of as-prepared composites. Namely, the orthorhombic NTA (ca. 10 nm in diameter) in the composite transformed to anatase TiO2 particle (ca. 20-30 nm in diameter) while the Gr sheets (with micrometers-long wrinkles) in it transformed to a few Gr fragments (ca. 50 nm in diameter). Correspondingly, the NTA/Gr composite transformed to titanium dioxide/graphene (TiO2/Gr) composite. In the meantime, pure GO only has adsorption effect but it has no photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. Nevertheless, increasing Gr ratio results in enhanced visible light absorption capability and photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO2/Gr composites. This demonstrates that the true visible light photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO2/Gr composites for the degradation of MO is not as excellent as expected, and their high apparent activity is attributed to the strong adsorption of MO on the composites.

  8. A protein delivery system: biodegradable alginate-chitosan-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Hong; Gao, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Ye-Ping; Liang, Wen-Quan

    2004-10-29

    In the present study we developed alginate-chitosan-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite microspheres to elevate protein entrapment efficiency and decrease its burst release. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which used as the model protein, was entrapped into the alginate microcapsules by a modified emulsification method in an isopropyl alcohol-washed way. The rapid drug releases were sustained by chitosan coating. To obtain the desired release properties, the alginate-chitosan microcapsules were further incorporated in the PLGA to form the composite microspheres. The average diameter of the composite microcapsules was 31+/-9microm and the encapsulation efficiency was 81-87%, while that of conventional PLGA microspheres was just 61-65%. Furthermore, the burst releases at 1h of BSA entrapped in composite microspheres which containing PLGA (50:50) and PLGA (70:30) decreased to 24% and 8% in PBS, and further decreased to 5% and 2% in saline. On the contrary, the burst releases of conventional PLGA microspheres were 48% and 52% in PBS, respectively. Moreover, the release profiles could be manipulated by regulating the ratios of poly(lactic acid) to poly(glycolic acid) in the composite microspheres.

  9. Amino acid composition analysis of secondary transport proteins from Escherichia coli with relation to functional classification, ligand specificity and structure.

    PubMed

    Saidijam, Massoud; Patching, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an amino acid composition (AAC) analysis of the complete sequences for 235 secondary transport proteins from Escherichia coli, which have functions in the uptake and export of organic and inorganic metabolites, efflux of drugs and in controlling membrane potential. This revealed the trends in content for specific amino acid types and for combinations of amino acids with similar physicochemical properties. In certain proteins or groups of proteins, the so-called spikes of high content for a specific amino acid type or combination of amino acids were identified and confirmed statistically, which in some cases could be directly related to function and ligand specificity. This was prevalent in proteins with a function of multidrug or metal ion efflux. Any tool that can help in identifying bacterial multidrug efflux proteins is important for a better understanding of this mechanism of antibiotic resistance. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence alignments and comparison of sequences at the N- and C-terminal ends confirmed transporter Family classification. Locations of specific amino acid types in some of the proteins that have crystal structures (EmrE, LacY, AcrB) were also considered to help link amino acid content with protein function. Though there are limitations, this work has demonstrated that a basic analysis of AAC is a useful tool to use in combination with other computational and experimental methods for classifying and investigating function and ligand specificity in a large group of transport or other membrane proteins, including those that are molecular targets for development of new drugs.

  10. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  11. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  12. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  13. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  14. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents, in particular 18:1n-9. Conversely, carnivorous fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the lowest MUFA contents. Omnivorous fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

  15. Molecular size and amino acid composition of H-2d antigen solubilized in Nonidet P-40.

    PubMed

    Rossowski, W; Kloczewiak, M; Radzikowski, C; Strzadala, L

    1976-01-01

    H-2d antigenic material solubilized by the detergent Nonidet P-40 from L-1210 mouse leukemia cells was isolated by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-100. A single peak eluted in the void volume consisted of about 90% protein, 8% hexose and traces of sialic acids. In sedimentation velocity runs, the antigen sedimented as a single peak of 3-1 S. Molecular weight determined by sedimentation equilibrium as well as calculated from amino acid composition was found to be in the range of 53,000 daltons and approx. 45,000-51,000 when calculated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Secondary structure of H-2d glycoprotein was predicted from the amino acid composition. For NP-40-solubilized H-2d antigen, about 34% of helix, 13% beta sheet and 41% turns was found.

  16. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of karst waters with and without acid mine drainage: impacts at a SW China coalfield.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Tang, Changyuan; Wu, Pan; Strosnider, William H J

    2014-07-15

    Karst water resources, which are critical for the support of human societies and ecological systems in many regions worldwide, are extremely sensitive to mining activities. Identification and quantification of stable isotope (δ(2)HH2O andδ(18)OH2O) composition for all sources is essential if we are to fully understand the dynamics of these unique systems and propose successful remediation strategies. For these purposes, a stable isotope study was undertaken in two similar watersheds, one impacted by acid mine drainage, and the other not. It was found that the majority of δ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O values of acid mine drainage (AMD), AMD-impacted and Main channel mix waters plotted above the local meteoric water line (LMWL), while the non-AMD-impacted water was below the LMWL. The AMD and AMD-impacted water had a similar composition ofδ(18)OH2O and heavierδ(2)HH2O than that of the other waters as a result of pyrite oxidation and Fe hydrolysis. The non-AMD-impacted and spring waters were the background waters in the study area. The composition ofδ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O for the former was influenced by the re-evaporation and water-rock interaction, and that for the latter was controlled by re-condensation. Along the water flow, the Main channel mix water is recharged by AMD-impacted, non-AMD-impacted and spring waters. The composition ofδ(2)HH2O andδ(18)OH2O for the Main channel mix water was coincident with the characteristics of water mixing, supported by three-component mixing modeling of upstream spring, non-AMD-impacted and AMD-impacted waters. The composition of δ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O for the Main channel mix water was mainly affected by the AMD-impacted water. These results help elucidate the impact of AMD on δ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O compositions for karst waters and demonstrate the utility for impact assessments and remediation planning in these unique systems.

  17. Relationship of amino acid composition and molecular weight of antifreeze glycopeptides to non-colligative freezing point depression.

    PubMed

    Schrag, J D; O'Grady, S M; DeVries, A L

    1982-08-06

    Many polar fishes synthesize a group of eight glycopeptides that exhibit a non-colligative lowering of the freezing point of water. These glycopeptides range in molecular weight between 2600 and 33 700. The largest glycopeptides [1-5] lower the freezing point more than the small ones on a weight basis and contain only two amino acids, alanine and threonine, with the disaccharide galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine attached to threonine. The small glycopeptides, 6, 7, and 8, also lower the freezing point and contain proline, which periodically substitutes for alanine. Glycopeptides with similar antifreeze properties isolated from the saffron cod and the Atlantic tomcod contain an additional amino acid, arginine, which substitutes for threonine in glycopeptide 6. In this study we address the question of whether differences in amino acid composition or molecular weight between large and small glycopeptides are responsible for the reduced freezing point depressing capability of the low molecular weight glycopeptides. The results indicate that the degree of amino acid substitutions that occur in glycopeptides 6-8 do not have a significant effect on the unusual freezing point lowering and that the observed decrease in freezing point depression with smaller glycopeptides can be accounted for on the basis of molecular weight.

  18. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

  19. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  20. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity.

  1. Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and phytosterol composition in six Tunisian olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Haddada, Faouzia M; Manaï, Hédia; Oueslati, Imen; Daoud, Douja; Sánchez, Jacinto; Osorio, Emilio; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2007-12-26

    The physicochemical and stability properties as well as the fatty acid, triacylglycerol, sterol, and triterpenic dialcohol compositions of Tunisian olive oil varieties were analyzed. On the basis of our results, we classified all of the monovarietal oils into the extra virgin category. Oleic and linoleic acids were the most useful fatty acids to discriminate three cultivars, Neb Jmel, Chétoui, and Ain Jarboua, from the others. Of the six monovarietal virgin olive oils analyzed, the main triacylglycerols were OOO, POO, PLO plus SLL, and OLO, which was expected given the high oleic acid and low linoleic and linolenic acids content observed in total fatty acids. In total, these accounted for more than 80% of the total HPLC chromatogram peak area. The main sterols found were beta-sitosterol, Delta5-avenasterol, and campesterol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between oil samples, and the obtained results showed a great variability in the oil composition between cultivars, which is influenced exclusively by genetic factors.

  2. Fatty acid composition of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid compositions of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty acids of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty acid patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic acids (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic acid was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty acid compositions of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey.

  3. Cellular fatty acid compositions and isoprenoid quinone contents of 23 Legionella species.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, M A; Moss, C W

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions and ubiquinone contents of 182 Legionella strains representing 23 species were determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Except for the type strain of Legionella erythra (ATCC 35303T), all Legionella species contained large (40 to 90%) amounts of branched-chain fatty acids and only trace to small (less than 0.5 to 5%) amounts of ester-linked hydroxy acids. The 23 species were placed in three major fatty acid groups on the basis of differences in the relative amounts of 14-methylpentadecanoic (Ci16:0), hexadecanoic (C16:1), and 12-methyltetradecanoic (Ca15:0) acids. All Legionella species contained ubiquinones with 9 to 14 isoprene units in the side chains and were divided into five different ubiquinone groups. The species were further differentiated into 16 groups on the basis of qualitative and quantitative differences in their fatty acid compositions and ubiquinone contents. Both of these chemical characteristics can be used to distinguish Legionella species from other gram-negative bacteria and rapidly and accurately identify suspected isolates before serologic and other tests are done. PMID:2715320

  4. Fatty acid composition of 12 fish species from the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Huang, L-T C; Bülbül, U; Wen, P-C; Glew, R H; Ayaz, F A

    2012-05-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are healthful to humans, particularly in promoting growth and cognitive development in infants and young children, and in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Though the populations who inhabit the Trabzon province of Turkey include seafood from the Black Sea in their diet, knowledge of the fatty acid composition and content of these fish is scant. Fatty acid analysis was performed on freeze-dried muscle tissue of 12 species of fish purchased in markets in Trabzon. The fat content varied from 0.2% (garfish) to 12% (shad) of dry weight. The highest DHA and DHA plus EPA contents were found in horse mackerel 16.1 and 20.6 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Only in sea bass and sea bream did the essential fatty acid linoleic acid account for more than 10% of the fatty acid total. For all 12 species, arachidonic acid accounted for 0.09% to 7.64% of the fatty acid total. Oleic acid varied greatly from 0.14% (garfish) to 32.7% (shad). The omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio ranged from 0.8 to 25. A 100 g serving of fresh horse mackerel would contribute 586 mg of DHA to the diet, which exceeds the recommended daily intake of 200 to 300 mg of DHA for pregnant and lactating women. These data indicate that some, but not all, of the 12 fish species from the Black Sea fish we studied could contribute significantly to satisfy the DHA and EPA needs of the inhabitants of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

  5. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability.

  6. Fatty acid composition of eggs and its relationships to egg and larval viability from domesticated common sole (Solea solea) breeders.

    PubMed

    Parma, L; Bonaldo, A; Pirini, M; Viroli, C; Parmeggiani, A; Bonvini, E; Gatta, P P

    2015-04-01

    The study of lipids and fatty acids (FAs) has been used in the assessment of egg quality because their composition can influence the fertilization rate, hatching, survival and growth of marine fish larvae. For these reasons, the lipid content (TL) and fatty acid composition of common sole (Solea solea) eggs were measured and correlated to egg and larval viability parameters throughout an entire reproductive season. Seventeen batches of fertile eggs obtained from natural spawning of captive breeders were characterized for the TL, FA profile, hatching rate (HR) and survival rate of larvae (SR) at 0-6 days post-hatching (dph). The egg FA composition reflected the composition of the feed supplied to the broodstock during summer and autumn (before and during vitellogenesis) rather than that supplied during the spawning season. In general, the egg FA profile showed minimal differences among the early-, mid- and late-spawning periods (possibly due to the change of the diet and/or water temperature) indicating that it is possible to obtain a similar egg quality in terms of egg FA profile over 2 months of spawning. Saturated FAs and monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) were positively correlated with HR, while TL, 22 : 6n-3 (DHA), 20 : 4n-6 (ARA), polyunsaturated FAs of the (n-3) series (n-3 PUFA) and polyunsaturated FAs of the (n-6) series were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). MUFA, 20 : 5n-3 (EPA), n-6/n-3 were positively correlated with SR, while DHA, n-3 PUFA, DHA/EPA were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the feed supplied before and during vitellogenesis has a major role in determining the egg FA profile in common sole. The relationships found between TL and FAs with egg and larval viability parameters differ from many other farmed marine fish species, which may suggest the need for a specific broodstock feed for this species.

  7. Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties.

    PubMed

    Ramos, María Jesús; Fernández, Carmen María; Casas, Abraham; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Pérez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil weight; molar ratio methanol/oil, 6/1; reaction temperature, 60 degrees C). Biodiesel quality was tested according to the standard [UNE-EN 14214, 2003. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods]. Some critical parameters like oxidation stability, cetane number, iodine value and cold filter plugging point were correlated with the methyl ester composition of each biodiesel, according to two parameters: degree of unsaturation and long chain saturated factor. Finally, a triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.

  8. Electrochemical performance of electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu2+ composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ying; Li, Fangfei; Hanlon, Ashley M.; Berda, Erik B.; Liu, Xincai; Wang, Ce; Chao, Danming

    2017-01-01

    Electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu2+ (EPAA-Cu) composites on substrates were successfully prepared via nucleophilic polycondensation followed by the use of an immersing method. Analysis of the structure properties of EPAA-Cu composites was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR). A significant current enhancement phenomenon of EPAA-Cu/ITO electrodes was found as evident from cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. In addition, Cu2+ ions were incorporated into the composites and had a positive effect on their electrochromic behaviors decreasing their switching times. The anticorrosive performance of EPAA-Cu composites coatings on the carbon steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution were also investigated in detail using tafel plots analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anticorrosive ability of these coatings significantly enhanced through the incorporation of Cu2+ ions.

  9. New matrix polymers for photo-activated resin composites using di-alpha-fluoroacrylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Shigeaki; Yamazaki, Noboru

    2008-07-01

    A novel matrix resin for photo-activated resin composites was developed using alpha-fluoroacrylic acid derivatives. To render resin composites with improved mechanical properties, silica fillers were also used. It was found that the newly developed fluorine-substituted monomer was polymerized quite easily not only by free radical chemical initiators, but also by photoirradiation using free radical photoinitiator system. In particular, the photopolymerization rate of the novel monomer was more than two times faster than that of corresponding methacrylate-based monomer. Composite based on the newly developed matrix resin had higher micro-Vickers hardness and compressive strength values than the methacrylate-based composite, and that it contained only trace residual monomers compared with the methacrylate-based material. The high polymerization conversion of the fluorine-substituted monomer could be attributed to the polar effect or the small steric hindrance of fluorine at the alpha-position.

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  11. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF THE BLOOD PLASMA OF RABBIT UNDER ARGININE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Hopanenko, O O; Rivis, J F

    2015-01-01

    The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol is normalized and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil.

  12. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-02

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs.

  13. Amino acid composition of Lagenaria siceraria seed flour and protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Ogunbusola, Moriyike Esther; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin Faramade

    2010-12-01

    Defatted seed flours of Lagenaria siceraria (calabash and bottle gourd) were fractionated into their major protein fractions. The amino acid composition of seed flours and their protein fractions were determined and the protein quality was evaluated. Glutamic acid (139-168 mg/g protein) was the most abundant amino acid followed by aspartic acid (89.0-116 mg/g protein) in both the seed flours and their protein fractions. The total essential amino acid ranged from 45.8 to 51.5%. The predicted protein efficiency ratio and the predicted biological value ranged from 2.4 to 2.9 and 8.7 to 44.0, respectively. Lysine and sulphur amino acids were mostly concentrated in the globulin fractions. The first and second limiting amino acids in seed flours and protein fractions were methionine and valine or threonine. The seed flours contained adequate essential amino acids required by growing school children and adults. The seed has potential as protein supplement in cereal based complementary diets or in the replacement of animal proteins in conventional foods.

  14. Amino acid composition and crude protein values of some Cyanobacteria from Çanakkale (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgül, Rıza; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Akgül, Füsun; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) form an important component of integrated nutrient managements in agriculture and are exploited in commercial biotechnological ventures. In this study, Rivularia bullata (Poir) Berkeley ex Bornet & Flahault, Nostocs pongiaeforme C. Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault were researched for their amino acid composition and crude protein values. R. bullata was collected from coastal zones of the Gulf of Saros and N. spongiaeforme from the Ayazma Stream. The levels of amino acids were measured in algae samples using EZ: fast kits (EZ: fast GC/FID Protein Hydrolysate Amino Acid Kit) by gas chromatography. The crude proteins of samples were determined by the Kjeldahl method and were calculated using a nitrogen conversion factor of 6.25. Thirty-two amino acids were investigated, for N. spongiaeforme eight free essential amino acids (EAA), eight free non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and eleven other amino acids (OAA); for R. bullata eight EAA, eight NEAA and eight OAA were detected. Aspartic acid is the major constituent for both species. The total protein percents were determined for N. spongiaeforme as % 19.83 and for R. bullata as % 6.15. When considering the increasing world population and reducing natural products; Cyanobacteria will benew feed sources for all living.

  15. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA.

  16. Changes in fatty acid composition in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) with cooking and refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Imose, K

    1989-02-01

    The influence of cooking and later storage in a refrigerator for 7 days on the fatty acid composition of lipids in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) was studied. The total lipid and triacylglycerol (TG) levels did not change and the phospholipid (PL) level decreased somewhat with cooking or during storage. The fatty acid composition of the total lipids and TG fractions was little changed and that in the PL fractions was somewhat changed by the cooking. The composition of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipids of sardine precooked at 100 or 170 degrees C for 30 min changed from 42.7 to 38.3 or 33.5%, respectively, for total lipids and from 51.5 to 38.4 or 37.6%, respectively, for PL fractions during storage. The fatty acids in lipids from the ordinary meat of sardine was stable and those in the dark meat were extremely unstable during storage after cooking. We concluded that the PUFA in the lipids of sardines were stable to cooking, but unstable to oxidation during storage in a refrigerator. The PUFA of lipids in the dark meat of sardine were extremely unstable to oxidation.

  17. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding.

  18. Effect of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Ravindran, V

    2007-10-01

    The effects of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and composition of endogenous protein at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens were investigated using the peptide alimentation method. Phytic acid (fed as the sodium salt) was included in a synthetic diet at 8.5, 11.5 and 14.5 g/kg (or 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 g/kg phytate-phosphorus) and each diet was fed without or with an Escherichia coli-derived microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg diet. A control containing no phytate was fed as a comparison to estimate basal endogenous flows. Ingestion of phytic acid increased (P < 0.05) the flow of endogenous amino acids and N by an average of 47 % at the lowest phytic acid concentration and 87 % at the highest. The addition of microbial phytase reduced (P < 0.05) the inimical effects of phytic acid on endogenous amino acid flow at all dietary phytic acid levels. The composition of endogenous protein was also influenced (P < 0.10-0.001) by increasing phytic acid concentrations and phytase addition. The effects of phytic acid and phytase on endogenous flow and composition of endogenous protein, however, varied depending on the amino acid. It is concluded that the effects of phytase on amino acid digestibility may be mediated, in part, through a route of reduced endogenous loss.

  19. Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kiwull-Schöne, Heidrun; Kiwull, Peter; Manz, Friedrich; Kalhoff, Hermann

    2008-02-01

    Alkali-enriched diets are recommended for humans to diminish the net acid load of their usual diet. In contrast, herbivores have to deal with a high dietary alkali impact on acid-base balance. Here we explore the role of nutritional alkali in experimentally induced chronic metabolic acidosis. Data were collected from healthy male adult rabbits kept in metabolism cages to obtain 24-h urine and arterial blood samples. Randomized groups consumed rabbit diets ad libitum, providing sufficient energy but variable alkali load. One subgroup (n = 10) received high-alkali food and approximately 15 mEq/kg ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with its drinking water for 5 d. Another group (n = 14) was fed low-alkali food for 5 d and given approximately 4 mEq/kg NH4Cl daily for the last 2 d. The wide range of alimentary acid-base load was significantly reflected by renal base excretion, but normal acid-base conditions were maintained in the arterial blood. In rabbits fed a high-alkali diet, the excreted alkaline urine (pH(u) > 8.0) typically contained a large amount of precipitated carbonate, whereas in rabbits fed a low-alkali diet, both pH(u) and precipitate decreased considerably. During high-alkali feeding, application of NH4Cl likewise decreased pH(u), but arterial pH was still maintained with no indication of metabolic acidosis. During low-alkali feeding, a comparably small amount of added NH4Cl further lowered pH(u) and was accompanied by a significant systemic metabolic acidosis. We conclude that exhausted renal base-saving function by dietary alkali depletion is a prerequisite for growing susceptibility to NH4Cl-induced chronic metabolic acidosis in the herbivore rabbit.

  20. A protein fold classifier formed by fusing different modes of pseudo amino acid composition via PSSM.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Kaveh; Moshiri, Behzad; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Araabi, Babak N; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2011-02-01

    Protein function is related to its chemical reaction to the surrounding environment including other proteins. On the other hand, this depends on the spatial shape and tertiary structure of protein and folding of its constituent components in space. The correct identification of protein domain fold solely using extracted information from protein sequence is a complicated and controversial task in the current computational biology. In this article a combined classifier based on the information content of extracted features from the primary structure of protein has been introduced to face this challenging problem. In the first stage of our proposed two-tier architecture, there are several classifiers each of which is trained with a different sequence based feature vector. Apart from the application of the predicted secondary structure, hydrophobicity, van der Waals volume, polarity, polarizability, and different dimensions of pseudo-amino acid composition vectors in similar studies, the position specific scoring matrix (PSSM) has also been used to improve the correct classification rate (CCR) in this study. Using K-fold cross validation on training dataset related to 27 famous folds of SCOP, the 28 dimensional probability output vector from each evidence theoretic K-NN classifier is used to determine the information content or expertness of corresponding feature for discrimination in each fold class. In the second stage, the outputs of classifiers for test dataset are fused using Sugeno fuzzy integral operator to make better decision for target fold class. The expertness factor of each classifier in each fold class has been used to calculate the fuzzy integral operator weights. Results make it possible to provide deeper interpretation about the effectiveness of each feature for discrimination in target classes for query proteins.

  1. Relationship between hydroxycinnamic acid content, lignin composition and digestibility of maize silages in sheep.

    PubMed

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Masa, Antón; Pomar, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids and the composition of lignin were studied in relation to the digestibility of a collection of 91 maize silages in wethers. Total lignin and guaiacyl content showed the highest correlation coefficients with digestibility. Using the above-mentioned chemical parameters, eight equations were also developed to predict digestibility. The prediction of organic matter digestibility produced a high adjusted R2 value (0.487) using total lignin, guaiacyl, esterified ferulic acid and esterified p-coumaric acid content as predictors. The prediction of in vivo dry matter digestibility produced a higher adjusted R2 value (0.516) using the same variables as predictors. Cell wall digestibility depends on a multiplicity of factors and it is not possible to attribute a causal effect on in vivo digestibility to any single factor. However, total lignin, guaiacyl and p-coumaric acid content emerge as good predictors of digestibility.

  2. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  3. Enhancement effect of ethanol on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengchen; Wang, Wei; Yue, Long; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp. were studied. The maximum increment of algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content were 6.61, 11.75, 1.34 and 3.14 times higher than the control group under 12h photoperiod. Algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. The cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times. Besides, unsaturated fatty acids appeared early in algal cells and increased 57.02% in maximum. However, only 2.27% (14)C was transferred from ethanol to fatty acids. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties.

  4. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Owen J; Bramble, Judith E; Heisler, I Lorraine; Phillips, Christopher A; Cox, David L

    2005-10-01

    Most snakes and lizards produce eggs with flexible shells that interact with the environment to maintain water balance. Geckos produce rigid eggshells that are independent of an external source of water and can be oviposited in more open, dryer locations. In this study, we analyzed and compared the amino acid composition of 24 lizard species, six snake species, and four outgroups (including avian and reptilian elastin and chicken eggshell). Rigid Gecko eggshells had significantly lower levels of seven of the 17 amino acids evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that proline was the most important amino acid in distinguishing between these two groups of eggshells, occurring at significantly higher levels in flexible eggshells. High levels of proline have also been observed in the eggshells of other species. Proline and other amino acids are associated with the alleviation of water and salt stress in plants.

  5. Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-15

    The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application.

  6. Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M

    2014-04-24

    The adsorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) composite was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) composite such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) composite could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from textile effluents.

  7. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  8. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela; Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-01

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO 4, by H 3PO 4 is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO 4) 2·H 2O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO 4) 2·H 2O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H 2PO 4)(PO 4)·2H 2O and Ti(H 2PO 4)(PO 4). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H 3PO 4 concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H 3PO 4 is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO 4) 2·H 2O-SiO 2 composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO 4·2H 2O fertilizer.

  9. The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on central nervous system polyunsaturated fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies on perinatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration in cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism.

  10. The Influence of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid on Central Nervous System Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, J. Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies on perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism. PMID:18023566

  11. Comparative study of the fatty acid composition of sponges of the genus Ircinia. Identification of the new 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, N M; Shalabi, F; Cruz, C; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, E

    1991-01-01

    1. The phospholipid fatty acid compositions of the sponges Ircinia strobilina, Ircinia felix, Ircinia campana, Ircinia sp., Spongia tubulifera and Dysidea etherea were studied, revealing the presence, besides other common fatty acids, of considerable amounts (2-5%) of the novel 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (1). 2. The demospongic acids 5,9-tetracosadienoic acid, 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (1), and 5,9-pentacosadienoic acid, were particularly abundant in sponges of the genus Ircinia, in contrast to the most common 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid found in other species. These findings are discussed in terms of the taxonomy of the Dictyoceratida. 3. The complete characterization of the novel phospholipid fatty acid 23-methyl-5,9-tetracosadienoic acid (1) is presented.

  12. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-07-30

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet.

  13. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  14. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed.

  15. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  16. Well cementing method using acid removable low density well cement compositions

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.; Totten, P.L.

    1993-05-25

    A method of forming a cement plug or seal in a subterranean zone penetrated by a well bore which can subsequently be removed by dissolution in acid is described comprising: pumping a low density cement composition which sets into a hard substantially impermeable mass into said zone comprised of magnesium oxide, an aqueous magnesium chloride solution, calcium carbonate filler, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer and a gas entrained in said slurry in an amount sufficient to obtain a desired slurry density; and allowing said cement composition to set in said zone.

  17. Changes in membrane fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to UV-C radiations.

    PubMed

    Ghorbal, Salma Kloula Ben; Chatti, Abdelwaheb; Sethom, Mohamed Marwan; Maalej, Lobna; Mihoub, Mouadh; Kefacha, Sana; Feki, Moncef; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2013-07-01

    The changes in lipid composition enable the micro-organisms to maintain membrane functions in the face of environmental fluctuations. The relationship between membrane fatty acid composition and UV-C stress was determined for mid-exponential phase and stationary phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total lipids were obtained by dichloromethane/methanol (3:1) and were quantified by GC. The TLC analysis of phospholipids showed the presence of three major fractions phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. Significant modifications, as manifested by an increase of UFA, were obtained. Interestingly, this microorganism showed a remarkable capacity for recovery from the stressful effects of UV-C.

  18. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  19. Boosting one-step conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid by NO2 and VPO composite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jian; You, Kuiyi; Duan, Xuezhi; Gao, Hongxu; Luo, Qing; Deng, Renjie; Liu, Pingle; Ai, Qiuhong; Luo, He'an

    2016-02-25

    We demonstrate VPO composites as efficient catalysts for highly selective oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid with NO2. In particular, the Ni-Al-VPO composite catalyst exhibits the striking conversion of cyclohexane (60.6%) and exceptionally high selectivity towards adipic acid (85.0%). Moreover, N2O is an environmentally harmful gas, and its yield in the present process is only 0.03 t/t adipic acid, which is far below that obtained using the industrial method (0.3 t/t adipic acid). This work provides a new strategy for the one-step synthesis of dicarboxylic acids from cycloalkanes.

  20. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  1. Distinct fatty acid composition of some edible by-products from bovines fed high or low silage diets.

    PubMed

    Alfaia, Cristina M; Alves, Susana P; Pestana, José M; Madeira, Marta S; Moreira, Olga; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui Jb; Toldrá, Fidel; Prates, José Am

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, it was hypothesized that the incorporation of fatty acids is distinct among ruminant tissues and that it could be modulated by diet composition. To test this hypothesis, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid isomers, of the most relevant beef by-products (brain, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas and tongue) from young bulls those fed distinct silage levels was assessed. Data indicated a large variation in fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid composition among edible by-products. The most abundant fatty acids were C16:0 (kidney), C18:0 (heart and liver) and C18:1 c9 (brain, pancreas and tongue) followed by C20:4 n-6, except in brain (C22:6 n-3 predominates). Brain, as shown by principal component analysis, presents a distinct fatty acid composition compared to the other beef by-products analysed. In addition, high silage diet relative to low silage diet promoted an increase of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, t11, t13 and t11, c13 conjugated linoleic acid in heart, kidney, liver and pancreas. Overall, the data suggested that beef by-products had, in general, high contents of cholesterol, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid, as well as high levels of conjugated linoleic acid. Therefore, from a nutritional point of view they are recommended only in small amounts as part of a balanced diet.

  2. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle.

  3. Stratification, composition, and function of marine mammal blubber: the ecology of fatty acids in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Käkelä, Anne; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Käkelä, Reijo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study of vertical fatty acid profiles, based on analysis of 58 fatty acids sampled at 3-mm intervals throughout the blubber column of a model marine mammal, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), revealed three chemically distinct layers. The average depths of the outer and inner layers were quite consistent (approximately 1.5 and approximately 1 cm, respectively). Consequently, the middle layer varied greatly in thickness, from being virtually absent in the thinnest animals to 2.5 cm thick in the fattest. The relative consistencies of the thickness and composition of the layers as well as the nature of the fatty acids making up each layer support the generally assumed function of the various layers: (1) the outer layer is primarily structural and thermoregulatory, (2) the inner layer is metabolically active with a fatty acid composition that is strongly affected by recent/ongoing lipid mobilization/deposition, and (3) the middle layer is a storage site that contracts and expands with food availability/consumption. The remarkable dynamics of the middle layer along with the discrete pattern of stratification found in the vertical fatty acid profiles have important implications for methodological sampling design for studies of foraging ecology and toxicology based on analyses of blubber of marine mammals.

  4. DNA methylation landscape of fat deposits and fatty acid composition in obese and lean pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Shen, Linyuan; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Qiong; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Obese and lean type pig breeds exhibit differences in their fat deposits and fatty acid composition. Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide DNA methylation on fatty acid metabolism between Landrace pigs (LP, leaner) and Rongchang pigs (RP, fatty). We found that LP backfat (LBF) had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content but a lower adipocyte volume than RP backfat (RBF). LBF exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels at the genome level than RBF. A total of 483 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located in promoter regions, mainly affecting olfactory and sensory activity and lipid metabolism. In LBF, the promoters of genes related to ATPase activity had significantly stronger methylation. This fact may suggest lower energy metabolism levels, which may result in less efficient lipid synthesis in LBF. Furthermore, we identified a DMR in the miR-4335 and miR-378 promoters and validated their methylation status by bisulfite sequencing PCR. The hypermethylation of the promoters of miR-4335 and miR-378 in LBF and the resulting silencing of the target genes may result in LBF’s low content in saturated fatty acids and fat deposition capacity. This study provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms affecting fat deposition and fatty acid composition. PMID:27721392

  5. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  6. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit.

  7. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  8. Use of different dietary protein sources for lactating goats: milk production and composition as functions of protein degradability and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Sanz Sampelayo, M R; Pérez, M L; Gil Extremera, F; Boza, J J; Boza, J

    1999-03-01

    To establish the effect of the nature of four different protein sources [fababeans, 27.8% crude protein (CP); sunflower meal, 41.7% CP; corn gluten feed, 18.8% CP; and cottonseed, 18.3% CP] on milk protein production by goats, the ruminal degradation of these feeds was studied as was the amino acid (AA) composition of the original material and that of the undegradable fractions of the protein sources. Four diets were designed; 20% of their protein was supplied by each of the different sources. Four groups of 5 Granadina goats were used to study the utilization of these diets for milk production. No significant differences were observed in dry matter intake or milk production. The milk produced by goats fed the diet containing sunflower meal had the lowest protein concentration; the highest milk protein concentration was observed for goats fed the diet containing corn gluten feed. From a multivariate analysis, it was deduced that the quickly degradable protein fraction in the rumen and the ruminally undegradable protein fraction were the components of the protein sources most directly related to the milk protein produced. Given the similar AA profiles of the undegradable fractions of the different protein sources, the possible supplementation achieved from these ruminally undegradable fractions must be established by the amount of protein supplied regardless of AA composition.

  9. Bioceramic/poly (glycolic)-poly (lactic acid) composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue.

    PubMed

    Gala-Garcia, Alfonso; Teixeira, Karina Imaculada Rosa; Wykrota, Francisco Henrique Lana; Sinisterra, Rubén Dario; Cortés, Maria Esperanza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC) and poly (glycolic)-poly (lactic acid) (PLGA) material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH)2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH)2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  10. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  11. Effect of growth phase on the fatty acid compositions of four species of marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-04-01

    The fatty acid compositions of four species of marine diatoms ( Chaetoceros gracilis MACC/B13, Cylindrotheca fusiformis MACC/B211, Phaeodactylum tricornutum MACC/B221 and Nitzschia closterium MACC/B222), cultivated at 22°C±1°C with the salinity of 28 in f/2 medium and harvested in the exponential growth phase, the early stationary phase and the late stationary phase, were determined. The results showed that growth phase has significant effect on most fatty acid contents in the four species of marine diatoms. The proportions of 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids increased while those of 16:3n-4 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with increasing culture age in all species studied. The subtotal of saturated fatty acids (SFA) increased with the increasing culture age in all species with the exception of B13. The subtotal of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased while that of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased with culture age in the four species of marine diatoms. MUFA reached their lowest value in the exponential growth phase, whereas PUFA reached their highest value in the same phase.

  12. Phospholipid Analyses for Microbial Community Composition in Alpine Acid Rock Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. E.; Tapp, J. B.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    This project is examining factors of non-anthropogenic acid rock drainage that influence microbial community composition in the Peekaboo Gulch drainage basin (Sawatch Range, Colorado). At this site, natural acid rock drainage outflows from acidic springs (pH=2.6) on Red Mountain. The acid drainage converges with South Fork Lake Creek (pH ~ 7.0, prior to convergence) two miles down gradient. Sediment samples were collected across confluences with gradient of pH, temperature, conductivity and metal concentration. In-situ parameter measurements ranged from 2.3 to 7.9 of pH, 3.8 to 16.6 degree Celsius for temperature, and 34.9 to 1820 for conductivity. Biomass as measured by phospholipids ranged from 280 to 95,900 pmol/g sediment. The only relationship between the in situ parameters and the phospholipid profiles is a weak positive correlation between pH and branched monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in that at a pH greater than 5.0 these fatty acid methyl esters were detected. The phospholipid profiles were diverse across the samples. These profiles changed with respect to the spatial relationship within the drainage pattern. The highest alpine samples contained greater relative abundances of monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters compared to the lower alpine samples. Microbial community profiles shifted at each confluence depending on water source chemistry. Continuing research is needed to determine other biogeochemical factors that may influence these community shifts.

  13. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  14. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2014-11-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, which was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence for products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  15. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    PubMed Central

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40–80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  16. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities.

    PubMed

    Van Wyngarden, A L; Pérez-Montaño, S; Bui, J V H; Li, E S W; Nelson, T E; Ha, K T; Leong, L; Iraci, L T

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  17. [Amino acid composition evaluation of Pleurotus spp. cultivated in banana leaves].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L

    1998-12-01

    The protein quality of edible mushrooms besides being species/strain specific, could also vary with the growth substrate. The aim of this work was to determine the amino acid composition of the protein from edible mushrooms--Pleurotus sp. "Florida" (L1), P. ostreatoroseus (L2) and P. sajor-caju (L3), cultivated on banana leaves (BL) single and, mixed with sugar cane bagasse (BLSCB). Total amino acids, cystine and tryptophan were evaluated; the chemical score index and PDCAAS--"protein digestibility-correct amino acid scoring" were calculated. From both substrates, the studied species contain all essential amino acids; in decreasing order, the amino acids in great amounts were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and lysine. The L1 chemical score was 90.4, with limitation in sulfur and aromatic amino acids when from BL substrate; and, from BLSC substrate the chemical score was 88.7 with limitation in aromatics only. The L2 and L3 was 100, 0, independent of cultivation substrate. The calculated PDCAAS value, considering 90% of recommended digestibility, varied between 80.0-96%. The L1 proteins were limiting in sulfur and aromatic amino acids and had the lowest value of PDCAAS (approximately 80.0) in both substrates; the L3 proteins were limiting in aromatic, sulfur and tryptophan, dependent of cultivation substrate; the L2 proteins had the greatest value of PDCAAS (approximately 96%) and were limiting in aromatic and/or sulfur amino acids, dependent of cultivation substrate. Considering the conditions of this study, the protein of the studied species is incomplete, although of high biological value, comparable to meet.

  18. Poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites: Preparation and viscoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, L. D.; Fakirov, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) from petrochemical-derived polymers have been investigated for several years and the technique can result in significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared with the neat matrix material of the respective composite. The current work applies the technique to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers for potential applications in bioabsorbable medical devices. MFCs were prepared from melt blended poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) via cold drawing then compression molding of extruded yarn. These MFCs were shown to have higher Young's moduli than that of neat PLLA but for load-bearing applications the creep characteristics are of interest. The MFC sheets resulting from compression molding were subjected to tensile relaxation tests at 37°C in the fiber orientation direction. Specimens were also tested via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Neat PLLA specimens were subjected to the same tests for comparison. Results indicate that at 37°C PLLA/PGA MFCs exhibit lower creep resistance than that of neat PLLA due to the more rapid relaxation of stress observed. DMTA results elucidate the loss modulus changes in PLLA/PGA MFCs which occur as the material approaches the glass transition temperature of PGA (˜45°C).

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  20. Predicting lipase types by improved Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ya; Li, Hong-Chun; Gao, Jia-Qiang; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2008-01-01

    By proposing a improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition approach to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences. To avoid redundancy and bias, demonstrations were performed on a dataset where none of the proteins has > or =25% sequence identity to any other. The overall success rate thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test was over 90%, indicating that the improved Chou's pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches.

  1. Amino acid sequence similarity of Hev b 3 to two previously reported 27- and 23-kDa latex proteins allergenic to spina bifida patients.

    PubMed

    Yeang, H Y; Ward, M A; Zamri, A S; Dennis, M S; Light, D R

    1998-05-01

    Separate studies have reported spina bifida patients to be especially allergic to proteins of 27 and 23 kDa found in the serum of centrifuged natural rubber latex. An insoluble latex protein located on the surface of small rubber particles, Hev b 3, has similarly been found to be allergenic to spina bifida patients. In this study, internal amino acid sequences of Hev b 3 showed similarity to the published sequences for the 27- and 23-kDa latex proteins. The latter allergens are hence identified as Hev b 3. Determination of the molecular weight of Hev b 3 revealed various species of 22-23 kDa. The consistent gaps of about 266 Da observed between various forms of the intact protein suggest that the protein undergoes post-translational modification. To determine whether Hev b 3 also occurs in a soluble form in the latex serum, its presence in molecular-filtered serum was checked by ELISA and Western blot. The results showed Hev b 3 to be largely absent in the C-serum from fresh latex. The protein is therefore insoluble in its native state. However, a small amount of the solubilized protein was detected in ammonia-stabilized latex (commonly used in the manufacture of latex products).

  2. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis in the Martian Regolith with a Microfabricated in situ Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelley, A. M.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in microfabricated "lab-on-a-chip" technologies have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of chemical and biochemical analyzers. The portability and sensitivity of these devices makes them ideal instruments for in situ chemical analysis on other planets. We have focused our initial studies on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more chemically resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker [1]. Previously, we developed a prototype electrophoresis chip, detection system and analysis method where the amino acids were labeled with fluorescein using FITC and then electrophoretically analyzed using g-cyclodextrin as the chiral resolution agent [2]. Extracts of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed, and the D/L ratios determined by microchip CE closely matched those from HPLC and GCMS and exhibited greater precision. Our microchip analyzer has now been further improved by establishing the capability of performing amino acid composition and chirality analyses using fluorescamine rather than FITC [3]. Fluorescamine is advantageous because it reacts more rapidly than FITC, and because excess reagent is hydrolyzed to a non-fluorescent product. Furthermore, the use of fluorescamine facilitates interfacing with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) [4]. Fluorescamine-amino acids are separated using similar conditions as the FITC-aa, resulting in similar separation times and identical elution orders. Fluorescamine-aa are chirally resolved in the presence of hydroxy-propyl-b-cyclodextrin, and typical limits of detection are ˜ 50 nM. This work establishes the feasibility of combining fluorescamine labeling of amino acids with microfabricated CE devices to develop low-volume, high-sensitivity apparatus for extraterrestrial exploration. The stage is now set for the development of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system for amino acid extraction and chiral analysis that will

  3. Fatty acid composition differences between adipose depot sites in dairy and beef steer breeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Lei, Z M; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) and kidney fat (KF) in Holstein steers (HS), Simmental steers (SS) and Chinese LongDong Yellow Cattle steers (CLD). All steers received the same nutrition and management but in different locations. Cattle were harvested at approximately 550 kg and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi and kidney fat was analyzed in samples taken after 3 days of aging. There was evidence (P < 0.05) that C18:3n6 was greater in KF than LD in CLD cattle but not in HS or SS cattle. Percentage C18:1n9, C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and n6 fatty acids were greater in LD than KF for all breeds (P < 0.05), but the difference between fat sources for n6 in CLD cattle was smaller than the other two breeds. The LD had greater percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and a greater ratio of n6:n3 PUFAs compared to the KF in each breed (P < 0.05). The △(9)-desaturase catalytic activity index was greater in LD than in KF in each breed group (P < 0.05). Percentage cis-9, trans-11 CLA was greater in KF than LD in HS (P < 0.05) but not SS or CLD cattle. These results indicate fatty acid percentages generally differed between longissimus dorsi fat and kidney fat. Further, there was some indication that some of these differences between fatty acid deposition sites were not consistent across breed group.

  4. Polypropylene Glycol-Silver Nanoparticle Composites: A Novel Anticorrosion Material for Aluminum in Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Moses M.; Umoren, Saviour A.; Israel, Aniekemeabasi U.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-11-01

    Admixture of polypropylene glycol and 1 mM AgNO3 together with natural honey as reducing and stabilizing agent was employed to prepare in situ polypropylene glycol/silver nanoparticle (PPG/AgNPs) composite. The prepared PPG/AgNPs composite was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and EDS, while the morphology of the Ag nanoparticles in the composite was obtained by TEM. TEM results revealed that the Ag nanoparticles were spherical in shape. The anticorrosion property of PPG/AgNPs composite was examined by electrochemical, weight loss, SEM, EDS, and water contact angle measurements. Results obtained show that PPG/AgNPs are effective in retarding the dissolution of Al in an acid-induced corrosive environment. Inhibition efficiency increased with the increasing composite concentration but decreased with the increasing temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that PPG/AgNPs functions as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The adsorption of the composite onto Al surface was found to follow El-Awady et al. adsorption isotherm model. SEM, EDS, and water contact angle results confirmed the adsorption of PPG/AgNPs films onto Al surface.

  5. [Effect of phenibut and its composition with nicotinic acid on hemostasis in rats with brain ischemia].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Litvinov, A A; Tarasov, A S

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that, in rats with global cerebral ischemia modeled by a complete irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery and forced hypotension, the hemostasis is characterized by a shift toward hypercoagulation. A single preventive introduction of phenibut and, to a greater degree, a composition of phenibut with nicotinic acid, in rats with acute cerebral ischemia reduced the extent of disturbances in the hemostasis system of experimental animals.

  6. Calculation of subunit stoichiometry of large, multisubunit proteins from amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Kapp, O H; Qabar, A N; Vinogradov, S N

    1990-01-01

    The subunit stoichiometry of a large, multisubunit protein can be determined from the molar amino acid compositions (i amino acids) of the protein and its subunits. The number of copies of the subunits (1, 2, ... j) is calculated by solving all possible combinations of simultaneous equations in j unknowns (i!/j!(i - j)!). Calculations carried out using the published amino acid compositions determined by analysis and the compositions calculated from the sequences for two proteins of known stoichiometry provided the following results: Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (R6C6, Mr = 307.5 kDa), R = 5.6 to 6.6 and C = 5.8 to 6.3, and spinach ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (L8S8, Mr = 535 kDa), L = 7.3 to 9.1 and S = 5.6 to 10.6. Calculations were also carried out with the amino acid compositions of two much larger proteins, the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Mr = 5280 kDa, subunits E1 (99.5 kDa), E2 (66 kDa), and E3 (50.6 kDa), and the extracellular hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris, Mr = 3760 kDa, subunits M (17 kDa), D1 (31 kDa), D2 (37 kDa), and T (51 kDa); the results for PDHase were E1 = 20 to 24, E2 = 18 to 31, E3 = 21 to 33 and those for Lumbricus hemoglobin were M = 34 to 46, D1 = 13 to 19, D2 = 13 to 18, and T = 34 to 36. Although the sample standard deviations of the mean values are generally high, the proposed method works surprisingly well for the two smaller proteins and provides physically reasonable results for the two larger proteins.

  7. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health.

  8. Prediction of mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasite using split amino acid composition and PSSM profile.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ruchi; Varshney, Grish C; Raghava, G P S

    2010-06-01

    The rate of human death due to malaria is increasing day-by-day. Thus the malaria causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PF) remains the cause of concern. With the wealth of data now available, it is imperative to understand protein localization in order to gain deeper insight into their functional roles. In this manuscript, an attempt has been made to develop prediction method for the localization of mitochondrial proteins. In this study, we describe a method for predicting mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasite using machine-learning technique. All models were trained and tested on 175 proteins (40 mitochondrial and 135 non-mitochondrial proteins) and evaluated using five-fold cross validation. We developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model for predicting mitochondrial proteins of P. falciparum, using amino acids and dipeptides composition and achieved maximum MCC 0.38 and 0.51, respectively. In this study, split amino acid composition (SAAC) is used where composition of N-termini, C-termini, and rest of protein is computed separately. The performance of SVM model improved significantly from MCC 0.38 to 0.73 when SAAC instead of simple amino acid composition was used as input. In addition, SVM model has been developed using composition of PSSM profile with MCC 0.75 and accuracy 91.38%. We achieved maximum MCC 0.81 with accuracy 92% using a hybrid model, which combines PSSM profile and SAAC. When evaluated on an independent dataset our method performs better than existing methods. A web server PFMpred has been developed for predicting mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasites ( http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/pfmpred/).

  9. Whole-genome prediction of fatty acid composition in meat of Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Shimizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H

    2015-10-01

    Because fatty acid composition influences the flavor and texture of meat, controlling it is particularly important for cattle breeds such as the Japanese Black, characterized by high meat quality. We evaluated the predictive ability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) in fatty acid composition of Japanese Black cattle by assessing the composition of seven fatty acids in 3088 cattle, of which 952 had genome-wide marker genotypes. All sires of the genotyped animals were genotyped, but their dams were not. Cross-validation was conducted for the 952 animals. The prediction accuracy was higher with ssGBLUP than with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for all traits, and in an empirical investigation, the gain in accuracy of using ssGBLUP over BLUP increased as the deviations in phenotypic values of the animals increased. In addition, the superior accuracy of ssGBLUP tended to be more evident in animals whose maternal grandsire was genotyped than in other animals, although the effect was small.

  10. Rheological, microstructural, and in vitro characterization of hybrid chitosan-polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A B A; Lemos, A F; Ferreira, J M F

    2009-03-15

    In this work, hybrid chitosan/hydroxyapatite composites material were developed and characterized. The polymer matrix was first dissolved in polylactic acid, and then hydroxyapatite (HA) was added as filler material. The effects of the added amounts of a crosslinking agent (genipin) and of the concentrations of lactic acid, and of the presence of HA powder on the evolution of rheological properties were evaluated. A significant decrease of gelation time with increasing amounts of crosslinking agent was observed, the effect being even more pronounced in the presence of HA. The chitosan matrix and the composites with a chitosan/HA weight ratio of 2/5 were characterized using microstructural analysis and in vitro tests. The formation of large pore sizes in the chitosan-based scaffolds was favored by low concentrations of lactic acid and genipin. The in vitro tests in synthetic body fluid revealed an extensive formation of an apatitic layer onto the surface of the chitosan/HA composite scaffolds crosslinked with genipin.

  11. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  12. [Prediction of lipases types by different scale pseudo-amino acid composition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangya; Li, Hongchun; Gao, Jiaqiang; Fang, Baishan

    2008-11-01

    Lipases are widely used enzymes in biotechnology. Although they catalyze the same reaction, their sequences vary. Therefore, it is highly desired to develop a fast and reliable method to identify the types of lipases according to their sequences, or even just to confirm whether they are lipases or not. By proposing two scales based pseudo amino acid composition approaches to extract the features of the sequences, a powerful predictor based on k-nearest neighbor was introduced to address the problems. The overall success rates thus obtained by the 10-fold cross-validation test were shown as below: for predicting lipases and nonlipase, the success rates were 92.8%, 91.4% and 91.3%, respectively. For lipase types, the success rates were 92.3%, 90.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Among them, the Z scales based pseudo amino acid composition was the best, T scales was the second. They outperformed significantly than 6 other frequently used sequence feature extraction methods. The high success rates yielded for such a stringent dataset indicate predicting the types of lipases is feasible and the different scales pseudo amino acid composition might be a useful tool for extracting the features of protein sequences, or at lease can play a complementary role to many of the other existing approaches.

  13. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  14. Dietary lipids modify the fatty acid composition of cartilage, isolated chondrocytes and matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Watkins, B A; Adkisson, H D

    1994-09-01

    The effects of dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of hyaline cartilage, epiphyseal chondrocytes (EC) and matrix vesicles (MV) were evaluated in chicks. A basal semipurified diet was fed to chicks containing one of the following lipid sources at 70 g/kg: soybean oil, butter+corn oil, margarine+corn oil or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC). Articular and epiphyseal growth cartilage were isolated from the proximal tibiotarsus; EC and MV were subsequently released by trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) digestion followed by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid composition of polar lipids in chick epiphyseal cartilage at three and six weeks, as well as articular cartilage, EC and MV at eight weeks of age revealed the presence of high levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (up to 85.5%) but low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (2.6-10.2%). Mead acid (20:3n-9, > 3%) was also present in cartilage, EC and MV lipids, and was unaffected by the dietary lipid treatments. Total n-3 PUFA concentrations were the highest in cartilage, EC and MV of chicks consuming MEC. Feeding MEC lowered the levels of 20:4n-6 in cartilage, but increased 20:5n-3 levels. The data are consistent with those reported previously which showed that cartilage tissues are low in n-6 PUFA and that they contain 20:3n-9. We furthermore demonstrated that the PUFA composition of cartilage can be modified by dietary lipids.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of polyacrylic acid and composite films containing nanotubes and oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Deen, I; Zhitomirsky, I

    2011-10-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the deposition of thin films of polyacrylic acid (PAA). This method allowed the formation of uniform films of controlled thickness on conductive substrates. It was shown that PAA can be used as a common dispersing agent suitable for charging and EPD of various materials, such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes, halloysite nanotubes, MnO(2), NiO, TiO(2) and SiO(2). The feasibility of EPD of composite films containing the nanotubes and oxide particles in a PAA matrix has been demonstrated. The kinetics of deposition and deposition mechanisms were investigated and discussed. The films were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that film thickness and composition can be varied. Obtained results pave the way for the fabrication of PAA and composite films for biomedical, electrochemical and other applications.

  16. Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate applications.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Erkin; Planell, Josep A; Hasirci, Vasif

    2011-11-01

    Novel PLLA composite fibers containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with or without surface lactic acid grafting were produced by extrusion for use as reinforcements in PLLA-based bone plates. Fibers containing 0-50% (w/w) HAp nanorods, aligned parallel to fiber axis, were extruded. Lactic acid surface grafting of HAp nanorods (lacHAp) improved the tensile properties of composites fibers better than the non-grafted ones (nHAp). Best tensile modulus values of 2.59, 2.49, and 4.12 GPa were obtained for loadings (w/w) with 30% lacHAp, 10% nHAp, and 50% amorphous HAp nanoparticles, respectively. Bone plates reinforced with parallel rows of these composite fibers were molded by melt pressing. The best compressive properties for plates were obtained with nHAp reinforcement (1.31 GPa Young's Modulus, 110.3 MPa compressive strength). In vitro testing with osteoblasts showed good cellular attachment and spreading on composite fibers. In situ degradation tests revealed faster degradation rates with increasing HAp content. To our knowledge, this is the first study containing calcium phosphate-polymer nanocomposite fibers for reinforcement of a biodegradable bone plate or other such implants and this biomimetic design was concluded to have potential for production of polymer-based biodegradable bone plates even for load bearing applications.

  17. Ammonia gas sensing behavior of tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite.

    PubMed

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C; Biris, Alexandru S; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-16

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO₂ in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO₂. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO₂ and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO₂ composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported.

  18. Lipid and fatty acid composition of cytoplasmic membranes from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and its stable protoplast-type L form.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Gura, K; Luge, C; Gumpert, J

    1997-01-01

    The cells of an L-form strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus have been grown for 20 years without a cell wall. Their cytoplasmic membranes have high stability and an unusual structural polymorphism. To clarify the importance of the lipid components for these membrane properties, a comparative analysis has been carried out with purified membranes of L-form cells, of parent vegetative hyphal cells (N-form cells), and of protoplasts derived from the latter. The phospholipid classes and fatty acids were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), two-dimensional TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The qualitative compositions of cardiolipin (CL), lyso-cardiolipin (LCL), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE1 and PE2), lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositolmannoside (PIM), phosphatidic acid (PA), dilyso-cardiolipin-phosphatidylinositol (DLCL-PI), and the 13 main fatty acids were the same in the three membrane types. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in the L-form membrane. They consist of a three- to fourfold-higher content of total, extractable lipids, 20% more phospholipids, an increased content of CL and PIM, and a reduced amount of the component DLCL-PI. Furthermore, the L-form membrane is characterized by a higher content of branched anteiso 15:0 and anteiso 17:0 fatty acids compared to that of the membranes of the walled vegetative cells. These fatty acids have lower melting points than their straight and iso-branched counterparts and make the membrane more fluid. The phospholipid composition of the protoplast membrane differs quantitatively from that of the N form and the L form. Whereas the phospholipid classes are mostly similar to that of the N form, the fatty acid pattern tends to be closer to that of the L-form membrane. The membranes of both the L-form cells and the protoplasts need to be more fluid because of their spherical cell shape and higher degree of curvature

  19. Stable Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Organisms of Different Trophic Levels in the Yenisei River

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Michail I.; Sushchik, Nadezhda N.; Kalachova, Galina S.; Makhutova, Olesia N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied four-link food chain, periphytic microalgae and water moss (producers), trichopteran larvae (consumers I), gammarids (omnivorous – consumers II) and Siberian grayling (consumers III) at a littoral site of the Yenisei River on the basis of three years monthly sampling. Analysis of bulk carbon stable isotopes and compound specific isotope analysis of fatty acids (FA) were done. As found, there was a gradual depletion in 13C contents of fatty acids, including essential FA upward the food chain. In all the trophic levels a parabolic dependence of δ13C values of fatty acids on their degree of unsaturation/chain length occurred, with 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in its lowest point. The pattern in the δ13C differences between individual fatty acids was quite similar to that reported in literature for marine pelagic food webs. Hypotheses on isotope fractionation were suggested to explain the findings. PMID:22470513

  20. Effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid composition of ryegrass and corn experimental silages.

    PubMed

    Alves, S P; Cabrita, A R J; Jerónimo, E; Bessa, R J B; Fonseca, A J M

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted using laboratory mini-silos to study the effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid (FA) composition, including minor or unusual FA, of ryegrass and corn silages. Ryegrass was ensiled for 12 wk with no additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or formic acid. Corn was ensiled for 9 wk without additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or calcium formate. Ensiling affected both total FA content and FA composition of ryegrass silages. Total FA concentration increased (P < 0.001) during ryegrass ensiling. The proportions (g/100 g of total FA) of the major unsaturated FA, 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, were not affected (P > 0.05) by ensiling. However, their concentration (mg/g of DM) in silages was greater (P=0.017 and P=0.001, respectively) than in fresh ryegrass. Two 18:2 FA (trans-11,cis-15 and cis-9,cis-15) that were not originally present in the fresh ryegrass were detected in silages. Silage additives affected the FA composition of ryegrass silages, mostly by increasing the proportions of SFA, but not on total FA concentration. Ensiling did not affect (P=0.83) total FA content of corn silages; however, FA composition was affected, mostly by decreasing the proportions of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Silage additives had no effect on corn silage FA composition. Exposing corn silages to air resulted in no oxidation of FA or reduction in total FA content or composition.

  1. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues and M. longissimus dorsi of Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Smith, S B

    1992-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to document the fatty acid composition of tissues from purebred Wagyu cattle from Japan and North American crossbred Wagyu. In experiment 1, subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissues (n = 23) were obtained from Japanese cattle representing the five Japanese fat quality grades. The monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio (MUFA:SFA) was greatest in fat quality grade 5 samples (2·57) and least in the fat quality grade 3 samples (2·08; P < 0·05). In experiment 2, M. longissimus dorsi and the associated intramuscular (i.m.) and s.c. adipose tissues were obtained from carcasses of Wagyu crossbred steers (1/2-7/8) raised in the USA. Fatty acid composition varied among depots, but the MUFA:SFA ratio in s.c. adipose tissue (1·46) was not different from values reported for other breeds of cattle. In experiment 3, samples of M. longissimus dorsi ribsteaks were obtained from three regions in Japan. Samples from the Gunma region had the greatest (P < 0·05) MUFA:SFA ratio (2·10), relative to samples from the Kagoshima (1·82) and Miyazaki (1·65) regions. The data indicate that beef from purebred Wagyu cattle raised in Japan is enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids, and that the degree of enrichment depends upon the region of Japan from which the samples were obtained.

  2. The heparan and heparin metabolism pathway is involved in regulation of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Pan, Zengxiang; MacNeil, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Six genes involved in the heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism pathway, DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like), EXTL1 (exostoses (multiple)-like 1), HS6ST1 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1), HS6ST3 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3), NDST3 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3), and SULT1A1 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 1), were investigated for their associations with muscle lipid composition using cattle as a model organism. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/multiple nucleotide length polymorphisms (MNLPs) were identified in five of these six genes. Six of these mutations were then genotyped on 246 Wagyu x Limousin F(2) animals, which were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. Association analysis revealed that DSEL, EXTL1 and HS6ST1 significantly affected two stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices, the amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). In particular, HS6ST1 joined our previously reported SCD1 and UQCRC1 genes to form a three gene network for one of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices. These results provide evidence that genes involved in heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism are also involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in bovine muscle. Whether the SNPs affected heparan sulfate proteoglycan structure is unknown and warrants further investigation.

  3. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Influence of ethanol and temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Baleiras Couto, M M; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1995-03-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile of Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains, isolated from different sources, after growth at increasing concentrations of ethanol and/or decreasing temperatures were determined. Differences in fatty acid composition between Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains at standard conditions (25 degrees C, 0% initial ethanol) were observed and could be related to ethanol tolerance. Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain isolated from wine showed the highest ethanol tolerance in relation to growth rate. Surprisingly, an increase in ethanol concentration or a decrease in growth temperature caused a decrease in the degree of unsaturation of total cellular fatty acids. On the other hand, the mean chain length increased (high ethanol concentration) or decreased (low temperature) depending on the stress factor. When both stress situations (high ethanol concentration and low temperature) were present at the same time, the degree of unsaturation remained approximately constant. With decreasing temperatures, the C16/C18 ratio increased in studies of initial ethanol content below 5%, and above 5% ethanol, decreased.

  5. Bioactive enzyme-metal composites: the entrapment of acid phosphatase within gold and silver.

    PubMed

    Ben-Knaz, Racheli; Avnir, David

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the entrapment of an enzyme within an aggregated metallic matrix and the development of a bioactive enzyme-metal composite. Whereas the use of organic polymers and metal oxides for the preparation of enzymatically active materials is well developed, the third principle enzyme-material combination, namely protein-metal bulk, has not yet been reported. A new methodology for the entrapment of organic molecules and polymers within metals has been employed for the preparation of bioactive acid phosphatase@gold and acid phosphatase@silver, according to which room temperature reduction of the metal cation is carried out in the presence of the enzyme to be entrapped. Protectability of the entrapped enzyme against harsh conditions is shown: the acidic enzyme is kept alive under basic conditions.

  6. Development of palm-based reference materials for the quantification of fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm stearin.

  7. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  8. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-15

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO{sub 4}, by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}).2H{sub 2}O and Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O fertilizer. - Graphical abstract: A new synthesis scheme for preparation of composite titanium phosphate (TiP) ion-exchangers upon one-stage decomposition process of natural sphene with phosphoric acid is presented. Syntheses of {alpha}-TiP-silica composites proceed via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases. The concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} determines the porosity of final products and their sorption affinities.

  9. Effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the learning ability and fatty acid composition of the brain.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Koizumi, Kyoko; Ooba, Tomoko; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2009-08-01

    The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) connecting phospholipids on the learning ability and fatty acid composition of the brain were investigated in hypercholesterolemic mice. ICR mice were subjected to a very low level of n-3 fatty acids through two generations. At 4 wk of age, the F(1) generation, n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice were provided with an experimental diet containing four kinds of lipids (safflower oil: Saf, DHA connecting triacylglycerols: DHA-TG, DHA connecting phospholipids: DHA-PL, soybean phospholipids: Soy-PL) for 5 wk. Another group of ICR mice were obtained and fed a commercial diet (CE-2, CLEA Japan, Inc.) as a control. The learning and memory abilities of the mice were evaluated by the modified avoidance procedure. The learning and memory ability level was significantly higher in mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the Saf and Soy-PL diets, and was the same level as the control. The DHA levels of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain were significantly higher in the mice fed the two types of DHA-containing diets than in those fed the Saf and Soy-PL diets and was not significantly different between DHA-TG and DHA-PL. The dimethylacetal levels in the brain were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the Saf and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA connecting phospholipids have the effect of improving memory learning, and may be related to the both the DHA and plasmalogen levels in the brain.

  10. [The amino acid composition of blood serum of harp seal pups in the period of adaptation to captivity].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1998-01-01

    It is cited results of investigation of amino acid composition of blood serum of harp seal pups in the first days after catch adaptation in conditions of oceanarium. It is shown that changes of amino acid composition are most expressed in the first ten-day period of observation and manifest itself by increase of free amino acid concentration at the expense of their endogenous entrance in blood. At the same time it was detected amino acid imbalance which is conditioned by stress of animals. Results of investigation witness intensification of protein catabolism under conditions of stress. Because of it it is necessary to correlate protein metabolism for prophylaxis of hypotrophy seal pups.

  11. Intracellular composition of fatty acid affects the processing and function of tyrosinase through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hideya; Wen, Zhi-Ming; Kim, Hee-Yong; Valencia, Julio C.; Costin, Gertrude-E.; Watabe, Hidenori; Yasumoto, Ken-ichi; Niki, Yoko; Kondoh, Hirofumi; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Proteasomes are multicatalytic proteinase complexes within cells that selectively degrade ubiquitinated proteins. We have recently demonstrated that fatty acids, major components of cell membranes, are able to regulate the proteasomal degradation of tyrosinase, a critical enzyme required for melanin biosynthesis, in contrasting manners by relative increases or decreases in the ubiquitinated tyrosinase. In the present study, we show that altering the intracellular composition of fatty acids affects the post-Golgi degradation of tyrosinase. Incubation with linoleic acid (C18:2) dramatically changed the fatty acid composition of cultured B16 melanoma cells, i.e. the remarkable increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (C20:4) was compensated by the decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1), with little effect on the proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid. When the composition of intracellular fatty acids was altered, tyrosinase was rapidly processed to the Golgi apparatus from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and the degradation of tyrosinase was increased after its maturation in the Golgi. Retention of tyrosinase in the ER was observed when cells were treated with linoleic acid in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, explaining why melanin synthesis was decreased in cells treated with linoleic acid and a proteasome inhibitor despite the abrogation of tyrosinase degradation. These results suggest that the intracellular composition of fatty acid affects the processing and function of tyrosinase in connection with the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and suggest that this might be a common physiological approach to regulate protein degradation. PMID:16232122

  12. Morphology and properties of hybrid composites based on polypropylene/polylactic acid blend and bamboo fiber.

    PubMed

    Ying-Chen, Zhang; Hong-Yan, Wu; Yi-Ping, Qiu

    2010-10-01

    The design of new composites based on a polypropylene (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) matrix and filler bamboo fiber (BF) leads to changes in process ability, morphology, and rheological properties of the raw thermoplastic. We have designed more environmentally friendly composites blended with PLA, filled with bamboo fiber. To refine dispersion of PLA and improve composite toughness, MAH-g-PP was included in the filler-matrix interface to enhance interface strength for PP, PLA and BF. The incorporation of MAH-g-PP into composites brought about beneficial changes in morphology and rheological, related with improved dispersion of PLA and increased bamboo fiber-matrix interactions. The SEM results showed the particle size of the dispersed PLA and BF phase significantly reduced with adding a litter MAH-g-PP. The XRD and DSC results showed that spread and phases in the composites preserved crystallization. The good rheological, morphological and thermal properties obtained when the ratio of PP/PLA/BF/MAH-g-PP was 48.75/13/35/3.25.

  13. Increased osteoblast functions on nanophase titania dispersed in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huinan; Slamovich, Elliott B.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2005-07-01

    The design of nanophase titania/poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) composites offers an exciting approach to combine the advantages of a degradable polymer with nano-size ceramic grains to optimize physical and biological properties for bone regeneration. Importantly, nanophase titania mimics the size scale of constituent components of bone since it is a nanostructured composite composed of nanometre dimensioned hydroxyapatite well dispersed in a mostly collagen matrix. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to investigate osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion and long-term functions on nanophase titania/PLGA composites. Since nanophase titania tended to significantly agglomerate when added to polymers, different sonication output powers were applied in this study to improve titania dispersion. Results demonstrated that the dispersion of titania in PLGA was enhanced by increasing the intensity of sonication and that greater osteoblast adhesion correlated with improved nanophase titania dispersion in PLGA. Moreover, results correlated better osteoblast long-term functions, such as alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium-containing mineral deposition, on nanophase titania/PLGA composites compared to plain PLGA. In fact, the greatest collagen production by osteoblasts occurred when cultured on nanophase titania sonicated in PLGA at the highest powers. In this manner, the present study demonstrates that PLGA composites with well dispersed nanophase titania can enhance osteoblast functions necessary for improved bone tissue engineering applications.

  14. A novel biodegradable nicotinic acid/calcium phosphate composite coating on Mg-3Zn alloy.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingwei; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

    2013-01-01

    A novel biodegradable composite coating is prepared to reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn alloy. The Mg-3Zn substrate is first immersed into 0.02 mol L(-1) nicotinic acid (NA) solution, named as vitamin B3, to obtain a pretreatment film, and then the electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coating with ultrasonic agitation is carried out on the NA pretreatment film to obtain a NA/calcium phosphate composite coating. Surface morphology is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDX. Protection property of the coatings is evaluated by electrochemical tests. The biodegradable behavior is investigated by immersion tests. The results indicate that a thin but compact bottom layer can be obtained by NA pretreatment. The electrodeposition calcium phosphate coating consists of many flake particles and ultrasonic agitation can greatly improve the compactness of the coating. The composite coating is biodegradable and can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys in stimulated body fluid (SBF) for twenty times. The biodegradation process of the composite coating can be attributed to the gradual dissolution of the flake particles into chippings.

  15. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  16. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Spatny, K P; Vicini, J L; Bauman, D E

    2010-05-01

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious, and food product choices have expanded. Choices in the dairy case include fluid milk labeled according to production management practices. Such labeling practices may be misunderstood and perceived by consumers to reflect differences in the quality or nutritional content of milk. Our objective was to investigate nutritional differences in specialty labeled milk, specifically to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of conventional milk with milk labeled as recombinant bST (rbST)-free or organic. The retail milk samples (n=292) obtained from the 48 contiguous states of the United States represented the consumer supply of pasteurized, homogenized milk of 3 milk types: conventionally produced milk with no specialty labeling, milk labeled rbST-free, and milk labeled organic. We found no statistical differences in the FA composition of conventional and rbST-free milk; however, these 2 groups were statistically different from organic milk for several FA. When measuring FA as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was higher in saturated FA (65.9 vs. 62.8%) and lower in monounsaturated FA (26.8 vs. 29.7%) and polyunsaturated FA (4.3 vs. 4.8%) compared with the average of conventional and rbST-free retail milk samples. Likewise, among bioactive FA compared as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was slightly lower in trans 18:1 FA (2.8 vs. 3.1%) and higher in n-3 FA (0.82 vs. 0.50%) and conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 vs. 0.57%). From a public health perspective, the direction for some of these differences would be considered desirable and for others would be considered undesirable; however, without exception, the magnitudes of the differences in milk FA composition among milk label types were minor and of no physiological importance when considering public health or dietary recommendations. Overall, when data from our analysis of FA composition of conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free or organic were combined

  17. Mito-GSAAC: mitochondria prediction using genetic ensemble classifier and split amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Tariq Habib; Khan, Asifullah; Lee, Yeon Soo

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondria are all-important organelles of eukaryotic cells since they are involved in processes associated with cellular mortality and human diseases. Therefore, trustworthy techniques are highly required for the identification of new mitochondrial proteins. We propose Mito-GSAAC system for prediction of mitochondrial proteins. The aim of this work is to investigate an effective feature extraction strategy and to develop an ensemble approach that can better exploit the advantages of this feature extraction strategy for mitochondria classification. We investigate four kinds of protein representations for prediction of mitochondrial proteins: amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, pseudo amino acid composition, and split amino acid composition (SAAC). Individual classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor, multilayer perceptron, random forest, AdaBoost, and bagging are first trained. An ensemble classifier is then built using genetic programming (GP) for evolving a complex but effective decision space from the individual decision spaces of the trained classifiers. The highest prediction performance for Jackknife test is 92.62% using GP-based ensemble classifier on SAAC features, which is the highest accuracy, reported so far on the Mitochondria dataset being used. While on the Malaria Parasite Mitochondria dataset, the highest accuracy is obtained by SVM using SAAC and it is further enhanced to 93.21% using GP-based ensemble. It is observed that SAAC has better discrimination power for mitochondria prediction over the rest of the feature extraction strategies. Thus, the improved prediction performance is largely due to the better capability of SAAC for discriminating between mitochondria and non-mitochondria proteins at the N and C terminus and the effective combination capability of GP. Mito-GSAAC can be accessed at http://111.68.99.218/Mito-GSAAC . It is expected that the novel approach and the accompanied predictor will have a

  18. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  19. Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA (ΔPUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ΔPUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ΔPUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The compositions of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty acid composition, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA-induced changes in fatty acid composition and preserves membrane integrity.

  20. Gastric cancer risk and erythrocyte composition of docosahexaenoic acid with anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Kiyonori; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hiraki, Akio; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamamura, Yoshitaka; Yamao, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsuneya; Tatematsu, Masae; Tajima, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is linked to inflammation and is the main cause of peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastric malignancies. To examine associations between gastric cancer risk and the erythrocyte composition of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and apoptosis-inducing effects, here we conducted a case-control study of 179 incident gastric cancer cases and 357 noncancer controls (matched by age, sex, and season of sample collection). Dietary information and blood samples were collected from all subjects, and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were measured using accelerated solvent extraction and gas-liquid chromatography. Gastric cancer risk did not seem to be directly associated with dietary intake of fish and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), such as DHA, derived from fish. However, risk was inversely associated with erythrocyte compositions of n-3 HUFAs [the highest to the lowest tertile, odds ratio (OR), 0.39; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.23-0.68; P(trend)<0.005] and DHA (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.79; P(trend)<0.01). Particularly strong associations were noted for well-differentiated type lesions and n-3 HUFAs (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03-0.35; P(trend)=0.0005) as well as DHA (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.58; P(trend)<0.01) values. In conclusion, the erythrocyte composition of DHA was found to be negatively linked to risk of gastric cancer, especial