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Sample records for acid concentration increased

  1. Dietary arachidonic acid dose-dependently increases the arachidonic acid concentration in human milk.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Dirix, Chantal E H; Bruins, Maaike J; Hornstra, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore investigated the LCPUFA responses in nursing mothers upon increased consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA. In a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial, lactating women received for 8 wk no extra LCPUFA (control group, n = 8), 200 (low AA group, n = 9), or 400 (high AA group, n = 8) mg/d AA in combination with (n-3) LCPUFA [320 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 80 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid, and 80 mg/d other (n-3) fatty acids], or this dose of (n-3) LCPUFA alone [DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid group, n = 8]. Relative concentrations of AA, DHA, and sums of (n-6) and (n-3) LCPUFA were measured in milk total lipids (TL) and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) after 2 and 8 wk and changes were compared by ANCOVA. The combined consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA caused dose-dependent elevations of AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations in milk TL and did not significantly affect the DHA and total (n-3) LCPUFA increases caused by (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation only. This latter treatment did not significantly affect breast milk AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations. AA and DHA concentrations in milk TL and their changes were strongly and positively correlated with their corresponding values in erythrocyte PL (r(2) = 0.27-0.50; P increased the AA concentration of their milk TL. PMID:18936218

  2. Endogenous flow of amino acids in the avian ileum as influenced by increasing dietary peptide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Velmurugu; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Thomas, Donald V

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether feeding broiler chickens with diets containing increasing dietary peptide concentrations would cause increases in ileal endogenous amino acid flow. The flow of N and most amino acids increased quadratically (P < 0.05 to 0.001) with increasing dietary concentrations of peptides. The exceptions were the flow of threonine, serine, glycine, tyrosine and cystine, which increased linearly (P < 0.001) with dietary peptide levels. Another notable exception to the general trend was the flow of proline, which was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed the protein-free diet. The amino acid profile of endogenous protein, expressed as proportion of crude protein, indicated that the ratios of threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, leucine, histidine, arginine and cystine were influenced (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. In general, compared with the protein-free diet, the ratios of threonine and arginine in endogenous protein were lower (P < 0.05) and those of glutamic acid, glycine and histidine were greater (P < 0.05) in diets with high concentrations of peptides. The ratio of proline was found to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. These changes in the amino acid profile of endogenous protein are probably reflective of changes in the output of one or more of the components of endogenous protein. Overall, the present results demonstrated that increasing dietary peptide concentrations increased the flow of endogenous amino acid flow at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner and also caused changes in the composition of endogenous protein. The observed changes in endogenous amino flow will influence the maintenance requirements for amino acids and also have implications for the calculation of true digestibility coefficient of feedstuffs. PMID:18662428

  3. CONCENTRATION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN INCREASES WITH AGE IN THE MOUSE AND RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of aging in the expression of the astrocyte protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was examined. n both mice and rats the concentration of GFAP increased throughout the brain as a function of aging. he largest increase (2-fold) was observed in striatum for both...

  4. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  5. Climate change and increased zinc concentrations in a Rocky Mountain acid rock drainage stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, C. M.; Todd, A. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Snake River Watershed in Colorado is impacted by acid rock drainage (ARD) originating from both natural sources and sources associated with the historic mining in the watershed. Downstream of mines, the high metal ion concentrations, low pH, and metal oxide deposition cause contamination which disrupts ecosystem functions, impairs biological diversity, and contaminates surface and groundwater drinking supplies. One obvious measure of the severity of this contamination is that the self-sustaining trout populations in the watershed are quite sparse. While elevated concentrations of numerous trace metals are present, dissolved zinc is used as an indicator of trout habitat water quality because the fish are so impacted by its presence. Water quality was monitored along the Snake River from 1980 to 1990 and since then less frequent sampling was conducted as part of research studies and efforts to designate portions of the watershed for mitigation. Metals concentrations during the seasonal low flows of September and October have been observed to increase significantly over that time. In particular, at a site in the headwaters well above the historic mining impacts, zinc concentrations, which were measured between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L through the 1980s, have now exceeded 1.2 mg/L in the past several years. This four-fold increase in zinc concentrations is associated with an increase in sulfate concentrations, which indicates that these water quality changes are driven primarily by accelerated natural weathering of pyrite in the watershed. The observed increase in natural ARD - possibly the result of climate change - may have implications for mitigation. Currently, these trends are being evaluated by reanalyzing the archived samples to delineate the spatial and temporal changes in contamination. Processes which may be driving the accelerated natural weathering include the earlier occurrence of peak snowmelt due to climate change which causes lower stream flows and drier

  6. Intravenous lipid and amino acids briskly increase plasma glucose concentrations in small premature infants.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Finley, S L; Ogata, E S

    1988-07-01

    We determined the glycemic response to intravenous lipid infusion alone, lipid with amino acids, or amino acids alone in 15 very small premature infants receiving constant glucose infusion during early life. Infants who received lipid or lipid and amino acids demonstrated significant increases in glucose compared with infants who received amino acids. The combination of lipid and amino acids resulted in an earlier increase than lipid alone. Although plasma insulin did not change in all three groups, infants who received amino acids alone demonstrated an appropriate increase in glucagon. These data suggest that lipid infusion, a commonly used means of providing nutrition to premature infants, may cause significant disturbances in glucoregulation, particularly when administered with amino acids. PMID:3132930

  7. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) at subtoxic concentrations increases the adhesivity of human leukemic cells to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Kuzelová, Katerina; Pluskalová, Michaela; Brodská, Barbora; Otevrelová, Petra; Elknerová, Klára; Grebenová, Dana; Hrkal, Zbynek

    2010-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) which is being introduced into clinic for the treatment of hematological diseases. We studied the effect of this compound on six human hematopoietic cell lines (JURL-MK1, K562, CML-T1, Karpas-299, HL-60, and ML-2) as well as on normal human lymphocytes and on leukemic primary cells. SAHA induced dose-dependent and cell type-dependent cell death which displayed apoptotic features (caspase-3 activation and apoptotic DNA fragmentation) in most cell types including the normal lymphocytes. At subtoxic concentrations (0.5-1 microM), SAHA increased the cell adhesivity to fibronectin (FN) in all leukemia/lymphoma-derived cell lines but not in normal lymphocytes. This increase was accompanied by an enhanced expression of integrin beta1 and paxillin, an essential constituent of focal adhesion complexes, both at the protein and mRNA level. On the other hand, the inhibition of ROCK protein, an important regulator of cytoskeleton structure, had no consistent effect on SAHA-induced increase in the cell adhesivity. The promotion of cell adhesivity to FN seems to be specific for SAHA as we observed no such effects with other HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A and sodium butyrate). PMID:19911379

  8. CO₂ enrichment can produce high red leaf lettuce yield while increasing most flavonoid glycoside and some caffeic acid derivative concentrations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a common practice in greenhouses to increase crop yields up to 30%. Yet, reports on the effect on foliar phenolic compounds vary. We studied the effect on two red leaf lettuce cultivars, grown for 25 days in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 200 or 1,000 ppm, with some plants exchanged between treatments after 11 days. As expected, head mass increased with higher CO2 concentration. Regression analysis, corrected for head mass, showed increased concentrations of most flavonoid glycosides at high CO2 concentrations while only some caffeic acid derivatives were increased, and not uniformly in both cultivars. Sugar concentrations increased with CO2 concentration. Generally, conditions in the 10 days before harvest determined concentrations. We suspect that phenolic compounds were mainly accumulated because plenty of precursors were available. The results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in high yields of red leaf lettuce rich in phenolic compounds. PMID:26776031

  9. Laterally applied Ethrel causes local increases in radial growth and indole-3-acetic acid concentration in Abies balsamea shoots.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Anthony Little, C H

    1996-05-01

    The terminal (1-year-old) shoot of quiescent, two-year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings was ringed with lanolin containing 0, 1 or 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel, an ethylene-generating compound, and cultured for 6 weeks under environmental conditions favorable for growth. Bud break and the elongation of the current-year terminal shoot were monitored, and the subjacent previous-year terminal shoot that had been treated with Ethrel was harvested to measure stem radial growth by microscopy, shoot ethylene evolution by gas chromatography, and cambial region indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with the lanolin controls, Ethrel at 1 and 10 mg g(-1) did not affect bud break or longitudinal growth, but stimulated tracheid production and bark increment up to about 2-fold at the application site, though not above or below it. In addition, the 1 and 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatments increased the cambial region IAA concentration about 3-fold and the evolution of ethylene at least 40-fold at the application site, compared with unwounded portions of both treated and control shoots. The 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatment also stimulated ethylene evolution about 10-fold, both above and below the application site. However, this stimulation was not associated with an elevation in cambial region IAA concentration. Similarly, the lanolin control treatment increased ethylene evolution at the application site about 10-fold, without affecting the cambial region IAA concentration. Our results suggest that the localized stimulation of radial growth in woody shoots ringed with Ethrel is mediated by an increase in IAA concentration, which in turn is induced by a threshold, abnormally high concentration of Ethrel-derived ethylene. PMID:14871721

  10. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  11. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers. PMID:21410712

  12. Increased serum bile acid concentration following low-dose chronic administration of thioacetamide in rats, as evidenced by metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Gabin; Shin, Ho Jung; Park, Se-Myo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Jeong, Jayoung; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-10-15

    A liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to identify endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. TAA (10 and 30mg/kg), a well-known hepatotoxic agent, was administered daily to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 28days. We then conducted untargeted analyses of endogenous serum and liver metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on serum and liver samples to evaluate metabolites associated with TAA-induced perturbation. TAA administration resulted in altered levels of bile acids, acyl carnitines, and phospholipids in serum and in the liver. We subsequently demonstrated and confirmed the occurrence of compromised bile acid homeostasis. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of conjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated well with toxicity. However, hepatic levels of these metabolites were not substantially changed. Gene expression profiling showed that the hepatic mRNA levels of Ntcp, Bsep, and Oatp1b2 were significantly suppressed, whereas those of basolateral Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased. Decreased levels of Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Ostα proteins in the liver were confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that serum bile acids might be increased due to the inhibition of bile acid enterohepatic circulation rather than increased endogenous bile acid synthesis. Moreover, serum bile acids are a good indicator of TAA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26222700

  13. Daily irrigation attenuates xylem abscisic acid concentration and increases leaf water potential of Pelargonium × hortorum compared with infrequent irrigation.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-09-01

    The physiological response of plants to different irrigation frequencies may affect plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE; defined as shoot biomass/cumulative irrigation). Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at 100% of plant evapotranspiration (ET) (well-watered; WW), or at 50% ET applied either daily [frequent deficit irrigation (FDI)] or cumulatively every 4 days [infrequent deficit irrigation (IDI)], for 24 days. Both FDI and IDI applied the same irrigation volume. Xylem sap was collected from the leaves, and stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) measured every 2 days. As soil moisture decreased, gs decreased similarly under both FDI and IDI throughout the experiment. Ψleaf was maintained under IDI and increased under FDI. Leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([X-ABA]leaf ) increased as soil moisture decreased under both IDI and FDI, and was strongly correlated with decreased gs , but [X-ABA]leaf was attenuated under FDI throughout the experiment (at the same level of soil moisture as IDI plants). These physiological changes corresponded with differences in plant production. Both FDI and IDI decreased growth compared with WW plants, and by the end of the experiment, FDI plants also had a greater shoot fresh weight (18%) than IDI plants. Although both IDI and FDI had higher WUE than WW plants during the first 10 days of the experiment (when biomass did not differ between treatments), the deficit irrigation treatments had lower WUE than WW plants in the latter stages when growth was limited. Thus, ABA-induced stomatal closure may not always translate to increased WUE (at the whole plant level) if vegetative growth shows a similar sensitivity to soil drying, and growers must adapt their irrigation scheduling according to crop requirements. PMID:26910008

  14. Indole-3-acetic acid-induced oxidative burst and an increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration in rice suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hieu T H; Umemura, Kenji; Kawano, Tomonori

    2016-08-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major natural auxin involved in the regulation of a variety of growth and developmental processes such as division, elongation, and polarity determination in growing plant cells. It has been shown that dividing and/or elongating plant cells accompanies the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a number of reports have suggested that hormonal actions can be mediated by ROS through ROS-mediated opening of ion channels. Here, we surveyed the link between the action of IAA, oxidative burst, and calcium channel activation in a transgenic cells of rice expressing aequorin in the cytosol. Application of IAA to the cells induced a rapid and transient generation of superoxide which was followed by a transient increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c). The IAA-induced [Ca(2+)]c elevation was inhibited by Ca(2+) channel blockers and a Ca(2+) chelator. Furthermore, ROS scavengers effectively blocked the action of IAA on [Ca(2+)]c elevation. PMID:27149194

  15. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. ); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. ); Watanabe, M. )

    1988-05-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  16. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K.; Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y.; Watanabe, M.

    1988-04-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine increased in urine. It has been reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  17. Pelleting in Associated with Sodium Monensin Increases the Conjugated Linoleic Acids Concentration in the Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Canola Seeds

    PubMed Central

    De Marchi, Francilaine Eloise; Romero, Jakeline Vieira; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Grande, Paula Adriana; Zeoula, Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Geraldo Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the pelleting and the addition of sodium monensin on production, the chemical and lipid composition of milk and butter physical characteristics, 4 Holstein dairy cows (135 days of lactation) with an average milk production of 14.7 kg/d, were supplemented with a concentrate containing ground canola seeds. The cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: i) ground maize, soybean meal, mineral and vitamin supplements, and ground canola seeds (CG); ii) CG concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg of dry matter (DM); iii) CG pelleted concentrate; iv) CG concentrate with monensin addition pelleted. There was no difference in milk production and composition. The addition of monensin increased milk concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, and omega 6. The pelleting increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, the PUFA/SFA ratio, and the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, but decreased the concentration of SFA. The association between pelleting and the addition of monensin increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids by 46.9%. The physical characteristics of butter were not affected by the evaluated diets. We concluded that the concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg DM basis combined with the pelleting improves the lipid composition of milk from Holstein cows that are on pasture and supplemented with ground canola seeds, without changing the production, milk composition, and spreadability of butter. PMID:26104517

  18. Increased acidic fibroblast growth factor concentrations in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Hadavi, Mahvash; Vaziri, Hamid Reza; Naji, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), also called FGF-1, which influences the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types in vitro, was originally isolated from neural tissue. It is released from the ependymal cells of the cerebral third ventricle into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). FGF-1 promotes the survival of neurons. Reactive astrocytes express FGF-1 in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). By comparing the CSF proteome of patients with AD and normal controls it might be possible to identify proteins that have a role in AD. Because CSF is in contact with the extracellular space of the brain, modifications in the brain biochemistry could be reflected in the CSF. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of serum and CSF FGF-1 in patients with AD. This study consisted of 64 CSF samples, from patients with AD (n=32) and those without (normal controls) (n=32). The level of CSF and serum FGF-1 in patients with AD was higher than in patients without AD. We conclude that FGF-1 is a constant component of human serum and CSF and that FGF-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:20079650

  19. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to elevated sodium concentrations increases cation tolerance and enables greater lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianghao; Altman, Ronni; Eiteman, Mark A; Altman, Elliot

    2014-05-01

    Adaptive evolution was employed to generate sodium (Na(+))-tolerant mutants of Escherichia coli MG1655. Four mutants with elevated sodium tolerance, designated ALS1184, ALS1185, ALS1186, and ALS1187, were independently isolated after 73 days of serial transfer in medium containing progressively greater Na(+) concentrations. The isolates also showed increased tolerance of K(+), although this cation was not used for selective pressure. None of the adapted mutants showed increased tolerance to the nonionic osmolyte sucrose. Several physiological parameters of E. coli MG1655 and ALS1187, the isolate with the greatest Na(+) tolerance, were calculated and compared using glucose-limited chemostats. Genome sequencing showed that the ALS1187 isolate contained mutations in five genes, emrR, hfq, kil, rpsG, and sspA, all of which could potentially affect the ability of E. coli to tolerate Na(+). Two of these genes, hfq and sspA, are known to be involved in global regulatory processes that help cells endure a variety of cellular stresses. Pyruvate formate lyase knockouts were constructed in strains MG1655 and ALS1187 to determine whether increased Na(+) tolerance afforded increased anaerobic generation of lactate. In fed-batch fermentations, E. coli ALS1187 pflB generated 76.2 g/liter lactate compared to MG1655 pflB, which generated only 56.3 g/liter lactate. PMID:24584246

  20. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  1. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P < 0.001), respectively, on the rapeseed oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P < 0.001) on the sunflower oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P < 0.001) on the sunflower oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P < 0.01). The n-3 fatty acids (20:5 and 22:5) in the serum phospholipids increased significantly on the rapeseed oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet. PMID:8116547

  2. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control cows between Days 21 and 42 postpartum. Relative levels of mRNA coding for NAAA and MGLL were not different (P > 0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with CLA are the result of a decrease in relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. PMID:27262886

  3. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Takahahi, Toru; To, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Hayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Kamata, Yohei; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05), which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12), but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48). These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA. PMID:27548207

  4. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Takahahi, Toru; To, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Hayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Kamata, Yohei; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05), which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12), but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48). These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA. PMID:27548207

  5. Increased leukotriene B(4) production, complement C3 conversion and acid hydrolase enzyme concentrations in different leucocyte sub-populations of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, R; Donahy, C; Jones, B R; Bloomfield, F J

    2006-01-01

    Various markers of the inflammatory response were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from 31 dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). The variables assayed included chemiluminescence, acid hydrolase enzyme concentrations, leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) production and complement C3 conversion. The results were compared to those derived from a population of clinically healthy dogs. Dogs with AD exhibited a significant increase in median LTB(4) production in PMNs compared to controls (0.94 versus 0.00 ng/10(6) cells; P<0.01). Significant increases in the median concentrations of intracellular beta-galactosidase (PBMC fraction - 0.42 versus 0.25 mU/10(6) cells; P<0.05) (PMN fraction - 0.47 versus 0.12 mU/10(6) cells; P<0.01) and beta-glucuronidase (PBMC fraction - 0.52 versus 0.27 mU/10(6) cells; P<0.05) were also evident in the AD group. Although median maximum chemiluminescence values for both leucocyte sub-populations were higher in controls, the differences recorded were not significant (P>0.05). However, the median time taken to reach maximum chemiluminescence was significantly shorter in the PMN fraction of dogs with AD (7.00 versus 10.00 min; P<0.01). Atopic dogs had a significant increase in the median percentage conversion of complement C3 to C3b (66.0 versus 57.3%; P<0.01). The results of this study indicate a priming of the inflammatory response in dogs with AD. The role of LTB(4) in the pathogenesis of canine AD and the potential efficacy of leukotriene antagonists in the treatment of this disorder warrant further investigation. PMID:16427587

  6. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Schonewille, J T; Bannink, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (kaVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance. The current results are complementary to previously reported changes on rumen papillae morphology from the same experiment. From 50 d antepartum to 80 d pp, VFA production rate was measured 5 times and kaVFA was measured 10 times in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian cows. Cows had free access to a mixed ration, consisting of grass and corn silage, soybean meal, and (dry period only) chopped straw. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (RAP; 1.0 kg of DM/d; n=6) or gradual (GRAD; 0.25 kg of DM/d; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at 4 d pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter intake. For the BIT, rumen contents were evacuated, the rumen washed, and a standardized buffer fluid introduced [120 mM VFA, 60% acetic (Ac), 25% propionic (Pr), and 15% butyric (Bu) acid; pH 5.9 and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker]. For the isotope dilution technique, a pulse-dose of (13)C-labeled Ac, Pr, and Bu and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker was infused. The rate of total VFA production was similar between treatments and was 2 times higher during the lactation (114 mol/d) than the dry period (53 mol/d). Although papillae surface area at 16, 30, and 44 d pp was greater in RAP than GRAD, Bu and Ac production at these days did not differ between RAP and GRAD, whereas at 16 d pp RAP produced more Pr than GRAD. These results provide little support for the particular proliferative effects of Bu on papillae surface area. Similar to developments in papillae surface area in the dry period and early lactation, the kaVFA (per hour), measured using the BIT, decreased from 0.45 (Ac), 0

  7. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole.

  8. The Electrostatic Screening Length in Concentrated Electrolytes Increases with Concentration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lee, Alpha A; Perkin, Susan

    2016-06-16

    According to classical electrolyte theories interactions in dilute (low ion density) electrolytes decay exponentially with distance, with the Debye screening length the characteristic length scale. This decay length decreases monotonically with increasing ion concentration due to effective screening of charges over short distances. Thus, within the Debye model no long-range forces are expected in concentrated electrolytes. Here we reveal, using experimental detection of the interaction between two planar charged surfaces across a wide range of electrolytes, that beyond the dilute (Debye-Hückel) regime the screening length increases with increasing concentration. The screening lengths for all electrolytes studied-including aqueous NaCl solutions, ionic liquids diluted with propylene carbonate, and pure ionic liquids-collapse onto a single curve when scaled by the dielectric constant. This nonmonotonic variation of the screening length with concentration, and its generality across ionic liquids and aqueous salt solutions, demonstrates an important characteristic of concentrated electrolytes of substantial relevance from biology to energy storage. PMID:27216986

  9. Diffusion of sulfuric acid in concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Umino, S.; Newman, J. )

    1993-08-01

    Aqueous sulfuric acid is an economically important chemical reagent. It is one of the largest volume chemical commodities, finding uses in fertilizer production, petroleum refining, extraction of metals from their ores, production of inorganic pigments, pickling of iron and steel, synthesis of surface-active agents, and as a reactant in the lead-acid storage battery. The restricted diffusion method was used to measure the differential diffusion coefficient of sulfuric acid in water at 25 C for the concentration range from 0.3 to 7.5 molar. The concentration gradients of diffusing species were observed by Rayleigh interferometry. Experimental transport data are analyzed with concentrated solution theory of electrolytes in order to elucidate macroscopic transport characteristics of sulfuric acid in terms of specific binary interactions in solution. Results indicate that the transport properties of sulfuric acid are determined by the hydrogen ion-water molecule.

  10. DICARBOXYLIC ACID CONCENTRATION TRENDS AND SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a slide presentation on results of dicarboxylic acid concentration trends and sampling artifacts to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on September 10-...

  11. INDOOR CONCENTRATION MODELING OF AEROSOL STRONG ACIDITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for estimating indoor concentrations of acid aerosol was applied to data collected during the summer of 1989, in a densely populated location in New Jersey. he model, from a study of a semi-rural community in Pennsylvania, was used to estimate indoor concentrations of aer...

  12. Increases in Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Potassium Concentration Do Not Increase Isoflurane Minimum Alveolar Concentration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shnayderman, Dimitry; Laster, Michael J.; Eger, Edmond I; Oh, Irene; Zhang, Yi; Jinks, Steven L.; Antognini, Joseph F.; Raines, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous studies demonstrated that MAC for isoflurane directly correlates with the concentration of Na+ in cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord, the primary site for mediation of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. If this correlation resulted from increased irritability of the cord, then infusion of increased concentrations of potassium (K+) might be predicted to act similarly. However, an absence of effect of K+ might be interpreted to indicate that K+ channels do not mediate the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics whereas Na+ channels remain as potential mediators. Accordingly, in the present study, we examined the effect of altering intrathecal concentrations of K+ on MAC. METHODS In rats prepared with chronic indwelling intrathecal catheters, we infused solutions deficient in K+ and with an excess of K+ into the lumbar space and measured MAC for isoflurane 24 h before, during, and 24 h after infusion. Rats similarly prepared were tested for the effect of altered osmolarity on MAC (accomplished by infusion of mannitol) and for the penetration of Na+ into the cord. RESULTS MAC of isoflurane never significantly increased with increasing concentrations of K+ infused intrathecally. At infused concentrations exceeding 12 times the normal concentration of KCl, i.e., 29 mEq/L, rats moved spontaneously at isoflurane concentrations just below, and sometimes at MAC, but the average MAC in these rats did not exceed their control MAC. At the largest infused concentration (58.1 mEq/L), MAC significantly decreased and did not subsequently return to normal (i.e., such large concentrations produced injury). Infusions of lower concentrations of K+ had no effect on MAC. Infusion of osmotically equivalent solutions of mannitol did not affect MAC. Na+ infused intrathecally measurably penetrated the spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support a mediation or modulation of MAC by K+ channels. PMID:18713900

  13. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  14. Indoor concentration modeling of aerosol strong acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenka, M.; Waldman, J.; Suh, H.; Koutrakis, P.

    1993-01-01

    A model for estimating indoor concentrations of acid aerosol was applied to data collected during the summer of 1989, in a densely populated location in New Jersey. The model, from a study of a semi-rural community in Pennsylvania, was used to estimate indoor concentrations of aerosol strong acidity (H+) at an elderly care residence in suburban New Jersey. The purpose of the present work is to assess the applicability of the model for predicting H+ exposures in a suburban environment and to evaluate the models performance for daytime and nighttime periods. Indoor and outdoor samples were taken at an elderly care home between June 20 and July 30, 1989. The indoor and outdoor monitoring schedule collected two 12-h samples per day. Samples were taken with the Indoor Denuder Sampler (IDS). Samples were analyzed for indoor and outdoor concentrations of aerosol strong acidity (H+), ammonia (NH3), and anion determination. The model generally underestimated the indoor H+ concentration. Slight improvement was seen in the model estimate of H+ for the nighttime period (7:00 pm to 7:00 am, local time). The model applied to the site in New Jersey did not predict the indoor H+ concentrations as well as it did for the experiment from which it was developed.

  15. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  16. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  17. Isozyme-nonselective N-substituted bipiperidylcarboxamide acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors reduce tissue malonyl-CoA concentrations, inhibit fatty acid synthesis, and increase fatty acid oxidation in cultured cells and in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Harwood, H James; Petras, Stephen F; Shelly, Lorraine D; Zaccaro, Lawrence M; Perry, David A; Makowski, Michael R; Hargrove, Diane M; Martin, Kelly A; Tracey, W Ross; Chapman, Justin G; Magee, William P; Dalvie, Deepak K; Soliman, Victor F; Martin, William H; Mularski, Christian J; Eisenbeis, Shane A

    2003-09-26

    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), with its resultant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, has the potential to favorably affect the multitude of cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. To achieve maximal effectiveness, an ACC inhibitor should inhibit both the lipogenic tissue isozyme (ACC1) and the oxidative tissue isozyme (ACC2). Herein, we describe the biochemical and acute physiological properties of CP-610431, an isozyme-nonselective ACC inhibitor identified through high throughput inhibition screening, and CP-640186, an analog with improved metabolic stability. CP-610431 inhibited ACC1 and ACC2 with IC50s of approximately 50 nm. Inhibition was reversible, uncompetitive with respect to ATP, and non-competitive with respect to bicarbonate, acetyl-CoA, and citrate, indicating interaction with the enzymatic carboxyl transfer reaction. CP-610431 also inhibited fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride (TG) synthesis, TG secretion, and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 cells (ACC1) with EC50s of 1.6, 1.8, 3.0, and 5.7 microm, without affecting either cholesterol synthesis or apolipoprotein CIII secretion. CP-640186, also inhibited both isozymes with IC50sof approximately 55 nm but was 2-3 times more potent than CP-610431 in inhibiting HepG2 cell fatty acid and TG synthesis. CP-640186 also stimulated fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 cells (ACC2) and in rat epitrochlearis muscle strips with EC50s of 57 nm and 1.3 microm. In rats, CP-640186 lowered hepatic, soleus muscle, quadriceps muscle, and cardiac muscle malonyl-CoA with ED50s of 55, 6, 15, and 8 mg/kg. Consequently, CP-640186 inhibited fatty acid synthesis in rats, CD1 mice, and ob/ob mice with ED50s of 13, 11, and 4 mg/kg, and stimulated rat whole body fatty acid oxidation with an ED50 of approximately 30 mg/kg. Taken together, These observations indicate that isozyme-nonselective ACC inhibition has the potential to favorably affect risk

  18. Recovery of boric acid from evaporator concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chrubasik, A.; Hennecke, A.; Chechelnitzky, G.M.; Kremnev, V.A.; Sinjawski, P.N.; Tevestchenko, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    The process is based on such characteristic properties of boric acid and borates as: solubility depending on pH-value; and high ion-exchange resin capacity for borates and its regeneration by means of ammonia solution. On the basis of laboratory investigations a pilot plant BOR 100 was built 1993. The operation of the pilot plant started at the beginning of 1994. After the functional test and start up in the first half year 1994 the treatment of few batches of original evaporator concentrates was performed.

  19. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified. PMID:18964794

  20. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. PMID:26092494

  1. Increased plasma serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentrations are associated with impaired systolic and late diastolic forward flows during cardiac cycle and elevated resistive index at popliteal artery and renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Jun; Suzuki, Eiji; Tajima, Yoshitaka; Takami, Kazuhisa; Horikawa, Yukio; Takeda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Although lower extremity arterial disease is frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus, the association of circulating biomarkers with flow components during the cardiac cycle in lower-leg arteries has yet to be fully elucidated. We enrolled 165 type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI 1.0-1.4), comprising 106 normoalbuminuric and 59 microalbuminuric patients, and 40 age-matched nondiabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF) and vasoconstrictor serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured. An automatic device was used to measure ABI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Flow components during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume, and resistive index at popliteal artery were evaluated using gated magnetic resonance imaging. Although estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), early diastolic flow reversal, heart rate, and ABI were similar between the groups, diabetic patients had higher log hsCRP (p<0.001), VWF (p<0.001), 5-HIAA (p=0.002), resistive index (p<0.001) and baPWV (p<0.001) and lower systolic (p=0.026) and late diastolic (p<0.001) forward flows and total flow volume (p<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 5-HIAA in microalbuminuric patients showed higher associations with systolic and late diastolic forward flows during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume and resistive index at popliteal artery, and eGFR compared to normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, 5-HIAA was a significant independent determinant among these factors. Thus, increased plasma 5-HIAA levels are involved in the pathogenesis of impaired blood flow in lower extremities and renal insufficiency in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. PMID:26567921

  2. Increased Brain Lactate Concentrations Without Increased Lactate Oxidation During Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    De Feyter, Henk M.; Mason, Graeme F.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that brain metabolism of acetate is increased more than twofold during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects with hypoglycemia unawareness. These data support the hypothesis that upregulation of blood-brain barrier monocarboxylic acid (MCA) transport may contribute to the maintenance of brain energetics during hypoglycemia in subjects with hypoglycemia unawareness. Plasma lactate concentrations are ∼10-fold higher than acetate concentrations, making lactate the most likely alternative MCA as brain fuel. We therefore examined transport of [3-13C]lactate across the blood-brain barrier and its metabolism in the brains of T1D patients and nondiabetic control subjects during a hypoglycemic clamp using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Brain lactate concentrations were more than fivefold higher (P < 0.05) during hypoglycemia in the T1D subjects compared with the control subjects. Surprisingly, we observed no increase in the oxidation of blood-borne lactate in the T1D subjects, as reflected by similar 13C fractional enrichments in brain glutamate and glutamine. Taken together, these data suggest that in addition to increased MCA transport at the blood-brain barrier, there may be additional metabolic adaptations that contribute to hypoglycemia unawareness in patients with T1D. PMID:23715622

  3. [The high content of palmitinic fatty acid in food as a major cause of increase of concentration of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins and atheromatous plaques of arteries' intima].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2013-02-01

    The positioning of individual triglycerides of blood serum in palmitinic and oleic lipoproteins ofvery low density in the order ofincrease of the rate constant of their hydrolysis under action of post-heparin lipoprotein leads to the sequence as follows: palmitoil-palmitoil-palmitate-->palmitoil-palmitoil-oleate-->palmitoil-oleil-palmitat-->oleil-palmitoil-palmitate-->oleil-palmitate-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-oleate. The shift to the left and to the right is discerned with this spectrum of isoforms of triglycerides. The shift to the left into direction of palmitinicc triglycerides occurs in case of eating of animal food (i.e. beef andfoodstuf of fat saw milk) when the content of palmitinic saturated fatty acid supersedes 15% of fatty acids total and under the development of endogenic syndrome of insulin resistance. The content of low density lipoproteins cholesterol is high in blood The shift to the right with prevalence of oleinic triglycerides occurs in case of low content of beef and foodstuff of fat saw milk in food, fish eating, seafood and olive oil. The physiologic levels of carbohydrates in food and insulin function are present too. The shift to the right initiates the action of insulin, ometa-3 essential polyenic fatty acids, glytazones and fibrates. They increase the activity of delta9-stearil-KoA-desaturase-2 and the transformation of palmitine saturated fatty acid into mono unsaturated oleinic fatty acid. The shift to the left forms the palmitine alternative of metabolism of substrate to supply cells with energy. The shift to the right is a more effective oleinic alternative. PMID:23808000

  4. Hyperammonemia Associated with Valproic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Alvariza, Silvana; Magallanes, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β-oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%). Carnitine is responsible for its entry into the mitochondria as any other fatty acid. Long-term high-dose VPA therapy or acute VPA overdose induces carnitine depletion, resulting in high levels of ammonia in blood. As a high correlation between salivary valproic acid levels and plasma ultrafiltrate levels was found in humans, saliva becomes a promising monitoring fluid in order to study valproic acid pharmacokinetics and its toxic effect. Extended-release (twice daily) formulations of valproic acid or carnitine supplementation are the proposed two therapeutic strategies in order to reverse hyperammonemia. PMID:24868521

  5. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  6. The effects of increasing dietary levels of amino acid-supplemented soy protein concentrate and constant dietary supplementation of phosphorus on growth, composition and immune responses of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Metochis, C; Crampton, V O; Ruohonen, K; Bell, J G; Adams, A; Thompson, K D

    2016-06-01

    Diets with 50 (SPC50), 65 (SPC65) and 80 % (SPC80) substitution of prime fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) were evaluated against a commercial type control feed with 35 % FM replacement with SPC. Increases in dietary SPC were combined with appropriate increases in methionine, lysine and threonine supplementation, whereas added phosphorus was constant among treatments. Diets were administered to quadruplicate groups of 29 g juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to constant light, for 97 days. On Day 63 salmon were subjected to vaccination. Significant weight reductions in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon were observed by Day 97. Linear reductions in body cross-sectional ash, Ca/P ratios, and Ca, P, Mn and Zn were observed at Days 63 (prior vaccination) and 97 (34 days post-vaccination), while Mg presented a decrease at Day 63, in salmon fed increasing dietary SPC. Significant reductions in Zn, Ca, P and Ca/P ratios persisted in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon at Day 97. Significant haematocrit reductions in SPC50, SPC65 and SPC80 salmon were observed at Days 63, 70 and 97. Enhanced plasma haemolytic activity, increased total IgM, and a rise in thrombocytes were demonstrated in SPC50 and SPC65 salmon on Day 97, while increased lysozyme activity was demonstrated for these groups on Days 63, 70 and 97. Leucocyte and lymphocyte counts revealed enhanced immunostimulation in salmon fed with increasing dietary SPC at Day 97. High SPC inclusion diets did not compromise the immune responses of salmon, while SPC50 diet also supported good growth without compromising elemental concentrations. PMID:26781956

  7. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, A.D.; Overstreet, D.H.; Crocker, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptor sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration.

  8. Effect of increased photoperiod on hormone concentrations in thoroughbred stallions.

    PubMed

    Burns, P J; Jawad, M J; Edmundson, A; Cahill, C; Boucher, J K; Wilson, E A; Douglas, R H

    1982-01-01

    Stallions on two Central Kentucky farms (9/farm) were studied during the 1980 breeding season. On one farm stallions were exposed to an increased photoperiod (16 h light/day) from 1 December 1979; on the second farm the stallions were maintained in an ambient photoperiod. On the basis of matings per conception (total mating/mares in foal) stallions on each farm were assigned to a high fertility (1 . 9-2 . 4 matings per conception, N = 4) or low fertility (2 . 6-5 . 6 matings per conception, N = 5) group. Exposure of stallions to increased photoperiod significantly increased serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione, testosterone and oestrone by the start of the breeding season (16 February) while concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta and total oestrogens were similar in the two groups. LH was the only hormone significantly affected by the fertility of stallions, with LH concentrations consistently higher in the 'increased light-high fertility' stallions compared to the low basal concentration observed in the other 3 groups during the early breeding season (16 Feb.-31 March). FSH concentrations were not significantly affected by photoperiod or fertility, but appeared to be consistently higher in the 'increased light-high fertility' stallions than in the 'increased light-low fertility' stallions. The 'increased light-high fertility' stallions were mated to more mares than were stallions in the other 3 groups and differences in LH and FSH concentrations may therefore have been confounded with frequency of mating. Seasonal conception rates were unaffected by increased photoperiod. PMID:6820058

  9. DICARBOXYLIC ACID CONCENTRATION TRENDS AND SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dicarboxylic acids associated with airborne particulate matter were measured during a summer period in Philadelphia that included multiple air pollution episodes. Samples were collected for two ten hour periods each day using a high volume sampler with two quartz fiber filters in...

  10. MCS precipitation and downburst intensity response to increased aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavner, M.; Cotton, W. R.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to rainfall in the High Plains of the United States as well as producers of severe weather such as hail, tornados and straight-line wind events known as derechos. Past studies have shown that changes in aerosol concentrations serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) alter the MCS hydrometeor characteristics which in turn modify precipitation yield, downdraft velocity, cold-pool strength, storm propagation and the potential for severe weather to occur. In this study, the sensitivity of MCS precipitation characteristics and convective downburst velocities associated with a derecho to changes in CCN concentrations were examined by simulating a case study using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The case study of the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS was chosen since it produced a swath of widespread wind damage in association with an embedded large-scale bow echo, over a broad region from the High Plains of western Kansas to the foothills of the Appalachians. The sensitivity of the storm to changes in CCN concentrations was examined by conducting a set of three simulations which differed in the initial aerosol concentration based on output from the 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem. Results from this study indicate that while increasing CCN concentrations led to an increase in precipitation rates, the changes to the derecho strength were not linear. A moderate increase in aerosol concentration reduced the derecho strength, while the simulation with the highest aerosol concentrations increased the derecho intensity. These changes are attributed to the impact of enhanced CCN concentration on the production of convective downbursts. An analysis of aerosol loading impacts on these MCS features will be presented.

  11. Recent increase in Antarctic Peninsula ice core uranium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potocki, Mariusz; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Simões, Jefferson C.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Goodwin, Ian; Carleton, Andrew M.; Handley, Michael J.; Jaña, Ricardo; Korotkikh, Elena V.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the distribution of airborne uranium is important because it can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity. Ice cores offer the most robust reconstruction of past atmospheric levels of toxic substances. Here we present the first sub-annually dated, continuously sampled ice core documenting change in U levels in the Southern Hemisphere. The ice core was recovered from the Detroit Plateau, northern Antarctic Peninsula, in 2007 by a joint Brazilian-Chilean-US team. It displays a significant increase in U concentration that coincides with reported mining activities in the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australia. Raw U concentrations in the Detroit Plateau ice core increased by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s accompanied by increased variability in recent years. Decadal mean U concentrations increased by a factor of ∼3 from 1980 to 2007, reaching a mean of 205 pg/L from 2000 to 2007. The fact that other terrestrial source dust elements such as Ce, La, Pr, and Ti do not show a similar increase and that the increased U concentrations are enriched above natural crustal levels, supports an anthropogenic source for the U as opposed to a change in atmospheric circulation.

  12. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration.

    PubMed

    Hansten, P D; Hayton, W L

    1980-01-01

    To determine the effect of antacid or ascorbic acid administration on plateau serum salicylate concentrations, nine healthy subjects were given each of the following treatments by balanced block design: choline salicylate (equivalent to 3.76 or 5.62 Gm/day of aspirin); choline salicylate plus magnesium-aluminum hydroxide (120 ml/day); or choline salicylate plus ascorbic acid (3 Gm/day). In subjects developing a control serum salicylate level above 10 mg/dl, antacid administration produced a decrease in serum salicylate level (mean 19.8 mg/dl vs. 15.8 mg/dl) (P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid administration was not associated with a significant change in serum salicylate. The reduction in serum salicylate following antacid appears to be due to antacid-induced alkalinization of the urine with resultant increase in renal salicylate clearance. Antacid administration should be considered a potential cause of altered serum salicylate concentration in patients receiving large doses of salicylate. PMID:7400368

  13. Solubility series of methanofullerenes in concentrated sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglova, Yu. N.; Kolesov, S. V.; Biglova, R. Z.; Kraikin, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    A spectroscopic study of the dissolution of C60 and its monosubstituted derivatives methanofullerenes in 98% sulfuric acid revealed that methanofullerenes dissolved in sulfuric acid much better than the starting C60. A solubility series of functionalized fullerenes was obtained, which did not change during the extraction of methanofullerenes with sulfuric acid from benzene solutions. An effective methods was developed for separating methanofullerenes, which is based on the difference between the solubilities of the starting and functionalized fullerenes in concentrated sulfuric acid.

  14. Theoretical Basis for Convective Invigoration due to Increased Aerosol Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebo, Z. J.; Chen, Y.; Seinfeld, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent reports using a one-dimensional parcel model suggest that increases in aerosol number concentration may invigorate deep convection by mitigating the autoconversion process until air parcels reach the freezing level. This would lead to an increase in ice water aloft and the potential for enhanced upward heat transport due to phase changes, hence leading to invigorated convection. Other studies have proposed that an increase in aerosol loading may act to increase cloud top height, increasing the liquid water content, which ultimately increases the cumulative precipitation. Here we study the effect of aerosol perturbations on deep convection by employing the Weather Research and Forecasting model as a three-dimensional CRM with a two-moment, six-class bulk microphysics scheme. These results are corroborated using a newly developed bin microphysics scheme. The bulk microphysics scheme is augmented with a state-of-the-art activation scheme based on Köhler Theory and Population Splitting to analyze the effect of CCN perturbations on cloud development. Moreover, we include a physically-based parameterization for homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing to determine the effects of changes in IN number concentration on deep convective cloud development. We perform idealized simulations of deep convection over a wide range of CCN concentrations (i.e., 102 to 103 cm-3), which encompasses clean maritime conditions to polluted continental conditions, respectively. The detailed model calculations reveal that the CCN effect on precipitation in deep convective clouds depends strongly on the ambient water vapor mixing ratio profile. Our simulations suggest that under relatively dry conditions, an increase in aerosol number concentration leads to a decrease in precipitation (-4.2%), while under moist conditions, an increase in aerosol number concentration leads to an increase in precipitation (8.1%). However, when the water vapor in the mid- to upper-troposphere is depleted

  15. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  16. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  17. The global consequences of increasing tropospheric ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Recent analyses of long term records of tropospheric ozone measurements in the Northern Hemisphere suggest that it is increasing at a rate of 1 to 2 percent per year. Because of this, it is argued that the amount of atmospheric warming due to increasing tropospheric ozone is comparable to, or possibly even greater than, the amount of warming due to the increase of carbon dioxide. Unlike all other climatically important trace gases, ozone is toxic, and increases in its concentration will result in serious environmental damage, as well as impairment of human health.

  18. The global consequences of increasing tropospheric ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Recent analyses of long-term records of tropospheric ozone measurements in the Northern Hemisphere suggest that it is increasing at a rate of 1 to 2 percent per year. Because of this, it is argued that the amount of atmospheric warming due to increasing tropospheric ozone is comparable to, or possibly even greater than, the amount of warming due to the increase of carbon dioxide. Unlike all other climatically important trace gases, ozone is toxic, and increases in its concentration will result in serious environmental damage, as well as impairment of human health.

  19. Dealing with the increased radon concentration in thermally retrofitted buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M; Kačmaříková, V

    2014-07-01

    The influence of energy-saving measures on indoor radon concentration has been studied on the basis of a family house made of clinker concrete wall panels containing from 1000 up to 4000 Bq kg(-1) of 226Ra. Thermal retrofitting based on installing external thermal insulation composite system on the building envelope and replacing existing windows by new ones decreased the annual energy need for heating 2.8 times, but also reduced the ventilation rate to values<0.1 h(-1). As a consequence, the 1-y average indoor radon concentration values increased 3.4 times from 337 to 1117 Bq m(-3). The additional risk of lung cancer in the thermally retrofitted house increased to a value that is 125 % higher than before conversion. Methods for dealing with this enhanced risk by increasing the ventilation rate are discussed. Recovery of investments and the energy consequences of increased ventilation are studied in a long-term perspective. PMID:24729563

  20. The effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration, for which a measurable growth has been observed in the recent past. Increased carbon dioxide can indirectly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO2 concentration is twice its ambient level; the results account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2-2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km, ozone concentrations were larger than the ambient values, a maximum increase of 16% being reached at 43 km. In this region the relative variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10-30 km).

  1. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for determination of salivary eicosapentaenoic acid concentration to arachidonic acid concentration ratio.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Tomaru, Koki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Watanabe, Shui; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration to arachidonic acid (AA) concentration ratio in human saliva has been developed. The EPA/AA ratio in serum or plasma is widely recognized as a useful indicator in identifying the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. The salivary EPA/AA ratio is expected to be a convenient alternative to the serum or plasma EPA/AA ratio, because saliva offers the advantages of easy and noninvasive sampling. The saliva was deproteinized with acetonitrile, purified using an Oasis HLB cartridge, and derivatized with 1-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)carbonyl]piperazine (DAPPZ). The derivatized EPA and AA were subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS, and the EPA/AA ratio was determined using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The DAPPZ-derivatization increased the ESI sensitivity by 100- and 300-fold for EPA and AA, respectively, and enabled the detection of trace fatty acids in saliva using a 200 μL sample. The assay reproducibility was satisfactory (relative standard deviation, <5.0%). The method was successfully applied to the measurement of the salivary EPA/AA ratios of healthy Japanese subjects and their changes owing to the supplementation of EPA. PMID:25620210

  2. Effect of nitric acid concentrations on synthesis and stability of maghemite nanoparticles suspension.

    PubMed

    Nurdin, Irwan; Johan, Mohd Rafie; Yaacob, Iskandar Idris; Ang, Bee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method at different nitric acid concentrations as an oxidizing agent. Characterization of all samples performed by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. The crystallite size of all samples decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with decreased magnetization values at the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TGA measurement showed that the stability temperature decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. DLS measurement showed that the hydrodynamic particle sizes decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. Zeta potential values show a decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. The increasing concentration of nitric acid in synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability, and more stable maghemite nanoparticles suspension. PMID:24963510

  3. Effect of Nitric Acid Concentrations on Synthesis and Stability of Maghemite Nanoparticles Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Iskandar Idris

    2014-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method at different nitric acid concentrations as an oxidizing agent. Characterization of all samples performed by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. The crystallite size of all samples decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with decreased magnetization values at the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TGA measurement showed that the stability temperature decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. DLS measurement showed that the hydrodynamic particle sizes decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. Zeta potential values show a decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. The increasing concentration of nitric acid in synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability, and more stable maghemite nanoparticles suspension. PMID:24963510

  4. Increased formation of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salen, G; Tint, G S; Eliav, B; Deering, N; Mosbach, E H

    1974-01-01

    The formation of ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, was investigated in three subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and in four subjects with gallstones. Total biliary bile acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography before and after 4 months of treatment with 0.75 g/day of chenodeoxycholic acid. Individual bile acids were identified by mass spectrometry. Before treatment, bile from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) subjects contained cholic acid, 85%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 7%; deoxycholic acid, 3%; allocholic acid, 3%; and unidentified steroids, 2%; while bile from gallstone subjects contained cholic acid, 45%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 43%; deoxycholic acid, 11%, and lithocholic acid, 1%. In all subjects, 4 months of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy increased the proportion of this bile acid to approximately 80% and decreased cholic acid to 3% of the total biliary bile acids, the remaining 17% of bile acids were identified as ursodeoxycholic acid. After the intravenous injection of [3H]chenodeoxycholic acid, the specific activity of biliary ursodeoxycholic acid exceeded the specific activity of chenodeoxycholic acid, and the resulting specific activity decay curves suggested precursor-product relationships. When [3H]7-ketolithocholic acid was administrated to another patient treated with chenodeoxycholic acid, radioactivity was detected in both the ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid fractions. These results indicate that substantial amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid are formed in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid. The ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid presumably via 7-ketolithocholic acid. Images PMID:11344576

  5. Ocular acid burn due to 20% concentrated salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shazly, Tarek A

    2011-03-01

    This is a case report of severe conjunctival and corneal epithelial defects resulting from accidental exposure to salicylic acid that was mistakenly used instead of artificial tears (eye drops). The patient was treated with tobramycin 0.3%-dexamethasone 1% 3 times a day, cyclopentolate 1% twice a day, and artificial tears 6 times a day and underwent daily examinations until the corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects resolved. The corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects slowly resolved over 14 days. Visual acuity improved to its preinjury level of 20/40 in the affected eye. No residual corneal scarring was evident. Slowly resolving corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects can occur from direct contact with salicylic acid; therefore, this medication should be packaged and labeled differently from eye drops. PMID:20954793

  6. Supplemental silicon increases plasma and milk silicon concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Lang, K J; Nielsen, B D; Waite, K L; Hill, G M; Orth, M W

    2001-10-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary silicon (Si) on plasma and milk Si concentrations of lactating mares and the subsequent effect on plasma Si concentrations in nursing foals. Additionally, the role of Si on altering biochemical markers of bone turnover was investigated, because supplemental Si may be advantageous in enhancing bone health. Twelve Arabian mare/foal units were pair-matched by foaling date and randomly assigned to two groups, Si-supplemented (Supplemented) or control (Control). Blood and milk samples were taken on d 0, 15, 30, and 45, d 0 being the 1st d after parturition. Plasma and milk (or colostrum) Si concentrations were determined and serum was analyzed for osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide region of type I collagen, and pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline crosslinks. All Supplemented mares had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Si concentrations than Control by d 30, and Supplemented mares' milk had higher (P < 0.01) Si concentrations on d 45 than Control mares' milk. By d 45, foals of Supplemented mares had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Si concentrations than foals of Control mares. Supplemental Si did not influence (P > 0.36) bone metabolism in foals; however, trends (P < 0.10) for altered bone metabolism were observed in postpartum mares. Results indicate that supplemental Si increases plasma and milk Si concentrations. Further research is required to determine whether Si has a role in altering serum biochemical markers of bone and collagen activity. PMID:11721842

  7. Glacier Melting Increases the Solute Concentrations of Himalayan Glacial Lakes.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Franco; Rogora, Michela; Balestrini, Raffaella; Lami, Andrea; Tartari, Gabriele A; Thakuri, Sudeep; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, we observed a substantial rise in ionic content that was mainly determined by the sulfate concentration at 20 remote high elevation lakes located in central southern Himalaya. At LCN9, which was monitored on an annual basis for the last 20 years, the sulfate concentrations increased over 4-fold. Among the main causes, we exclude a change in the composition of wet atmospheric deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes. Glacier retreat likely was the main factor responsible for the observed increase of sulfate concentrations. We attribute this chemical changes mainly to the sulfide oxidation processes that occur in subglacial environments. Moreover, we observe that the weakened monsoon of the past two decades has only partially contributed to the lakes enrichment through runoff waters that are more concentrated in solutes or lowering the water table, resulting in more rock exposed to air and enhanced mineral oxidation. PMID:27466701

  8. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  9. Highly accurate boronimeter assay of concentrated boric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.

  10. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  11. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  12. IMPACT OF INCREASED ALUMINATE CONCENTRATIONS ON PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE MIXES

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2007-10-12

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. The protocols developed in this variability study are ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations (LWO). One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentrations as well as the free hydroxide ion concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF). Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. The projected compositions and ranges of the aluminate rich salt stream (which includes the blending strategy) are not yet available and consequently, in this initial report, two separate salt stream compositions were investigated. The first stream starts with the previously projected baseline composition of the salt solution that will be fed to SPF from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The second stream is the solution that results from washing of the current Tank 51 sludge and subsequent transfer of the salt solution to Tank 11. The SWPF simulant has higher nitrate and lower free hydroxide than the Tank 11 simulant. In both of these cases, the aluminate was varied up to a maximum of 0.40 to 0.45M aluminate in order to evaluate the impact of increasing aluminate ion concentration on the grout properties. In general, the fresh grout properties of mixes made with SWPF and Tank 11 simulants were relatively insensitive to an increase in aluminate concentration in the salt solutions. However, the overall

  13. Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents pictorial analogies of several concepts relating to solutions for chemistry students. These include concentration of solution, strength of solution, supersaturated solution, and conjugate acid-base pairs. Among the examples are comparison of acid strength to percentage of strong soldiers or making supersaturated solution analogous to a…

  14. Blood concentrations of everolimus are markedly increased by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, J M; Beyer, D; Bizot, M N; Jiang, Q; Shenouda, M; Schmouder, R L

    2005-05-01

    The authors sought to quantify the influence of the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of everolimus in healthy subjects. This was a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study in 12 healthy subjects. In period 1, subjects received the reference treatment of a single 2-mg dose of everolimus. In period 2, they received the test treatment of ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for a total of 8 days and a single dose of everolimus coadministered on the fourth day of ketoconazole therapy. The test/reference ratio and 90% confidence interval were derived for everolimus maximum concentration and area under the curve. During ketoconazole coadministration, everolimus maximum concentration increased 3.9-fold (90% confidence interval, 3.4-4.6) from 15 +/- 4 ng/mL to 59 +/- 13 ng/mL. Everolimus area under the curve increased 15.0-fold (90% confidence interval, 13.6-16.6) from 90 +/- 23 ng*h/mL to 1324 +/- 232 ng*h/mL. Everolimus half-life was prolonged by 1.9-fold from 30 +/- 4 hours to 56 +/- 5 hours. Everolimus did not appear to alter ketoconazole predose concentrations. Given the magnitude of this drug interaction, use of ketoconazole should be avoided if possible in everolimus-treated patients. PMID:15831774

  15. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  16. Mechanochemical leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadabad, Farhad Khorramshahi; Hejazi, Sina; khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to introduce a new cost-effective methodology for increasing the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite concentrates at ambient temperature and pressure. Mechanical activation was employed during the leaching (mechanochemical leaching) of chalcopyrite concentrates in a sulfuric acid medium at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. High energy ball milling process was used during the leaching to provide the mechanochemical leaching condition, and atomic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to determine the leaching behavior of chalcopyrite. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the chalcopyrite powder before and after leaching. The results demonstrated that mechanochemical leaching was effective; the extraction of copper increased significantly and continuously. Although the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite was very low at ambient temperature, the percentages of copper dissolved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) after 20 h of mechanochemical leaching reached 28% and 33%, respectively. Given the efficiency of the developed method and the facts that it does not require the use of an autoclave and can be conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, it represents an economical and easy-to-use method for the leaching industry.

  17. Broiler skin color as affected by organic acids: influence of concentration and method of application.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, S F; Conner, D E; Pinion, J L; Tamblyn, K C

    1998-05-01

    Color of broiler skin was evaluated after exposure to organic acids under various concentrations and simulated potential plant application conditions. Breast skin from chilled broiler carcasses was treated with acetic (AA), citric (CA), lactic (LA), malic (ML), mandelic (MN), propionic (PA), or tartaric (TA) acids at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6% concentrations. Each acid and concentration was applied in simulated dip (23 C for 15 s), scalder (50 C for 2 min), and immersion chiller (1 C for 60 min) conditions. A tap water control was included with each application method. Objective color values of L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were measured before and after the treatments to calculate color differentials under a factorial arrangement of organic acids and concentrations. Skin lightness increased (P < 0.01) in simulated chiller as compared to dip and scalder applications. Skin redness was reduced significantly in scalder, and yellowness in dip and scalder applications, respectively. In simulated dip application, with the exception of PA, all acids decreased lightness and increased redness and yellowness values. Propionic acid had little affect on lightness and redness values, but decreased yellowness values. In simulated scalder application, with the exception of PA, all acids decreased lightness with increasing concentration. The redness values changed little in scalder application. However, yellowness values were increased with all acids, except for PA, which decreased yellowness values. In simulated chiller conditions, all acids, except for PA, decreased lightness and redness and increased yellowness values. Propionic acid increased lightness and decreased yellowness values significantly in chiller conditions. Alterations in skin color should be taken into account in the selection and application of organic acids as carcass disinfectants. PMID:9603365

  18. Using nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations during the transition period for herd-level monitoring of increased risk of disease and decreased reproductive and milking performance.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Paula A; McArt, Jessica A; Overton, Thomas R; Stokol, Tracy; Nydam, Daryl V

    2013-07-01

    Dairy cows visit a state of negative energy balance (NEB) as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. At the individual level, there are several metabolic adaptations to manage NEB, including mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat reserves and glucose sparing for lactogenesis. Based on current pen-level feeding and management practices, strategies to minimize excessive NEB in both the individual and herd should focus on herd-level testing and management. This article reviews strategies for testing and monitoring of excessive NEB at the herd level through individual testing of 2 energy markers: NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:23809897

  19. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs. PMID:19010319

  20. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter) have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens) and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments. PMID:24204364

  1. Method of increasing conversion of a fatty acid to its corresponding dicarboxylic acid

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-09-14

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  2. Relationship between adipic acid concentration and the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Puig-Alcaraz, Carmen; Fuentes-Albero, Milagros; Cauli, Omar

    2016-08-30

    Dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential physiopathological alterations in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We measured the concentration between dicarboxylic adipic and suberic acids in children with an ASD and typically-developing (TD) children and analyzed any relationships between the severity of the core symptoms of ASDs and other clinical features (drugs, supplements, drugs, or diet). The core symptoms of autism were evaluated using the DSM-IV criteria, and adipic acid and suberic acid were measured in urine samples. Overall, no increase in the concentration of adipic acid in children with ASDs compared to TD children, however when considering vitamin B supplementation in ASD there were significantly increased level of urinary adipic acid in children with an ASD not taking vitamin B supplementation compared to supplemented children or to TD children. No significant difference were observed in suberic acid. Interestingly, the increase in adipic acid concentration was significantly and indirectly correlated with the severity of the deficit in socialization and communication skills in children with an ASD. Therefore, therapeutic treatments aimed at decreasing adipic acid concentration might not be beneficial for treating the core symptoms of ASDs. PMID:27259135

  3. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  4. Coenzyme Q10 Administration Increases Brain Mitochondrial Concentrations and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Russell T.; Yang, Lichuan; Browne, Susan; Baik, Myong; Flint Beal, M.

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain as well as a potent free radical scavenger in lipid and mitochondrial membranes. Feeding with coenzyme Q10 increased cerebral cortex concentrations in 12- and 24-month-old rats. In 12-month-old rats administration of coenzyme Q10 resulted in significant increases in cerebral cortex mitochondrial concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 markedly attenuated striatal lesions produced by systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid and significantly increased life span in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results show that oral administration of coenzyme Q10 increases both brain and brain mitochondrial concentrations. They provide further evidence that coenzyme Q10 can exert neuroprotective effects that might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Increased indoor thoron concentrations and implication to inhalation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Li, W B; Meisenberg, O

    2007-01-01

    Increased concentrations of thoron (220Rn) and its progenies were recently measured in traditional residential dwellings and gave rise to concern about thoron dose assessment. A compartment model for the attached and unattached thoron progenies in the human body by inhalation was adapted, applied to individual measurements and examined in regard to model parameters. It was found that the lung dose is the dominant contribution to the thoron effective dose in spite of the transfer of 212Pb to other tissue. The organ equivalent dose and effective dose coefficients may change by about a factor of 2 within the 0.0-0.2 range of the unattached fraction. A decrease of the dissolution half-life of the inhaled particles in the lungs by a factor of 10 results in a decrease of the effective dose by <50%. Individual measurements of total concentration and unattached fraction result in a mean dose conversion factor of 1.3 Sv per Jhm(-3) and a mean annual dose to the residents of 11 mSv for permanent stay. PMID:17634205

  6. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations increase following acupoint injection for primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine M.; Booth, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic benefits of acupoint injection of vitamin K in Spleen-6 for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea have been observed in limited clinical settings. However, menadione, the form of vitamin K most studied for treating dysmenorrhea, is not routinely used in clinical practice in North America. As part of a larger clinical trial among women with primary dysmenorrhea aged 18 to 25 years old, we conducted a sub-study to test the plasma concentration of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We collected blood samples of four women prior to and 24-48 hours following acupoint injection of phylloquinone in Spleen-6. Despite rapid turnover of phylloquinone observed in prior studies, we found that plasma phylloquinone concentrations significantly increased from pre-injection to one to two days after injection. Interestingly, higher phylloquinone was correlated with less pain intensity among women with dysmenorrhea. Additional research is needed on the association between vitamin K and menstrual pain, including the role of vitamin K deficiency in inflammation and pain, and the possible mechanisms of acupoint injection of vitamin K for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24929459

  7. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids. PMID:26473812

  8. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIEJING; LI, YANXI; ZHANG, PENGHUI; NIU, HUA; SHI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F-actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in β-tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F-actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F-actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  9. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Penghui; Niu, Hua; Shi, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F‑actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in β‑tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin‑proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F‑actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F‑actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  10. Concentration-Purification of Uranium from an Acid Leaching Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettaf, H.; Becis, A.; Ferhat, K.; Hanou, K.; Bouchiha, D.; Yakoubi, K.; Ferrad, F.

    2009-11-01

    Chemical processes for the elaboration of uranium concentrate from uranium ore have been studied. This process is composed of successive units operations: crushing, milling, acid conventional leaching, filtration-washing, purification-concentration by ion exchange resins and uranium precipitation. The acid leaching operating conditions allow us to obtain a recovery uranium rate of 93%. The uranium concentration of the pregnant solution is approximately of 1.2 g/l. This value justifies the use of ion exchange resins to the concentration-purification of our pregnant solution. We have noticed that the pregnant solution contains a relatively high phosphate concentration which causes a premature uranium precipitation at pH=1.8. This pH value is in general, considered optimal to obtain the highest amount of fixed uranium by the anionic resin. To avoid the precipitation of uranium, the pH=1.5 has been fixed. We have obtained at this condition a good adsorption capacity. A 75% uranium concentrate have been elaborated, but the filtration of this concentrate has been very difficult. We have also noticed an excessive sulphate concentration. In order to improve this process, we have tested nitrates as eluant at different operating conditions.

  11. ELEVATED METHYLMALOIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS ARE COMMON AMONG ELDERLY AMERICANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To describe serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations of elderly Americans and examine relations between serum MMA and other factors, we used surplus sera collected from elderly (n=1,145) and young-adult (n=1,026) participants in Phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur...

  12. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  13. Can chronic gastritis cause an increase in fecal calprotectin concentrations?

    PubMed Central

    Montalto, Massimo; Gallo, Antonella; Ianiro, Gianluca; Santoro, Luca; D’Onofrio, Ferruccio; Ricci, Riccardo; Cammarota, Giovanni; Covino, Marcello; Vastola, Monica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations (FCCs) in subjects with chronic gastritis and the correlation between FCCs and gastritis activity score. METHODS: FCCs were measured in 61 patients with histological diagnosis of gastritis and in 74 healthy volunteers. Histological grading of gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney gastritis classification. Patients were subdivided into 2 groups according to the presence/absence of an active gastritis. Patients with chronic active gastritis were divided into 3 subgroups on the basis of the activity score (mild, moderate, marked). FFCs in relation to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were also evaluated. RESULTS: FCCs in patients with chronic active gastritis were not significantly different to FCCs either in subjects with non active gastritis or in healthy controls. Among patients with chronic active gastritis (even marked), FCCs did not significantly differ according to activity score. No significant differences in FCCs were found when considering H. pylori, as well as when considering PPI chronic use. CONCLUSION: FCCs were not significantly increased in subjects with chronic gastritis, even in those patients with a marked neutrophil infiltration. PMID:20632443

  14. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-06-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. PMID:23416228

  15. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    PubMed

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer. PMID:26188303

  16. Increasing the Oleic Acid in Soybean Oil with Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the oleic acid content along with decrease in linolenic acid can improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Genetic changes in soybean using standard plant breeding practices has resulted in a publicly released a mid-oleic breeding line, N98-4445A, with oil that averages 57% oleic ac...

  17. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  18. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  19. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. Methods We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Conclusions/interpretation Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss. PMID:25702040

  20. Lack of Evidence for Pervasive DOC Concentration Increases in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackpoole, S. M.; Burns, D. A.; Stets, E.; Striegl, R. G.; Clow, D. W.; Creed, I. F.; Hirsch, R. M.; Laudon, H.; Pellerin, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent studies have reported widespread increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and loads in streams and rivers worldwide, but few studies have focused on temporal patterns in large rivers that drain landscapes influenced by agriculture. We analyzed annual changes in flow-adjusted concentrations (FACs) of DOC between 1997 and 2013 at eight sites in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) using the Mann-Kendall Trend Test. The FACs represent the residuals of simple linear regression models evaluating the relationship between stream flow and DOC concentration. Our results indicate that statistically significant increases in DOC FACs occurred for only two of the eight sites, at Clinton, IA and Hermann, MO. Trends in DOC concentration were also determined using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model, which is designed to examine the nature and extent of temporal trends in flow normalized (FN) concentrations but does not provide p-values for departure from the null hypothesis of stationary behavior. The results of the WRTDS model corroborate the results of the Mann-Kendall test, and the only considerable increases in FN DOC concentrations occurred at the sites near Clinton, IA and Hermann, MO, which had 26% and 15% increases in DOC FN concentrations during median to high flows, respectively. Changes for the six other sites were much lower, ranging from -4.9% to +6.9%, with the two most downstream sites at St. Francisville and Melville, Louisiana showing the decreasing changes. Since the WRTDS model eliminates the impact of variable hydrology, it allows us to focus on other factors that may drive changes in concentration over time. We couple the output from the WRTDS model with variables related to declining acid deposition, land management, and climate change in an attempt to explain the pattern in DOC concentration trends in the MRB.

  1. Effect of acid leaching on upgrading the graphite concentrate from West Kalimantan (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifuddin, Fahmi; Florena, Fenfen Fenda; Hanam, Eko Sulistio; Trisko, Nici; Kustiyanto, Eko; Enilisiana, Rianto, Anton; Arinton, Ghenadi

    2016-02-01

    In this research an attempt has been done for upgrading the carbon content on processed graphite concentrate obtained from Sanggau Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia by acid leaching. The purpose of this research was to find optimal conditions for increasing graphite purity by eliminating the impurities, in particular, sillica - which is easy to remove by hydrofluoric acid. The concentrate contained 69.74% FC ranging from 149 µm to 841 µm. The optimal leaching parameters were time reaction 120 minutes, temperature 180° C, solid-liquid ratio 1:5 and purity of acid 48%. The determination of the carbon content showed that the carbon grade was 98% FC.

  2. Increase of α1-acid glycoprotein after treatment with amitriptyline

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P.; Tinguely, D.; Schöpf, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen primary depressive patients were treated for 3 weeks with amitriptyline 150 mg daily. In thirteen patients the plasma level of α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) significantly increased after the treatment but the albumin levels did not change. PMID:7104160

  3. Physiological concentrations of bile acids down-regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Keating, Niamh; Mroz, Magdalena S; Scharl, Michael M; Marsh, Christine; Ferguson, Gail; Hofmann, Alan F; Keely, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl(-) and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study set out to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant DCA concentrations on colonic epithelial secretory function. Cl(-) secretion was measured as changes in short-circuit current across voltage-clamped T(84) cell monolayers. At high concentrations (0.5-1 mM), DCA acutely stimulated Cl(-) secretion but this effect was associated with cell injury, as evidenced by decreased transepithelial resistance (TER) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In contrast, chronic (24 hrs) exposure to lower DCA concentrations (10-200 microM) inhibited responses to Ca(2+) and cAMP-dependent secretagogues without altering TER, LDH release, or secretagogue-induced increases in intracellular second messengers. Other bile acids - taurodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid - had similar antisecretory effects. DCA (50 microM) rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) and both ERK and p38 MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases). The EGFr inhibitor, AG1478, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, reversed the antisecretory effects of DCA, while the MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and SB203580, did not. In summary, our studies suggest that, in contrast to its acute prosecretory effects at pathophysiological concentrations, lower, physiologically relevant, levels of DCA chronically down-regulate colonic epithelial secretory function. On the basis of these data, we propose a novel role for bile acids as physiological regulators of colonic secretory capacity. PMID:19583809

  4. Physiological concentrations of bile acids down‐regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Niamh; Mroz, Magdalena S.; Scharl, Michael M.; Marsh, Christine; Ferguson, Gail; Hofmann, Alan F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl− and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study set out to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant DCA concentrations on colonic epithelial secretory function. Cl− secretion was measured as changes in short‐circuit current across voltage‐clamped T84 cell monolayers. At high concentrations (0.5–1 mM), DCA acutely stimulated Cl− secretion but this effect was associated with cell injury, as evidenced by decreased transepithelial resistance (TER) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In contrast, chronic (24 hrs) exposure to lower DCA concentrations (10–200 μM) inhibited responses to Ca2+ and cAMP‐dependent secretagogues without altering TER, LDH release, or secretagogue‐induced increases in intracellular second messengers. Other bile acids – taurodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid – had similar antisecretory effects. DCA (50 μM) rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) and both ERK and p38 MAPKs (mitogen‐activated protein kinases). The EGFr inhibitor, AG1478, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, reversed the antisecretory effects of DCA, while the MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and SB203580, did not. In summary, our studies suggest that, in contrast to its acute prosecretory effects at pathophysiological concentrations, lower, physiologically relevant, levels of DCA chronically down‐regulate colonic epithelial secretory function. On the basis of these data, we propose a novel role for bile acids as physiological regulators of colonic secretory capacity. PMID:19583809

  5. Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is a good source of citrulline, an amino acid that can be converted to arginine in the human body. Arginine helps in cardiovascular and immune health. No studies have been conducted to evaluate plasma arginine response in humans following consumption of citrulline from natural plant so...

  6. Increase in adipose tissue linoleic acid of US adults in the last half century.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is a bioactive fatty acid with diverse effects on human physiology and pathophysiology. LA is a major dietary fatty acid, and also one of the most abundant fatty acids in adipose tissue, where its concentration reflects dietary intake. Over the last half century in the United States, dietary LA intake has greatly increased as dietary fat sources have shifted toward polyunsaturated seed oils such as soybean oil. We have conducted a systematic literature review of studies reporting the concentration of LA in subcutaneous adipose tissue of US cohorts. Our results indicate that adipose tissue LA has increased by 136% over the last half century and that this increase is highly correlated with an increase in dietary LA intake over the same period of time. PMID:26567191

  7. Dose-response of five bile acids on serum and liver bile Acid concentrations and hepatotoxicty in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Peizhen; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2011-10-01

    Feeding bile acids (BAs) to rodents has been used to study BA signaling and toxicity in vivo. However, little is known about the effect of feeding BAs on the concentrations of BAs in serum and liver as well as the dose of the fed BAs that causes liver toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the relative hepatotoxicity of individual BAs by feeding mice cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3% in their diet for 7 days. The data demonstrate that (1) the ability of the fed BAs to produce hepatotoxicity is UDCAconcentration of each BA in the feed that causes hepatotoxicity in mice is CA and CDCA at 0.3%, DCA at 0.1%, and LCA at 0.03%; (3) BA feeding results in a dose-dependent increase in the total serum BA concentrations but had little effect on liver total BA concentrations; (4) hepatotoxicity of the fed BAs does not simply depend on the concentration or hydrophobicity of total BAs in the liver; and (5) liver BA-conjugation enzymes are saturated by feeding UDCA at concentrations higher than 0.3%. In conclusion, the findings of the present study provide guidance for choosing the feeding concentrations of BAs in mice and will aid in interpreting BA hepatotoxicity as well as BA-mediated gene regulation. PMID:21747115

  8. Electrodialysis synthesis of concentrated solutions of perrhenic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palant, A. A.; Bryukvin, V. A.; Levin, A. M.; Reshetova, O. V.

    2011-03-01

    The presented results demonstrate the possibility of electrodialysis production of concentrated solutions of perrhenic acid (HReO4 concentration >400 g/l). KReO4 is used as a precursor. The investigations are performed in a three-chamber electrodialysis cell in a continuous mode. The optimal processing parameters are as follows: the current is 3-5 A, the voltage is 30-40 V, and the anode chamber temperature is 20-25°C. Grade AR-0 ammonium perrhenate is precipitated from the obtained HReO4 solution.

  9. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils. PMID:25172460

  10. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  11. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health. PMID:27105403

  12. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  13. Determination of effect factor for effective parameter on saccharification of lignocellulosic material by concentrated acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, Sina; Nodeh, Ali Arasteh

    2015-12-01

    Tamarisk usage as a new group of lignocelluloses material to produce fermentable sugars in bio ethanol process was studied. The overall aim of this work was to establish the optimum condition for acid hydrolysis of this new material and a mathematical model predicting glucose release as a function of operation variable. Sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 20 to 60%(w/w), process temperature between 60 to 95oC, hydrolysis time from 120 to 240 min and solid content 5,10,15%(w/w) were used as hydrolysis conditions. HPLC was used to analysis of the product. This analysis indicated that glucose was the main fermentable sugar and was increase with time, temperature and solid content and acid concentration was a parabola influence in glucose production. The process was modeled by a quadratic equation. Curve study and model were found that 42% acid concentration, 15 % solid content and 90oC were optimum condition.

  14. Increased concentrations of D-dimers in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, I R; Gibson, B E; Brownlie, J; Holland, B M; Turner, T L; Webber, R G

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of D-dimers (the D fragments of fibrinogen) were measured in blood from 15 preterm infants, and 45 born at full term, to establish normal ranges. The adult normal range is less than 0.25 mg/l; 31 of the 60 infants (52%) had values less than 0.25 mg/l, in 16 (27%) they were 0.25-0.5, in eight (13%) 0.5-1, in three (5%) 1-2, and in two (3%) 2-4. D-dimer concentrations measured during the neonatal period should be interpreted with caution. PMID:2337364

  15. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Mori, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    Rice consumption is a major source of cadmium and arsenic for the population of Asia. We investigated the effects of water management in rice paddy on levels of cadmium and arsenic in Japanese rice grains. Flooding increased arsenic concentrations in rice grains, whereas aerobic treatment increased the concentration of cadmium. Flooding for 3 weeks before and after heading was most effective in reducing grain cadmium concentrations, but this treatment increased the arsenic concentration considerably, whereas aerobic treatment during the same period was effective in reducing arsenic concentrations but increased the cadmium concentration markedly. Flooding treatment after heading was found to be more effective than flooding treatment before heading in reducing rice grain cadmium without a concomitant increase in total arsenic levels, although it increased inorganic arsenic levels. Concentrations of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain were very low under aerobic conditions but increased under flooded conditions. DMA accounted for 3-52% of the total arsenic concentration in grain grown in soil with a lower arsenic concentration and 10-80% in soil with a higher arsenic concentration. A possible explanation for the accumulation of DMA in rice grains is that DMA translocates from shoots/roots to the grains more readily than does inorganic arsenic. PMID:20000530

  16. Interactions of valproic acid with carbamazepine and its metabolites' concentrations, concentrations ratios, and level/dose ratios in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Delgado, M R; Browne, R H

    1995-02-01

    In two groups of epileptic children receiving carbamazepine (CBZ) therapy with or without valproic acid (VPA) comedication, we investigate the drug interactions of VPA on serum CBZ and its metabolites' concentrations, concentration ratios, and level/dose ratios. Serum total and free CBZ-10, 11-epoxide (CBZ-E) concentrations are significantly increased in patients taking CBZ plus VPA, together with higher CBZ-E/CBZ concentration ratios and CBZ-E level/dose ratios. These results reflect the accumulation of CBZ-E. The decreased concentration ratios of trans-10, 11-dihydroxy-10, 11-dihydro-CBZ (CBZ-H)/CBZ-E observed in patients taking CBZ plus VPA suggest an inhibition in the biotransformation from CBZ-E to CBZ-H. Significant negative correlations are found between serum VPA level and CBZ-H/CBZ-E concentration ratios, indicating that the inhibition of CBZ-E hydrolysis by VPA may depend on the concentration of VPA (total or free CBZ-H/CBZ-E concentration ratio = [formula: see text], respectively). VPA concentration also shows significant positive correlations with CBZ-E and CBZ level/dose ratios. Patients taking CBZ plus VPA have significant higher free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-E than do patients on CBZ alone, suggesting a protein-binding displacement by VPA. PMID:8665529

  17. Plasma amino acid concentrations in 36 dogs with histologically confirmed superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; Marks, Stanley L; Rogers, Quinton R

    2002-08-01

    Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured in 36 dogs diagnosed with superficial necrolytic dermatitis (SND) via skin biopsy. The median age of the dogs was 10 years, and 27 out of 36 (75%) were male. Twenty-two out of 36 (61%) of the dogs were accounted for by six breeds; West Highland white terriers (six), Shetland sheepdogs (five), cocker spaniels (four), Scottish terriers (three), Lhasa apsos (two) and Border collies (two). The mean concentration (+/- standard deviation) was calculated for each measured plasma amino acid and compared to previously documented concentrations of plasma amino acids measured in dogs with acute and chronic hepatitis. The ratio of branched chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids in the dogs with SND was 2.6, slightly lower than that in normal dogs. The mean plasma amino acid concentrations for dogs with SND were significantly lower than for dogs with acute and chronic hepatitis. A metabolic hepatopathy in which there is increased hepatic catabolism of amino acids is hypothesized to explain the hypoaminoacidaemia seen in SND. PMID:12174180

  18. Atmospheric aerosols: increased concentrations during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J T; Bryson, R A

    1968-10-01

    Atmospheric turbidity values calculated each month from solar radiation observations at MaunaLoa Observatory, Hawaii, show an increase of aerosols from 1958 through the present. These data indicate that either the effects of the Mount Agung eruption are still being observed or a longer-term trend of increasing turbidity is in evidence. PMID:4877369

  19. Hormesis in Cholestatic Liver Disease; Preconditioning with Low Bile Acid Concentrations Protects against Bile Acid-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verhaag, Esther M.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Koehorst, Martijn; Groen, Albert K.; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during cholestasis. Aim To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the hormetic response that protect hepatocytes against experimental cholestatic conditions. Methods HepG2.rNtcp cells were preconditioned (24 h) with sub-apoptotic concentrations (0.1–50 μM) of various bile acids, the superoxide donor menadione, TNF-α or the Farsenoid X Receptor agonist GW4064, followed by a challenge with the apoptosis-inducing bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA; 200 μM for 4 h), menadione (50 μM, 6 h) or cytokine mixture (CM; 6 h). Levels of apoptotic and necrotic cell death, mRNA expression of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11) and bile acid sensors, as well as intracellular GCDCA levels were analyzed. Results Preconditioning with the pro-apoptotic bile acids GCDCA, taurocholic acid, or the protective bile acids (tauro)ursodeoxycholic acid reduced GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity in HepG2.rNtcp cells. Bile acid preconditioning did not induce significant levels of necrosis in GCDCA-challenged HepG2.rNtcp cells. In contrast, preconditioning with cholic acid, menadione or TNF-α potentiated GCDCA-induced apoptosis. GCDCA preconditioning specifically reduced GCDCA-induced cell death and not CM- or menadione-induced apoptosis. The hormetic effect of GCDCA preconditioning was concentration- and time-dependent. GCDCA-, CDCA- and GW4064- preconditioning enhanced ABCB11 mRNA levels, but in contrast to the bile acids, GW4064 did not significantly reduce GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity. The GCDCA challenge strongly increased intracellular levels of this bile acid, which was not lowered by GCDCA

  20. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  1. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  2. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma concentrations of free amino acids, insulin, and energy substrates in young men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Sato, Juichi; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen. PMID:21512300

  3. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, temperature, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest daily mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest daily mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 and 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased daily mortality at current levels in the United States.

  4. Solute concentration affects bradykinin-mediated increases in renal prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Zenser, T.V.; Davis, E.S.; Rapp, N.S.; Davis, B.B.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of solute concentration on the bradykinin-mediated increase in inner medullary slice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis were investigated. PG content was determined by specific RIA. Bradykinin stimulation was prevented by the addition of the following solutes to Krebs buffer: 1.0 M urea, 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl, 0.5 or 1.0 M mannitol, 1.0 M urea plus 0.5 M NaCl, or 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was increased by 1.0 M mannitol or by 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl, but decreased by 1.0 M urea. Urea elicited a concentration-dependent, reversible inhibition of bradykinin stimulation, with 0.01 M urea being the lowest effective concentration. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was only reduced at a urea concentration greater than 0.6 M. Arachidonic acid-mediated increases in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis were not prevented by 1.0 M urea. The latter suggests that neither PG endoperoxide synthetase nor PG endoperoxide E isomerase are inhibited by urea. The data indicate that different hypertonic solutions have different effects on basal PG production, but all inhibit bradykinin stimulation.

  5. Retinoic acid stimulation of human dermal fibroblast proliferation is dependent on suboptimal extracellular Ca2+ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Varani, J.; Shayevitz, J.; Perry, D.; Mitra, R.S.; Nickoloff, B.J.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Human dermal fibroblasts failed to proliferate when cultured in medium containing 0.15 mmol/l (millimolar) Ca2+ (keratinocyte growth medium (KGM)) but did when the external Ca2+ concentration was raised to 1.4 mmol/l. All-trans retinoic acid (retinoic acid) stimulated proliferation in KGM but did not further stimulate growth in Ca2(+)-supplemented KGM. The ability of retinoic acid to stimulate proliferation was inhibited in KGM prepared without Ca2+ or prepared with 0.03 mmol/l Ca2+ and in KGM treated with 1 mmol/l ethylene-glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra acetic acid. Using 45Ca2+ to measure Ca2+ influx and efflux, it was found that retinoic acid minimally increased Ca2+ uptake into fibroblasts. In contrast, retinoic acid treatment of fibroblasts that had been pre-equilibrated for 1 day with 45Ca2+ inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ into the extracellular fluid. Retinoic acid also stimulated 35S-methionine incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material but in contrast to its effect on proliferation, stimulation of 35S-methionine incorporation occurred in both high-Ca2+ and low-Ca2+ medium. These data indicate that retinoic acid stimulation of proliferation, but not protein synthesis, is dependent on the concentration of Ca2+ in the extracellular environment.

  6. Increased expression of sialic acid in cervical biopsies with squamous intraepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered sialylation has been observed during oncogenic transformation. Sialylated oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been implicated in tumor progression and metastases. In the cervical cancer high levels of sialic acid have been reported in the patients serum, and an increased of total sialic acid concentration has been reported for the cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer. This study investigates the changes in expression and distribution of α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions and in normal tissue. Methods Lectin histochemistry was used to examine the expression and distribution of sialic acid in different grades of cervical neoplasia. We applied Maackia amurensis lectin, which interacts with α2,3-linked sialic acid and Sambucus nigra lectin specific for α2,6-linked sialic acid. Results The histochemical analysis showed that α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid increased in intensity and distribution in concordance with the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). These results are in concordance with a previous study that reports increased RNAm levels of three sialyltransferases. Conclusions These results show that the change in sialylation occurs before cancer development and may play an important role in cellular transformation. These findings provide the basis for more detailed studies of the possible role of cell surface glycoconjugates bearing sialic acid in the cellular cervix transformation. PMID:21092209

  7. Syntheses of nicotinamide riboside and derivatives: effective agents for increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianle; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Sauve, Anthony A

    2007-12-27

    A new two-step methodology achieves stereoselective synthesis of beta-nicotinamide riboside and a series of related amide, ester, and acid nucleosides. Compounds were prepared through a triacetylated-nicotinate ester nucleoside, via coupling of either ethylnicotinate or phenylnicotinate with 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranose. Nicotinamide riboside, nicotinic acid riboside, O-ethylnicotinate riboside, O-methylnicotinate riboside, and several N-alkyl derivatives increased NAD+ concentrations from 1.2-2.7-fold in several mammalian cell lines. These findings establish bioavailability and potent effects of these nucleosides in stimulating the increase of NAD+ concentrations in mammalian cells. PMID:18052316

  8. Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes. PMID:23089958

  9. Effects of squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma free amino acid concentrations in young women.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Akita, Keiichi; Inaguma, Asami; Watanabe, Satoko; Bajotto, Gustavo; Sato, Juichi

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations induced by squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young, untrained female subjects. In the morning on the exercise session day, participants ingested drinks containing either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine=1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin (placebo) at 0.1 g/kg body weight 15 min before a squat exercise session, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats, with 3 min intervals between sets. In the placebo trial, plasma BCAA concentrations were decreased subsequent to exercise, whereas they were significantly increased in the BCAA trial until 2 h after exercise. Marked changes in other free amino acids in response to squat exercise and BCAA supplementation were observed. In particular, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids were temporarily decreased in the BCAA trial, being significantly lower than those in the placebo trial. These results suggest that BCAA intake before exercise affects methionine and aromatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:19602839

  10. Effects of varying media, temperature, and growth rates on the intracellular concentrations of yeast amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Force, E; Benítez, T

    1995-01-01

    Variations of the yeast free amino acid pool under different culture conditions were studied in two Saccharomyces strains, the laboratory haploid strain S288C and the industrial fermentative yeast IFI256. The internal amino acid pool of both strains was measured when grown in laboratory (minimal and complete) versus semiindustrial (molasses with or without added biotin and/or diammonium phosphate) media, in fermentable (glucose, fructose, sucrose) versus respirable (glycerol) carbon sources, in different temperatures (22, 30, and 37 degrees C), pHs (2.0-4.75), and growth rates (0.018-0.24 h-1) in continuous culture, and at different phases of the growth curve in batch culture (lag, exponential, early and late stationary). Results indicated that environmental conditions, particularly the presence of amino acids in the media, enormously influenced the intracellular amino acid concentration. Higher values were detected in molasses than in laboratory media and in fermentable carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose) than in glycerol. Variations in the amino acid pool along the growth curve were greater at 37 degrees C than at other temperatures; in all cases, the highest values were measured at the beginning of the exponential phase. In continuous culture and at different growth rates, intracellular free amino acid concentrations increased by 3-10-fold when the growth rate was lower than 0.05 h-1, representing 20-35% of the total (free plus protein) amino acid content and indicating that amino acid yield was a partly growth-linked parameter. PMID:7654310

  11. Increased C availability at elevated carbon dioxide concentration improves N assimilation in a legume.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alistair; Gibon, Yves; Stitt, Mark; Morgan, Patrick B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-08-01

    Plant growth is typically stimulated at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), but a sustained and maximal stimulation of growth requires acquisition of additional N in proportion to the additional C fixed at elevated [CO2]. We hypothesized that legumes would be able to avoid N limitation at elevated [CO2]. Soybean was grown without N fertilizer from germination to final senescence at elevated [CO2] over two growing seasons under fully open-air conditions, providing a model legume system. Measurements of photosynthesis and foliar carbohydrate content showed that plants growing at elevated [CO2] had a c. 25% increase in the daily integral of photosynthesis and c. 58% increase in foliar carbohydrate content, suggesting that plants at elevated [CO2] had a surplus of photosynthate. Soybeans had a low leaf N content at the beginning of the season, which was a further c. 17% lower at elevated [CO2]. In the middle of the season, ureide, total amino acid and N content increased markedly, and the effect of elevated [CO2] on leaf N content disappeared. Analysis of individual amino acid levels supported the conclusion that plants at elevated [CO2] overcame an early-season N limitation. These soybean plants showed a c. 16% increase in dry mass at final harvest and showed no significant effect of elevated [CO2] on leaf N, protein or total amino acid content in the latter part of the season. One possible explanation for these findings is that N fixation had increased, and that these plants had acclimated to the increased N demand at elevated [CO2]. PMID:16898025

  12. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  13. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  14. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  15. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  16. Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Peter; Lowe, Jason A.; Andrews, Timothy; Wiltshire, Andrew; Chadwick, Robin; Ridley, Jeff K.; Menary, Matthew B.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Dufresne, Jean Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    When considering adaptation measures and global climate mitigation goals, stakeholders need regional-scale climate projections, including the range of plausible warming rates. To assist these stakeholders, it is important to understand whether some locations may see disproportionately high or low warming from additional forcing above targets such as 2 K (ref. ). There is a need to narrow uncertainty in this nonlinear warming, which requires understanding how climate changes as forcings increase from medium to high levels. However, quantifying and understanding regional nonlinear processes is challenging. Here we show that regional-scale warming can be strongly superlinear to successive CO2 doublings, using five different climate models. Ensemble-mean warming is superlinear over most land locations. Further, the inter-model spread tends to be amplified at higher forcing levels, as nonlinearities grow--especially when considering changes per kelvin of global warming. Regional nonlinearities in surface warming arise from nonlinearities in global-mean radiative balance, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, surface snow/ice cover and evapotranspiration. For robust adaptation and mitigation advice, therefore, potentially avoidable climate change (the difference between business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios) and unavoidable climate change (change under strong mitigation scenarios) may need different analysis methods.

  17. [Reactions in the brainactivity during increased carbondioxyde concentration (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, G; Metzler, H; Szirmai, I; Aranibar, A; Pfurtscheller, B

    1978-12-01

    A comparative study of two kinds of respiration (normal air and mixed with 4% CO2) was carried out in 8 healthy students. During the three experiments, each one lasting over 120 min, CO2 or air was inhaled using a mask. Blood samples were taken from the fingers, an average increase of pCO2 of 1.9 mm (p less than 0.01) and pO2 of 7.3 mm (p less than 0.01) was found during CO2-inhalation. The ECG and EEG were recorded and reaction times to tone stimuli in a foreperiod reaction time experiment were measured. During CO2-inhalation a clear reduction of the power in the alpha-band was found in frontal, central and occipital region in the order of 23% (p less than 0.05) and 12% (p less than 0.05) and 22% (p less than 0.01). The heart rate interval decreased significantly by 2.3% (p less than 0.05). No significant changes were found in CNV, reaction time and percentage event-related alpha-desynchronization. PMID:104863

  18. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a "dose-response" model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR "dose-dependently" increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. PMID:24183703

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  20. Increased acyclovir oral bioavailability via a bile acid conjugate.

    PubMed

    Tolle-Sander, Sanna; Lentz, Kimberley A; Maeda, Dean Y; Coop, Andrew; Polli, James E

    2004-01-12

    The objective of this work was to design an acyclovir prodrug that would utilize the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) and enhance acyclovir oral bioavailability. Using each chenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, cholate, and ursodeoxycholate, four bile acid prodrugs of acyclovir were synthesized, where acyclovir was conjugated to a bile acid via a valine linker. The affinity of the prodrug for hASBT was determined through inhibition of taurocholate uptake by COS-7 cells transfected with hASBT (hASBT-COS). The prodrug with the highest inhibitory affinity was further evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The prodrug acyclovir valylchenodeoxycholate yielded the highest affinity for hASBT (Ki = 35 microM), showing that chenodeoxycholate is the free bile acid with the greatest affinity for hASBT. Acyclovir valylchenodeoxycholate's affinity was similar to that of cholic acid (Ki = 25 microM). Further characterization showed that acyclovir was catalytically liberated from acyclovir valylchenode-oxycholate by esterase. Relative to cellular uptake studies of acyclovir alone, the cellular uptake from the prodrug resulted in a 16-fold greater acyclovir accumulation within hASBT-COS cells, indicating enhanced permeation properties of the prodrug. Enhanced permeability was due to hASBT-mediated uptake and increased passive permeability. The extent of acyclovir uptake in the presence of sodium was 1.4-fold greater than the extent of passive prodrug uptake in the absence of sodium (p = 0.02), indicating translocation of the prodrug by hASBT. The prodrug also exhibited an almost 12-fold enhanced passive permeability, relative to acyclovir's passive permeability. Oral administration of acyclovir valylchenodeoxycholate to rats resulted in a 2-fold increase in the bioavailability of acyclovir, compared to the bioavailability after administration of acyclovir alone. Results indicate that a bile acid prodrug strategy may be useful in improving the oral bioavailability of

  1. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  2. How biogenic terpenes govern the correlation between sulfuric acid concentrations and new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, B.; Kulmala, M.; Riipinen, I.; Sihto, S.-L.; Ruuskanen, T. M.

    2008-06-01

    New particle formation has been observed to take place all around the world. However, because of the inability to determine the chemical composition of the smallest clusters or particles, indirect tools such as the correlation between nucleation rate and measured sulfuric acid concentrations have been used to infer the nucleation mechanism. In this study we describe the observed correlation with gaseous sulfuric acid concentrations by interactions of sesquiterpene oxidation products with sulfuric acid. Two formation pathways of nucleation initiating molecules are considered. The interaction of sulfuric acid with organic sulfates, which are formed from stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs, formed from sesquiterpenes), can be used to explain the observed squared relationship between particle formation rate and ambient sulfuric acid concentrations. The corresponding linear dependence is explained with the participation of secondary ozonides, which are formed from sCIs and aldehydes. Both pathways are negatively affected by increasing water vapor concentration as observed in recent studies. In order to check the assumptions made we apply the derived nucleation coefficients to measurements of the BACCI/QUEST IV campaign made during spring 2005 in Hyytiälä, Finland. A reasonable agreement between the measurement data and the predicted nucleation rates is found, giving support for the presented nucleation description.

  3. NHI-Acid Concentration Membranes -- Membrane Recommendations for the S-I Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick F Stewart

    2007-03-01

    Scope: The purpose of this draft report is to make recommendations concerning the applicability of specific membrane materials for acid concentration processes to the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle integrated laboratory scale (ILS) demonstration. Introduction Acid concentration membrane processes have been studied for possible inclusion in the Sulfur-Iodine integrated laboratory scale (S-I ILS) demonstration. The need for this technology is driven by the chemical processes required for economical water splitting using the S-I cycle. Of the chemical processes inherent to the S-I cycle that have been identified as targets for deployment of membrane technology, three have been studied during the past three fiscal years as a part of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. First, the ability to concentrate hydriodic acid (HI) and iodine mixtures was sought as a method for aiding in the isolation of HI away from water and iodine. Isolated HI would then be delivered to the HI decomposition process for liberation of product hydrogen. Second, an extension of this technology to sulfuric acid was proposed to benefit sulfuric acid decomposition recycle. Third, decomposition of HI to form hydrogen is equilibrium limited. Removal of hydrogen, utilizing Le Chatelier’s principle, will increase to overall conversion and thus increasing the efficiency of the S-I cycle.

  4. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  5. The Bile Acid Chenodeoxycholic Acid Increases Human Brown Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Evie P M; Nascimento, Emmani B M; Havekes, Bas; Brans, Boudewijn; Roumans, Kay H M; Tailleux, Anne; Schaart, Gert; Kouach, Mostafa; Charton, Julie; Deprez, Benoit; Bouvy, Nicole D; Mottaghy, Felix; Staels, Bart; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a target to combat metabolic disease has recently been renewed with the discovery of functional BAT in humans. In rodents, BAT can be activated by bile acids, which activate type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in BAT via the G-coupled protein receptor TGR5, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. Here we examined the effects of oral supplementation of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on human BAT activity. Treatment of 12 healthy female subjects with CDCA for 2 days resulted in increased BAT activity. Whole-body energy expenditure was also increased upon CDCA treatment. In vitro treatment of primary human brown adipocytes derived with CDCA or specific TGR5 agonists increased mitochondrial uncoupling and D2 expression, an effect that was absent in human primary white adipocytes. These findings identify bile acids as a target to activate BAT in humans. PMID:26235421

  6. Gas phase C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} organic acids concentrations in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, C.G.; Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-02-15

    The atmospheric concentrations of gas-phase C{sub 2}--C{sub 10} monocarboxylic and benzoic acids are reported in samples collected during a severe Los Angeles area photochemical smog episode. Average urban concentrations are 10--50 {times} greater than concentrations observed at a remote background location, indicating an anthropogenic origin for these compounds. Average urban concentrations during the episode were 16.1 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (6.6 ppb) for acetic acid and 1.67 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (0.55 ppb) for propionic acid, with progressively lesser amounts as the carbon chain length of the acids is increased. Spatial and diurnal variations in atmospheric organic acids concentrations point to the importance of both direct emissions from primary sources and formation by photochemical reaction of precursor compounds.

  7. Cardiotonic Pill Reduces Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Increasing EET Concentrations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meijuan; Hao, Haiping; Jiang, Lifeng; Wei, Yidan; Zhou, Fang; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Jingwei; Ji, Hui; Wang, Guangji; Ju, Wenzheng; Li, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data suggest that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, both cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. For many years, the cardiotonic pill (CP), an herbal preparation derived from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in China for the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, its pharmacological mechanism has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of the CP on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) and AA P450 enzyme metabolism in rats (in vivo) and H9c2 cells (in vitro). The results showed that CP dose dependently (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) mitigated MIRI in rats. The plasma concentrations of EETs in CP-treated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats (40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in controls. Cardiac Cyp1b1, Cyp2b1, Cyp2e1, Cyp2j3, and Cyp4f6 were significantly induced (P < 0.05); CYP2J and CYP2C11 proteins were upregulated (P < 0.05); and AA-epoxygenases activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after CP (40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) administration in rats. In H9c2 cells, the CP also increased (P < 0.05) the EET concentrations and showed protection in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) cells. However, an antagonist of EETs, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, displayed a dose-dependent depression of the CP's protective effects in H/R cells. In conclusion, upregulation of cardiac epoxygenases after multiple doses of the CP-leading to elevated concentrations of cardioprotective EETs after myocardial I/R-may be the underlying mechanism, at least in part, for the CP's cardioprotective effect in rats. PMID:27149899

  8. Heparin, free fatty acids and an increased metabolic demand for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Jung, R T; Shetty, P S; James, W P

    1980-05-01

    Obese and lean subjects were given heparin with or without Intralipid in order to assess the effect of heparin on plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and oxidative metabolism. The FFA response depended on the triglyceride concentration and was associated with a prompt rise in oxygen consumption. Plasma catecholamines did not alter after heparin and the increase in oxygen uptake was proportional to the rise in FFA. The use of heparin, therefore, has metabolic disadvantages which may outweigh the potential benefits, for example in the management of myocardial infarction where heparin may increase the metabolic demand on the heart by increasing FFA levels. PMID:7443592

  9. Heparin, free fatty acids and an increased metabolic demand for oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, R. T.; Shetty, P. S.; James, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Obese and lean subjects were given heparin with or without Intralipid in order to assess the effect of heparin on plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and oxidative metabolism. The FFA response depended on the triglyceride concentration and was associated with a prompt rise in oxygen consumption. Plasma catecholamines did not alter after heparin and the increase in oxygen uptake was proportional to the rise in FFA. The use of heparin, therefore, has metabolic disadvantages which may outweigh the potential benefits, for example in the management of myocardial infarction where heparin may increase the metabolic demand on the heart by increasing FFA levels. PMID:7443592

  10. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick T; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C; Zwart, Jacob A; Jones, Stuart E

    2016-08-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L(-1) in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning). PMID:26919470

  11. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  12. Ascorbic acid recycling by cultured beta cells: effects of increased glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Steffner, Robert J; Wu, Lan; Powers, Alvin C; May, James M

    2004-11-15

    Ascorbic acid is necessary for optimal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. We evaluated ascorbate recycling and whether it is impaired by increased glucose metabolism in the rat beta-cell line INS-1. INS-1 cells, engineered with the potential for overexpression of glucokinase under the control of a tetracycline-inducible gene expression system, took up and reduced dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal in the presence of physiologic D-glucose concentrations. Ascorbate uptake did not affect intracellular GSH concentrations. Whereas depletion of GSH in culture to levels about 25% of normal also did not affect the ability of the cells to reduce dehydroascorbic acid, more severe acute GSH depletion to less than 10% of normal levels did impair dehydroascorbic acid reduction. Culture of inducible cells in 11.8 mM D-glucose and doxycycline for 48 h enhanced glucokinase activity, increased glucose utilization, abolished D-glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The latter may have contributed to subsequent decreases in the ability of the cells both to maintain intracellular ascorbate and to recycle it from dehydroascorbic acid. Cultured beta cells have a high capacity to recycle ascorbate, but this is sensitive to oxidant stress generated by increased glucose metabolism due to culture in high glucose concentrations and increased glucokinase expression. Impaired ascorbate recycling as a result of increased glucose metabolism may have implications for the role of ascorbate in insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus and may partially explain glucose toxicity in beta cells. PMID:15477012

  13. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  14. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  15. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Schoemacker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-13

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 10(4)-10(5) molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅10(6) molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air. PMID:23898188

  16. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 104–105 molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅106 molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air. PMID:23898188

  17. Fatty acids and glucose increase neutral endopeptidase activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Spenny, Michelle L; Tamura, Richard N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2003-06-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a membrane-bound metallopeptidase enzyme that degrades neuropeptides, bradykinin, atrial natriuretic factor, enkephalins, and endothelin may regulate response to injury. We have previously demonstrated increased NEP localization and enzyme activity in diabetic wounds and skin compared with normal controls. We hypothesized that hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may induce excessive NEP activity and thereby diminish normal response to injury. Human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with five different fatty acids (40 microM) with varying degrees of saturation, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid and/or glucose (40 mM) for 48 h. The effect of the antioxidative agents vitamin E and C on NEP enzyme activation was determined by treating the cultured cells with alpha-tocopherol succinate and/or L-ascorbic acid. Cell membrane preparations were assayed for NEP activity by incubation with glutaryl-Ala-Ala-Phe-4-methoxy-beta naphthylamide to generate a fluorescent degradation product methoxy 2 naphthylamine. High glucose or fatty acid concentration upregulated NEP activity. The highest NEP activity was observed with combined elevated glucose, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (P < 0.05). Antioxidant vitamin E and C treatment significantly reduced NEP enzyme activity after fatty acid exposure (P < 0.05). Thus, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may increase endothelial cell NEP activity and thereby decrease early pro-inflammatory responses. The modulator effect of vitamin E and C on NEP membrane enzyme activity after exposure to fatty acid stimulation suggests that lipid oxidation may activate NEP. PMID:12785004

  18. Sex Differences in Long Chain Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Burnett, David A.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.

    1979-01-01

    Female sex and estrogen administration are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; the basis for this has not been fully elucidated. Inasmuch as hepatic lipoprotein production is also influenced by FFA availability and triglyceride biosynthesis, we investigated sex differences in FFA utilization in rat hepatocyte suspensions and in the components of the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway. Isolated adult rat hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with albumin-bound [14C]oleate for up to 15 min. At physiological and low oleate concentrations, cells from females incorporated significantly more 14C into glycerolipids, especially triglycerides, and into oxidation products than did male cells, per milligram cell protein. At 0.44 mM oleate, incorporation into triglycerides in female cells was approximately twice that in male cells. Comparable sex differences were observed in cells from fasted animals and when [14C]-glycerol incorporation was measured. At higher oleate concentrations, i.e., fatty acid:albumin mole ratios in excess of 2:1, these sex differences were no longer demonstrable, suggesting that maximal rates of fatty acid esterification and oxidation were similar in female and male cells. In female and male hepatic microsomes, specific activities of long chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and diglyceride acyltransferase were similar, but glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity was slightly greater in females at certain substrate concentrations. Microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into total glycerolipids was not significantly greater in females. In further contrast to intact cells, microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides, although significantly greater in female microsomes, accounted for only a small fraction of the fatty acid esterified. The binding affinity and stoichiometry of partially purified female hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) were similar to

  19. Effect of sulfuric acid concentration of bentonite and calcination time of pillared bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mara, Ady; Wijaya, Karna; Trisunaryati, Wega; Mudasir

    2016-04-01

    An activation of natural clay has been developed. Activation was applied by refluxing the natural bentonite in variation of the sulfuric acid concentration and calcination time of pillared bentonite (PLC). Calcination was applied using oven in microwave 2,45 GHz. Determination of acidity was applied by measuring the amount of adsorbed ammonia and pyridine. Morphological, functional groups and chrystanility characterizations were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD. Porosity was analyzed using SSA. The results showed that the greater of the concentration of sulfuric acid and calcination time was, the greater the acidity of bentonite as well as the pore diameter were. FTIR spectra showed no fundamental changes in the structure of the natural bentonite, SEM, and TEM images were showing an increase in space or field due to pillarization while the XRD patterns showed a shift to a lower peak. Optimization was obtained at a concentration of 2 M of sulfuric acid and calcination time of 20 minutes, keggin ion of 2.2 and suspension of 10 mmol, respectively each amounted to 11.7490 mmol/gram of ammonia and 2.4437 mmol/gram of pyridine with 154.6391 m2/gram for surface area, 0.130470 m3/gram of pore volume and 3.37484 nm of pore diameter.

  20. Post-Bariatric Surgery Changes in Quinolinic and Xanthurenic Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Verkindt, Hélène; Leloire, Audrey; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Yengo, Loïc; Allorge, Delphine; Froguel, Philippe; Pattou, François

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase of plasma kynurenine concentrations, potentially bioactive metabolites of tryptophan, was found in subjects with obesity, resulting from low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery decreases low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and improves glucose control. Objective Our goal was to determine the concentrations of all kynurenine metabolites after bariatric surgery and whether they were correlated with glucose control improvement. Design Kynurenine metabolite concentrations, analysed by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, circulating inflammatory markers, metabolic traits, and BMI were measured before and one year after bariatric surgery in 44 normoglycemic and 47 diabetic women with obesity. Associations between changes in kynurenine metabolites concentrations and in glucose control and metabolic traits were analysed between baseline and twelve months after surgery. Results Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolite concentrations were significantly decreased one year after bariatric surgery and were correlated with the decrease of the usCRP in both groups. Among all the kynurenine metabolites evaluated, only quinolinic acid and xanthurenic acid were significantly associated with glucose control improvement. The one year delta of quinolinic acid concentrations was negatively associated with the delta of fasting glucose (p = 0.019) and HbA1c (p = 0.014), whereas the delta of xanthurenic acid was positively associated with the delta of insulin sensitivity index (p = 0.0018). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has induced a global down-regulation of kynurenine metabolites, associated with weight loss. Our results suggest that, since kynurenine monoxygenase diverts the kynurenine pathway toward the synthesis of xanthurenic acid, its inhibition may also contribute to glucose homeostasis. PMID:27327770

  1. Three Patients Needing High Doses of Valproic Acid to Get Therapeutic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, James; McCollum, Betsy; Ognibene, Judy; Diaz, Francisco J.; de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) can autoinduce its own metabolism. Cases requiring VPA doses >4000 mg/day to obtain therapeutic plasma concentrations, such as these 3 cases, have never been published. Case 1 received VPA for seizures and schizophrenia and had >50 VPA concentrations in 4 years. A high dose of 5,250 mg/day of VPA concentrate was prescribed for years but this dose led to an intoxication when switched to the enterocoated divalproex sodium formulation, requiring a normal dose of 2000 mg/day. VPA metabolic capacity was significantly higher (t = −9.6; df = 6.3, p < 0.001) during the VPA concentrate therapy, possibly due to autoinduction in that formulation. Case 2 had VPA for schizoaffective psychosis with 10 VPA concentrations during an 8-week admission. To maintain a VPA level ≥50 μg/mL, VPA doses increased from 1500 to 4000 mg/day. Case 3 had tuberous sclerosis and epilepsy and was followed up for >4 years with 137 VPA concentrations. To maintain VPA concentrations ≥50 μg/mL, VPA doses increased from 3,375 to 10,500 mg/day. In Cases 2 and 3, the duration of admission and the VPA dose were strongly correlated (r around 0.90; p < 0.001) with almost no change after controlling for VPA concentrations, indicating progressive autoinduction that increased with time. PMID:26000191

  2. Two-stage electrodialytic concentration of glyceric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Sakaki, Keiji

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was the application of a two-stage electrodialysis (ED) method for glyceric acid (GA) recovery from fermentation broth. First, by desalting ED, glycerate solutions (counterpart is Na+) were concentrated using ion-exchange membranes, and the glycerate recovery and energy consumption became more efficient with increasing the initial glycerate concentration (30 to 130 g/l). Second, by water-splitting ED, the concentrated glycerate was electroconverted to GA using bipolar membranes. Using a culture broth of Acetobacter tropicalis containing 68.6 g/l of D-glycerate, a final D-GA concentration of 116 g/l was obtained following the two-stage ED process. The total energy consumption for the D-glycerate concentration and its electroconversion to D-GA was approximately 0.92 kWh per 1 kg of D-GA. PMID:20674487

  3. Experimentally caused proliferation of lysosomes in cultured BHK cells involving an increase of biphosphatidic acids and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Brotherus, J; Niinioja, T; Sandelin, K; Renkonen, O

    1977-05-01

    When cultured hamster fibroblasts (BHK 21 cells) were incubated in a synthetic serum-free medium up to 4 days, they developed signs of a progressive proliferation of lysosomes. The cells became filled with vacuoles that contained polymorphic debris and showed acid phosphatase activity. The specific activities of acid protease and acid phosphatase in the cell cultures increased three- to fourfold. The process was accompanied by a marked decrease in the contents of protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, and total phospholipids of the cultures. The concentration of lysobisphosphatidic acid increased during the incubation from about 1.5% to 3-6% of the cellular phospholipids. The concentrations of two related lipids, bisphosphatidic acid and semilysobisphosphatidic acid also increased substantially. The triglyceride content of the cells increased several fold, whereas the concentration of phosphatidylcholine decreased markedly. Lysobisphosphatidic acid did not increase upon induction of vacuolization by exogenous sucrose, nor when there was an accumulation of triglyceride due to addition of oleic acid to the growth medium. These findings suggest that the formation of the bisphosphatidic acids may be specifically linked to the autolysis of the phospholipids of the cellular membranes and the formation of triglycerides associated with this process. PMID:864326

  4. Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Falk, Harry Michael; Reichling, Peter; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2015-02-01

    An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). R(2) for acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were 0.94, 0.88, 0.83, 0.75, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the models was validated in a second experiment. Considering the complex and heterogeneous sludge composition and the chemical similarity of VFA, absolute concentration and dynamic (increasing and decreasing concentration of VFA) was predicted well for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid (in their respective concentration range); Butyric acid could not be detected. The installed setup was able to gather and measure native samples from the digester (every 2 h) automatically over a period of 6 months without problems of clogging or biofouling. The instant and continuous analysis of the concentration of the VFA made it possible to evaluate the current bioprocess status and adjust the organic loading rate accordingly. PMID:25142153

  5. Water Deficit-Induced Changes in Concentrations in Proline and Some Other Amino Acids in the Phloem Sap of Alfalfa.

    PubMed Central

    Girousse, C.; Bournoville, R.; Bonnemain, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in amino acid composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) phloem sap were studies in response to a water deficit. Sap was collected by stylectomy. As the leaf water potential ([psi]) decreased from -0.4 to -2.0 MPa, there was significant increase of the total amino acid concentration, due to that of some amino acids: proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and threonine. Asparagine concentration, which is the main amino acid assayed in the phloem sap of alfalfa (it accounts for 70% of the total content), did not vary with the plant water status. The other amino acid concentrations remained stable as [psi] varied; in particular, [gamma]-amino butyric acid concentration remained unchanged, whereas it varied in response to wounding. The more striking change in the sieve tubes was the accumulation of proline, which was observed below a [psi] threshold value of about -0.9 MPa (concentration x60 for a decrease of [psi] from -0.9 to -2.0 MPa). The role of such changes in phloem sap amino acid concentration in osmotic adjustment of growing tissues is discussed. PMID:12226278

  6. Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Predict Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Becker, Susen; Scholz, Markus; Thiery, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background The liver plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. In former studies, a ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (Fischer’s ratio) revealed associations with hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids were linked to sarcopenia in literature. Encephalopathy and sarcopenia are known to dramatically worsen the prognosis. Aim of this study was to investigate a complex panel of plasma amino acids in the context of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods 166 patients evaluated for orthotopic liver transplantation were included. 19 amino acids were measured from citrated plasma samples using mass spectrometry. We performed survival analysis for plasma amino acid constellations and examined the relationship to established mortality predictors. Results 33/166 (19.9%) patients died during follow-up. Lower values of valine (p<0.001), Fischer’s ratio (p<0.001) and valine to phenylalanine ratio (p<0.001) and higher values of phenylalanine (p<0.05) and tyrosine (p<0.05) were significantly associated with mortality. When divided in three groups, the tertiles discriminated cumulative survival for valine (p = 0.016), phenylalanine (p = 0.024) and in particular for valine to phenylalanine ratio (p = 0.003) and Fischer’s ratio (p = 0.005). Parameters were also significantly correlated with MELD and MELD-Na score. Conclusions Amino acids in plasma are valuable biomarkers to determine increased risk of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. In particular, valine concentrations and constellations composed of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were strongly associated with prognosis. Due to their pathophysiological importance, the identified amino acids could be used to examine individual dietary recommendations to serve as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27410482

  7. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  8. The effect of formic acid concentration on the conductivity and corrosion resistance of chromium carbide coatings electroplated with trivalent chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chen-En; Pu, Nen-Wen; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Ger, Ming-Der

    2013-10-01

    Different concentrations of formic acid were added into a trivalent chromium electroplating solution to produce chromium carbide (Crsbnd C) coatings. The influence of the formic acid concentration on chemical composition, microstructure, surface morphology, corrosion resistance, conductivity and carbon content of the resulting Crsbnd C coatings was studied. Formic acid was found to increase the carbon content in the coatings so as to form Crsbnd C films. These coatings had a nearly amorphous structure containing Cr, Cr2O3, and various Crsbnd C compounds with carbon content uniformly distributed throughout the coatings. The carbon content and the conductivity of the Crsbnd C layer were correlated with formic acid concentration. For a formic acid concentration of 2 M, the Crsbnd C layer had the highest carbon content (∼28%), the lowest contact resistance, and the best corrosion resistance along with a corrosion current density of ∼6.4 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  9. Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidase activity that occurs during culture of caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Satsu, H; Watanabe, H; Fukaya, M; Tsukamoto, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Shimizu, M

    2000-03-01

    To understand how blood glucose level is lowered by oral administration of vinegar, we examined effects of acetic acid on glucose transport and disaccharidase activity in Caco-2 cells. Cells were cultured for 15 d in a medium containing 5 mmol/L of acetic acid. This chronic treatment did not affect cell growth or viability, and furthermore, apoptotic cell death was not observed. Glucose transport, evaluated with a nonmetabolizable substrate, 3-O-methyl glucose, also was not affected. However, the increase of sucrase activity observed in control cells (no acetic acid) was significantly suppressed by acetic acid (P < 0.01). Acetic acid suppressed sucrase activity in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Similar treatments (5 mmol/L and 15 d) with other organic acids such as citric, succinic, L-maric, L-lactic, L-tartaric and itaconic acids, did not suppress the increase in sucrase activity. Acetic acid treatment (5 mmol/L and 15 d) significantly decreased the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, maltase, trehalase and lactase) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, whereas the activities of other hydrolases (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase-N, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) were not affected. To understand mechanisms underlying the suppression of disaccharidase activity by acetic acid, Northern and Western analyses of the sucrase-isomaltase complex were performed. Acetic acid did not affect the de novo synthesis of this complex at either the transcriptional or translational levels. The antihyperglycemic effect of acetic acid may be partially due to the suppression of disaccharidase activity. This suppression seems to occur during the post-translational processing. PMID:10702577

  10. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  11. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  12. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  13. Increasing serotonin concentrations alter calcium and energy metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Moore, Spencer A E; Weaver, Samantha R; Cronick, Callyssa M; Olsen, Megan; Prichard, Austin P; Schnell, Brian P; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    A 4×4 Latin square design in which varied doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg) of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) were intravenously infused into late-lactation, non-pregnant Holstein dairy cows was used to determine the effects of serotonin on calcium and energy metabolism. Infusion periods lasted 4 days, with a 5-day washout between periods. Cows were infused at a constant rate for 1 h each day. Blood was collected pre- and 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-infusion, urine was collected pre- and post-infusion, and milk was collected daily. All of the 5-HTP doses increased systemic serotonin as compared to the 0 mg/kg dose, and the 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg doses increased circulating glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) concentrations. Treatment of cows with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP doses decreased urine calcium elimination, and the 1.5 mg/kg dose increased milk calcium concentrations. No differences were detected in the heart rates, respiration rates, or body temperatures of the cows; however, manure scores and defecation frequency were affected. Indeed, cows that received 5-HTP defecated more, and the consistency of their manure was softer. Treatment of late-lactation dairy cows with 5-HTP improved energy metabolism, decreased loss of calcium into urine, and increased calcium secretion into milk. Further research should target the effects of increasing serotonin during the transition period to determine any benefits for post-parturient calcium and glucose metabolism. PMID:26099356

  14. Autoclave leaching of molybdenite concentrates with catalytic additives of nitric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, K. M.; Raspopov, N. A.; Shneerson, Ya. M.; Lapin, A. Yu.; Bitkov, G. A.; Men'shikov, Yu. A.; Paskhin, P. N.; Kirichenko, V. P.

    2010-07-01

    The scientific theoretical prerequisites for the use of small additives of nitric acid for the intensification of the autoclave oxidative leaching (AOL) of sulfide concentrates are checked in order to increase the degree of extraction of the base metal with a simultaneous decrease in the cost of the process. The technological parameters of the AOL conditions applied to molybdenite are also refined, and recommendations for a practical application of the apparatus of the process and for a decrease in its cost are made.

  15. Mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced elevation of individual serum bile acids. I. Correlation of trichloroethylene concentrations to bile acids in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, H; Stacey, N H

    1993-08-01

    The temporal relationship between trichloroethylene (TRI) and individual serum bile acids (SBA) has been investigated to gain insight into the mechanism of solvent-induced increases in SBA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1 mmol/kg TRI in corn oil, while control rats received only corn oil. Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta at 2, 4, 8, and 16 hr after dosing. Individual SBA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liver and blood concentrations of TRI and one of its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCEOH), were determined by gas chromatography. SBA levels reached their peak at 4 hr and returned to control levels by 16 hr. There was a relationship between SBA levels and TRI concentrations, which were also at their peak 4 hr after dosing. By 16 hr the levels were undetectable. However, peak blood concentrations of TCEOH were reached 8 hr after dosing, and remained high at 16 hr. Cholic acid and taurocholic acid showed the highest levels of bile acids. Some other bile acids were also elevated, including deoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. Determination of total bile acids in serum using an enzymatic/colorimetric method showed a similar pattern of response to that obtained with the HPLC analysis. The data are consistent with TRI having a rapid and specific effect on SBA levels by a mechanism other than liver cell damage. PMID:8346545

  16. Pelargonic acid weed control: Concentrations, adjuvants, and application timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants, animals, and foods. Pelargonic acid has potential as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide for organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK, Atoka County) to determine the ...

  17. Effect of various concentration of sulfuric acid for Nafion membrane activation on the performance of fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiastuti, Sri; Onggo, Holia

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes an activation treatment to Nafion 117 membrane with sulfuric acid in various concentrations. The main goal of this study is to increase the Nafion 117 membrane performance, which is determined by proton number in the membrane and membrane performance in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This work was developed using sulfuric acids in four different concentrations: 1, 2, 3, and 4 M. The surface morphology and functional groups of activated membranes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope and Fourier Transform Infrared, respectively. The proton number absorbed in membranes was observed by gravimetric measurements. The performances of activated membranes in PEMFC were studied by single cell measurements with H2/O2 operation. The experimental results showed that activation of Nafion membrane did not change its surface morphology and functional groups. The proton number increased when the concentration of sulfuric acid is increased from 1 to 3 M and from 1 to 4 M. On the other hand, there is no significant increase when the concentration of sulfuric acid was increased from 1 to 2 M. Similar trends were observed when testing activated membrane performance in PEMFC, especially for current density at 0.6 V and maximum power. It is assumed that there is a correlation between the increase of sulfuric acid concentration in activation process with the increase of proton number in the membrane that are available for facilitating of transfer protons from the anode to the cathode.

  18. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Hartmann, Phillipp; Haimerl, Michael; Bathena, Sai P.; Sjöwall, Christopher; Almer, Sven; Alnouti, Yazen; Hofmann, Alan F.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we investigated the role of Nod2 in the development of liver fibrosis. Methods We studied experimental cholestatic liver disease induced by bile duct ligation or toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride in wild type and Nod2−/− mice. Results Nod2 deficiency protected mice from cholestatic but not toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Most notably, the hepatic bile acid concentration was lower in Nod2−/− mice than wild type mice following bile duct ligation for 3 weeks. In contrast to wild type mice, Nod2−/− mice had increased urinary excretion of bile acids, including sulfated bile acids, and an upregulation of the bile acid efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. MRP2 and MRP4 were downregulated by IL-1β in a Nod2 dependent fashion. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis through enhancing renal excretion of bile acids that in turn contributes to decreased concentration of bile acids in the hepatocyte. PMID:24560660

  19. Predictors of Third Trimester Blood Trihalomethanes and Urinary Trichloroacetic Acid Concentrations among Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zhou, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Zhen; Li, Jin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-17

    Prenatal exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) has been associated with a variety of adverse birth outcomes. However, little is known about predictors of prenatal biomarkers of exposure to DBPs among pregnant women. We aimed to identify predictors of third trimester blood trihalomethanes (THMs) and urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) concentrations, two biomarkers of exposure to DBPs, among pregnant women. Blood samples, urine samples, and questionnaires on individual characteristics and water-use activities were collected from 893 pregnant women in a Chinese cohort study. Maternal blood THM [chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and urinary TCAA concentrations were measured. We used multivariable linear regression to identify the predictors of third trimester blood THM and creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations. The geometric mean of blood TTHM (sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) and creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations were 51.90 ng/L and 9.66 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Study city was the strongest significant predictors of blood THM and creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations. Prenatal body mass index (BMI) was associated with decreased blood THM and decreased creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations. Age was associated with increased blood Br-THM (sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) concentrations. Intake of boiled water and passive smoking were associated with lower blood THM concentrations. The predictors of blood THM and urinary TCAA concentrations identified in this study provide potential health implications on how to reduce DBP exposure during pregnancy. PMID:27095243

  20. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments. PMID:27088975

  1. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Hoegger, Mark J; Moninger, Thomas O; Karp, Philip H; McMenimen, James D; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3- concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  2. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Philip H.; McMenimen, James D.; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  3. Effects of precursor concentration and acidic sulfate in aqueous glyoxal-OH radical oxidation and implications for secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Perri, Mark J; Seitzinger, Sybil P; Turpin, Barbara J

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that aqueous OH radical oxidation of glyoxal yields low-volatility compounds. When this chemistry takes place in clouds and fogs, followed by droplet evaporation (or if it occurs in aerosol water), the products are expected to remain partially in the particle phase, forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acidic sulfate exists ubiquitously in atmospheric water and has been shown to enhance SOA formation through aerosol phase reactions. In this work, we investigate how starting concentrations of glyoxal (30-3000 microM) and the presence of acidic sulfate (0-840 microM) affect product formation in the aqueous reaction between glyoxal and OH radical. The oxalic acid yield decreased with increasing precursor concentrations, and the presence of sulfuric acid did not alter oxalic acid concentrations significantly. A dilute aqueous chemistry model successfully reproduced oxalic acid concentrations, when the experiment was performed at cloud-relevant concentrations (glyoxal <300 microM), but predictions deviated from measurements at increasing concentrations. Results elucidate similarities and differences in aqueous glyoxal chemistry in clouds and in wet aerosols. They validate for the first time the accuracy of model predictions at cloud-relevant concentrations. These results suggest that cloud processing of glyoxal could be an important source of SOA. PMID:19924930

  4. Determining the sulfuric acid fog concentration in coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zin'kovskaya, S.I.; Okhrimenko, E.L.; Sobko, L.V.

    1982-11-06

    A volumetric method for the analysis of sulfuric acid aerosols at levels of acid greater (25-40 g/m/sup 3/) than those (1 g/m/sup 3/) analyzable by current methods is described. Coke oven gas after acid scrubbing and electrofiltration is passed through a Schott filter (pressure drop 100 mm Hg), the sulfuric acid aerosol being condensed on the filter which is washed with water and the washings filtered with NaOH (0.01 N after electrofilter, 1.0 N after the acid towers) to methyl orange end point. The error is +/- 2%.

  5. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin. PMID:26960387

  6. Various concentrations of erucic acid in mustard oil and mustard.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2014-06-15

    Erucic acid is a typical constituent of mustard or rape. Foodstuff with a high content of erucic acid is considered undesirable for human consumption because it has been linked to myocardial lipidosis and heart lesions in laboratory rats. As a result, several countries have restricted its presence in oils and fats. In this study, the erucic acid content in several mustard oils and prepared mustard samples from Germany and Australia was determined. Seven of nine mustard oil samples exceeded the permitted maximum levels established for erucic acid (range: 0.3-50.8%, limit: 5%). The erucic acid content in mustard samples (n=15) varied from 14% to 33% in the lipids. Two servings (i.e. 20 g) of the mustards with the highest erucic acid content already surpassed the tolerable daily intake established by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. However, a careful selection of mustard cultivars could lower the nutritional intake of erucic acid. PMID:24491745

  7. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (< 10 years old) and those located in coniferous watersheds had the highest MeHg concentrations (range, 0.10-4.53 ng L(-1)) and greatest methylation efficiencies (% THg as MeHg; range, 10-74%). High heterotrophic activity likely occurred in the beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies. PMID:19731651

  8. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during bovine oocyte maturation compromise early embryo physiology.

    PubMed

    Van Hoeck, Veerle; Sturmey, Roger G; Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Rizos, Dimitrios; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Leese, Henry J; Bols, Peter E J; Leroy, Jo L M R

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), associated with maternal disorders such as obesity and type II diabetes, alter the ovarian follicular micro-environment and have been associated with subfertility arising from reduced oocyte developmental competence. We have asked whether elevated NEFA concentrations during oocyte maturation affect the development and physiology of zygotes formed from such oocytes, using the cow as a model. The zygotes were grown to blastocysts, which were evaluated for their quality in terms of cell number, apoptosis, expression of key genes, amino acid turnover and oxidative metabolism. Oocyte maturation under elevated NEFA concentrations resulted in blastocysts with significantly lower cell number, increased apoptotic cell ratio and altered mRNA abundance of DNMT3A, IGF2R and SLC2A1. In addition, the blastocysts displayed reduced oxygen, pyruvate and glucose consumption, up-regulated lactate consumption and higher amino acid metabolism. These data indicate that exposure of maturing oocytes to elevated NEFA concentrations has a negative impact on fertility not only through a reduction in oocyte developmental capacity but through compromised early embryo quality, viability and metabolism. PMID:21858021

  9. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and β mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the β-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPARγ coactivator 1α decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The

  10. Predictive Value of 8 Genetic Loci for Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Gunjača, Grgo; Boban, Mladen; Pehlić, Marina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Budimir, Danijela; Kolčić, Ivana; Lauc, Gordan; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the value of genomic information in prediction of individual serum uric acid concentrations. Methods Three population samples were investigated: from isolated Adriatic island communities of Vis (n = 980) and Korčula (n = 944), and from general population of the city of Split (n = 507). Serum uric acid concentration was correlated with the genetic risk score based on 8 previously described genes: PDZK1, GCKR, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A3, SLC16A9, and SLC22A12, represented by a total of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The data were analyzed using classification and regression tree (CART) and general linear modeling. Results The most important variables for uric acid prediction with CART were genetic risk score in men and age in women. The percent of variance for any single SNP in predicting serum uric acid concentration varied from 0.0%-2.0%. The use of genetic risk score explained 0.1%-2.5% of uric acid variance in men and 3.9%-4.9% in women. The highest percent of variance was obtained when age, sex, and genetic risk score were used as predictors, with a total of 30.9% of variance in pooled analysis. Conclusion Despite overall low percent of explained variance, uric acid seems to be among the most predictive human quantitative traits based on the currently available SNP information. The use of genetic risk scores is a valuable approach in genetic epidemiology and increases the predictability of human quantitative traits based on genomic information compared with single SNP approach. PMID:20162742

  11. Blackcurrant seed press residue increases tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool whilst biomarkers in stool and urine indicate increased oxidative stress in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Dorit; Wagner, Andreas; Glei, Michael; Basu, Samar; Schubert, Rainer; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2009-08-01

    Berry seeds are a tocopherol-rich by-product of fruit processing without specific commercial value. In a human intervention study, the physiological impact of blackcurrant seed press residue (PR) was tested. Thirty-six women (aged 24 +/- 3 years; twenty non-smokers, sixteen smokers) consumed 250 g bread/d containing 8% PR for a period of 4 weeks (period 3). Comparatively, a control bread without PR (250 g/d) was tested (period 2) and baseline data were obtained (period 1). Blood, stool and 24 h urine were collected during a 5 d standardised diet within each period. Tocopherol and Fe intakes were calculated from food intake. In serum, tocopherol concentration and Fe parameters were determined. In urine, oxidative stress markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2alpha and inflammatory response marker 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha were analysed. Stool tocopherol concentration, genotoxicity of faecal water (comet assay) and antioxidant capacity of stool (aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid) were determined. Fe and total tocopherol intake, total tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool, and genotoxicity of faecal water increased with PR bread consumption (P < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of stool decreased between baseline and intervention, expressed by increased formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in vitro (P < 0.05). In smokers, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine increased with PR consumption (P < 0.05). Prostane concentrations were unaffected by PR bread consumption. In summary, the intake of bread containing blackcurrant PR for 4 weeks increased serum and stool total tocopherol concentrations. However, various biomarkers indicated increased oxidative stress, suggesting that consumption of ground berry seed may not be of advantage. PMID:19302719

  12. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  13. Productivity of concentrated hyaluronic acid using a Maxblend fermentor.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, S; Nagatsuru, M; Shibutani, M; Yamamoto, S; Hasebe, S

    1999-01-01

    Application of the Maxblend impeller to the fermentative production of hyaluronic acid (HA) was investigated. A 2-m3-scale fermentor fitted with this impeller (MBF) was used and the main fermentation was started with 85% of the nominal volume containing the pre-culture broth and medium. The kinetic characteristics of the MBF were compared with those of a conventional-type fermentor fitted with a turbine blade (TBN). The HA production yield in the MBF was over 20% higher than that in the TBN under the operating conditions of a high aeration rate and low vessel pressure since the broth viscosity increased. The apparent viscosity of the broth at the end of the cultivation rose to about 70 Pa.s. The molecular weight of the HA produced was independent of the agitation speed within the investigated range, and no significant difference was observed between the viscosity-average molecular weights of the HA obtained in the two types of fermentor, each having an estimated value of 4.3 x 10(6) under the same agitation power. PMID:16232576

  14. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  15. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  16. CYP2D6 genotype- and endoxifen-guided tamoxifen dose escalation increases endoxifen serum concentrations without increasing side effects.

    PubMed

    Dezentjé, V O; Opdam, F L; Gelderblom, H; Hartigh den, J; Van der Straaten, T; Vree, R; Maartense, E; Smorenburg, C H; Putter, H; Dieudonné, A S; Neven, P; Van de Velde, C J H; Nortier, J W R; Guchelaar, H-J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer patients with absent or reduced CYP2D6 activity and consequently low endoxifen levels may benefit less from tamoxifen treatment. CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizers may need a personalized increased tamoxifen dose to achieve effective endoxifen serum concentrations, without increasing toxicity. From a prospective study population of early breast cancer patients using tamoxifen (CYPTAM: NTR1509), 12 CYP2D6 poor and 12 intermediate metabolizers were selected and included in a one-step tamoxifen dose escalation study during 2 months. The escalated dose was calculated by multiplying the individual's endoxifen level at baseline relative to the average endoxifen concentration observed in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers by 20 mg (120 mg maximum). Endoxifen levels and tamoxifen toxicity were determined at baseline and after 2 months, just before patients returned to the standard dose of 20 mg. Tamoxifen dose escalation in CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizers significantly increased endoxifen concentrations (p < 0.001; p = 0.002, respectively) without increasing side effects. In intermediate metabolizers, dose escalation increased endoxifen to levels comparable with those observed in extensive metabolizers. In poor metabolizers, the mean endoxifen level increased from 24 to 81 % of the mean concentration in extensive metabolizers. In all patients, the endoxifen threshold of 5.97 ng/ml (=16.0 nM) reported by Madlensky et al. was reached following dose escalation. CYP2D6 genotype- and endoxifen-guided tamoxifen dose escalation increased endoxifen concentrations without increasing short-term side effects. Whether such tamoxifen dose escalation is effective and safe in view of long-term toxic effects is uncertain and needs to be explored. PMID:26369533

  17. Increased acid responsiveness in vagal sensory neurons in a guinea pig model of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Youtian; Liu, Zhenyu; Yu, Xiaoyun; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Undem, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized with eosinophils and mast cells predominated allergic inflammation in the esophagus and present with esophageal dysfunctions such as dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn. However, the underlying mechanism of esophageal dysfunctions is unclear. This study aims to determine whether neurons in the vagal sensory ganglia are modulated in a guinea pig model of EoE. Animals were actively sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosol OVA inhalation for 2 wk. This results in a mild esophagitis with increases in mast cells and eosinophils in the esophageal wall. Vagal nodose and jugular neurons were disassociated, and their responses to acid, capsaicin, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist AMG-9810 were studied by calcium imaging and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Compared with naïve animals, antigen challenge significantly increased acid responsiveness in both nodose and jugular neurons. Their responses to capsaicin were also increased after antigen challenge. AMG-9810, at a concentration that blocked capsaicin-evoked calcium influx, abolished the increase in acid-induced activation in both nodose and jugular neurons. Vagotomy strongly attenuated those increased responses of nodose and jugular neurons to both acid and capsaicin induced by antigen challenge. These data for the first time demonstrated that prolonged antigen challenge significantly increases acid responsiveness in vagal nodose and jugular ganglia neurons. This sensitization effect is mediated largely through TRPV1 and initiated at sensory nerve endings in the peripheral tissues. Allergen-induced enhancement of responsiveness to noxious stimulation by acid in sensory nerve may contribute to the development of esophageal dysfunctions such as heartburn in EoE. PMID:24875100

  18. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  19. Studies on the acidity of mordenite and ZSM-5. 1. Determination of Broensted acid site concentrations in mordenite and ZSM-5 by conductometric titration

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, M.; Herold, R.H.M.; Sonnemans, M.H.W.; Emeis, C.A.; Wilson, A.E.; Moolen, J.N. van der )

    1993-01-14

    The Broensted acidity of H-mordenite and H-ZSM-5 samples of varying proton concentration has been studied using aqueous conductometric titration, IR spectroscopy, and aqueous potentiometric titration. Good agreement is observed between Broensted acid site concentrations determined by conductometric titration and IR measurements, while indirect potentiometric titration affords acid site concentrations consistently lower than those measured using the conductometric technique. This finding is rationalized on the basis that, in a conductometric titration, all the accessible Broensted acid sites are direct;y titrated, whereas in the potentiometric procedure utilized, only those protons which can be ion-exchanged out of the zeolite are titrated. After allowing for the presence of extraframework aluminum in the zeolites (determined by [sup 27]Al NMR), the measured acidity for H-mordenite is found to increase linearly with increasing Al content within the range 0-1.5 mmol Al/g but appears to reach a limiting value at higher Al concentrations. For H-ZSM-5, the experimentally determined number of Broensted acid sites is also found to be linearly dependent on the Al molar fraction within the range measured (0-1.20 mmol Al/g). For both series of zeolite samples, the measured acidity is generally found to be less than the theoretical maximum calculated on the basis of an H[sup +]/Al ratio of 1. 43 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Increases in Serum CYFRA21-1 Concentration during Successful Treatment with Crizotinib

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Tadokoro, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Bandoh, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: — Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: Increases in tumor marker concentrations usually suggest disease progression. Cases Report: We here describe on 3 patients with non-small cell lung cancer whose serum concentrations of CYFRA21-1 increased in spite of successful treatment with crizotinib. Discontinuation of crizotinib resulted in a rapid decrease in serum CYFRA21-1 concentrations in all cases. In 1 patient with progressive disease, in spite of increasing the dose of crizotinib, CYFRA21-1 concentrations decreased. Conclusions: Crizotinib can induce increases in CYFRA21-1 concentration without disease progression. Pulmonologists and oncologists should be aware of this novel phenomenon, and focus on interpretation of CYFRA21-1 concentrations in monitoring tumor response to crizotinib treatment. PMID:25380070

  1. Increased mutagenicity of chromium compounds by nitrilotriacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Loprieno, N.; Boncristiani, G.; Venier, P.; Montaldi, A.; Majone, F.; Bianchi, V.; Paglialunga, S.; Levis, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt (NTA), which is a substitute for polyphosphates in household laundry detergents, and N-nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), a derivative of NTA produced by metabolism of soil microorganisms, were tested for in vitro mutagenicity in bacteria and yeasts. No gene reversions in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100), no forward gene mutations in Schizosaccharomyces pombe P1, and no mitotic gene conversions at two loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4 were induced by NTA and NIDA independently of the presence of rat liver metabolic activation. The influence of NTA on the mutagenic and clastogenic activity of several chromium compounds was examined in the Salmonella/microsome assay and in the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in mammalian cell cultures (Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) line). NTA does not affect the genetic inactivity of water-soluble Cr(III) (Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/) and the direct mutagenicity of soluble Cr(VI) (Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) compounds. The very insoluble Cr(VI) compounds PbCrO/sub 4/ and PbCrO/sub 4/ x PbO are instead clearly mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay (TA100 strain) only in the presence of NTA or NaOH. The chromosome-damaging activity of PbCrO/sub 4/ is significantly increased by NTA but not by NaOH.

  2. The influence of increasing media methanol concentration on sophorolipid biosynthesis from glycerol-based feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candida bombicola, a known producer of sophorolipids (SLs; glycolipid surfactants), was grown on glycerol and oleic acid with up to 1.5% (v/v) of methanol (MeOH; starting concentration) in the fermentation growth media to assess the effects of MeOH presence on SL synthesis and structural distributio...

  3. Associations between concentrations of uric acid with concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene among adults in the United States☆

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional associations between concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, a major source of vitamin A, with concentrations of uric acid in a nationally representative sample of adults from the United States. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from up to 10893 participants aged ≥20 years of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. Concentrations of uric acid adjusted for numerous covariates increased from 305.8 μmol/L in the lowest quintile of vitamin A to 335.3 μmol/L in the highest quintile (p for linear trend <0.001). The prevalence ratio for hyperuricemia also increased progressively across quintiles of serum vitamin A reaching 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52, 2.16; p for linear trend <0.001) in the top quintile in the maximally adjusted model. Adjusted mean concentrations of uric acid decreased progressively from quintile 1 (333.8 μmol/L) through quintile 4 of concentrations of beta-carotene and were similar for quintiles 4 (313.5 μmol/L) and 5 (313.8 μmol/L). Concentrations of beta-carotene were inversely associated with hyperuricemia (adjusted prevalence ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.72; p for linear trend <0.001). Concentrations of uric acid were significantly and positively associated with concentrations of vitamin A and inversely with concentrations of beta-carotene. These cross-sectional findings require confirmation with experimental studies of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. PMID:24267038

  4. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  5. Concentration-Effect Relationships for the Drug of Abuse γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, Melanie A.; Roiko, Samuel A.; Morse, Bridget L.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neurotransmitter that is abused because of its sedative/hypnotic and euphoric effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of GHB in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain (whole and discrete brain regions), and brain frontal cortex extracellular fluid. This information is crucial for future studies to evaluate effects of therapeutic interventions on the toxicodynamics of GHB. GHB (200–1000 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to rats, and plasma and frontal cortex microdialysate samples were collected for up to 6 h after the dose, or plasma, CSF, and brain (whole, frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus) concentrations were determined at the offset of its sedative/hypnotic effect [return to righting reflex (RRR)]. GHB-induced changes in the brain neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were also determined. GHB, GABA, and glutamate concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. GHB-induced sleep time significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner (20-fold increase from 200 to 1000 mg/kg). GHB concentrations in plasma (300–400 μg/ml), whole brain (70 μg/g), discrete brain regions (80–100 μg/g), and brain microdialysate (29–39 μg/ml) correlated with RRR. In contrast, CSF GHB and GABA and glutamate concentrations in discrete brain regions exhibited no relationship with RRR. Our results suggest that GHB-induced sedative/hypnotic effects are mediated directly by GHB and that at high GHB doses, GABA formation from GHB may not contribute to the observed sedative/hypnotic effect. These results support the use of a clinical GHB detoxification strategy aimed at decreasing plasma and brain GHB concentrations after GHB overdoses. PMID:20215411

  6. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  7. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  8. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. )

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  9. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Naomi E; Grace, Philip B; Ginn, Annette; Travis, Ruth C; Roddam, Andrew W; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a diet rich in animal foods may be associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including cancers of the prostate, colorectum and breast, but the possible mechanism is unclear. It is hypothesised that phytanic acid, a C20 branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in foods from ruminant animals, may be involved in early cancer development because it has been shown to up regulate activity of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, an enzyme commonly found to be over-expressed in tumour cells compared with normal tissue. However, little is known about the distribution of plasma phytanic acid concentrations or its dietary determinants in the general population. The primary aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine circulating phytanic acid concentrations among ninety-six meat-eating, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan women, aged 20-69 years, recruited into the Oxford component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Meat-eaters had, on average, a 6.7-fold higher geometric mean plasma phytanic acid concentration than the vegans (5.77 v. 0.86 micromol/l; P < 0.0001) and a 47 % higher mean concentration than the vegetarians (5.77 v. 3.93 micromol/l; P = 0.016). The strongest determinant of plasma phytanic acid concentration appeared to be dairy fat intake (r 0.68; P < 0.0001); phytanic acid levels were not associated with age or other lifestyle factors. These data show that a diet high in fat from dairy products is associated with increased plasma phytanic acid concentration, which may play a role in cancer development. PMID:17868488

  10. Changes in unbound and total valproic acid concentrations after replacement of carbamazepine with oxcarbazepine.

    PubMed

    Battino, D; Croci, D; Granata, T; Bernardi, G; Monza, G

    1992-10-01

    Total and free valproic acid (VPA) concentrations were measured in patients switched from a combined VPA and carbamazepine (CBZ) to a combined VPA and oxcarbazepine (OXC) therapy, both administered in individualized daily doses. Four young epileptic patients (13-17 years old) were studied for a 12-week period, total and free VPA concentrations being analyzed just before and 4 h after the morning dose, at the end of VPA and CBZ therapy, and 2 and 10 weeks after CBZ was replaced by OXC. The expected increase in the level/dose (L/D) ratio of total VPA observed at the end of the study was preceded by a clear-cut increase in the L/D ratio of free VPA, which led to VPA-related side effects and required the retitration of VPA daily doses. PMID:1448844

  11. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL) on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis. PMID:26599864

  12. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL) on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis. PMID:26599864

  13. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Specifically for each unit decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (in mM), there was a predicted −10.86 (95% confidence intervals −16.786 to −4.482) decrease in grip strength (kg force) (P < 0.001) and −8.74 (95% confidence intervals −13.943 to −3.015) decrease in muscle strength (P < 0.006). This study suggests that reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid levels reflect pathological abnormalities that may play a role in determining physical disability. These abnormalities may include decreases in the pre- and postsynaptic components of gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission and in the density of inhibitory neurons. Additionally, the reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration may contribute to the neurodegenerative process, resulting in increased firing of axons, with consequent increased energy demands, which may lead to neuroaxonal degeneration and loss of the compensatory mechanisms that maintain motor function. This study supports the idea that modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission may be an important target for neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis. See De Stefano and Giorgio (doi:10.1093/brain/awv213) for a scientific commentary on this article. PMID:26304151

  14. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    sensorimotor cortex. Specifically for each unit decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (in mM), there was a predicted -10.86 (95% confidence intervals -16.786 to -4.482) decrease in grip strength (kg force) (P < 0.001) and -8.74 (95% confidence intervals -13.943 to -3.015) decrease in muscle strength (P < 0.006). This study suggests that reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid levels reflect pathological abnormalities that may play a role in determining physical disability. These abnormalities may include decreases in the pre- and postsynaptic components of gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission and in the density of inhibitory neurons. Additionally, the reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration may contribute to the neurodegenerative process, resulting in increased firing of axons, with consequent increased energy demands, which may lead to neuroaxonal degeneration and loss of the compensatory mechanisms that maintain motor function. This study supports the idea that modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission may be an important target for neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis.See De Stefano and Giorgio (doi:10.1093/brain/awv213) for a scientific commentary on this article. PMID:26304151

  15. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration. PMID:26606195

  16. Summary and implications of reported amino acid concentrations in the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Shock, E.L.; Schulte, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    A study of literature reports of the concentrations of amino acids in extracts from the Murchison meteorite shows that many of the concentration ratios are constant. There are two possible interpretations of these ratios. One is that they are controlled by the pathways through which the amino acids formed, from which it follows that the amino acids are distributed in the same proportions throughout the meteorite. The other interpretation is that the ratios result from the analytical procedures used to extract the amino acids from the meteorite. These methods rely heavily on high-temperature (100{degree}C) aqueous extraction and subsequent high-temperature acid hydrolysis. A correlation was observed in the present study between the relative concentrations of several amino acids in the meteorite extracts and their relative aqueous solubilities at 100{degree}C. The extract solutions are dilute, and far from the saturation limits, but these correlations suggest that the sampling procedure affects directly the reported concentrations for these amino acids. If the extraction process does not bias the results, and all extractable amino acids are removed from meteorite samples, then the properties of amino acids which control both their solubilities and their concentrations in the meteorite need to be established. The possibility of sampling bias needs to be tested experimentally before concluding that extraction is complete, and that the constant relative abundances indicate that the relative concentrations of amino acids are homogeneous in the meteorite.

  17. PROTOTYPE CONCENTRATION MONITOR FOR ESTIMATING ACIDIC DRY DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dry deposition contributes significantly to the acidification of the ecosystem. However, difficulties in measuring dry deposition of reactive gases and fine particles make routine direct monitoring impractical. An alternate approach is to use the 'concentration monitoring' method...

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages. PMID:18565937

  19. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. PMID:25575969

  20. Study of urinary concentrations of mandelic acid in employees exposed to styrene.

    PubMed

    Poláková, Mária; Krajcovicová, Zdenka; Melus, Vladimír; Stefkovicová, Mária; Sulcová, Margaréta

    2012-09-01

    Mandelic acid (MA) is an important metabolite of styrene. In humans, measurement of its concentration in urine provides an important assessment of the overall level of styrene exposure in workers of the reinforced plastic manufacturing industry. The aim of our study was to investigate in these workers the relationship between MA concentration and styrene exposure time and intensity as well as its dependence on work occupation. The concentration of MA in the urine samples of 35 employees was analyzed with HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). Out of 35 workers, 11 performed laminating, 11 milling and finalizing, 6 laying-up and spraying-up, and 7 worked in background support. Urinal samples were obtained twice a day over the course of three weeks, at the beginning and the end of the work shift. We found a significant increase in MA concentrations during a work shift in all tested days (Wilcoxon test p < 0.05). Employees working in elevated atmospheric concentrations of styrene (93.77-159.88 mg/m3) had significantly higher MA concentrations in urine compared to other groups at both the beginning and the end of the shift (Kruskal Wallis test p < 0.001) (p < 0.001). Only samples from laminating workers exceeded the biological limit of MA concentration (640 mg/L) at the end of the shift. Normalisation of MA concentration to body mass index (BMI, normal range: 21.7 +/- 3.2 kg/m2) refined differences within groups (Kruskal-Wallis analysis p < 0.001). The accumulation of MA at the end of the work shift for measured time period was not significant for the measured time period (Friedman analysis p > 0.11). Our results confirmed that MA is a sensitive metabolic marker of styrene exposure without cumulative effect. However, normalization of MA concentrations to BMI can improve the accuracy of styrene exposure estimates in certain groups of employees. PMID:23285526

  1. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  2. Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Concentrations in Usually Consumed Fish in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Carlos; Gagliardi, Ana Carolina Moron; Miname, Marcio Hiroshi; Santos, Raul Dias

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3. PMID:25424160

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  4. Sustained increases in plasma C-type natriuretic peptides fail to increase concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid: Evidence from pregnant sheep.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michele O; Barrell, Graham K; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A

    2015-07-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine growth factor with high abundance in CNS tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Consistent with findings of CNP transcripts in the cerebral microvasculature and hypothalamus, CNP increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and reduces food intake when administered intracerebroventricularly in rodents. Whether high concentrations of CNP in plasma can affect CSF levels is unknown. Accordingly we have studied changes (days 4, 87 and 116) in concurrent plasma and CSF concentrations of CNP peptides in pregnant sheep - a physiologically unique setting in which plasma CNP is elevated for prolonged periods. Preliminary studies in non pregnant sheep showed stable CNP levels in CSF during repetitive sampling. Compared with values in non pregnant controls, plasma concentrations of CNP peptides were markedly raised (30-fold) at days 87 and 116 in pregnant sheep, yet CSF levels in the two groups did not differ. CNP peptides in CSF decreased from day 4 to day 87 in pregnant sheep, possibly reflecting an adaptive response of the cerebral vasculature to increased hemodynamic load. We conclude that sustained high concentrations of CNP - far exceeding levels encountered in human pathophysiology - fail to affect CNP peptide levels in CSF. PMID:25913855

  5. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on iron efficiency: Removal of three chloroacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Mao, Yu-qin; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Hong-wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-04-15

    The monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA and TCAA) removed by metallic iron under controlled dissolved oxygen conditions (0, 0.75, 1.52, 2.59, 3.47 or 7.09 mg/L DO) was investigated in well-mixed batch systems. The removal of CAAs increased first and then decreased with increasing DO concentration. Compared with anoxic condition, the reduction of MCAA and DCAA was substantially enhanced in the presence of O2, while TCAA reduction was significantly inhibited above 2.59 mg/L. The 1.52 mg/L DO was optimum for the formation of final product, acetic acid. Chlorine mass balances were 69-102%, and carbon mass balances were 92-105%. With sufficient mass transfer from bulk to the particle surface, the degradation of CAAs was limited by their reduction or migration rate within iron particles, which were dependent on the change of reducing agents and corrosion coatings. Under anoxic conditions, the reduction of CAAs was mainly inhibited by the available reducing agents in the conductive layer. Under low oxic conditions, the increasing reducing agents and thin lepidocrocite layer were favorable for CAA dechlorination. Under high oxic conditions, the redundant oxygen competing for reducing agents and significant lepidocrocite growth became the major restricting factors. Various CAA removal mechanisms could be potentially applied to explaining the effect of DO concentration on iron efficiency for contaminant reduction in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:25697696

  6. Adsorptive removal of fermentation inhibitors from concentrated acid hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Tuomo; Turku, Irina; Heinonen, Jari

    2011-05-01

    Adsorptive purification of concentrated acid hydrolyzate of lignocellulose was investigated. Cation exchange resin (CS16GC), neutral polymer adsorbent (XAD-16), and granulated activated carbon (GAC) were studied to remove furfural, HMF, and acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolyzate containing 20 wt.% H(2)SO(4). Adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally. Loading and regeneration were investigated in a laboratory scale column. GAC has the highest adsorption capacity, but regeneration with water was not feasible. XAD-16 and CS16GC had lower adsorption capacities but also shorter cycle times due to easier regeneration. Productivity increased when regenerating with 50 wt.% EtOH(aq) solution. To compare adsorbents, process performance was quantified by productivity and fraction of inhibitors removed. GAC yields highest performance when high purity is required and ethanol can be used in regeneration. For lower purities, XAD-16 and GAC yield approximately equal performance. When using ethanol must be avoided, CS16GC offers highest productivity. PMID:21441022

  7. Elevated anthranilic acid plasma concentrations in type 1 but not type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; van der Hart, Marieke; Summergrad, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data suggested involvement of tryptophan (Trp) – kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (TKP) in mechanisms of autoimmune, type 1 (T1D), and metabolic, type 2 (T2D), diabetes. However, clinical evaluations of TKP metabolites were limited to T2D. We assessed Trp, Kyn and TKP metabolites: anthranilic (AA), kynurenic (KYNA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids, in plasma samples of fifteen T1D, thirty T2D patients and twenty eight non-diabetic subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Trp concentrations were higher in T1D than in T2D and controls while Kyn concentrations were not changed suggesting down-regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme of TKP, in T1D. AA concentrations were 2.3-fold higher in T1D than in T2D and in controls. KYNA and XA concentrations were higher in T1D than in controls, and in previously reported T2D. AA elevation might be a specific feature of T1D. TKP shift towards AA formation in T1D may result from riboflavin deficiency, that increases AA in rats and baboons, and is highly associated with T1D but not T2D. AA augments autoimmune-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cells (PC) by increasing formation of antibodies to PC auto-antigen. Marked increase of AA was reported in rheumatoid arthritis, another autoimmune disorder. Trp, an essential amino acid for humans, is synthesized from AA by diabetogenic intestinal microbiome. AA down-regulates IDO by inhibition of Trp entry into cells. Resulting elevation of Trp attenuates Trp depletion-induced protection of PC against autoimmunity. Further studies of TKP might offer new tools for prevention and treatment of T1D and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:26523229

  8. Low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis associated with increased serum IL-6 concentration and azotaemia.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Bąska, Piotr; Długosz, Ewa

    2015-06-30

    Low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome, also named euthyroid sick syndrome or non-thyroidal illness syndrome, has been recognized in canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, where it manifested by lowering of the serum thyrotropin (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4) and free thyroxin (FT4) concentrations. This syndrome has also been observed in critical diseases in humans and animals, and the severity of the disease is considered an important factor in lowering of thyroid hormone concentrations. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a role in the development of low T3 syndrome by causing a decrease in deiodinases 1 and 2 activity and increased activity of deiodinase 3, enzymes involved in the conversion of thyroxin (T4) to T3. The purpose of this study was to compare the concentrations of serum thyroid hormones and TSH between healthy dogs and dogs with babesiosis, and to determine correlations between serum IL-6 concentration and serum total T3 (TT3), TT4, FT4, and TSH concentrations, and the level of azotaemia in dogs with babesiosis. The concentrations of IL-6, TT3, TT4, FT4, TSH, urea and creatinine were determined in 13 dogs with canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis and in 10 healthy dogs. The results of this study showed decreases in TT3, TT4, FT4, and TSH and increases in IL-6, urea and creatinine concentrations in affected dogs in comparison to healthy dogs. The concentration of IL-6 was negatively correlated with TT3 and TSH concentrations and the TT3 concentration was negatively correlated with serum urea and creatinine concentrations. This study showed low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis, which was confirmed by the determination of the T3 concentration, and demonstrates that in canine babesiosis the T3 concentration is associated with IL-6 concentration. PMID:25976636

  9. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases.

  10. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ching-Chao; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Szu-Chia; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015–1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084–1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. PMID:27490538

  11. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chao; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Szu-Chia; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015-1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084-1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. PMID:27490538

  12. Water administration of medium-chain fatty acid caprylic acid produced variable efficacy against cecal Campylobacter jejuni concentrations in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, and poultry is considered a primary source of Campylobacter infections. Caprylic acid, an eight-carbon fatty acid, has been shown in previous studies to reduce enteric cecal Campylobacter concentrations in poultry when administere...

  13. Practical considerations in the concentration and recovery of spent nitration acids

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.M.

    1995-12-01

    Most organic nitrations employ sulphuric acid or oleum in the nitration acid. Even in rare nitric acid only nitrations, sulphuric acid is used as the dehydrating agent to produce 99% nitric acid. The used sulphuric acid is discharged in a diluted form contaminated with organic components and nitric/nitrous species. Pressures are emloyed to reconcentrate and reprocess such spent acids. Acid recovery and concentration is expensive. This paper discusses some of the aspects which must be considered when contemplating acid recovery. In the current industrial climate, acid recovery and recycle should be regarded as an integral part of a nitration process development rather than an afterthought. Case histories will be given in which such considerations influenced the course of the development of the nitration process itself. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of well planned bench and pilot scale test programmes.

  14. Segregation of acid plume pixels from background water pixels, signatures of background water and dispersed acid plumes, and implications for calculation of iron concentration in dense plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Two files of data, obtained with a modular multiband scanner, for an acid waste dump into ocean water, were analyzed intensively. Signatures were derived for background water at different levels of effective sunlight intensity, and for different iron concentrations in the dispersed plume from the dump. The effect of increased sunlight intensity on the calculated iron concentration was found to be relatively important at low iron concentrations and relatively unimportant at high values of iron concentration in dispersed plumes. It was concluded that the basic equation for iron concentration is not applicable to dense plumes, particularly because lower values are indicated at the very core of the plume, than in the surrounding sheath, whereas radiances increase consistently from background water to dispersed plume to inner sheath to innermost core. It was likewise concluded that in the dense plume the iron concentration would probably best be measured by the higher wave length radiances, although the suitable relationship remains unknown.

  15. INTERCOMPARISON OF ATMOSPHERIC NITRIC ACID MEASUREMENTS AT ELEVATED AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methods for measurement of ambient HNO3 were compared over a 9-day period during the Carbonaceous Species Methods Comparison Study at Glendora, CA, in August 1986. ourly averaged HNO3 concentrations were in the range 0.5-25 ppbv, with hourly maxima each day in excess of 1...

  16. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters.

    PubMed

    Regli, Stig; Chen, Jimmy; Messner, Michael; Elovitz, Michael S; Letkiewicz, Frank J; Pegram, Rex A; Pepping, T J; Richardson, Susan D; Wright, J Michael

    2015-11-17

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, textile mills, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. We estimate bladder cancer risk from potential increased bromide levels in source waters of disinfecting public drinking water systems in the United States. Bladder cancer is the health end point used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its benefits analysis for regulating disinfection byproducts in drinking water. We use estimated increases in the mass of the four regulated trihalomethanes (THM4) concentrations (due to increased bromide incorporation) as the surrogate disinfection byproduct (DBP) occurrence metric for informing potential bladder cancer risk. We estimate potential increased excess lifetime bladder cancer risk as a function of increased source water bromide levels. Results based on data from 201 drinking water treatment plants indicate that a bromide increase of 50 μg/L could result in a potential increase of between 10(-3) and 10(-4) excess lifetime bladder cancer risk in populations served by roughly 90% of these plants. PMID:26489011

  17. Rapeseed and sunflower oilcake as supplements for dairy sheep: animal performance and milk fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Amores, Gustavo; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Mandaluniz, Nerea; Arranz, Josune; Bustamante, María Angeles; Valdivielso, Izaskun; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Aser; Barron, Luis J R; de Renobales, Mertxe

    2014-11-01

    The influence of different amounts of oilseed cake (rapeseed and sunflower) on animal production parameters and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of the milk was studied in a Latxa dairy sheep experimental flock, both in winter (50% oilcakes; indoor feeding) and in spring (30% oilcakes; part-time grazing). The two different levels of the oilcakes tested did not affect animal production parameters or milk yield. Milk fat content and the fat/protein ratio decreased significantly with 30 and 50% sunflower cake. Yet, fat/protein ratio values were within the range for cheesemaking. Both levels of either type of oilcake tested significantly increased the concentrations of nutritionally interesting FA (CLA isomer C18:2cis-9, trans-11, vaccenic, oleic, and total unsaturated FA), while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of atherogenic FA. The atherogenicity indexes of milks from ewes fed 50 or 30% of either oilcake were significantly lower than those of their corresponding control. The use of cakes in winter increased the concentration of nutritionally interesting FA to the values obtained with part-time grazing. PMID:25287696

  18. Increased circulating concentrations of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Galli, Emilia; Härkönen, Taina; Sainio, Markus T; Ustav, Mart; Toots, Urve; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo; Lindahl, Maria; Knip, Mikael; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was recently shown to be essential for the survival and proliferation of pancreatic β-cells in mice, where deletion of MANF resulted in diabetes. The current study aimed at determining whether the concentration of circulating MANF is associated with the clinical manifestation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). MANF expression in T1D or MANF levels in serum have not been previously studied. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MANF and measured serum MANF concentrations from 186 newly diagnosed children and adolescents and 20 adults with longer-term T1D alongside with age-matched controls. In healthy controls the mean serum MANF concentration was 7.0 ng/ml. High MANF concentrations were found in children 1-9 years of age close to the diagnosis of T1D. The increased MANF concentrations were not associated with diabetes-predictive autoantibodies and autoantibodies against MANF were extremely rare. Patients with conspicuously high MANF serum concentrations had lower C-peptide levels compared to patients with moderate MANF concentrations. Our data indicate that increased MANF concentrations in serum are associated with the clinical manifestation of T1D in children, but the exact mechanism behind the increase remains elusive. PMID:27356471

  19. Increased circulating concentrations of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Emilia; Härkönen, Taina; Sainio, Markus T.; Ustav, Mart; Toots, Urve; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo; Lindahl, Maria; Knip, Mikael; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was recently shown to be essential for the survival and proliferation of pancreatic β-cells in mice, where deletion of MANF resulted in diabetes. The current study aimed at determining whether the concentration of circulating MANF is associated with the clinical manifestation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). MANF expression in T1D or MANF levels in serum have not been previously studied. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MANF and measured serum MANF concentrations from 186 newly diagnosed children and adolescents and 20 adults with longer-term T1D alongside with age-matched controls. In healthy controls the mean serum MANF concentration was 7.0 ng/ml. High MANF concentrations were found in children 1–9 years of age close to the diagnosis of T1D. The increased MANF concentrations were not associated with diabetes-predictive autoantibodies and autoantibodies against MANF were extremely rare. Patients with conspicuously high MANF serum concentrations had lower C-peptide levels compared to patients with moderate MANF concentrations. Our data indicate that increased MANF concentrations in serum are associated with the clinical manifestation of T1D in children, but the exact mechanism behind the increase remains elusive. PMID:27356471

  20. Endurance exercise increases skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferases and plasma kynurenic acid in humans.

    PubMed

    Schlittler, Maja; Goiny, Michel; Agudelo, Leandro Z; Venckunas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Ruas, Jorge L; Erhardt, Sophie; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-15

    Physical exercise has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with depressive disorder. Recent animal studies show that exercise protects from depression by increased skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) expression which shifts the kynurenine metabolism away from the neurotoxic kynurenine (KYN) to the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on kynurenine metabolism in humans. KAT gene and protein expression was increased in the muscles of endurance-trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. Endurance exercise caused an increase in plasma KYNA within the first hour after exercise. In contrast, a bout of high-intensity eccentric exercise did not lead to increased plasma KYNA concentration. Our results show that regular endurance exercise causes adaptations in kynurenine metabolism which can have implications for exercise recommendations for patients with depressive disorder. PMID:27030575

  1. Rapid increase in copper concentrations in a new marina, San Diego Bay.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Trent W; D'Anna, Heather

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of copper in water rose rapidly following the introduction of boats to a new marina in San Diego Bay. Two months after the marina reached half its capacity, a majority of water samples exceeded chronic and acute criteria for dissolved copper, and copper concentrations in several samples exceeded the highest concentrations observed in another marina that has been listed as an impaired water body. A box model suggested that a small fraction of the leached copper was sequestered in sediment. Copper concentrations in water entering the marina from the bay was more than half the chronic concentration limit, so only 50% of marina boat capacity could be accommodated without exceeding the chronic criterion more than 50% of the time. Copper concentrations in water may increase rapidly following boat introduction in small marinas, but could return to pre-introduction levels by controlling boat numbers or reducing use of copper-based paints. PMID:22245437

  2. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  3. Correlative and multivariate analysis of increased radon concentration in underground laboratory.

    PubMed

    Maletić, Dimitrije M; Udovičić, Vladimir I; Banjanac, Radomir M; Joković, Dejan R; Dragić, Aleksandar L; Veselinović, Nikola B; Filipović, Jelena

    2014-11-01

    The results of analysis using correlative and multivariate methods, as developed for data analysis in high-energy physics and implemented in the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis software package, of the relations of the variation of increased radon concentration with climate variables in shallow underground laboratory is presented. Multivariate regression analysis identified a number of multivariate methods which can give a good evaluation of increased radon concentrations based on climate variables. The use of the multivariate regression methods will enable the investigation of the relations of specific climate variable with increased radon concentrations by analysis of regression methods resulting in 'mapped' underlying functional behaviour of radon concentrations depending on a wide spectrum of climate variables. PMID:25080439

  4. Impact of Dry Solids and Bile Acid Concentrations on Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Extruded Oat Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and ‘Jim’, with beta-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional fact...

  5. Increased Extracellular Concentrations of Norepinephrine in Cortex and Hippocampus Following Vagus Nerve Stimulation in the Rat.

    PubMed Central

    Roosevelt, Rodney W.; Smith, Douglas C.; Clough, Richard W.; Jensen, Robert A.; Browning, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    The vagus nerve is an important source of afferent information about visceral states and it provides input to the locus coeruleus (LC), the major source of norepinephrine (NE) in the brain. It has been suggested that the effects of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve on learning and memory, mood, seizure suppression, and recovery of function following brain damage are mediated, in part, by the release of brain NE. The hypothesis that left vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) at the cervical level results in increased extracellular NE concentrations in the cortex and hippocampus was tested at four stimulus intensities 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mA. Stimulation at 0.0 and 0.25 mA had no effect on NE concentrations, while the 0.5 mA stimulation increased NE concentrations significantly in the hippocampus (23%), but not the cortex. However, 1.0 mA stimulation significantly increased NE concentrations in both the cortex (39%) and hippocampus (28%) bilaterally. The increases in NE were transient and confined to the stimulation periods. VNS did not alter NE concentrations in either structure during the inter-stimulation baseline periods. No differences were observed between NE levels in the initial baseline and the post-stimulation baselines. These findings support the hypothesis that VNS increases extracellular NE concentrations in both the hippocampus and cortex. PMID:16962076

  6. Effect of enoxacin, felbinac, and sparfloxacin on fatty acid metabolism and glucose concentrations in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miwa, Yasushi; Kazumi, Maya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2011-05-01

    Multiple changes in metabolic levels could be useful for understanding physiological toxicity. To explore further risk factors for the convulsions induced by the interaction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and new quinolone antimicrobial drugs, the effect of sparfloxacin, enoxacin, and felbinac on fatty acid metabolism and glucose concentrations in the liver, brain, and blood of rats was investigated. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoAs (C(18:1) and C(20:4)) in the liver and brain were decreased at the onset of convulsions induced by the coadministration of enoxacin with felbinac. Then, glucose concentrations in the liver and blood were decreased, whereas they were increased in a dose-dependant manner in the brain. However, the formation of acyl-CoAs and glucose levels in the liver, brain, and blood was not significantly influenced by enoxacin, felbinac, and sparfloxacin alone, respectively. The disturbance of both fatty acid metabolism and glucose levels might be associated with the increased susceptibility to convulsions, which may contribute to further understanding of the toxic effects associated with these drugs. PMID:21633127

  7. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  8. Optical detection of concentrations for mixed acid: HF and HNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gumin; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2009-02-01

    Mixed acid, which consist of HF and HNO3, is used as a good etchant for silicon dioxide in the wet etching and pickling process of stainless steel. The optical detection of concentration for such mixed acids is crucial to optimize and cut costs in the manufacturing process. Optical detection in the IR regime has been utilized to measure the concentration of the mixed acid for HF and HNO3, because that has several strong absorption peaks, which is contributed by vibrational mode of each acid molecular in this spectrum. In this research, we observed the concentrations of mixed acid to consist of HF and HNO3, as we measured the absorption intensity of OH- stretch and NO3 - stretch band by optical spectroscopy. The concentration range of HF over 1.5-3 wt% and that of HNO3 over 2-10 wt% were studied in room temperature.

  9. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation. PMID:25216642

  10. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  11. Increase of extracellular glutamate concentration increases its oxidation and diminishes glucose oxidation in isolated mouse hippocampus: reversible by TFB-TBOA.

    PubMed

    Torres, Felipe Vasconcelos; Hansen, Fernanda; Locks-Coelho, Lucas Doridio

    2013-08-01

    Glutamate concentration at the synaptic level must be kept low in order to prevent excitotoxicity. Astrocytes play a key role in brain energetics, and also astrocytic glutamate transporters are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in CNS. Experiments with primary astrocytic cultures suggest that increased influx of glutamate cotransported with sodium at astrocytes favors its flux to the tricarboxylic acid cycle instead of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Although metabolic coupling can be considered an emergent field of research with important recent discoveries, some basic aspects of glutamate metabolism still have not been characterized in brain tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of extracellular glutamate is able to modulate the use of glutamate and glucose as energetic substrates. For this purpose, isolated hippocampi of mice were incubated with radiolabeled substrates, and CO2 radioactivity and extracellular lactate were measured. Our results point to a diminished oxidation of glucose with increasing extracellular glutamate concentration, glutamate presumably being the fuel, and might suggest that oxidation of glutamate could buffer excitotoxic conditions by high glutamate concentrations. In addition, these findings were reversed when glutamate uptake by astrocytes was impaired by the presence of (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-L-aspartic acid (TFB-TBOA). Taken together, our findings argue against the lactate shuttle theory, because glutamate did not cause any detectable increase in extracellular lactate content (or, presumably, in glycolysis), because the glutamate is being used as fuel instead of going to glutamine and back to neurons. PMID:23359514

  12. Increase in fatty acid oxidation in calvaria cells cultured with diphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1981-01-01

    1. Cultured calvaria cells oxidized palmitate and octanoate to CO2 and water-soluble products. 2. When these cells were treated for 6 days with 0.025 and 0.25 mM-dichloromethanediphosphonate, oxidation of palmitate was increased, whereas that of octanoate was influenced less. 3. When the rate of oxidation was raised by increasing the palmitate concentration in the medium, the effect of the diphosphonate was decreased and finally disappeared. 4. 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate had only minor effects. 5. The increase in palmitate oxidation appeared 2 days after the addition of dichloromethanediphosphonate, simultaneously with a fall in lactate production. (Inhibition of glycolysis by diphosphonates has already been shown.) 6. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, did not influence the effect of dichloromethanediphosphonate on the oxidation of palmitate and the production of lactate. 7. Cells cultured with dichloromethanediphosphonate showed a faster uptake of palmitic acid than did control cells. However, this observation did not explain the increased palmitate oxidation, since uptake was much faster than oxidation, and was therefore not the rate-limiting step. 8. 2-Bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, did not influence the inhibition of glycolysis by the diphosphonates. This inhibition, therefore, did not result from the increased oxidation of palmitate. It is also unlikely that the increased oxidation of palmitate is connected with the inhibition of glycolysis. PMID:6458286

  13. Advances in Acid Concentration Membrane Technology for the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme

    2006-11-01

    134 degrees Celsius. Transmembrane fluxes of water are commercially competitive (~5000 g/m2h) and separation factors have been measured as high as 8000, depending on the membrane and the water content. For the Nafion-117 experiments, the common trade off in membrane performance is observed in that as flux is increased, separation factor decreases. Nafion-112, a thinner membrane, exhibited much higher fluxes than the Nafion-117; however without the expected loss in separation factor indicating that the permeability of iodine and HI through Nafion materials is low. Preliminary data for the sulfuric acid concentration suggests performance similar to the HI experiments. All membranes studied for the HI, HI/iodine and sulfuric acid feeds exhibited no degradation in membrane performance during use.

  14. How do increasing background concentrations of tropospheric ozone affect peatland plant growth and carbon gas exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Jennifer L.; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Jones, Timothy; Freeman, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In this study we have demonstrated that plants originating from upland peat bogs are sensitive to increasing background concentrations of ozone. Peatland mesocosms from an upland peat bog in North Wales, UK were exposed to eight levels of elevated background ozone in solardomes for 4 months from May to August, with 24 h mean ozone concentrations ranging from 16 to 94 ppb and cumulative AOT024hr ranging from 45.98 ppm h to 259.63 ppm h. Our results show that plant senescence increased with increasing exposure to ozone, although there was no significant effect of increasing ozone on plant biomass. Assessments of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from the mesocosms suggests that there was no change in carbon dioxide fluxes over the 4 month exposure period but that methane fluxes increased as cumulative ozone exposure increased to a maximum AOT 024hr of approximately 120 ppm h and then decreased as cumulative ozone exposure increased further.

  15. Circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) as mediators of the innate immune response in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that temperamental cattle have greater non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and an altered innate immune response compared to calm cattle. Therefore, this trial was designed to determine if increasing energy availability via a lipid infusion or bolus dextrose inject...

  16. Emissions from an International Airport Increase Particle Number Concentrations 4-fold at 10 km Downwind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km2 that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8–10 km (5–6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm3, more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280–790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  17. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  18. Cationic RAFT polymerization using ppm concentrations of organic acid.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2015-02-01

    A metal-free, cationic, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization was proposed and realized. A series of thiocarbonylthio compounds were used in the presence of a small amount of triflic acid for isobutyl vinyl ether to give polymers with controlled molecular weight of up to 1×10(5) and narrow molecular-weight distributions (Mw /Mn <1.1). This "living" or controlled cationic polymerization is applicable to various electron-rich monomers including vinyl ethers, p-methoxystyrene, and even p-hydroxystyrene that possesses an unprotected phenol group. A transformation from cationic to radical RAFT polymerization enables the synthesis of block copolymers between cationically and radically polymerizable monomers, such as vinyl ether and vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate. PMID:25511364

  19. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  20. Astaxanthin lowers plasma TAG concentrations and increases hepatic antioxidant gene expression in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Pham, Tho X; Wegner, Casey J; Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2014-12-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significantly associated with hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. We have previously reported that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, lowers plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in apoE knockout mice. To investigate whether ASTX supplementation can prevent the development of NAFLD in obesity, male C57BL/6J mice (n 8 per group) were fed a high-fat diet (35%, w/w) supplemented with 0, 0.003, 0.01 or 0.03% of ASTX (w/w) for 12 weeks. The 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant decrease in plasma TAG concentrations, suggesting that ASTX at a 0.03% supplementation dosage exerts a hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect. Although there was an increase in the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 2, the mRNA levels of acyl-CoA oxidase 1, a critical enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, exhibited an increase in the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group. There was a decrease in plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) concentrations in the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group. There was a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and its downstream genes, which are critical for endogenous antioxidant mechanism, in the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA abundance of IL-6 in the primary splenocytes isolated from the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation when compared with that in the splenocytes isolated from the control group. In conclusion, ASTX supplementation lowered the plasma concentrations of TAG, ALT and AST, increased the hepatic expression of endogenous antioxidant genes, and rendered splenocytes less sensitive to LPS stimulation. Therefore, ASTX may prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and inflammation. PMID:25328157

  1. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant concentrations, and fatty acid contents of muscle tissue from malignant hyperthermia-susceptible swine.

    PubMed

    Duthie, G G; Wahle, K W; Harris, C I; Arthur, J R; Morrice, P C

    1992-08-01

    Homogenates of semitendinosus muscle from malignant hyperthermia (MH)-susceptible pigs produced threefold more pentane than those from MH-resistant pigs, indicating enhanced free radical-mediated peroxidation of n-6 fatty acids. This did not reflect a deficiency in tissue antioxidants or antioxidant-enzymes but glutathione concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the tissue from MH-susceptible swine, consistent with an adaptive response to a sustained oxidant stress. A lower proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in phospholipids and neutral lipids in muscle from MHS pigs indicated increased peroxidation or metabolism (desaturation and elongation). The increased oleic acid (18:1 n-9) in the MHS muscle indicated that desaturase activity was elevated in all lipid classes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced free radical activity and lipid peroxidation contributes to the abnormalities in Ca2+ homeostasis and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in MH. PMID:1632646

  2. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  3. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  4. Metabolic fate of fatty acids involved in ruminal biohydrogenation in sheep fed concentrate or herbage with or without tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, V; Mele, M; Serra, A; Scerra, M; Luciano, G; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2009-08-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of herbage or concentrate feeding and dietary tannin supplementation on fatty acid metabolism and composition in sheep ruminal fluid, plasma, and intramuscular fat. Twenty-eight male lambs were divided into 2 equal groups at 45 d of age and kept in individual pens. One group was given exclusively fresh herbage (vetch), and the other group was fed a concentrate-based diet. Within each treatment, one-half of the lambs received supplementation of quebracho powder, providing 4.0% of dietary DM as tannins. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered at 105 d of age, and ruminal contents and LM were collected. Blood plasma, ruminal fluid, and LM fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Tannin supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) the concentration of stearic acid (-49%) and increased the concentration of vaccenic acid (+97%) in ruminal fluid from concentrate-fed lambs. Within concentrate- and herbage-based diets, tannin supplementation reduced the accumulation of SFA in blood (P < 0.05) compared with lambs fed the tannin-free diets. When tannins were included in the concentrate, the LM contained 2-fold greater concentrations of rumenic acid compared with the LM of the lambs fed the tannin-free concentrate (0.96 vs. 0.46% of total extracted fatty acids, respectively; P < 0.05). The concentration of PUFA was greater (P < 0.05) and SFA (P < 0.01) less in the LM from lambs fed the tannin-containing diets as compared with the animals receiving the tannin-free diets. These results confirm, in vivo, that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation, as previously reported in vitro. This implies that tannin supplementation could be a useful strategy to increase the rumenic acid and PUFA content and to reduce the SFA in ruminant meats. However, the correct dietary concentration of tannins should be carefully chosen to avoid negative effects on DMI and animal

  5. Decreased dromotropic response to verapamil despite pronounced increased drug concentration in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Patrick R; Skeith, Kenneth; Russell, Anthony S; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2000-01-01

    Aims Inflammation reduces hepatic clearance of many drugs with unknown therapeutic consequences. This study was carried out to examine the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of verapamil. Methods Eight RA patients were age- and sex-matched with eight healthy volunteers. The disease severity was assessed, and ECG, blood pressure and verapamil enantiomers concentrations were measured for 12 h post 80 mg oral verapamil. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitrite (NO2−) were measured in predose samples. Results IL-6 and NO2− concentrations were significantly increased in parallel with disease severity. Oral clearance of both S- and R-verapamil was significantly decreased by RA. While the unbound fraction of S- and R-verapamil decreased by 5 and 7-fold, respectively, the unbound AUC remained unchanged for the more potent enantiomer, S-verapamil. AUC of norverapamil enantiomers was increased 2–3-fold. Despite elevated serum drug concentrations in RA, the potential to prolong the PR-interval was significantly reduced by one fold and the effect on the heart rate and blood pressure did not increase. Conclusions RA results in increased verapamil concentrations due likely to changes in protein binding, decreased clearance and/or altered hepatic blood flow. A significant decrease in dromotropic effect, despite increased serum drug concentrations, may be attributed to receptor down regulation caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or NO. PMID:11136300

  6. The potential impact on atmospheric ozone and temperature of increasing trace gas concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, G.; Derudder, A.

    1987-01-01

    The response of the atmosphere to emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chlorocarbons, and to increasing concentrations of other radiatively active trace gases such as CO2, CH4, and N2O is calculated by a coupled chemical-radiative transport one-dimensional model. It is shown that significant reductions in the ozone concentration and in the temperature are expected in the upper stratosphere as a result of increasing concentrations of active chlorine produced by photodecomposition of the CFCs. The ozone content is expected to increase in the troposphere, as a consequence of increasing concentrations of methane and nitrogen oxides. Due to enhanced greenhouse effects, the Earth's surface should warm up by several degrees. The amplitude and even the sign of future changes in the ozone column are difficult to predict as they are strongly scenario-dependent. An early detection system to prevent noticeable ozone changes as a result of increasing concentrations of source gases should thus be based on a continuous monitoring of the ozone amount in the upper stratosphere rather than on measurements of the ozone column only. Measurements of NOx, Clx, and HOx are also required for unambiguous trend detection and interpretation.

  7. Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2013-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ≤66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments. PMID:23135152

  8. A geographic cline in leaf salicylic acid with increasing elevation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nana; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M Brian

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) occupies a key role as a hormone central to both plant resistance to bacterial pathogens and tolerance of abiotic stresses. Plants at high elevation experience colder temperatures and elevated UV levels. While it has been predicted that SA concentrations will be higher in plants from high elevation populations, few studies have addressed this question. Here, we asked how concentrations of SA vary in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana collected across an elevational gradient on the Iberian Peninsula. In a series of common garden experiments, we found that constitutive SA concentrations were highest in genotypes from the low elevation populations. This result was in the opposite direction from our prediction and is an exception to the general finding that phenolic compounds increase with increasing elevation. These data suggest that high constitutive SA is not associated with resistance to cold temperatures in these plants. Furthermore, we also found that leaf constitutive camalexin concentrations, an important defense against some bacterial and fungal enemies, were highest in the low elevation populations, suggesting that pathogen pressures may be important. Further examination of this elevational cline will likely provide additional insights into the interplay between phenolic compounds and biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25875692

  9. A geographic cline in leaf salicylic acid with increasing elevation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nana; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M Brian

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) occupies a key role as a hormone central to both plant resistance to bacterial pathogens and tolerance of abiotic stresses. Plants at high elevation experience colder temperatures and elevated UV levels. While it has been predicted that SA concentrations will be higher in plants from high elevation populations, few studies have addressed this question. Here, we asked how concentrations of SA vary in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana collected across an elevational gradient on the Iberian Peninsula. In a series of common garden experiments, we found that constitutive SA concentrations were highest in genotypes from the low elevation populations. This result was in the opposite direction from our prediction and is an exception to the general finding that phenolic compounds increase with increasing elevation. These data suggest that high constitutive SA is not associated with resistance to cold temperatures in these plants. Furthermore, we also found that leaf constitutive camalexin concentrations, an important defense against some bacterial and fungal enemies, were highest in the low elevation populations, suggesting that pathogen pressures may be important. Further examination of this elevational cline will likely provide additional insights into the interplay between phenolic compounds and biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25875692

  10. Physiological responses during short-term acclimation to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration in Pinus nigra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Biron, P.; Richard, P.; Canale, L.; Bariac, T.

    2010-12-01

    The response of plants to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is a key element shaping future biogeochemical cycles. While leaf scale manipulations of CO2 concentration provide us with a wealth of information on the biochemical response of leaf photosynthesis, these responses do not necessarily translate to whole plant responses at higher CO2 concentrations. Evidence from free air enrichment studies show different responses of plant gas exchange parameters in their degree of acclimation to long-term increases in atmospheric CO2, relative to those predicted from the instantaneous responses of leaf-level measurements. However, free air enrichment studies are also limited by the fact that they represent a single step change in CO2 and it is therefore of interest to understand how physiological responses derived from leaf-scale increases in CO2 compare to those from exposing the whole plant to increases CO2 across a range of elevated CO2 concentrations. Here we report on a study into the short-term leaf level physiological responses to CO2 concentration of small (1.5m) Pinus nigra trees that were maintained at different CO2 concentrations, therefore allowing potential whole-plant feedback effects to be incorporated into the responses. The trees were maintained at 20°C and 50-60% RH at three ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca of 380 ppm, 500 ppm, 800 ppm) for ~10 days each in a 10m3 growth chamber. The response of gas exchange parameters (assimilation rate, A, stomatal conductance, gs, internal CO2 concentration, Ci, transpiration, E) to leaf level changes in CO2 were measured at each ambient CO2 concentration, allowing the instantaneous response to be compared to the ‘acclimated’ response (i.e. that at the ambient concentration). Typical A-Ci response curves were seen at all CO2 concentrations, with saturation at Ci above 800ppm and Ca above 1500 ppm. However, even over this short period, assimilation rates at a given CO2 concentration deceased with increasing

  11. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status. PMID:24913495

  12. Increased serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in beta thalassaemia: effect of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Meliconi, R; Uguccioni, M; Lalli, E; Nesci, S; Delfini, C; Paradisi, O; Lucarelli, G; Gasbarrini, G; Facchini, A

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were determined in beta thalassemic patients before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to evaluate whether changes in TNF concentrations after BMT were related to immune mediated complications. METHODS: Serum TNF concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) in paired samples from 71 patients with beta thalassemia before and after BMT. Serial samples from 13 patients were also studied for up to six months after BMT. Forty one normal healthy children matched for sex and age were studied as controls. RESULTS: beta thalassemic patients had high serum TNF concentrations before transplantation compared with controls. These were not related to sex, age, duration of disease, number of blood transfusions, transferrin concentrations or splenectomy. DQw1 positive patients showed significantly lower TNF concentrations than non-DQw1 cases. Patients with severe liver fibrosis had significantly higher TNF concentrations. No correlation was found between TNF values and BMT outcome before transplantation but TNF alpha values fell significantly after BMT. The decrease persisted only in patients with successful engraftment. In serial samples studied for up to six months after BMT, TNF values decreased but in four out of five patients with graft rejection and in all five with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) sharp increases occurred at the time of clinical symptoms. No correlation was found between the degree of GVHD and serum TNF-alpha concentrations nor between TNF-alpha concentrations after BMT and the presence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. CONCLUSIONS: About 50% of beta thalassemic patients have increased serum TNF, and the changes after BMT are related to the occurrence of immune mediate complications. The persistence of low TNF concentrations after successful engraftment may be due to the preparative regimen and the lack of adverse immune reactions. PMID:1740519

  13. Acid-responsive properties of fibrils from heat-induced whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Hua; Wang, Jing; Dong, Shi-Rong; Cheng, Wen; Kong, Bao-Hua; Tan, Jun-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The heat-induced fibrils of whey protein concentrate (WPC) have demonstrated an acid-responsive property; that is, the fibrils went through formation-depolymerization-reformation as pH was adjusted to 1.8, 6.5, and back to 1.8. We investigated the microstructure, driving force, and thermal stability of 3.0% (wt) WPC nanofibrils adjusted between pH 6.5 and 1.8 twice. The results showed that the nanofibrils had acid-responsive properties and good thermal stability after reheating for 10h at 90°C and adjusting pH from 1.8 to 6.5 to 1.8. The content of WPC fibril aggregates was not much different with the prolongation of heating times during pH variation. Although the nanofibrils' structure could be destroyed only by changing the pH, the essence of this destruction might only form fiber fragments, polymers that would restore a fibrous structure upon returning to pH 1.8. A described model for the acid-responsive assembly of fibrils of WPC was proposed. The fibrils went through formation-depolymerization-reformation by weaker noncovalent interactions (surface hydrophobicity) as pH changed from 1.8 to 6.5 back to 1.8. However, the fibrils lost the acid-responsive properties because much more S-S (disulfide) formation occurred when the solution was adjusted to pH 6.5 and reheated. Meanwhile, fibrils still possessed acid-responsive properties when reheated at pH 1.8, and the content of fibrils slightly increased with a further reduction of α-helix structure. PMID:27265171

  14. Diversification Rates Increase With Population Size and Resource Concentration in an Unstructured Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M. H. H.; Sanchez, M.; Lee, J.; Finkel, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the generation and maintenance of biodiversity provides some of the planet's greatest and most pressing challenges. Variation in resource concentration, which varies widely at multiple scales, may cause biodiversity to increase, decrease, or exhibit a unimodal response and underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We established experimental cultures of long-term stationary phase (LTSP) Escherichia coli to test whether per capita heterozygosity varies with resource concentration, and, if so, whether population sizes associated with different resource concentrations contributed to these patterns. Our results provide the clearest example to date of increasing per capita heterozygosity with increasing resource concentration. Further, our experimental manipulations of population size, independent of resource concentration, provide the first unequivocal evidence that population size is one of the underlying factors controlling per capita heterozygosity along such resource gradients. Specifically, we show that cultures with higher maximum population sizes, associated with higher resource concentrations, have higher per capita heterozygosity. These experiments provide the first experimental evidence for an underappreciated factor controlling biodiversity along resource gradients—population size. This direct evidence of population size influencing diversification rates has implications for regional and global scale patterns of biodiversity. PMID:18073429

  15. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  16. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  17. Changes in melatonin synthesis parameters after carbon monoxide concentration increase in the cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Romerowicz-Misielak, M; Oren, D A; Sowa-Kucma, M; Tabecka-Lonczynska, A; Gilun, P; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S; Koziorowski, M

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that the gaseous messenger carbon monoxide (CO) is released from the eye into the ophthalmic venous blood depending on the intensity of sunlight. This study was designed to determine whether the increased concentration of CO in ophthalmic venous blood affects the synthesis of melatonin and therefore, whether CO released from the eye under normal lighting conditions can be a carrier of light intensity information. Thirty six mature male wild boar and pig crossbreeds (n = 36) were studied. We measured the difference in the scotophase melatonin pathway response in terms of mean concentration of increased melatonin levels after 48 hours infusion of autologous blood plasma with an experimentally induced approximately 3-fold increase in the concentration of CO into the ophthalmic venous sinus. We demonstrated in this crossbreed a marked variation in the duration and amplitude of nocturnal melatonin peak in response to increased concentration of CO in ophthalmic venous blood. During the winter this treatment limited the nocturnal melatonin rise. During the summer this same experimental treatment enhanced the nocturnal melatonin rise. Changes in melatonin levels were always associated with parallel changes in AANAT protein levels. This work demonstrates that non-physiological changes in CO concentration in ophthalmic venous blood can have an acute impact on the systemic melatonin level. These results support humoral phototransduction as a mechanism for some of bright light's effects in animal chronobiology and treatment of winter seasonal affective disorder. PMID:26348075

  18. Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Taylor, Cathy; Sommer, Karl; Wilkinson, Kerry; Wirthensohn, Michelle

    2015-04-15

    The effects of deficit irrigation on almond fatty acid and tocopherol levels were studied in a field trial. Mature almond trees were subjected to three levels of deficit irrigation (85%, 70% and 55% of potential crop evapotranspiration (ETo), as well as control (100% ETo) and over-irrigation (120% ETo) treatments. Two deficit irrigation strategies were employed: regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI). Moderate deficit irrigation (85% RDI and 85% SDI) had no detrimental impact on almond kernel lipid content, but severe and extreme deficiencies (70% and 55%) influenced lipid content. Unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents fluctuated under these treatments, the oleic/linoleic ratio increased under moderate water deficiency, but decreased under severe and extreme water deficiency. Almond tocopherols concentration was relatively stable under deficit irrigation. The variation between years indicated climate has an effect on almond fruit development. In conclusion it is feasible to irrigate almond trees using less water than the normal requirement, without significant loss of kernel quality. PMID:25466095

  19. Association between Circulating Vitamin D Metabolites and Fecal Bile Acid Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Haussler, Mark R; Alberts, David S; Kohler, Lindsay N; Lance, Peter; Martínez, María Elena; Roe, Denise J; Jurutka, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    Although hydrophobic bile acids have been demonstrated to exhibit cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in the colorectum, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been investigated as a potential chemopreventive agent. Vitamin D has been shown to play a role in both bile acid metabolism and in the development of colorectal neoplasia. Using a cross-sectional design, we sought to determine whether baseline circulating concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were associated with baseline fecal bile acid concentrations in a trial of UDCA for the prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence. We also prospectively evaluated whether vitamin D metabolite concentrations modified the effect of UDCA on adenoma recurrence. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, and calcium intake, adequate concentrations of 25(OH)D (≥30 ng/mL) were statistically significantly associated with reduced odds for high levels of total [OR, 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.97], and primary (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.96) bile acids, as well as individually with chenodeoxycholic acid (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.24-0.63) and cholic acid (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90). No significant associations were observed for 1,25(OH)2D and high versus low fecal bile acid concentrations. In addition, neither 25(OH)D nor 1,25(OH)2D modified the effect of UDCA on colorectal adenoma recurrence. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate an inverse relationship between circulating levels of 25(OH)D and primary fecal bile acid concentrations. These results support prior data demonstrating that vitamin D plays a key role in bile acid metabolism, and suggest a potential mechanism of action for 25(OH)D in colorectal cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 589-97. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27138789

  20. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS). A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA)), 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14) ng m-3, accounting for 7 (±2)% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3) ng m-3 (accounting for 1 (±1)% of total organic matter) observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6)% of total organic matter) in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4)% of total organic matter) during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  1. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  2. Avian, salamander, and forest floor mercury concentrations increase with elevation in a terrestrial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jason M; Driscoll, Charles T; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation ecosystems of the northeastern United States are vulnerable to deposition and environmental accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, yet little work has been done to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in organisms occupying montane ecosystems. The authors present data on Hg concentrations in ground-foraging insectivorous songbirds, a terrestrial salamander, and forest floor horizons sampled along a forested elevational gradient from 185 m to 1273 m in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA. Mean Hg concentrations in Catharus thrushes and the salamander Plethodon cinereus increased with elevation, as did Hg concentrations in all forest floor horizons. Mean Hg concentrations in organic soils at approximately 1200 m elevation (503.5 ± 17.7 ng/g, dry wt) were 4.4-fold greater than those at approximately 200 m. Montane ecosystems of the northeastern United States, and probably elsewhere, are exposed to higher levels of atmospheric Hg deposition as reflected in accumulation patterns in the forest floor and associated high-elevation fauna. This information can be used to parameterize and test Hg transport and bioaccumulation models of landscape-specific patterns and may serve as a monitoring tool for decision makers considering future controls on Hg emissions. Further investigation is needed into the potential effects of increased Hg concentrations on high-elevation fauna. PMID:24302165

  3. Increased concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in "cachectic" patients with severe chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, J; Abdullah, I; Dargie, H J; Shapiro, D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To ascertain whether patients with cardiac failure and reduced body weight ("cardiac cachexia") have increased circulating concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (cachectin). DESIGN--Patients with cardiac failure were prospectively identified as "cachectic" (body fat less than 27% in men and less than 29% in women measured by skinfold thickness callipers) or "non-cachectic". Tumour necrosis factor was assayed blind to patient group. SETTING--Cardiology unit in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--26 consecutive patients (10 women) (mean age 61) admitted for investigation or treatment of chronic heart failure. All were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. RESULTS--In nine of the 16 cachectic patients the concentration of tumour necrosis factor was increased (mean (SEM) 74 (20) pg/ml) compared with one of the 10 "non-cachectic" patients (22 pg/ml, p less than 0.001). Patients with a raised circulating concentration of tumour necrosis factor weighed significantly less (55.6 (3.5) kg) than those in whom the concentration of tumour necrosis factor was normal (69.0 (4.1) kg) (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS--Circulating concentrations of tumour necrosis factor were increased in a significant proportion of patients with chronic heart failure and low body weight. Tumour necrosis factor stimulates catabolism experimentally and it may be a factor in the weight loss seen in patients with "cardiac cachexia". PMID:1747295

  4. Plasma free fatty acid metabolism during storage of platelet concentrates for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Cesar, J; DiMinno, G; Alam, I; Silver, M; Murphy, S

    1987-01-01

    New containers allow storage of platelet concentrates (PC) at 22 degrees C for up to 7 days, during which glycolytic and oxidative metabolism is vigorous. Recent evidence suggests that 85 percent of adenosine triphosphate regeneration is based on oxidative metabolism and that substrates other than glucose may be used. Because platelets can oxidize free fatty acids (FFA) as a possible source of energy during storage, the authors studied their availability, distribution, and turnover. Plasma FFA concentration was unchanged after 1 day of PC storage but significantly increased on Days 3, 5, and 7. Platelet-free plasma (PFP) stored under the same conditions as PC demonstrated a progressive increase in FFA, suggesting that some of the FFA accumulating in PC were derived from plasma rather than platelets. Indeed, during PC storage, plasma triglycerides decreased significantly, suggesting that they are a possible source of the increased levels of FFA found on Day 3 and thereafter. Thus, PC have a plasma FFA pool available continuously for oxidation during storage. Studies with radiolabeled palmitate suggested that FFA oxidation by platelets occurs during storage. The current findings show that plasma FFA could be a significant substrate for oxidative metabolism during storage of PC and that the oxidized FFA are replenished at least in part from plasma. These results may allow platelet storage to be improved, particularly in synthetic media. PMID:3629676

  5. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  6. High-fat Diet-induced Intestinal Hyperpermeability is Associated with Increased Bile Acids in the Large Intestine of Mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuki; Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, which is associated with intestinal hyperpermeability. This study examined the effects of 3 high-fat diets (HFDs) composed of different fat sources (soybean oil and lard) on the intestinal permeability, tight junction (TJ) protein expression, and cecal bile acid (BA) concentrations in mice, and then analyzed their interrelations. C57/BL6 mice were fed the control diet, HFD (soybean oil), HFD (lard), and HFD (mix; containing equal concentrations of soybean oil and lard) for 8 wk. Glucose tolerance, intestinal permeability, TJ protein expression, and cecal BA concentration were evaluated. Feeding with the 3 HDFs similarly increased body weight, liver weight, and fat pad weight, and induced glucose intolerance and intestinal hyperpermeability. The expression of TJ proteins, zonula occludens-2 and junctional adhesion molecule-A, were lower in the colons of the 3 HFD groups than in the control group (P < 0.05), and these changes appeared to be related to intestinal hyperpermeability. Feeding with HFDs increased total secondary BA (SBA) and total BA concentrations along with increases in some individual BAs in the cecum. Significant positive correlations between intestinal permeability and the concentrations of most SBAs, such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, were detected (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the HFD-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is associated with increased BA secretion. The abundance of SBAs in the large intestine may be responsible for the hyperpermeability. PMID:26595891

  7. Interstitial concentrations of amino acids in the rat striatum during global forebrain ischemia and potassium-evoked spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Svetlana; Kööbi, Peeter; Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2004-08-01

    The early detection and appropriate treatment of brain ischemia is of paramount importance. The interstitial concentrations of neurotransmitter amino acids are often used as an index of neuronal injury. However, monitoring of non-neurotransmitter amino acids may be equally important. We have studied the behavior of 10 amino acids during K(+)-induced spreading depression (application of 70 mM KCl during 40 min) and global forebrain ischemia (two-vessel occlusion with hypotension during 20 min). The concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, taurine, GABA, glycine, and alanine, measured in the rat striatum by microdialysis, increased during both ischemia and spreading depression, whereas glutamine concentrations decreased in both cases. Only ischemia, but not spreading depression, led to enhanced release of serine, threonine, and asparagine. We thus conclude that an elevation in the interstitial concentrations of non-neurotransmitter amino acids is specific to deep ischemic injury to nervous tissue. We propose the monitoring of serine, asparagine, and threonine, together with excitatory amino acids, as an index of the degree of ischemic brain injury. PMID:15260129

  8. Association between increased serum thyrotropin concentration and the oldest old: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Glaucia Cruzes; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Araújo, Lara Miguel Quirino; Almada, Clineu de Mello

    2015-01-01

    To assess studies that evaluate the relation between serum thyrotropin concentration, very old subjects, and their events. We searched the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases for articles published between 2004 and 2012. Our search was restricted to studies involving humans aged 65 years or older, and written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Studies that evaluated the association between elevated serum thyrotropin concentration among elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism were chosen since at least in part they included a subpopulation of individuals aged 80 years and above. Thirteen studies were selected. No significant increase in risk of cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, or total mortality was observed. Elevated thyrotropin concentration was associated with longevity. More randomized controlled trials are required to better define the potential benefits of elevated thyrotropin concentration in this oldest old population, hormone replacement, and longevity. PMID:25807244

  9. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    PubMed Central

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  10. Urinary kallikrein in the rat: stimulation with angiotensin infusion but depression with increasing sodium concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, I H; Lee, G; Brownlee, A A

    1994-01-01

    1. The kallikrein response to angiotensin II infusion in the conscious rat was studied to compare it with the response in the dog. 2. Active kallikrein was measured by the aprotinin-suppressible esterase technique in 20 min periods. Angiotensin (5 x 10(-9) to 5 x 10(-2) micrograms min-1) was infused in 10 mM saline in period 10 (group A), or in 90 mM saline in periods 10-12 (group B). 3. In group A, no dose of angiotensin was antinatriuretic. Natriuresis and urinary sodium concentration were dose dependent. 4. Kallikrein excretion was dose dependent with angiotensin (P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration (P = 0.011). In natriuretic and non-natriuretic rats, kallikrein excretion after angiotensin was inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration in the preceding period. 5. In group B, natriuresis and urinary sodium concentration were dose dependent. Kallikrein excretion in periods 10-13 was inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration in the preceding period (P = 0.0001) and inversely correlated with urinary osmolality in periods 9-13. 6. Infusion of angiotensin II at 5 x 10(-6) micrograms min-1 led to antinatriuresis. 7. Formulae were derived which enabled the opposing effects of angiotensin and urinary sodium concentration on kallikrein excretion to be separated. In group A both these effects were statistically significant only in the natriuretic rats (natriuresis > 20 mumols per period). In group B the formulae showed a dose-dependent rise in kallikrein excretion, which was counteracted by the decrease in kallikrein excretion associated with the increasing urinary sodium concentration. 8. With infusions of 0.9% saline, kallikrein excretion in periods 10-13 was inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration in the preceding period (P = 0.001). 9. The overall effect in the rat differs from that in the dog, where kallikrein increases with angiotensin natriuresis and dilution of the urine occurs. PMID

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells using retinoic acid and carotenoic acids: Dependence of performance on the conjugation length and the dye concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Fujii, Ritsuko; Ito, Seigo; Koyama, Yasushi; Yamano, Yumiko; Ito, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Yanagida, Shozo

    2005-11-01

    Titanium oxide-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated by the use of retinoic acid and carotenoic acids having the number of conjugated double bonds, n = 5-13. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, the photocurrent density and the solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency exhibited the highest values at n = 7, and then decreased toward both sides. The effects of dilution of CA7 with deoxycholic acid were also examined. The above parameters per unit CA7 concentration progressively increased toward the lowest concentration, which is ascribed to the isolated excitation free from singlet-triplet annihilation in the dye molecules on the TiO 2 layer.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal

  13. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  14. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency while increasing canopy temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of increasing [O3] on soybean canopy scale fluxes of heat and water vapor as well as water use efficiency (WUE) at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (Rn) sensible hea...

  15. CO2 enrichment increases element concentrations in grass mixtures by changing species abundances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration may increase plant growth relatively more than the uptake of soil-derived chemical elements that are essential for herbivores. Rising CO2 also may alter the nutritional quality of forage or fodder derived from multi-species veget...

  16. Acute dichloroacetate administration increases skeletal muscle free glutamine concentrations after burn injury.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, A A; Chinkes, D L; Wolf, S E; Matin, S; Herndon, D N; Wolfe, R R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that the stimulation of pyruvate oxidation by dichloroacetate (DCA) administration would increase the level of intramuscular glutamine in severely burned patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The level of intramuscular glutamine decreases in response to severe injury, and the rate of intramuscular glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation is elevated. Intramuscular glutamine concentrations have been correlated to muscle protein synthesis. METHODS: Six studies were conducted on five patients with burns >40% total body surface area. Patients were studied in the fed state during an 8-hour stable isotope infusion. After 5 hours, DCA (30 mg/kg) was administered for 30 minutes. RESULTS: Analysis of muscle biopsy samples taken at 5 and 8 hours of the study revealed a 32% increase in intracellular glutamine levels after DCA administration. Increased intracellular glutamine concentrations did not affect skeletal muscle protein synthesis as determined by a three-pool arteriovenous model or by the direct incorporation of isotope into skeletal muscle protein. DCA administration resulted in a decrease in plasma lactate but no change in alanine de novo synthesis or intracellular concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that acute DCA administration can increase intramuscular glutamine concentration, but that this acute elevation does not affect muscle protein metabolism. Images Figure 4. PMID:9712571

  17. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; Damen, Michelle S M A; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Netea, Mihai G; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID:27057552

  18. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N. A. M.; Damen, Michelle S. M. A.; Cleophas, Maartje C. P.; Netea, Mihai G.; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID:27057552

  19. Increased soil salinity causes elevated cadmium concentrations in field-grown potato tubers

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, M.J.; Tiller, K.G.; Beech, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    Elevated Cd concentrations have been observed in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers from commercial crops in certain regions of southern Australia. Reasons for enhanced Cd uptake by tubers were investigated by a survey of commercial crops and associated soils. Eighty-nine sites were selected and paired tuber and soil samples taken. Concentration of Cd in tubers was compared to potato variety, tuber elemental composition, and chemical-physical characteristics of topsoil (0-150) and subsoil (150-300 mm). Tuber Cd concentrations were positively related to soil electrical conductivity (EC) and extractable Cl (R{sup 2} = 0.62, P < 0.001) in the topsoil, with extractable Cl accounting for more variation than EC. Tuber Cd concentrations were not strongly related (R{sup 2} = 0.23, P < 0.05) to potato variety alone. However, inclusion of variety and EDTA-extractable Zn with water-extractable Cl in a multivariate model resulted in a small but significant improvement in the variance accounted for by the model (R{sup 2} = 0.73, p < 0.001). Tuber Cd was unrelated to tuber concentrations of P or tuber but was positively related to concentrations of major cations in the tuber particularly Na. Soil pH, total C, EDTA-extractable Cd, or particle-size distribution were not correlated to tuber Cd concentrations, either singly or after inclusion in a multivariate model with soil Cl concentrations. As Cl is known to mobilize soil Cd and increase its phytoavailability, elevated Cd concentrations in potato tubers in southern Australia appear to be largely a result of the use of saline irrigation waters. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effect of L (+) ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate concentration on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraya, Mohamed El-shahte Ismaiel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, monosodium glutamate and ascorbic acid were used as crystal and growth modifiers to control the crystallization of CaCO3. Calcium carbonate prepared by reacting a mixed solution of Na2CO3 with CaCl2 at ambient temperature, (25 °C), constant Ca++/ CO3- - molar ratio and pH with stirring. The polymorph and morphology of the crystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that rhombohedral calcite was only formed in water without organic additives, and both calcite and spherical vaterite with various morphologies were produced in the presence of monosodium glutamate. The content of vaterite increased as the monosodium glutamate increased. In addition, spherical vaterite was obtained in the presence of different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The spherical vaterite posses an aggregate shape composed of nano-particles, ranging from 30 to 50 nm as demonstrated by the SEM and TEM analyses. Therefore, the ascorbic stabilizes vaterite and result in nano-particles compared to monosodium glutamate.

  1. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

  2. Lipopolysaccharide increases gastric and circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentrations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Jawien, Janusz; Kobelt, Peter; Taché, Yvette; Lambrecht, Nils W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an established animal model to study the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria mimicking symptoms of infection including reduction of food intake. LPS decreases acyl ghrelin associated with decreased concentrations of circulating ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) likely contributing to the anorexigenic effect. We also recently described the prominent expression of the novel anorexigenic hormone, nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 in gastric X/A-like cells co-localized with ghrelin in different pools of vesicles. To investigate whether LPS would affect gastric and circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentration, ad libitum fed rats were equipped with an intravenous (iv) catheter. LPS was injected intraperitoneally (ip, 100 μg/kg) and blood was withdrawn before and at 2, 5, 7 and 24 h post injection and processed for NUCB2/nesfatin-1 radioimmunoassay. Gastric corpus was collected to measure NUCB2 mRNA expression by RT-qPCR and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 protein concentration by Western blot. Injection of LPS increased plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentrations by 43%, 78% and 62% compared to vehicle at 2 h, 5 h and 7 h post injection respectively (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline at 24 h. The plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increase at 2 h was associated with increased corpus NUCB2 mRNA expression (p < 0.01), whereas NUCB2 mRNA was not detectable in white blood cells. Likewise, gastric NUCB2 protein concentration was increased by 62% after LPS compared to vehicle (p < 0.01). These data show that gastric NUCB2 production and release are increased in response to LPS. These changes are opposite to those of ghrelin in response to LPS supporting a differential gastric regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and ghrelin expression derived from the same cell by immune challenge. PMID:21782869

  3. Beaver Ponds Increase Methylmercury and Nutrients Concentrations in Canadian Shield Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, V.; Amyot, M.; Carignan, R.

    2007-12-01

    Beaver populations and the number of beaver dams are currently increasing in many Canadian regions. Since natural and anthropogenic impoundments have historically been identified as sources of the potent neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), beaver dams could also increase MeHg levels in streams. During summer 2006, we collected water samples upstream and downstream from twenty beaver dams of the Laurentians, located on the Canadian Shield. Samples were analysed for total Hg, MeHg and other chemical variables including DOC, TP, TDP, TN, and major ions. Significant increases of nutrients (DOC, TP, TDP, TN) and ammonium concentrations and depletions of oxygen, nitrate and sulphate concentrations between inlet and outlet show that beaver ponds provide environmental conditions that can favour methylation of inorganic mercury. Heterogeneity of the ratio MeHg/THg at the outlet among our sites was well explained by the estimated age of the impoundment, with methylation capacity of beaver ponds decreasing with age. Further, the geographic location of beaver ponds influenced water chemistry at the outlet, as we observed a dichotomy between northern and southern sites; these differences were based mainly on forest composition. On average, beaver impoundments increased MeHg concentrations by 5.7 fold, total Hg concentrations by 1.6 fold and nutrients concentrations by 2-3 fold. Overall, our results suggest that beaver dams may considerably increase MeHg and nutrients levels in downstream ecosystems. The impact of beavers on the cycling of contaminants and nutrients in boreal watersheds should therefore be considered in the management of their populations.

  4. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Deconjugation After Biliopancreatic Diversion.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Camastra, Stefania; Astiarraga, Brenno; Nannipieri, Monica; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Haeusler, Rebecca A

    2015-10-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) improves insulin sensitivity and decreases serum cholesterol out of proportion with weight loss. Mechanisms of these effects are unknown. One set of proposed contributors to metabolic improvements after bariatric surgeries is bile acids (BAs). We investigated the early and late effects of BPD on plasma BA levels, composition, and markers of BA synthesis in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We compared these to the early and late effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 22 patients with T2D and 16 with normal glucose tolerance. Seven weeks after BPD, insulin sensitivity had doubled and serum cholesterol had halved. At this time, BA synthesis markers and total plasma BAs, particularly unconjugated BAs, had markedly risen; this effect could not be entirely explained by low FGF19. In contrast, after RYGB, insulin sensitivity improved gradually with weight loss and cholesterol levels declined marginally; BA synthesis markers were decreased at an early time point (2 weeks) after surgery and returned to the normal range 1 year later. These findings indicate that BA synthesis contributes to the decreased serum cholesterol after BPD. Moreover, they suggest a potential role for altered enterohepatic circulation of BAs in improving insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism after BPD. PMID:26015549

  5. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  6. Phenylbutyrate exerts adverse effects on liver regeneration and amino acid concentrations in partially hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan; Vodenicarovova, Melita

    2016-06-01

    Phenylbutyrate is recommended in urea cycle disorders and liver injury to enhance nitrogen disposal by the urine. However, hypothetically there may be adverse responses to the use of phenylbutyrate in the treatment of liver disease because of its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and its stimulatory effect on branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine). We report the effects of phenylbutyrate on liver regeneration and amino acid levels in plasma of partially hepatectomized (PH) rats. Phenylbutyrate or saline was administered at 12-h intervals to PH or laparotomized rats. Phenylbutyrate delayed the onset of liver regeneration compared to the saline-treated controls, as indicated by lower hepatic DNA specific activities 18 and 24( ) h post-PH, decreased hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates 24 h post-PH and lowered the increases in liver weights and hepatic protein and DNA contents 48 h after PH. Hepatic DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis) was higher in the phenylbutyrate-treated animals than in controls. Phenylbutyrate decreased the glutamine and BCAA concentrations and the ratio of the BCAA to aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) in the blood plasma in both hepatectomized and laparotomized animals. In conclusion, the delayed onset of liver regeneration and the decrease in BCAA/AAA ratio in blood suggest that phenylbutyrate administration may be disastrous in subjects with acute hepatic injury and BCAA supplementation is needed when phenylbutyrate is used therapeutically. PMID:27381898

  7. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P < 0.05), which increased sublingual temperature (36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05), heart rate (63 +/- 5 to 93 +/- 5 beats/min; P < 0.05), and skin blood flow over the membranes (21 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 10 perfusion units; P < 0.05). NO concentration in the dialysate did not increase significantly during of the heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation

  8. Evaluation of a radioiodine plume increasing in concentration at the Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Roberts, Kimberly A; Schwehr, Kathy A; Lilley, Michael S; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Denham, Miles E; Diprete, David; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Powell, Brian A; Xu, Chen; Yeager, Chris M; Zhang, Saijin; Santschi, Peter H

    2011-01-15

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to understand the cause for steady increases in (129)I concentrations emanating from radiological basins located on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The basins were closed in 1988 by adding limestone and slag and then capping with a low permeability engineered cover. Groundwater (129)I concentrations in a well near the basins in 1993 were 200 pCi L(-1) and are presently between 400 and 1000 pCi L(-1). Iodine speciation in the plume contained wide ranges of iodide, iodate, and organo-iodine concentrations. First-order calculations based on a basin sediment desorption study indicate that the modest increase of 0.7 pH units detected in the study site groundwater over the last 17 years since closure of the basins may be sufficient to produce the observed increased groundwater (129)I concentrations near the basins. Groundwater monitoring of the plume at the basins has shown that the migration of many of the high risk radionuclides originally present at this complex site has been attenuated. However, (129)I continues to leave the source at a rate that may have been exacerbated by the initial remediation efforts. This study underscores the importance of identifying the appropriate in situ stabilization technologies for all source contaminants, especially if their geochemical behaviors differ. PMID:21138294

  9. Recent Increase in Elemental Carbon Concentration and Deposition in a Svalbard Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, M.; Isaksson, E. D.; Ström, J.; Svensson, J.; Beaudon, E.; Korhola, A.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an aerosol produced by incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. Due to its strong light absorption it warms the atmosphere. Climate effects of BC are intensified in the Arctic where its deposition on snow and ice decreases surface albedo, causing earlier spring melt and associated feedbacks. Despite the significant role of BC in Arctic climate warming, there is little information on its concentrations and climate effects in the Arctic in time periods preceding direct observational data. Here we present first results on BC (here operationally defined as elemental carbon (EC)) concentrations and deposition on a Svalbard (European Arctic) glacier (Holtedahlfonna) from 1700 to 2004. The inner part of a 125 m deep ice core was melted, filtered and analyzed for apparent elemental carbon using a thermal optical method. EC concentrations (μg L-1) and the deposition (mg m-2 yr-1) were generally low in the pre-industrial era. Concentrations peaked around 1910 and again around 1950, whereas only the 1910 peak was recorded in the EC deposition, followed by decreasing deposition values. Strikingly, both EC concentration and deposition started to increase rapidly from the 1970s until 2004. This rise is not seen in any thus far published European or Arctic ice core, and it seems to contradict atmospheric BC measurements from the Arctic which indicate decreasing atmospheric BC concentrations since the beginning of the observations at the end of 1980s. However, the magnitude of the measured concentrations is in accordance with previous ice core EC measurements from the European Alps and a BC concentration and deposition peak around 1910 has also been recorded in Greenland ice cores. Work is continuing to disentangle the cause of the increasing EC values in the recent decades suggested by the present ice core. Contribution from any local sources has been ruled out. Back trajectory modeling is carried out to establish the EC source areas. The present

  10. Comparison of XAD macroporous resins for the concentration of fulvic acid from aqueous solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Five macroreticular, nonlonlc AmberlHe XAD resins were evaluated for concentration and Isolation of fulvlc acid from aqueous solution. The capacity of each resin for fulvlc acid was measured by both batch and column techniques. Elution efficiencies were determined by desorptlon with 0.1 N NaOH. Highest recoveries were obtained with the acrylic ester resins which proved to be most efficient for both adsorption and elution of fulvlc acid. Compared to the acrylic ester resins, usefulness of the styrene dvlnybenzene resins to remove fulvlc acid is limited because of slow diffusion-controlled adsorption and formation of charge-transfer complexes, which hinders elution. ?? 1979 American Chemical Society.

  11. Influence of phytic acid concentration on coating properties obtained by MAO treatment on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. F.; Zhang, S. F.; Duo, S. W.

    2009-06-01

    Anodic coatings were prepared by microarc oxidation (MAO) on AZ91HP in a base solution of 10 g/L NaOH with and without the addition of 0-12 g/L phytic acid (C 6H 18O 24P 6). The influences of C 6H 18O 24P 6 and its concentration on the conductivity and breakdown voltage were studied. The morphologies and compositions of anodic coatings were determined by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Potentiodynamic polarization test was performed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution to evaluate the corrosion resistance of anodic coatings. The results showed that with the increase of C 6H 18O 24P 6 concentration, the solution conductivity decreased while the values of breakdown voltage increased. EDX analysis showed that the coatings formed in solutions with C 6H 18O 24P 6 addition contained Mg, Al, O, C, P and a trance of Na. The addition of C 6H 18O 24P 6 into the base solution was helpful in coating formation and the coatings formed in the solution containing 8 g/L C 6H 18O 24P 6 exhibited the best pore uniformity and corrosion resistance.

  12. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha and bile acids regulate human concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kerstin; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Eloranta, Jyrki J

    2009-04-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (CNT1) is a member of the solute carrier 28 (SLC28) gene family and is expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidneys. CNT1 mediates the uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides, but also nucleoside analogs used in anticancer and antiviral therapy. Thus expression levels of CNT1 may affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and the outcome of drug therapy. Because little is known about the transcriptional regulation of human CNT1 gene expression, we have characterized the CNT1 promoter with respect to DNA response elements and their binding factors. The transcriptional start site of the CNT1 gene was determined by 5'-RACE. In silico analysis revealed the existence of three putative binding sites for the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) within the CNT1 promoter. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the CNT1 promoter region was transactivated by HNF-4alpha in human cell lines derived from the liver, intestine, and kidneys. Consistent with this, we showed in electromobility shift assays that HNF-4alpha specifically binds to two conserved direct repeat-1 motifs within the proximal CNT1 promoter. In cotransfection experiments, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha further increased, whereas the bile acid-inducible corepressor small heterodimer partner reduced, HNF-4alpha-dependent CNT1 promoter activity. Consistent with the latter phenomenon, CNT1 mRNA expression levels were suppressed in primary human hepatocytes upon bile acid treatment. Supporting the physiological relevance and species conservation of this effect, ileal Cnt1 mRNA expression was decreased upon bile acid feeding and increased upon bile duct ligation in mice. PMID:19228884

  13. A Common Polymorphism in HIBCH Influences Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations in Blood Independently of Cobalamin.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Anne M; Pangilinan, Faith; Mills, James L; Shane, Barry; O'Neill, Mary B; McGaughey, David M; Velkova, Aneliya; Abaan, Hatice Ozel; Ueland, Per M; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Cunningham, Conal; Casey, Miriam; Cropp, Cheryl D; Kim, Yoonhee; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Wilson, Alexander F; Brody, Lawrence C

    2016-05-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a by-product of propionic acid metabolism through the vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Elevated MMA concentrations are a hallmark of several inborn errors of metabolism and indicators of cobalamin deficiency in older persons. In a genome-wide analysis of 2,210 healthy young Irish adults (median age 22 years) we identified a strong association of plasma MMA with SNPs in 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH, p = 8.42 × 10(-89)) and acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3, p = 3.48 × 10(-19)). These loci accounted for 12% of the variance in MMA concentration. The most strongly associated SNP (HIBCH rs291466; c:2T>C) causes a missense change of the initiator methionine codon (minor-allele frequency = 0.43) to threonine. Surprisingly, the resulting variant, p.Met1?, is associated with increased expression of HIBCH mRNA and encoded protein. These homozygotes had, on average, 46% higher MMA concentrations than methionine-encoding homozygotes in young adults with generally low MMA concentrations (0.17 [0.14-0.21] μmol/L; median [25(th)-75(th) quartile]). The association between MMA levels and HIBCH rs291466 was highly significant in a replication cohort of 1,481 older individuals (median age 79 years) with elevated plasma MMA concentrations (0.34 [0.24-0.51] μmol/L; p = 4.0 × 10(-26)). In a longitudinal study of 185 pregnant women and their newborns, the association of this SNP remained significant across the gestational trimesters and in newborns. HIBCH is unique to valine catabolism. Studies evaluating flux through the valine catabolic pathway in humans should account for these variants. Furthermore, this SNP could help resolve equivocal clinical tests where plasma MMA values have been used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. PMID:27132595

  14. Increased universality of Lepidopteran elicitor compounds across insects: Identification of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) are known elicitors of induced release of volatile compounds in plants that, in turn, attract foraging parasitoids. Since the discovery of volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] in the regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1, a series of related FAC...

  15. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency whilst increasing canopy temperature.

    PubMed

    VanLoocke, Andy; Betzelberger, Amy M; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2012-07-01

    • Here, we investigated the effects of increasing concentrations of ozone ([O(3)]) on soybean canopy-scale fluxes of heat and water vapor, as well as water use efficiency (WUE), at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. • Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (R(n)), sensible heat flux (H), soil heat flux (G(0)) and latent heat flux (λET) of a commercial soybean (Glycine max) cultivar (Pioneer 93B15), exposed to a gradient of eight daytime average ozone concentrations ranging from approximately current (c. 40 ppb) to three times current (c. 120 ppb) levels. • As [O(3)] increased, soybean canopy fluxes of λET decreased and H increased, whereas R(n) and G(0) were not altered significantly. Exposure to increased [O(3)] also resulted in warmer canopies, especially during the day. The lower λET decreased season total evapotranspiration (ET) by c. 26%. The [O(3)]-induced relative decline in ET was half that of the relative decline in seed yield, driving a 50% reduction in seasonal WUE. • These results suggest that rising [O(3)] will alter the canopy energy fluxes that drive regional climate and hydrology, and have a negative impact on productivity and WUE, key ecosystem services. PMID:22524697

  16. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure. PMID:26957625

  17. Serum concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites increase with age during steady-state treatment.

    PubMed

    Lien, Ernst A; Søiland, Håvard; Lundgren, Steinar; Aas, Turid; Steen, Vidar M; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gjerde, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that the concentrations of tamoxifen and its demethylated metabolites increase with age. We measured the serum concentrations of the active tamoxifen metabolites, 4OHtamoxifen (4OHtam), 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (4OHNDtam, Endoxifen), tamoxifen and its demethylated metabolites. Their relations to age were examined. One hundred fifty-one estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer patients were included. Their median (range) age was 57 (32-85) years. Due to the long half-life of tamoxifen, only patients treated with tamoxifen for at least 80 days were included in the study in order to insure that the patients had reached steady-state drug levels. Tamoxifen and its metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Their serum concentrations were related to the age of the patients. To circumvent effects of cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 polymorphisms we also examined these correlations exclusively in homozygous extensive metabolizers. The concentrations of 4OHNDtam, tamoxifen, NDtam (N-desmethyltamoxifen), and NDDtam (N-desdimethyltamoxifen) were positively correlated to age (n = 151, p = 0.017, 0.045, 0.011, and 0.001 respectively). When exclusively studying the CYP2D6 homozygous extensive metabolizers (n = 86) the correlation between 4OHNDtam and age increased (p = 0.008). Up to tenfold inter-patient variation in the serum concentrations was observed. The median (inter-patient range) concentration of 4OHNDtam in the age groups 30-49, 50-69, and >69 years were 65 (24-89), 116 (25-141), and 159 (26-185) ng/ml, respectively. We conclude that the serum concentrations of 4OHNDtam (endoxifen), tamoxifen, and its demethylated metabolites increase with age during steady-state tamoxifen treatment. This may represent an additional explanation why studies on the effects of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on outcome in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. The observed high inter-patient range

  18. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  19. Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2014-01-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F−) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F− adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F− released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F− while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F− measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F− per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter−1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F− sink during RP solubilization and led to an F− concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F− and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F−, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  20. Predictive value of determinations of zinc protoporphyrin for increased blood lead concentrations.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Kristal-Boneh, E; Benbassat, J; Ashkanazi, R; Ribak, J

    1998-06-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and red cell zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used biomarkers for lead toxicity. It is uncertain, however, whether either or both are needed for monitoring lead exposure and how discordant PbB and ZPP values should be interpreted. We reviewed the results of PbB and ZPP determinations in 94 workers in a lead-battery plant over a 13-year period and retrieved all 807 sets of tests in which both PbB and ZPP were available, with a follow-up PbB value 6 months later. PbB exceeded 1.93 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) in 414 (51%), and 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL) in 105 (14%) of the blood samples. We derived the test properties of various ZPP concentrations for concurrent "toxic" PbB concentrations, defined as > or = 1.93 and 2.90 micromol/L (40 and 60 microg/dL). The results indicated that, given a population of lead-exposed workers with a 10% prevalence of PbB of > or = 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL), a policy of testing PbB only in those with ZPP > 0.71 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) would obviate 42% of the PbB tests, but would miss about three cases with toxic PbB concentrations in every 200 workers at risk. A finding of increased ZPP concentrations with a concurrent "nontoxic" PbB was associated with an increased risk of a toxic PbB concentration 6 months later. We conclude that (a) screening by testing only ZPP does not safeguard exposed persons against lead toxicity, and (b) the frequency of PbB monitoring should be guided by estimates of the risk of future lead toxicity in individual workers. PMID:9625054

  1. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  2. Fatal fentanyl patch misuse in a hospitalized patient with a postmortem increase in fentanyl blood concentration.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip W; Palmer, Robert B; Donovan, Joseph Ward

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-related mortality happens, even in healthcare settings. We describe serial postmortem fentanyl blood concentrations in a hospital inpatient who fatally abused transdermal fentanyl. This is a single-patient case report. A 42-year-old man with lymphoma was started on transdermal fentanyl therapy while hospitalized for chronic abdominal pain. The patient was last seen awake 1.3 h prior to being found apneic and cyanotic. During the resuscitation attempt, a small square-shaped film was removed from the patient's oropharynx. Femoral blood was collected 0.5 and 2 h postmortem, and the measured fentanyl concentration increased from 1.6 to 14 ng/mL. Study limitations include potential laboratory or collection errors and missing data. (i) Providers must be vigilant for signs of fentanyl patch abuse. (ii) Postmortem blood concentrations are not static postmortem, likely secondary to decreasing pH, increased aqueous solubility, and tissue redistribution, and are therefore unlikely to accurately represent antemortem blood concentrations. PMID:25041753

  3. Paracetamol interaction with oral contraceptive steroids: increased plasma concentrations of ethinyloestradiol.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, S M; Back, D J; Stevenson, P J; Grimmer, S F; Orme, M L

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of paracetamol (1 g) on plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) has been studied in six healthy female volunteers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) of EE2 was significantly increased following paracetamol administration by 22% (control 2221 +/- 291; following paracetamol, 2702 +/- 452 pg ml-1 h; mean +/- s.d.; P less than or equal to 0.05). The greatest effect was evident in the time period 0-3 h. There was a significant decrease in the AUC of EE2-sulphate after paracetamol (7736 +/- 3791 pg ml-1 h) compared with control (13161 +/- 4535 pg ml-1 h; P less than or equal to 0.05). Plasma concentrations of LNG were unaltered by concurrent paracetamol administration. We conclude that the administration of a single 1 g dose of paracetamol causes an increase in plasma concentrations of EE2 as a result of a reduction in the sulphation of the steroid. This interaction may be of clinical significance in women on oral contraceptive steroids who regularly take paracetamol. PMID:3111513

  4. Increased tachykinin levels in induced sputum from asthmatic and cough patients with acid reflux

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Robert N; Johnston, Brian T; Ardill, Joy E S; Heaney, Liam G; McGarvey, Lorcan P A

    2007-01-01

    Background Acid reflux may aggravate airway disease including asthma and chronic cough. One postulated mechanism concerns a vagally‐mediated oesophageal‐tracheobronchial reflex with airway sensory nerve activation and tachykinin release. Aim To test the hypothesis that patients with airways disease and reflux have higher airway tachykinin levels than those without reflux. Methods Thirty‐two patients with airways disease (16 with mild asthma and 16 non‐asthmatic subjects with chronic cough) underwent 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring. Acid reflux was defined as increased total oesophageal acid exposure (% total time pH <4 of >4.9% at the distal probe). All subjects underwent sputum induction. Differential cell counts and concentrations of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), albumin and α2‐macroglobulin were determined. Results SP and NKA levels were significantly higher in patients with reflux than in those without (SP: 1434 (680) pg/ml vs 906 (593) pg/ml, p = 0.026; NKA: 81 (33) pg/ml vs 52 (36) pg/ml, p = 0.03). Significantly higher tachykinin levels were also found in asthmatic patients with reflux than in asthmatic patients without reflux (SP: 1508 (781) pg/ml vs 737 (512) pg/ml, p = 0.035; NKA: median (interquartile range 108 (85–120) pg/ml vs 75 (2–98) pg/ml, p = 0.02). In patients with asthma there was a significant positive correlation between distal oesophageal acid exposure and SP levels (r = 0.59, p = 0.01) and NKA levels (r = 0.56, p = 0.02). Non‐significant increases in SP and NKA were measured in patients with cough with reflux (SP: 1534.71 (711) pg/ml vs 1089 (606) pg/ml, p = 0.20; NKA: 56 (43) pg/ml vs 49 (17) pg/ml, p = 0.71). No significant difference in differential cell counts or any other biochemical parameter was noted between study groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates increased airway tachykinin levels in patients with asthma and cough patients with

  5. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1) and very high (100–200 g·L−1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  6. Increase of betulinic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by balancing fatty acids and betulinic acid forming pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Betulinic acid is a plant-based triterpenoid that has been recognized for its antitumor and anti-HIV activities. The level of betulinic acid in its natural hosts is extremely low. In the present study, we constructed betulinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. Given the betulinic acid forming pathways sharing the common substrate acetyl-CoA with fatty acid synthesis, the metabolic fluxes between the two pathways were varied by changing gene expressions, and their effects on betulinic acid production were investigated. We constructed nine S. cerevisiae strains representing nine combinations of the flux distributions between betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways. Our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve the betulinic acid production in S. cerevisiae while keeping a desirable growth phenotype by optimally balancing the carbon fluxes of the two pathways. Through modulating the expressions of the key genes on betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways, the difference in betulinic acid yield varied largely in the range of 0.01-1.92 mg L(-1) OD(-1). The metabolic engineering approach used in this study could be extended for synthesizing other triterpenoids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24389702

  7. Directed evolution increases desaturation of a cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase in eukaryotic expression systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuangyi; Wallis, James G; Denolf, Peter; Browse, John

    2016-07-01

    Directed evolution of a cyanobacterial Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (DSG) from Synechococcus elongatus, PCC6301 created new, more productive desaturases and revealed the importance of certain amino acid residues to increased desaturation. A codon-optimized DSG open reading frame with an endoplasmic-reticulum retention/retrieval signal appended was used as template for random mutagenesis. Increased desaturation was detected using a novel screen based on complementation of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ole1Δ. Amino acid residues whose importance was discovered by the random processes were further examined by saturation mutation to determine the best amino acid at each identified location in the peptide chain and by combinatorial analysis. One frequently-detected single amino acid change, Q240R, yielded a nearly 25-fold increase in total desaturation in S. cerevisiae. Several other variants of the protein sequence with multiple amino acid changes increased total desaturation more than 60-fold. Many changes leading to increased desaturation were in the vicinity of the canonical histidine-rich regions known to be critical for electron transfer mediated by these di-iron proteins. Expression of these evolved proteins in the seed of Arabidopsis thaliana altered the fatty acid composition, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the level of saturated fatty acid, suggesting a potential application of these desaturases in oilseed crops. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1522-1530. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26724425

  8. Long-term sub-lethal effects of low concentration commercial herbicide (glyphosate/pelargonic acid) formulation in Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Karsai, Istvan

    2015-12-15

    Potential long-term (~7months) sub-lethal impacts of soil-applied low levels of Roundup herbicide formulation were investigated in a greenhouse environment using the vegetative clones of succulent non-crop plant model, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken. An eleven day LC50 (concentration that killed 50% of the plants) was found to be 6.25% (~1.25mg glyphosate/mL and 1.25mg pelargonic acid/mL combined), and complete mortality occurred at 12.5%, of the field application rate (i.e., ~20mg glyphosate/mL and 20mg pelargonic acid/mL as active ingredients). While sub-lethal Roundup (1-5%) exposures led to hormesis-characterized by a significant increase in biomass and vegetative reproduction, higher concentrations (≥6.25%) were toxic. A significant interaction between Roundup concentrations and leaf biomass was found to influence the F1 plantlets' biomass. Biomass asymmetry generally increased with increasing Roundup concentrations, indicating that plants were more stressed at higher Roundup treatments but within the low-dose regime (≤5% of the as-supplied formulation). While leaf apex region demonstrated higher reproduction with lower biomass increase, leaf basal area showed lower reproduction with greater biomass increase, in plantlets. The results suggest long-term exposures to drifted low levels of Roundup in soil may promote biomass and reproduction in B. pinnatum. PMID:26311583

  9. [Concentrations and acidity contributions of acetate and formate in precipitation at 14 stations of China].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-huan; Xu, Xiao-bin; Yu, Xiao-lan; Tang, Jie

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the concentrations of organic acids in precipitation in China and their contributions to the total acidity of precipitation, samples were taken at 14 stations of regional representativeness in 2007 and analyzed for acetate and formate using ion chromatography. In this paper, data of acetate and formate in precipitation at 14 stations are presented, wet depositions of these organic acids are calculated, and contributions of them to the total free acidity (TFA) of precipitation are estimated. Based on the measurements, the mean concentrations of formate at different stations were in the range of 0.96-3.43 micromol/L, and those of acetate in the range of 0-5.13 micromol/L, close to the levels at remote sites in other countries and at the lower ends of concentration ranges from previous measurements in China. Comparisons indicate that the concentrations of the organic acids at remote sites are lower than those at sites in the vicinity of urban areas. The annual wet depositions of formate and acetate were estimated to be in the ranges of 0.38-4.18 mmol/(m2 x a) and 0.06-5.87 mmol/(m2 x a), respectively, with larger depositions in southern China and smaller depositions in northern China. The relative contributions of the two organic acids to the TFA of precipitation were estimated to be in the range of 0.02%-51.6%, with an overall average of 2.95%. This suggests that although acid rain in China is mainly caused by emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, organic acids can significantly contribute to the acidification of precipitation in some regions and during some periods, hence need to be included in observational studies of acid rain. PMID:20527162

  10. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  11. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  12. Effects of Increasing Seawater Carbon Dioxide Concentrations on Chain Formation of the Diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos e Ramos, Joana; Schulz, Kai Georg; Brownlee, Colin; Sett, Scarlett; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms can occur as single cells or as chain-forming aggregates. These two strategies affect buoyancy, predator evasion, light absorption and nutrient uptake. Adjacent cells in chains establish connections through various processes that determine strength and flexibility of the bonds, and at distinct cellular locations defining colony structure. Chain length has been found to vary with temperature and nutrient availability as well as being positively correlated with growth rate. However, the potential effect of enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and consequent changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on chain formation is virtually unknown. Here we report on experiments with semi-continuous cultures of the freshly isolated diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis grown under increasing CO2 levels ranging from 320 to 3400 µatm. We show that the number of cells comprising a chain, and therefore chain length, increases with rising CO2 concentrations. We also demonstrate that while cell division rate changes with CO2 concentrations, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cellular quotas vary proportionally, evident by unchanged organic matter ratios. Finally, beyond the optimum CO2 concentration for growth, carbon allocation changes from cellular storage to increased exudation of dissolved organic carbon. The observed structural adjustment in colony size could enable growth at high CO2 levels, since longer, spiral-shaped chains are likely to create microclimates with higher pH during the light period. Moreover increased chain length of Asterionellopsis glacialis may influence buoyancy and, consequently, affect competitive fitness as well as sinking rates. This would potentially impact the delicate balance between the microbial loop and export of organic matter, with consequences for atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24618939

  13. Effects of increasing seawater carbon dioxide concentrations on chain formation of the diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis.

    PubMed

    Barcelos e Ramos, Joana; Schulz, Kai Georg; Brownlee, Colin; Sett, Scarlett; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms can occur as single cells or as chain-forming aggregates. These two strategies affect buoyancy, predator evasion, light absorption and nutrient uptake. Adjacent cells in chains establish connections through various processes that determine strength and flexibility of the bonds, and at distinct cellular locations defining colony structure. Chain length has been found to vary with temperature and nutrient availability as well as being positively correlated with growth rate. However, the potential effect of enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and consequent changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on chain formation is virtually unknown. Here we report on experiments with semi-continuous cultures of the freshly isolated diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis grown under increasing CO2 levels ranging from 320 to 3400 µatm. We show that the number of cells comprising a chain, and therefore chain length, increases with rising CO2 concentrations. We also demonstrate that while cell division rate changes with CO2 concentrations, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cellular quotas vary proportionally, evident by unchanged organic matter ratios. Finally, beyond the optimum CO2 concentration for growth, carbon allocation changes from cellular storage to increased exudation of dissolved organic carbon. The observed structural adjustment in colony size could enable growth at high CO2 levels, since longer, spiral-shaped chains are likely to create microclimates with higher pH during the light period. Moreover increased chain length of Asterionellopsis glacialis may influence buoyancy and, consequently, affect competitive fitness as well as sinking rates. This would potentially impact the delicate balance between the microbial loop and export of organic matter, with consequences for atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24618939

  14. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  15. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

  16. Comprehensive Profiling of Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Young Healthy Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; Clarke, Shannon E.; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Mutch, David M.; Ma, David W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating fatty acids (FA) are associated with a multitude of chronic diseases. However, a major gap in establishing such relationships is the lack of accepted fatty acid reference ranges representing healthy individuals. Data on validated FA reference ranges would provide a better understanding of study baseline measures and aid in the evaluation and interpretation of pharmaceutical or dietary interventions. Reference ranges for plasma FA levels have been reported in a few small studies and on a limited number of FA. Therefore, we determined the average and percentiles of a broad set of 61 FA (C14 - C24:1) from plasma total lipids from an ethnically diverse population of healthy young Canadian males and females (Total n = 826). Plasma concentrations of some of the major FA ranged from 0.3 to 4.1 mmol/L for palmitic acid, 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L for stearic acid, 0.03 to 3.2 mmol/L for oleic acid, 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L for linoleic acid (LA), 12.0 to 186.9 μmol/L for α-linolenic acid, and 7.2 to 237.5 μmol/L for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Males had significantly higher plasma concentrations of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and lower concentrations of palmitoleic acid, LA and DHA than females. Comparison of FA concentrations between Caucasians, East Asians and South Asians revealed that South Asians had significantly lower levels of palmitoleic acid (p < 0.01) and oleic acid (p = 0.01) while East Asians had lower levels of GLA (p = 0.02) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (p = 0.03). Overall, these data provide a comprehensive set of quantitative values that profiles a small cohort of Canadians which highlights the utility of establishing validated FA reference ranges that may be used to understand how deficient, suboptimal, or excess amounts of a given FA may be associated with chronic disease. PMID:25675440

  17. Simulation and evaluation of elemental mercury concentration increase in flue gas across a wet scrubber.

    PubMed

    Chang, John C S; Ghorishi, S Behrooz

    2003-12-15

    Experimental data from a laboratory-scale wet scrubber simulator confirmed that oxidized mercury, Hg2+, can be reduced by aqueous S(IV) (sulfite and/or bisulfite) species and results in elemental mercury (HgO) emissions under typical wet FGD scrubber conditions. The S(IV)-induced Hg2+ reduction and Hg0 emission mechanism can be described by a model which assumes that only a fraction of the Hg2+ can be reduced, and the rate-controlling step of the overall process is a first-order reaction involving the Hg-S(IV) complexes. Experimental data and model simulations predict that the Hg2+ in the flue gas can cause rapid increase of Hg0 concentration in the flue gas across a FGD scrubber. Forced oxidation can enhance Hg2+ reduction and Hg0 emission by decreasing the S(IV) concentration in the scrubbing liquor. The model predictions also indicate that flue gas Hg0 increase across a wet FGD scrubber can be reduced by decreasing the pH, increasing S(IV) concentration, and lowering the temperature. PMID:14717192

  18. Nanomolar concentration of triclocarban increases the vulnerability of rat thymocytes to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kanbara, Yasuhiro; Murakane, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Yumiko; Satoh, Masaya; Oyama, Yasuo

    2013-02-01

    It was recently reported that triclocarban was absorbed significantly from soap used during showering in human subjects and that its C(max) in their whole blood ranged from 23 nM to 530 nM. We revealed that a nanomolar concentration (300 nM) of triclocarban potentiated the cytotoxicity of 300 µM H(2)O(2) in rat thymocytes by using cytometric techniques with appropriate fluorescent probes. Although 300 nM triclocarban did not itself increase the population of dead cells (cell lethality), it facilitated the process of cell death induced by H(2)O(2), resulting in a further increase in the population of dead cells. Nanomolar concentrations (300 nM or higher) of triclocarban significantly decreased the cellular content of nonprotein thiol (glutathione), which has a protective role against oxidative stress. Triclocarban at 300 nM or higher increased the cell vulnerability to oxidative stress. The results may suggest that nanomolar concentration (300 nM or higher) of triclocarban affects some cellular functions although there is no evidence for adverse effects of triclocarban in humans at present. PMID:23358139

  19. Terpenes Increase the Lipid Dynamics in the Leishmania Plasma Membrane at Concentrations Similar to Their IC50 Values

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, Heverton Silva; Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×106 parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+)-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4–9%) at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×109 parasites/mL), the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis. PMID:25101672

  20. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations. PMID:26666541

  1. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown)

    PubMed Central

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona JM; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to “light on.” The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The “dark” IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  2. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation. PMID:26213045

  3. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. PMID:27155564

  4. Biopsy Needle Advancement during Bone Marrow Aspiration Increases Mesenchymal Stem Cell Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anne E.; Watts, Ashlee E.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care kits to concentrate bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in horses. A maximal number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow aspirated might be desired prior to use of a point-of-care system to concentrate MSCs. Our objective was to test a method to increase the number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow collected. We collected two BM aspirates using two different collection techniques from 12 horses. The first collection technique was to aspirate BM from a single site without advancement of the biopsy needle. The second collection technique was to aspirate marrow from multiple sites within the same sternal puncture by advancing the needle 5 mm three times for BM aspiration from four sites. Numbers of MSCs in collected BM were assessed by total nucleated cell count of BM after aspiration, total colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and total MSC number at each culture passage. The BM aspiration technique of four needle advancements during BM aspiration resulted in higher initial nucleated cell counts, more CFU-Fs, and more MSCs at the first passage. There were no differences in the number of MSCs at later passages. Multiple advancements of the BM needle during BM aspiration resulted in increased MSC concentration at the time of BM collection. If a point-of-care kit is used to concentrate MSCs, multiple advancements may result in higher MSC numbers in the BM concentrate after preparation by the point-of-care kit. For culture expanded MSCs beyond the first cell passage, the difference is of questionable clinical relevance. PMID:27014705

  5. Biopsy Needle Advancement during Bone Marrow Aspiration Increases Mesenchymal Stem Cell Concentration.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anne E; Watts, Ashlee E

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care kits to concentrate bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in horses. A maximal number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow aspirated might be desired prior to use of a point-of-care system to concentrate MSCs. Our objective was to test a method to increase the number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow collected. We collected two BM aspirates using two different collection techniques from 12 horses. The first collection technique was to aspirate BM from a single site without advancement of the biopsy needle. The second collection technique was to aspirate marrow from multiple sites within the same sternal puncture by advancing the needle 5 mm three times for BM aspiration from four sites. Numbers of MSCs in collected BM were assessed by total nucleated cell count of BM after aspiration, total colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and total MSC number at each culture passage. The BM aspiration technique of four needle advancements during BM aspiration resulted in higher initial nucleated cell counts, more CFU-Fs, and more MSCs at the first passage. There were no differences in the number of MSCs at later passages. Multiple advancements of the BM needle during BM aspiration resulted in increased MSC concentration at the time of BM collection. If a point-of-care kit is used to concentrate MSCs, multiple advancements may result in higher MSC numbers in the BM concentrate after preparation by the point-of-care kit. For culture expanded MSCs beyond the first cell passage, the difference is of questionable clinical relevance. PMID:27014705

  6. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca2+ signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca2+-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca2+ influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na+-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na+-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca2+]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca2+]i increase through Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way. PMID:27610031

  7. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-09-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca(2+) signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca(2+)-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca(2+) influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na(+)-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na(+)-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca(2+)]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca(2+)]i increase through Ca(2+) influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way. PMID:27610031

  8. Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. PMID:24365742

  9. Increase in dust storm related PM10 concentrations: A time series analysis of 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Helena; Katra, Itzhak; Friger, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decades, changes in dust storms characteristics have been observed in different parts of the world. The changing frequency of dust storms in the southeastern Mediterranean has led to growing concern regarding atmospheric PM10 levels. A classic time series additive model was used in order to describe and evaluate the changes in PM10 concentrations during dust storm days in different cities in Israel, which is located at the margins of the global dust belt. The analysis revealed variations in the number of dust events and PM10 concentrations during 2001-2015. A significant increase in PM10 concentrations was identified since 2009 in the arid city of Beer Sheva, southern Israel. Average PM10 concentrations during dust days before 2009 were 406, 312, and 364 μg m(-3) (median 337, 269,302) for Beer Sheva, Rehovot (central Israel) and Modi'in (eastern Israel), respectively. After 2009 the average concentrations in these cities during dust storms were 536, 466, and 428 μg m(-3) (median 382, 335, 338), respectively. Regression analysis revealed associations between PM10 variations and seasonality, wind speed, as well as relative humidity. The trends and periodicity are stronger in the southern part of Israel, where higher PM10 concentrations are found. Since 2009 dust events became more extreme with much higher daily and hourly levels. The findings demonstrate that in the arid area variations of dust storms can be quantified easier through PM10 levels over a relatively short time scale of several years. PMID:26874873

  10. Increased Concentrations of Interleukin-33 in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Mahdavi, Roya; Jamali, Mitra; Hajghani, Hossain; Nemati, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossain-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Interleukin (IL)-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Blood specimens were obtained from 140 patients with MS (46 males and 94 females) with various disease patterns and treatment plans and 140 healthy subjects (47 males and 93 females), who acted as a control group. CSF samples were collected from 20 MS group and 20 sex- and age-matched patients with other neurological diseases of nonautoimmune etiology. The serum and CSF concentrations of IL-33 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The serum and CSF IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the MS group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.050, respectively). The serum IL-33 concentrations were also significantly higher in newly diagnosed (untreated) patients and patients treated with methylprednisolone or with interferon-β and methylprednisolone compared to the healthy patient group (p<0.007, p<0.002, and p<0.010, respectively). Moreover, the serum IL-33 concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS), primary progressive (PPMS), and secondary progressive (SPMS) forms of the disease were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p<0.006, p<0.001, and p<0.020, respectively). Conclusions Our results showed increased concentrations of IL-33 in patients with MS including both untreated and treated MS patients and patients with the RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS forms. This suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis of all MS forms and treatment with methylprednisolone or both interferon-β plus methylprednisolone has no influence on IL-33 concentrations. PMID:26813806

  11. Competition effects in cation binding to humic acid: Conditional affinity spectra for fixed total metal concentration conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Calin; Mongin, Sandrine; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Garcés, José Luis; Salvador, José; Puy, Jaume; Cecilia, Joan; Lodeiro, Pablo; Mas, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    Information on the Pb and Cd binding to a purified Aldrich humic acid (HA) is obtained from the influence of different fixed total metal concentrations on the acid-base titrations of this ligand. NICA (Non-Ideal Competitive Adsorption) isotherm has been used for a global quantitative description of the binding, which has then been interpreted by plotting the Conditional Affinity Spectra of the H + binding at fixed total metal concentrations (CAScTM). This new physicochemical tool, here introduced, allows the interpretation of binding results in terms of distributions of proton binding energies. A large increase in the acidity of the phenolic sites as the total metal concentration increases, especially in presence of Pb, is revealed from the shift of the CAScTM towards lower affinities. The variance of the CAScTM distribution, which can be used as a direct measure of the heterogeneity, also shows a significant dependence on the total metal concentration. A discussion of the factors that influence the heterogeneity of the HA under the conditions of each experiment is provided, so that the smoothed pattern exhibited by the titration curves can be justified.

  12. Responses to increasing amounts of high-oleic sunflower fatty acids infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Overton, T R; Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M; Perkins, E G

    2007-11-01

    Increasing the oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) content of milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness and for certain manufacturing applications. The extent to which milk fat could be enriched with oleic acid is not known. Increasing the intestinal supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in cows, but the effects of oleic acid have not been quantified. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were abomasally infused with increasing amounts (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 g/d) of free fatty acids from high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFA) or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/d) were for 7 d at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HOSFA with 240 g/d of meat solubles and 11.2 g/d of Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The HOSFA contained (by wt) 2.4% 16:0, 1.8% 18:0, 91.4% 18:1 cis-9, and 2.4% 18:2. The DMI decreased linearly (range 22.0 to 5.8 kg/d) as the infused amount of HOSFA increased. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy decreased as the infusion increased to 750 g/d and then increased when 1,000 g/d was infused. Digestibility of total fatty acids increased linearly as infused fatty acids increased. Yields of milk, fat, true protein, casein, and total solids decreased quadratically as infused amounts increased; decreases were greatest when 750 or 1,000 g/d of HOSFA were infused. Concentrations of fat and total solids increased at the higher amounts of HOSFA. The volume mean diameter of milk fat droplets and the diameter below which 90% of the volume of milk fat is contained both increased as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 in milk fat decreased linearly as HOSFA increased. The concentration of 18:1 cis-9 (19.4 to 57.4% of total fatty acids) increased linearly as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of 18:1 cis-9 in blood triglyceride

  13. Decreased bile-acid synthesis in livers of hepatocyte-conditional NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice results in increased bile acids in serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (H-Cpr-null) have been engineered to understand the in vivo function of hepatic P450s in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. However, the impact of hepatic Cpr on BA homeostasis is not clear. The present study revealed that H-Cpr-null mice had a 60% decrease in total BA concentration in liver, whereas the total BA concentration in serum was almost doubled. The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. Feedback mechanisms responsible for the reduced liver BA concentrations and/or increased serum BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice included the following: 1) enhanced alternative BA synthesis pathway, as evidenced by the fact that classic BA synthesis is diminished but chenodeoxycholic acid still increases in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice; 2) inhibition of farnesoid X receptor activation, which increased the mRNA of Cyp7a1 and 8b1; 3) induction of intestinal BA transporters to facilitate BA absorption from the intestine to the circulation; 4) induction of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters to increase BA efflux from the liver to blood; and 5) increased generation of secondary BAs. In summary, the present study reveals an important contribution of the alternative BA synthesis pathway and BA transporters in regulating BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice. PMID:25034404

  14. High surface-area amidoxime-based polymer fibers co-grafted with various acid monomers yielding increased adsorption capacity for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is dissolved in the ocean at a uniform concentration of 3.34 ppb, which translates to approximately 4-5 billion tons of uranium. The development of adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater has been a long term goal, but the extremely dilute uranium concentration along with the competition of other metal salts (which are at higher concentrations) has hindered the development of an economical adsorption process. Several acid monomers were co-grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) to help increase the hydrophilicity of the adsorbent to improve access to the metal adsorption sites. Grafting various acid monomers on PE fibers was found to significantly affect the uranium adsorption in simulated seawater in the following order: acrylic acid (AA) < vinyl sulfonic acid (VSA) < methacrylic acid (MAA) < itaconic acid (ITA) < vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA). Interestingly, the uranium adsorption capacity significantly increased when Mohr's salt was added with acrylic acid, most likely due to the reduction of co-polymerization of the monomers. When testing under more realistic conditions, the acid-grafted PE fiber adsorbents were exposed to natural seawater (more dilute uranium), the uranium adsorption capacity increased in the following order: MAA < AA (Mohr's salt) < VSA < ITA (Mohr's salt) < ITA < VPA, which agreed well with the simulated seawater results. Characterization of the adsorbents indicated that the increase in uranium adsorption capacity with each acid monomer was related to higher grafting of AN and therefore a higher conversion to amidoxime (AO). PMID:27145863

  15. Beef tallow increases the potency of conjugated linoleic acid in the reduction of mouse mammary tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Neil E; Lim, Debora; Erickson, Kent L

    2006-01-01

    Animal studies consistently show that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces mammary tumorigenesis including metastasis. Relatively low concentrations of CLA are required for those effects, and a threshold level exists above which there is no added reduction. We reasoned that the concentration of CLA required to effectively alter mammary tumor metastasis may be dependent on the type of dietary fat because select fatty acids can enhance or suppress normal or malignant cell growth and metastasis. For this study, the diets (a total of 12 different groups) differed in fatty acid composition but not in energy from fat (40%). In experiments involving spontaneous metastasis, mice were fed for 11 wk; in experiments in which mice were injected i.v. with tumor cells, they were fed for 7 wk. Mice were then assessed for the effect of CLA concentration on mammary tumorigenesis. Mammary tumor growth was not altered, but metastasis was significantly decreased when beef tallow (BT) replaced half of a defined vegetable fat blend (VFB). That blend reflects the typical fat content of a Western diet. In addition, that same VFB:BT diet lowered the concentration of CLA required to significantly decrease mammary tumor metastasis from 0.1% of the diet to 0.05%. A diet in which corn oil replaced half of the VFB did not lower the threshold from 0.1 to 0.05%. In vitro, the main fatty acid in vegetable oil, linoleic acid, reduced the efficacy of CLA toxicity on mammary tumor cells in culture. Alternatively, fatty acids normally found in BT, such as oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids, either did not change or enhanced the cytolytic effects of CLA isomers on mouse mammary tumor cells in culture. These data provide evidence that dietary BT, itself with negligible levels of CLA, may increase the efficacy of dietary CLA in reducing mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:16365064

  16. [Plasma homocysteine concentration and its relationship with the development of preeclampsia. Effect of prenatal administration of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marisol; Fernández, Gerardo; Diez-Ewald, Maria; Torres, Enrique; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson; Narváez, Janeth; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis

    2005-06-01

    The increase of plasmatic homocysteine (Hc) in pregnant women, who later develop preeclampsia/eclampsia, the cause of this increment and its pathogenic role in toxemia of pregnancy, are still controversial. The objectives of the present research were to determine the plasmatic He concentrations during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and the effect of folic acid administration on these values, and in the prevention of preeclampsia. Ninety six pregnant women of low economic background were studied on the first prenatal consultation: 27 women in the first trimester of pregnancy and 59 in the second. After 8 hours of fasting, venous blood was extracted and each patient was provided with 1 mg folic acid tablets and instructed to ingest one tablet daily, and to come back to the laboratory after three months. Plasma homocysteine and serum folic acid were determined for each patient before and after the folic acid treatment, by using the IMX system (Abbott Lab) and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Basal homocysteine concentrations were 4.0 +/- 2.1 micromol/L and 4.8 +/- 2.1 micromol/L in the first and second trimesters respectively, with no significant modifications after three months of folic acid. Although the degree of desertion from the study was high, it was possible to determine the evolution of 65 pregnancies. Ten of them developed preeclampsia (15.4%). No significant differences were found in Hc concentrations, or the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia in the different stages of pregnancy, between women with normal gestation and those who developed preeclampsia. The small sample size of these groups, preclude any valid conclusion, however the results do not suggest that Hc concentration or folic acid administration influence the development of toxemia of pregnancy. PMID:16001750

  17. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration.

    PubMed

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  18. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  19. Protein–Protein Interactions in Dilute to Concentrated Solutions: α-Chymotrypsinogen in Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions were investigated for α-chymotrypsinogen by static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS, respectively), as well as small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), as a function of protein and salt concentration at acidic conditions. Net protein–protein interactions were probed via the Kirkwood–Buff integral G22 and the static structure factor S(q) from SLS and SANS data. G22 was obtained by regressing the Rayleigh ratio versus protein concentration with a local Taylor series approach, which does not require one to assume the underlying form or nature of intermolecular interactions. In addition, G22 and S(q) were further analyzed by traditional methods involving fits to effective interaction potentials. Although the fitted model parameters were not always physically realistic, the numerical values for G22 and S(q → 0) were in good agreement from SLS and SANS as a function of protein concentration. In the dilute regime, fitted G22 values agreed with those obtained via the osmotic second virial coefficient B22 and showed that electrostatic interactions are the dominant contribution for colloidal interactions in α-chymotrypsinogen solutions. However, as protein concentration increases, the strength of protein–protein interactions decreases, with a more pronounced decrease at low salt concentrations. The results are consistent with an effective “crowding” or excluded volume contribution to G22 due to the long-ranged electrostatic repulsions that are prominent even at the moderate range of protein concentrations used here (<40 g/L). These apparent crowding effects were confirmed and quantified by assessing the hydrodynamic factor H(q → 0), which is obtained by combining measurements of the collective diffusion coefficient from DLS data with measurements of S(q → 0). H(q → 0) was significantly less than that for a corresponding hard-sphere system and showed that hydrodynamic nonidealities can lead to qualitatively incorrect

  20. Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA) pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate) and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’) or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’), depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1), and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3) correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’), alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may supplement biosynthesis via L

  1. Increased concentrations of 3-hydroxykynurenine in vitamin B6 deficient neonatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Guilarte, T R; Wagner, H N

    1987-12-01

    Increased concentrations of the endogenous tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) were measured in the brains of vitamin B6 deficient neonatal rats. Mean concentrations of 3-HK in B6 deficient cerebellum, corpus striatum, frontal cortex, and pons/medulla ranged from 9.7 to 18.6 and 102 to 142 nmol/g of wet tissue at 14 and 18 days of age, respectively. 3-HK was not significantly increased in control neonatal or adult rat brain, vitamin B6 deficient rat brain at 7 days of age, or in brains from adult rats deprived of vitamin B6 for 58 days. The administration of daily intraperitoneal injections of vitamin B6 from the 14th to the 18th day of age decreased the concentration of 3-HK to control levels. 3-HK has been shown by other investigators to produce seizures when injected into the cerebral ventricles of adult rodents. Thus, our studies show the accumulation in brain of a putative endogenous convulsant as the result of a nutritional deficiency. PMID:3681302

  2. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels. PMID:22576912

  3. Concentration methods for high-resolution THz spectroscopy of nucleic-acid biomolecules and crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. R.; Zhang, W.; Mendoza, E. A.; Kuznetsova, Y.; Brueck, S. R. J.; Rahman, M.; Norton, M. L.

    2012-03-01

    Biomolecules can exhibit low-lying vibrational modes in the THz region which are detectable in transmission given a strong molecular dipole moment and optical depth, and a spectrometer of adequate sensitivity. The nucleic acids are particularly interesting because of applications such as label-free gene assay, bio-agent detection, etc. However for nucleic acids, sample preparation and THz coupling are of paramount importance because of the strong absorption by liquid water and the small concentration of molecules present in physiological solutions. Concentration methods become necessary to make the THz vibrational modes detectable, either by concentrating the nucleic-acid sample itself in a small volume but large area, or by concentrating the THz radiation down to the volume of the sample. This paper summarizes one type of the first method: nanofluidic channel arrays for biological nucleic acids; and two types of the second method: (1) a circular-waveguide pinhole, and (2) a circular-waveguide, conical-horn coupling structure, both for DNA crystals. The first method has been demonstrated on a very short artificial nucleic acid [small-interfering (si) RNA (17-to-25 bp)] and a much longer, biological molecule [Lambda-phage DNA (48.5 kbp)]. The second method has been demonstrated on small (~100 micron) single crystals of DNA grown by the sitting-drop method.

  4. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production. PMID:25666310

  5. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  6. Proteins implicated in the increase of adhesivity induced by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Grebeňová, D; Röselová, P; Pluskalová, M; Halada, P; Rösel, D; Suttnar, J; Brodská, B; Otevřelová, P; Kuželová, K

    2012-12-21

    We have previously shown that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment increases the adhesivity of leukemic cells to fibronectin at clinically relevant concentrations. Now, we present the results of the proteomic analysis of SAHA effects on leukemic cell lines using 2-DE and ProteomLab PF2D system. Histone acetylation at all studied acetylation sites reached the maximal level after 5 to 10 h of SAHA treatment. No difference in histone acetylation between subtoxic and toxic SAHA doses was observed. SAHA treatment induced cofilin phosphorylation at Ser3, an increase in vimentin and paxillin expression and a decrease in stathmin expression as confirmed by western-blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The interaction of cofilin with 14-3-3 epsilon was documented using both Duolink system and coimmunoprecipitation. However, this interaction was independent of cofilin Ser3 phosphorylation and the amount of 14-3-3-ε-bound cofilin did not rise following SAHA treatment. SAHA-induced increase in the cell adhesivity was associated with an increase in PAK phosphorylation in CML-T1 cells and was abrogated by simultaneous treatment with IPA-3, a PAK inhibitor. The effects of SAHA on JURL-MK1 cells were similar to those of other histone deacetylase inhibitors, tubastatin A and sodium butyrate. The proteome analysis also revealed several potential non-histone targets of histone deacetylases. PMID:23022583

  7. Hypohomocysteinemic effect of cysteine is associated with increased plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed diets low in protein and methionine levels.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yoshiko; Ohuchi, Seiya; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2009-02-01

    Rats were fed diets with and without 0.5% L-cysteine supplement for 14 d or shorter periods to clarify the mechanism by which dietary cysteine elicits its hypohomocysteinemic effect. Cysteine supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocysteine concentration with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed 10% casein diet (10C) or 15% soybean protein diet (15S) but not in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C) or 25% soybean protein diet. Cysteine supplementation also significantly suppressed hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline-deprived 10C with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration but not that induced by 25C+0.65% methionine or 25C+0.4% guanidinoacetic acid. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and homocysteine concentrations were significantly decreased by cysteine supplementation of 15S. These decreases in plasma homocysteine concentration and hepatic SAM and homocysteine concentrations due to cysteine supplementation disappeared when 15S was fortified with 0.3% methionine. The plasma homocysteine concentration significantly decreased with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration only 1 d after diet change from 15S to cysteine-supplemented 15S, while hepatic cystathionine beta-synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activities were not altered. Unlike cysteine, cysteic acid and 2-mercaptoethylamine did not decrease plasma homocysteine concentration. These results indicate that cysteine markedly decreases plasma homocysteine concentration only when added to diets low in both protein and methionine levels and suggest that increased plasma cysteine concentration and decreased flow of methionine toward homocysteine formation, but not alteration of homocysteine-metabolizing enzyme activities, are associated with the hypohomocysteinemic effect of cysteine. PMID:19352065

  8. Increase of internal ion concentration triggers trehalose synthesis associated with cryptobiosis in larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2003-07-01

    Larvae of an African chironomid, Polypedilum vanderplanki, which live in temporal rock pools, are completely dehydrated when the pools dry up and undergo anhydrobiosis until the next rain comes. During the dehydration process, larvae accumulate large amounts of trehalose, which provides effective protection against desiccation because of its high capacity for water replacement and vitrification. As the occurrence of rapid trehalose synthesis coincides with loss of body water, changes of osmolarity in the body are thought to be a cue for trehalose synthesis. Indeed, exposure to high salinity triggers rapid and efficient accumulation of trehalose even without desiccation treatment. As this rapid production occurs mainly in high concentrations of salt solutions, we conclude that an increase in internal ion concentration triggers trehalose synthesis associated with cryptobiosis in this species. PMID:12771176

  9. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. PMID:25760079

  10. Effect of strength training session on plasma amino acid concentration following oral ingestion of leucine, BCAAs or glutamine in men.

    PubMed

    Mero, Antti; Leikas, Anne; Knuutinen, Juha; Hulmi, Juha J; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2009-01-01

    We examined the acute effects of a 1-h strength training session (STS) on plasma amino acid concentration following orally ingestion of leucine, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or glutamine in nine physically active men who participated in double-blinded and randomised experiments. The subjects took placebo, leucine, BCAAs, or glutamine capsules (50 mg/kg) in either rest (REST) or STS condition. Blood samples were taken before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the beginning of the treatment and they were assayed for plasma amino acids with HPLC. Following both leucine and BCAA ingestion the peak concentration of leucine was similar at rest (524 +/- 46 and 530 +/- 29 nmol/ml, respectively) and similar after STS (398 +/- 43 and 387 +/- 46 nmol/ml, respectively) but the rest and STS concentrations differed from each other (P < 0.01-0.001). The modelled polynomial data for the leucine treatment showed that the peak concentration of leucine occurred at 67 min at rest and at 90 min in STS (difference between REST and STS: P = 0.012). For the BCAA treatment the polynomial data showed that the peak concentration of leucine occurred at 72 min at rest and at 78 min in STS (P = 0.067). The peak concentration of glutamine was similar in both rest and STS condition and occurred at 60 min at rest and at 57 min in STS. In conclusion, 1-h of STS slows the increase in the peak concentration of plasma leucine similarly after oral ingestion of leucine or BCAAs but after oral ingestion of glutamine it has no slowing effect on glutamine concentration. PMID:19015870

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  12. Effects of increasing concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on chemical composition and nutrient content of egg.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Lee, E J; Samaraweera, H; Persia, M; Ahn, Dong U

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding high concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on chemical composition and selected nutrient content of egg yolk. Four isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0, 17, 35, or 50% corn DDGS. A total of two hundred forty 54-wk-old Single-Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly allotted to 2 birds per cage with 3 consecutive cages representing an experimental unit (EU). Each EU was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments according to a completely randomized design. Hens were fed for a 24-wk experimental period after transition feeding to gradually increase corn DDGS inclusion over a 4-wk period. Two sets of experimental diets were formulated to meet or exceed the NRC nutrient recommendations for laying hens. Each diet formula was fed for 12 wk. Chemical composition and nutritional components in egg yolk were measured every 2 wk. The results showed that egg yolk from hens fed a DDGS-containing diet tended to have higher fat content and lower protein content. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly increased by the DDGS diet. The contents of choline and cholesterol were initially higher in the 50% DDGS treatment group, but were not different in the later period, especially during the last 4 wk. Lutein content increased linearly as DDGS level increased. The results indicated that feeding a high level of DDGS can increase the content of lutein and polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, but may not affect the content of cholesterol and choline. PMID:23243253

  13. Increasing glucose concentrations and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in northern Sweden, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bernt; Stenlund, Hans; Norberg, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in the world is projected to rise from 2.8% in the year 2000 to 4.4% in 2030, an increase suggesting an ongoing global epidemic of diabetes. Objective To examine time trends in fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations, prevalence and 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes, and the role of education in these trends. Design Each year the Västerbotten Intervention Programme invites all 40, 50, and 60-year-old individuals to a health survey, which includes a cardiovascular risk factor screening and oral glucose tolerance test. The cross-sectional part of the study is based on health examinations conducted between 1990 and 2007 (n = 102,822). The prospective subset (panel dataset) of the study is based on individuals who have had two health examinations 10 years apart and were not defined as having diabetes at their first health examination (n = 23,546). Results Between 1990 and 2007, the mean population fasting glucose concentration increased 0.5 mmol/L. Comparing the prevalence in 1990–1995 with 2002–2007 demonstrated a significant 44% increase in men (p < 0.001) and a significant 17% increase in women (p<0.001). Socioeconomic status, here represented by education, clearly influenced both prevalence and incidence of diabetes and glucose concentration. In all time periods and in all age groups, individuals with low education were more likely to have or get diabetes. The 10-year risk of developing diabetes was four to five times higher in the oldest age group (50–60 years) compared with the youngest (30–40 years). A 30% reduction in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes was found in women (p<0.001) between 2000–2003 and 2004–2007. Conclusions Despite a clear increase in glucose concentrations and diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2007, especially in men, there was a decline in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes in women between 2000–2003 and 2004–2007. PMID:21042431

  14. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. PMID:26452426

  15. Increased Platelet Concentration does not Improve Functional Graft Healing in Bio-Enhanced ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Vavken, Patrick; Shalvoy, Matthew R.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of an extra-cellular matrix scaffold (ECM) combined with platelets to enhance healing of an ACL graft (“bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction”) has shown promise in animal models. However, the effects of platelet concentration on graft healing remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine if increasing the platelet concentration in the ECM scaffold would; 1) improve the graft biomechanical properties, and 2) decrease cartilage damage after surgery. Methods Fifty-five adolescent minipigs were randomized to 5 treatment groups; untreated ACL transection (n=10), conventional ACL reconstruction (n=15), and bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction using 1X (n=10), 3X (n=10) or 5X (n=10) platelet-rich plasma. The graft biomechanical properties, anteroposterior (AP) knee laxity, graft histology and macroscopic cartilage integrity were measured at 15 weeks. Results The mean linear stiffness of the bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction procedure using the 1X preparation was significantly greater than traditional reconstruction while the 3X and 5X preparations were not. The failure loads of all the ACL reconstructed groups were equivalent but significantly greater than untreated ACL transection. There were no significant differences in the ligament maturity index or AP laxity between reconstructed knees. Macroscopic cartilage damage was relatively minor, though significantly less when the ECM-platelet composite was used. Conclusions Only the 1X platelet concentration improved healing over traditional ACL reconstruction. Increasing the platelet concentration from 1X to 5X in the ECM scaffold did not further improve the graft mechanical properties. The use of an ECM-platelet composite decreased the amount of cartilage damage seen after ACL surgery. PMID:24633008

  16. Adaptation of acidogenic sludge to increasing glycerol concentrations for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Venegas, E; Cabrol, L; Brandhoff, B; Hamelin, J; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative as an energetic carrier and its production by dark fermentation from wastewater has been recently proposed, with special attention to crude glycerol as potential substrate. In this study, two different feeding strategies were evaluated for replacing the glucose substrate by glycerol substrate: a one-step strategy (glucose was replaced abruptly by glycerol) and a step-by-step strategy (progressive decrease of glucose concentration and increase of glycerol concentration from 0 to 5 g L(-1)), in a continuous stirred tank reactor (12 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH 5.5, 35 °C). While the one-step strategy led to biomass washout and unsuccessful H2 production, the step-by-step strategy was efficient for biomass adaptation, reaching acceptable hydrogen yields (0.4 ± 0.1 molH2 mol(-1) glycerol consumed) around 33 % of the theoretical yield independently of the glycerol concentration. Microbial community structure was investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting techniques, targeting either the total community (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene) or the functional Clostridium population involved in H2 production (hydA gene), as well as by 454 pyrosequencing of the total community. Multivariate analysis of fingerprinting and pyrosequencing results revealed the influence of the feeding strategy on the bacterial community structure and suggested the progressive structural adaptation of the community to increasing glycerol concentrations, through the emergence and selection of specific species, highly correlated to environmental parameters. Particularly, this work highlighted an interesting shift of dominant community members (putatively responsible of hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)) according to the gradient of glycerol proportion in the feed, from the family Veillonellaceae to the genera Prevotella and

  17. Caloric restriction increases serum testosterone concentrations in obese male subjects by two distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D M; Hahn, M; Oberhäuser, F; Malchau, G; Schubert, M; Heppner, C; Müller, N; Güdelhöfer, H; Faust, M; Krone, W; Laudes, M

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of serum testosterone is mainly regulated by the testicular function, which is under control of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A certain amount of testosterone is converted into β-estradiol by adipose tissue. Obesity in men is often associated with decreased androgen levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of caloric restriction on serum testosterone levels in obese men. Dietary intervention study was performed with a very low calorie diet (800 kcal/d) for 12 weeks. Thirteen obese human male subjects (median body mass index: 42.7 kg/m2) were included. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR). Testosterone (T), β-estradiol, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), LH, and FSH serum concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Statistical analysis was performed on baseline and values after 3 months. Caloric restriction significantly increased total testosterone (6.97 nmol/l to 13.21 nmol/l; p=0.001) and SHBG (22.11 nmol/l to 42.12 nmol/l; p=0.001) concentrations in serum. This is caused by a significant improvement of the testicular function (LH/T: 0.36-0.20; p=0.005) and a significant reduction of the T/β-estradiol conversion rate (73.59-104.29; p=0.003). There was a significant negative correlation of improvement of testicular function and LAR (rs=-0.683 (p=0.042)). In obese men caloric restriction significantly increases the serum testosterone concentration. This is achieved by 2 distinct mechanisms, that is, improvement of testicular function and reduced conversion of testosterone to β-estradiol by aromatase activity of the adipose tissue. PMID:24198220

  18. Increasing Glucose Concentrations Interfere with Estimation of Electrolytes by Indirect Ion Selective Electrode Method.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Bela; Datta, Sudip Kumar; Mir, Altaf A; Ikkurthi, Saidaiah; Prasad, Rajendra; Pal, Arnab

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of electrolytes like sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) using direct and indirect ion-selective electrodes (ISE) is a routine laboratory practice. Interferents like proteins, triglycerides, drugs etc. are known to affect the results. The present study was designed to look into the effect of increasing glucose concentrations on estimation of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) by direct and indirect ISE. Pooled sera was mixed with glucose stock solution (20 g/dL) prepared in normal saline to obtain glucose concentrations ranging from ~100 to ~5000 mg/dL. Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) levels were estimated by direct and indirect ISE analyzers and results were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Similar experiment was also performed in 24 h urine sample from healthy subjects. Significant difference was observed between Na(+) and Cl(-) measurements by direct and indirect ISE, with indirect ISE values being consistently higher than direct ISE. Besides this, significant difference was observed amongst Na(+) and Cl(-) values from baseline values obtained by indirect ISE at glucose concentrations ≥2486 mg/dL. However, no such difference was observed with direct ISE. Na(+) and Cl(-) estimation by indirect ISE showed significant negative correlation with glucose concentration, more so, above ~2000 mg/dL. K(+), however, showed no significant difference with varying glucose. Similar results were observed in 24 h urine samples with a significant difference observed amongst Na(+) and Cl(-) values at ≥2104 mg/dL glucose. Thus we conclude that high glucose concentrations interfere significantly in estimation of Na(+) and Cl(-) by indirect ISE in serum as well as urine. PMID:27069331

  19. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  20. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  1. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations in pigs with acute, chronic or subclinical Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Gebhart, Connie J; Lawhorn, Bruce D; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2015-03-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy. The clinical presentation can be acute (i.e. proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy, PHE), chronic (i.e. porcine intestinal adenomatosis, PIA) or subclinical. In humans with chronic enteropathies, low serum folate (vitamin B(9)) and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) concentrations have been associated with increased serum concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), which reflect the availability of both vitamins at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations in serum samples from pigs with PHE, PIA or subclinical L. intracellularis infection, and in negative controls. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations differed significantly among pigs in the PHE, PIA, subclinical and negative control groups. Serum folate concentrations in the PHE and PIA groups were lower than in the subclinical and negative control groups, while serum cobalamin concentrations were lower in the PIA group than in other groups. Serum concentrations of homocysteine were higher in the PHE, PIA and subclinical groups than in the negative control group. Serum concentrations of MMA were higher in the subclinical and PIA groups than in the control group. These data suggest that pigs infected with L. intracellularis have altered serum cobalamin, folate, homocysteine and MMA concentrations. PMID:25618855

  2. Adaptation and Transcriptome Analysis of Aureobasidium pullulans in Corncob Hydrolysate for Increased Inhibitor Tolerance to Malic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiang; Wang, Yongkang; Tu, Guangwei; Zan, Zhanquan; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry, and is also a potential C4 platform chemical. Corncob is a low-cost renewable feedstock from agricultural industry. However, side-reaction products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), formic acid, and acetic acid) that severely hinder fermentation are formed during corncob pretreatment. The process for producing malic acid from a hydrolysate of corncob was investigated with a polymalic acid (PMA)-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain. Under the optimal hydrolysate sugar concentration 110 g/L, A. pullulans was further adapted in an aerobic fibrous bed bioreactor (AFBB) by gradually increasing the sugar concentration of hydrolysate. After nine batches of fermentation, the production and productivity of malic acid reached 38.6 g/L and 0.4 g/L h, respectively, which was higher than that in the first batch (27.6 g/L and 0.29 g/L h, respectively). The adapted strain could grow under the stress of 0.5 g/L furfural, 3 g/L HMF, 2g/L acetic acid, and 0.5 g/L formic acid, whereas the wild type did not. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, lipid transport and metabolism, signal transduction mechanism, redox metabolism, and energy production and conversion under 0.5 g/L furfural and 3 g/L HMF stress conditions. In total, 42 genes in the adapted strain were upregulated by 15-fold or more, and qRT-PCR also confirmed that the expression levels of key genes (i.e. SIR, GSS, CYS, and GSR) involved in sulfur assimilation pathway were upregulated by over 10-fold in adapted strain for cellular protection against oxidative stress. PMID:25793624

  3. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  4. Memory CD8(+) T Cells Require Increased Concentrations of Acetate Induced by Stress for Optimal Function.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Maria L; Ma, Eric H; Bantug, Glenn R; Grählert, Jasmin; Pfister, Simona; Glatter, Timo; Jauch, Annaïse; Dimeloe, Sarah; Slack, Emma; Dehio, Philippe; Krzyzaniak, Magdalena A; King, Carolyn G; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Fischer, Marco; Develioglu, Leyla; Belle, Réka; Recher, Mike; Bonilla, Weldy V; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Jones, Russell G; Hess, Christoph

    2016-06-21

    How systemic metabolic alterations during acute infections impact immune cell function remains poorly understood. We found that acetate accumulates in the serum within hours of systemic bacterial infections and that these increased acetate concentrations are required for optimal memory CD8(+) T cell function in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, upon uptake by memory CD8(+) T cells, stress levels of acetate expanded the cellular acetyl-coenzyme A pool via ATP citrate lyase and promoted acetylation of the enzyme GAPDH. This context-dependent post-translational modification enhanced GAPDH activity, catalyzing glycolysis and thus boosting rapid memory CD8(+) T cell responses. Accordingly, in a murine Listeria monocytogenes model, transfer of acetate-augmented memory CD8(+) T cells exerted superior immune control compared to control cells. Our results demonstrate that increased systemic acetate concentrations are functionally integrated by CD8(+) T cells and translate into increased glycolytic and functional capacity. The immune system thus directly relates systemic metabolism with immune alertness. PMID:27212436

  5. Maternal obesity upregulates fatty acid and glucose transporters and increases expression of enzymes mediating fatty acid biosynthesis in fetal adipose tissue depots.

    PubMed

    Long, N M; Rule, D C; Zhu, M J; Nathanielsz, P W; Ford, S P

    2012-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction leads to alteration in fetal adipose tissue, and offspring from obese mothers have an increased risk of developing obesity. We hypothesized that maternal obesity increases fetal adipogenesis. Multiparous ewes (Columbia/Rambouillet cross 3 to 5 yr of age) carrying twins were assigned to a diet of 100% (Control; CON; n = 4) or 150% (Obese; OB, n = 7) of NRC maintenance requirements from 60 d before conception until necropsy on d 135 of gestation. Maternal and fetal plasma were collected and stored at -80°C for glucose and hormone analyses. Fetal measurements were made at necropsy, and perirenal, pericardial, and subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected from 7 male twin fetuses per group and snap frozen at -80°C. Protein and mRNA expression of fatty acid translocase [cluster of differentiation (CD) 36], fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) 1 and 4, insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT-4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) was evaluated. Fetal weight was similar, but fetal carcass weight (FCW) was reduced (P < 0.05) in OB versus CON fetuses. Pericardial and perirenal adipose tissue weights were increased (P < 0.05) as a percentage of FCW in OB versus CON fetuses, as was subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.001). Average adipocyte diameter was greater (P < 0.01) in the perirenal fat and the pericardial fat (P = 0.06) in OB fetuses compared with CON fetuses. Maternal plasma showed no difference (P > 0.05) in glucose or other hormones, fetal plasma glucose was similar (P = 0.42), and cortisol, IGF-1, and thyroxine were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in OB fetuses compared with CON fetuses. Protein and mRNA expression of CD 36, FATP 1 and 4, and GLUT-4 were increased (P ≤ 0.05) in all fetal adipose depots in OB versus CON fetuses. The mRNA expression of FASN and ACC was increased (P < 0.05) in OB vs. CON fetuses in all 3 fetal adipose tissue depots. Fatty acid concentrations were increased (P = 0.01) in the

  6. Decreased expression of adipose CD36 and FATP1 are associated with increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern elephant seal undergoes a 2-3 month post-weaning fast during which it depends primarily on the oxidation of fatty acids to meet its energetic demands. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) increases and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in late-fasted...

  7. Amino acid concentrations in hypothalamic and caudate nuclei during microwave-induced thermal stress: Analysis by microdialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, P.A.; Doyle, J.M.; Escarciga, R.; Romano, W.F.; Donnellan, J.P.; Berger, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) may produce thermal responses. Extracellular amino acid concentrations in the hypothalamus (Hyp) and caudate nucleus (CN) were measured by using in vivo microdialysis before and during exposure to RFR. Under urethane anesthetic, each rat was implanted stereotaxically with a nonmetallic microdialysis probe and temperature probe guides and then placed in the exposure chamber. The rat laid on its right side with its head and neck placed directly under the wave guide. Temperature probes were placed in the lift brain, right brain, face, left tympanum, and rectum. Each microdialysis sample was collected over a 20 min period. The microdialysis probe was perfused for 2 h before the rat was exposed to 5.02 GHz radiation. The right and left sides of the brain were maintained at approximately 41.2 and 41.7 C, respectively, throughout a 40 min exposure period. Initially when the brain was being heated to these temperatures, the time-averaged specific absorption rates (SARs) for the right and left sides of the brain were 29 and 40 W/kg, respectively. Concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glutamine, and glycine in dialysate were determined by using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. In the Hyp and CN, the concentrations of aspartic acid, serine, and glycine increased significantly during RFR exposure.

  8. Increased Biomass Yield of Lactococcus lactis by Reduced Overconsumption of Amino Acids and Increased Catalytic Activities of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Seiman, Andrus; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-01-01

    Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome) are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol−1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h−1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h−1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine) until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine) were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus). Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times). Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism) by varying the growth conditions. PMID:23133574

  9. Kisspeptin receptor agonist (FTM080) increased plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone in anestrous ewes

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Joseph A.; Amelse, Lisa L.; Tanco, Valeria M.; Chameroy, Kelly A.; Schrick, F. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human Metastin 45-54; 500 pmol/kg BW), one of three dosages of FTM080 (500 (FTM080:500), 2500 (FTM080:2500), or 5000 (FTM080:5000) pmol/kg BW), or VEH intravenously. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (4 h) treatment. In experiment 1, FTM080:500 increased (P < 0.05) plasma LH concentrations when compared to VEH. The area under the curve (AUC) of LH following FTM080:500 treatment was also increased (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, plasma LH concentrations increased (P < 0.05) following treatment with KP-10 and FTM080:5000 when compared to VEH and FTM080:500. The AUC of LH following KP-10 was greater than (P < 0.05) all other treatments and the AUC of LH following FTM080:5000 was greater than (P < 0.05) all treatments except KP-10. These data provide evidence to suggest that FTM080 stimulates the gonadotropic axis of ruminants in vivo. Any increased half-life and comparable efficacy of FTM080 to KP-10 in vitro does not appear to translate to in vivo in sheep. PMID:26587345

  10. Consumption of Rice Bran Increases Mucosal Immunoglobulin A Concentrations and Numbers of Intestinal Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Angela J.; Kumar, Ajay; Barnett, Brittany; Dow, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Gut-associated lymphoid tissue maintains mucosal homeostasis by combating pathogens and inducing a state of hyporesponsiveness to food antigens and commensal bacteria. Dietary modulation of the intestinal immune environment represents a novel approach for enhancing protective responses against pathogens and inflammatory diseases. Dietary rice bran consists of bioactive components with disease-fighting properties. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the effects of whole dietary rice bran intake on mucosal immune responses and beneficial gut microbes. Mice were fed a 10% rice bran diet for 28 days. Serum and fecal samples were collected throughout the study to assess total immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations. Tissue samples were collected for cellular immune phenotype analysis, and concentrations of native gut Lactobacillus spp. were enumerated in the fecal samples. We found that dietary rice bran induced an increase in total IgA locally and systemically. In addition, B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches of mice fed rice bran displayed increased surface IgA expression compared with lymphocytes from control mice. Antigen-presenting cells were also influenced by rice bran, with a significant increase in myeloid dendritic cells residing in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Increased colonization of native Lactobacillus was observed in rice bran–fed mice compared with control mice. These findings suggest that rice bran–induced microbial changes may contribute to enhanced mucosal IgA responses, and we conclude that increased rice bran consumption represents a promising dietary intervention to modulate mucosal immunity for protection against enteric infections and induction of beneficial gut bacteria. PMID:22248178

  11. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease retinal neovascularization by adipose–endoplasmic reticulum stress reduction to increase adiponectin1234

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhongjie; Lofqvist, Chatarina A; Shao, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Joyal, Jean-Sebastien; Hurst, Christian G; Cui, Ricky Z; Evans, Lucy P; Tian, Katherine; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing; Ley, David; Hansen Pupp, Ingrid; Hellstrom, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease in premature infants. Serum adiponectin (APN) concentrations positively correlate with postnatal growth and gestational age, important risk factors for ROP development. Dietary ω-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) suppress ROP and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in a mouse model of human ROP, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Objective: We examined the role of APN in ROP development and whether circulating APN concentrations are increased by dietary ω-3 LCPUFAs to mediate the protective effect in ROP. Design: Serum APN concentrations were correlated with ROP development and serum ω-3 LCPUFA concentrations in preterm infants. Mouse OIR was then used to determine whether ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases serum APN concentrations, which then suppress retinopathy. Results: We found that in preterm infants, low serum APN concentrations positively correlate with ROP, and serum APN concentrations positively correlate with serum ω-3 LCPUFA concentrations. In mouse OIR, serum total APN and bioactive high-molecular-weight APN concentrations are increased by ω-3 LCPUFA feed. White adipose tissue, where APN is produced and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum, is the major source of serum APN. In mouse OIR, adipose endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased, and APN production is suppressed. ω-3 LCPUFA feed in mice increases APN production by reducing adipose endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Dietary ω-3 LCPUFA suppression of neovascularization is reduced from 70% to 10% with APN deficiency. APN receptors localize in the retina, particularly to pathologic neovessels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that increasing APN by ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation in total parental nutrition for preterm infants may suppress ROP. PMID:25833984

  12. Increasing aluminium concentrations in Southwest Nova Scotia Canada rivers from 1980 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minichiello, Jeff; Sterling, Shannon; Ambrose, Sarah; Clair, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Elevated aluminum levels in rivers is known to be toxic for aquatic species, in particular Salmo salar; however it was only recently aluminium has been identified as a potential threat to Salmo salar populations in South Western Nova Scotia, Canada (SWNS) (Dennis and Clair 2012). Previously, it was thought SWNS rivers contained enough DOC to render the aluminium in rivers inactive. A key remaining question is whether aluminium levels are declining following atmospheric pollution reductions. Here we make a first assessment of long term (1980-2011) aluminium concentration trends in three watersheds located in SWNS, as measured by weekly grab samples. Our results show that total aluminium levels have significantly increased from 1980-2011 in all three sites. Estimates of ionic aluminium levels indicate that the ionic aluminum concentration frequently exceeds the threshold for the level of aquatic health determined by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (Howells et al. 1990). Data also indicates that calcium levels have yet to recover even with declining concentrations of riverine sulfate. This new knowledge that aluminium is at toxic levels and is worsening will have implications for policy on acidification mitigation in SWNS; this is an urgent issue as the local salmon population numbers currently are declining to near extirpation levels.

  13. Increase in plasma phylloquinone concentrations following acupoint injection for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Chao, Maria T; Wade, Christine M; Booth, Sarah L

    2014-06-01

    The therapeutic benefits of acupoint injection of vitamin K in spleen-6 (SP6) for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea have been observed in limited clinical settings. However, menadione, the form of vitamin K most studied for treating dysmenorrhea, is not routinely used in clinical practice in North America. As part of a larger clinical trial among women aged 18-25 years with primary dysmenorrhea, we conducted a substudy to test the plasma concentration of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We collected blood samples from four women before and 24-48 hours after an acupoint injection of phylloquinone in SP6. Despite the rapid turnover of phylloquinone observed in previous studies, we found that the plasma phylloquinone concentrations increased significantly from preinjection to 1-2 days after the injection. Interestingly, higher phylloquinone concentrations were correlated with less pain intensity among women with dysmenorrhea. Additional research is needed to understand the association between vitamin K and menstrual pain, including the role of vitamin K deficiency in inflammation and pain, and on the possible mechanisms of acupoint injection of vitamin K for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24929459

  14. Rooting response of five pomegranate varieties to indole butyric acid concentration and cuttings age.

    PubMed

    Owais, Saed J

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cutting age and Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) treatments on five pomegranate varieties propagation by stem cuttings. The experiment was carried out in a partially controlled glasshouse conditions at Mutah University, Jordan. The treatments comprised of two types of cuttings, i.e., hardwood and semi-hardwood; five concentrations of IBA, i.e., 3,000, 6,000, 9,000 and 12,000 ppm as quick dip (10 sec) as well as five Jordanian pomegranate varieties (Kdaree Hello, Hmadee Hmaree, Kdaree Sfaree, Zeklabi, Maleese). In this study, the percentage of cuttings that rooted, the number of roots produced per cutting, root length and diameter and root weight per cutting were recorded. It was obvious that the rootability of pomegranate is influenced by the interactive effect of cuttings age, IBA concentration and variety as well as by the single effect of either. The cuttings taken from hardwood stems had higher rooting percentage than those taken from semi-hardwood stems with a considerable differences in rootability between varieties under this study. The highest percentage of cuttings that rooted was observed in Hmadee Hmaree (70%), Zeklabee (69%) and Malesse (73%), while the lowest rooting percentage in Khdaree Hello (58%) and Kdaree Sfaree (49%) varieties. Zeklabee and Hmadee Hmaree varieties when compared with other varieties gave more favorable results at 6000 to 9000 ppm IBA in terms of the percentage of cuttings that rooted, the number of roots produced per cutting and root weight per cutting using both semi- and hard-wood cuttings. It was concluded that the increasing dose of IBA could be useful in increasing rooting potential and other root characteristics in pomegranate. PMID:20415137

  15. Elevated water temperature and carbon dioxide concentration increase the growth of a keystone echinoderm

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Rebecca A.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Tang, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change poses a serious threat to biodiversity. In marine environments, multiple climate variables, including temperature and CO2 concentration ([CO2]), are changing simultaneously. Although temperature has well-documented ecological effects, and many heavily calcified marine organisms experience reduced growth with increased [CO2], little is known about the combined effects of temperature and [CO2], particularly on species that are less dependent on calcified shells or skeletons. We manipulated water temperature and [CO2] to determine the effects on the sea star Pisaster ochraceus, a keystone predator. We found that sea star growth and feeding rates increased with water temperature from 5 °C to 21 °C. A doubling of current [CO2] also increased growth rates both with and without a concurrent temperature increase from 12 °C to 15 °C. Increased [CO2] also had a positive but nonsignificant effect on sea star feeding rates, suggesting [CO2] may be acting directly at the physiological level to increase growth rates. As in past studies of other marine invertebrates, increased [CO2] reduced the relative calcified mass in sea stars, although this effect was observed only at the lower experimental temperature. The positive relationship between growth and [CO2] found here contrasts with previous studies, most of which have shown negative effects of [CO2] on marine species, particularly those that are more heavily calcified than P. ochraceus. Our findings demonstrate that increased [CO2] will not have direct negative effects on all marine invertebrates, suggesting that predictions of biotic responses to climate change should consider how different types of organisms will respond to changing climatic variables. PMID:19470464

  16. GLUCOCORTICOIDS REGULATE THE CONCENTRATION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN THROUGHOUT THE BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of glucocorticoids in the in vivo regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein was examined. orticosterone administration to adult rats resulted in decreased levels of GFAP throughout the brain whereas adrenalectomy caused levels of GFAP to increase. orticosterone admin...

  17. Effects of brine concentration on lipid oxidation and fatty acids profile of hot smoked tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) stored at refrigerated temperature.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Nejib; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Ruzeiqi, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Sureshchandran, Sithara

    2014-03-01

    This work evaluated the lipid oxidation and the changes in fatty acids in hot-smoked tuna (Thunnus albacares) as a function of brine concentration. Fresh, commercially harvested tuna fish samples were purchased from a local supermarket. The fish were first immersed for 30 min in a brine solution at 5, 10, or 15% sodium chloride concentration and were then smoked at 50 °C for 3 h followed by 1 h at 60 °C and 3 h at 105 °C. The fish were then dried for 17 h, cooled and stored at 4 °C. Oxidative rancidity was measured by the peroxide value (PV), and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) and fatty acids profile by GC-MS. Oxidative rancidity increased with storage time. The PV and TBARS values were more pronounced for samples immersed in 10% brine solution during the first 27 days of storage, whereas the lowest increase was observed for samples treated with 15% salt. Fatty acid concentration exhibited changes after smoking, and this was varied with salt concentration. The palmitic acid and stearic acid, the two main saturated fatty acids in tuna, increased after smoking at all brine concentration, whereas the contents of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decreased. In conclusion, 15% NaCl-treated tuna gave smoked product with less lipid oxidation and a fatty acid profile comparable to that for 5 and 10% NaCl-treated samples. PMID:24587535

  18. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of southern China, 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, A. J.; Poon, C. N.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Chan, L. Y.; Anson, M.

    2009-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Overall, the ozone concentration increased by an averaged rate of 0.55 ppbv/yr, with a larger increase in autumn (0.68 ppbv/yr). We also examine the trend in air masses from various source regions in Asia. Using local wind and concurrently measured carbon monoxide (CO) data to filter out local emissions, the mean ozone in air masses from eastern China, using the pooled averaging method, increased by 0.64 ppbv/yr, while ozone levels in other air-mass groups showed a positive trend (0.29-0.67 ppbv/yr) but with lower levels of statistical significance. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column concentration data obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in the three fastest developing coastal regions of China, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period. It is believed that the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is primarily due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well) in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China, which is supported by the observed positive CO trend (5.23 ppbv/yr) at the site. The increase in background ozone contributed two thirds of the annual increase in ''total ozone'' in the downwind urban areas of Hong Kong, suggesting the need to consider distant sources when developing long-term strategies to mitigate local ozone pollution, although short-term strategies should be aimed at sources in Hong Kong and the adjacent Pearl River Delta.

  19. Inflammaging and Frailty Status Do Not Result in an Increased Extracellular Vesicle Concentration in Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Alberro, Ainhoa; Sáenz-Cuesta, Matías; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Matheu, Ander; Vergara, Itziar; Otaegui, David

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players for intercellular communication. In the case of inflammation, several studies have reported that EV levels are increased in circulation during inflammatory episodes. Based on this, we investigated whether aging results in elevated EV number, as a basal proinflammatory status termed “inflammaging” has been described in aged individuals. Moreover, we also hypothesized that frailty and dependence conditions of the elderly could affect EV concentration in plasma. Results showed that inflammaging, frailty or dependence status do not result in EV increase, at least in the total number of EVs in circulation. These results open a new perspective for investigating the role of EVs in human aging and in the inflammaging process. PMID:27447627

  20. Inflammaging and Frailty Status Do Not Result in an Increased Extracellular Vesicle Concentration in Circulation.

    PubMed

    Alberro, Ainhoa; Sáenz-Cuesta, Matías; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Matheu, Ander; Vergara, Itziar; Otaegui, David

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players for intercellular communication. In the case of inflammation, several studies have reported that EV levels are increased in circulation during inflammatory episodes. Based on this, we investigated whether aging results in elevated EV number, as a basal proinflammatory status termed "inflammaging" has been described in aged individuals. Moreover, we also hypothesized that frailty and dependence conditions of the elderly could affect EV concentration in plasma. Results showed that inflammaging, frailty or dependence status do not result in EV increase, at least in the total number of EVs in circulation. These results open a new perspective for investigating the role of EVs in human aging and in the inflammaging process. PMID:27447627

  1. Effect of Boric Acid Concentration on Viscosity of Slag and Property of Weld Metal Obtained from Underwater Wet Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ning; Guo, Wei; Xu, Changsheng; Du, Yongpeng; Feng, Jicai

    2015-06-01

    Underwater wet welding is a crucial repair and maintenance technology for nuclear plant. A boric acid environment raises a new challenge for the underwater welding maintenance of nuclear plant. This paper places emphasis on studying the influence of a boric acid environment in nuclear plant on the underwater welding process. Several groups of underwater wet welding experiments have been conducted in boric acid aqueous solution with different concentration (0-35000 ppm). The viscosity of the welding slag and the mechanical properties of welds, such as the hardness, strength, and elongation, have been studied. The results show that with increasing boric acid concentration, the viscosity of the slag decreases first and then increases at a lower temperature (less than 1441 °C). However, when the temperature is above 1480 °C, the differences between the viscosity measurements become less pronounced, and the viscosity tends to a constant value. The hardness and ductility of the joints can be enhanced significantly, and the maximum strength of the weld metal can be reached at 2300 ppm.

  2. Biofilter for generation of concentrated sulphuric acid from H2S.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, K A; Charles, W; Kayaalp, A; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Ho, G

    2016-08-01

    Biofilters are used for the conversion of odorous hydrogen sulphide to odourless sulphate in wastewater treatment plants under the right conditions of moisture and pH. One of the consequences of maintaining the suitable pH and moisture content is the production of large volumes of weakly acidic leachate. This paper presents a biofilter with a maximum H2S elimination capacity of 16.3 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiency greater than 95 % which produces small volumes (1 mL of solution L(-1) of reactor day(-1)) of sulphuric acid with a concentration greater than 5.5 M after 150 days of continuous operation. The concentrated sulphuric acid was produced by intermittently trickling a minimum amount of nutrient solution down the upflow biofilter which created a moisture and pH gradient within the biofilter resulting in an environment at the top for the bacterial conversion of H2S, while sulphuric acid was accumulated at the base. Genetic diversity profiling of samples taken from different sections of the biofilter confirms that the upper sections of the biofilter had the best environment for the bacteria to convert H2S to sulphate. The formation of concentrated sulphuric acid presents an opportunity for the recovery of sulphur from the waste stream as a usable product. PMID:27189453

  3. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  4. Effects of Feeding Increasing Proportions of Corn Grain on Concentration of Lipopolysaccharide in the Rumen Fluid and the Subsequent Alterations in Immune Responses in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Wenjie; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding increasing proportions of corn grain on concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rumen fluid and the subsequent alterations in immune responses as reflected by plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in goats. Nine goats were assigned to three diets (0%, 25%, and 50% corn grain) in a 3 ×3 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that as the proportion of dietary corn increased, the ruminal pH decreased (p< 0.001), and the concentrations of propionate (p<0.001), butyrate (p<0.001), lactic acid (p = 0.013) and total volatile fatty acid (p = 0.031) elevated and the ruminal LPS level increased (p<0.001). As the proportion of dietary corn increased, the concentration of SAA increased (p = 0.013). LPS was detectable in the blood of individual goats fed 25% and 50% corn. A real-time PCR analysis showed that the copy number of phylum Bacteroidetes (p<0.001) was reduced (4.61×109copies/mL to 1.48×109copies/mL) by the increasing dietary corn, and a correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the number of Bacteroidetes and rumen LPS levels. Collectively, these results indicated that feeding goats high proportions (50%) of corn grain decreased the ruminal pH, increased LPS in the rumen fluid and tended to stimulate an inflammatory response. PMID:25049727

  5. Reduced serum concentration is permissive for increased in vitro endocrine differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Robert K; Odorico, Jon S

    2009-07-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been shown to be capable of differentiating into pancreatic progenitors and insulin-producing cells in vitro. However, before ESC derivatives can be used in clinical settings, efficient selective differentiation needs to be achieved. Essential to improving ESC differentiation to islet endocrine cells is an understanding of the influences of extrinsic signals and transcription factors on cell specification. Herein, we investigate the influence of serum-supplemented growth conditions on the differentiation of murine ESCs to endocrine lineages in the context of over-expression of two pancreatic transcription factors, Pdx1 and Ngn3. To study the effect of different serum formulations and concentrations on the ability of murine ESCs to differentiate into endocrine cells in vitro, cells were grown into embryoid bodies and then differentiated in various serum replacement (SR), fetal calf serum (FCS) and serum-free conditions. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QPCR), we found that, of the conditions tested, 1% SR differentiation medium resulted in the highest levels of insulin-1 mRNA and significantly increased the total number of insulin-expressing cells. Applying this knowledge to cell lines in which Pdx1 or Ngn3 transgene expression could be induced by exposure to doxycycline we differentiated TetPDX1 and TetNgn3 ESCs under conditions of either 10% FCS or 1% SR medium. In the presence of 10% serum, induced expression of either Pdx1 or Ngn3 in differentiating ESCs resulted in modest increases in hormone transcripts and cell counts. However, changing the serum formulation from 10% FCS to 1% SR significantly enhanced the number of insulin+/C-peptide+ cells in parallel with increased insulin-1 transcript levels in both inducible cell lines. In summary, these data demonstrate that induced expression of key pancreatic transcription factors in combination with low serum/SR concentrations increases endocrine cell

  6. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess impact of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between VFA and VFA pool size (VFAmol), possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg), suggest issues...

  7. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  8. GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE AMMONIA AND NITRIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS, COLUMBUS, OHIO AREA--SUMMER 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented for gaseous ammonia and nitric acid and particulate ammonium ion and nitrate ion concentrations in air samples collected in support of the PEPE-NEROS study during the summer of 1980. Ground-level samples were collected near Croton, Ohio; aerial samples were also...

  9. EFFECTS OF THREE CONCENTRATIONS OF MIXED FATTY ACIDS ON DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE IN AQUIFER MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroethenes are among the most common organic contaminants of ground water. he biotransformation of these compounds by reductive dechlorination is a promising technology for in situ treatment. he effects of three concentrations of a fatty acids mixture on the reductive dehaloge...

  10. EFFECTS OF THREE CONCENTRATIONS OF MIXED FATTY ACIDS ON DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE IN AQUIFER MICRO- COSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroethenes are among the most common organic contaminants of ground water. The biotransformation of these compounds by reductive dechlorination is a promising technology for in situ treatment. The effects of three concentrations of a fatty acids mixture on the reductive dehalo...

  11. Mineral, flavonoid, and fatty acid concentrations in ten diverse Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet accessions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus [L.]) Sweet containing high concentrations of minerals, flavonoids and fatty acids may provide government agencies with a nutrient-dense and health-beneficial food for use in hunger stricken and nutrient deprived people. Seeds from ten hyacinth bean accession...

  12. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  13. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  14. Exogenous fatty acids affect CDP-choline pathway to increase phosphatidylcholine synthesis in granular pneumocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Gullo, J.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in rat granular pneumocytes isolated by tryptic digestion of lungs and maintained in primary culture for 24 h was investigated by following effects of exogenous fatty acids on (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline incorporation into PC and disaturated PC (DSPC). At 0.1 mM choline, the rate of choline incorporation into PC and DSPC was 440 +/- and 380 +/- 50 pmol/h/ug Pi (mean +/- SE, n=3-5), respectively, and was linear for up to 3 h. PC synthesis was significantly increased by 0.1 mM each of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acid. However, synthesis of DSPC was increased only by palmitic acid and this increase was prevented by addition of oleic acid suggesting lack of effect on the remodeling pathway. Pulse-chase experiments with choline in absence or presence of palmitic or oleic acid showed that the label declined in choline phosphate and increased in PC more rapidly in presence of either of the fatty acids, suggesting rapid conversion of choline phosphate to PC. Microsomal choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity in cells preincubated without or with palmitic acid for 3 h was 0.81 +/- 0.07 and 1.81 +/- 0.09 nmol choline phosphate converted/min/mg protein (n=4). These results suggest that in granular pneumocytes, exogenous fatty acids modulate PC synthesis by increasing choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity.

  15. Grapefruit juice markedly increases the plasma concentrations and antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Mikko T; Tornio, Aleksi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Lassila, Riitta; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study examined the effects of grapefruit juice on the new P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water thrice daily for 4 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 90 mg dose of ticagrelor. Results Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor geometric mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) to 165% (95% confidence interval 147, 184%) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUC(0,∞)) to 221% of control (95% confidence interval 200, 245%). The Cmax and AUC(0,34 h) (P < 0.05) but not the AUC(0,∞) of the active metabolite C12490XX were decreased significantly. Grapefruit juice had a minor effect on ticagrelor elimination half-life prolonging it from 6.7 to 7.2 h (P = 0.036). In good correlation with the elevated plasma ticagrelor concentrations, grapefruit juice enhanced the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor, assessed with VerifyNow® and Multiplate® methods, and postponed the recovery of platelet reactivity. Conclusions Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor exposure by more than two-fold, leading to an enhanced and prolonged ticagrelor antiplatelet effect. The grapefruit juice–ticagrelor interaction seems clinically important and indicates the significance of intestinal metabolism to ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. PMID:23126367

  16. Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day−1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51 mL O2/kg∗min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

  17. Electroacupuncture increases the concentration and organization of collagen in a tendon healing model in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marcos dos Santos; de Aro, Andréa Aparecida; Guerra, Flávia Da Ré; Vieira, Cristiano Pedrozo; de Campos Vidal, Benedicto; Rosa Pimentel, Edson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of the rat Achilles tendon after a partial transection during the proliferative phase of healing. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: rats that were not tenotomized (G1), tenotomized rats (G2), and rats that were tenotomized and submitted to EA (G3). EA was applied 15 days after injury at the ST36 and BL57 acupoints for 20 min, three times per week on alternate days for a total of six sessions. Biochemical analyses were performed using non-collagenous proteins, glycosaminoglycans, and hydroxyproline quantifications. An analysis of metalloproteinase-2 was carried out by zymography. The general organization of the extracellular matrix and the metachromasy of the tendons were analyzed under light microscopy. The organization of the bundles of collagen fibers was analyzed by birefringence analysis. The results showed that EA did not alter the concentration of non-collagenous proteins or glycosaminoglycans or the enzymatic activity of metalloproteinase-2 in the transected tendons. However, the concentration of hydroxyproline was significantly increased when these tendons were treated by EA. The analysis of birefringence showed a higher organization of collagen fibers in the group treated by EA. These results indicate, for the first time, that EA may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of tendon injuries by increasing the concentration of collagen and by inducing a better molecular organization of the collagen fibers, which may improve the mechanical strength of the tendon after injury. PMID:22891942

  18. Increased Nutrient Sensitivity and Plasma Concentrations of Enteral Hormones during Duodenal Nutrient Infusion in Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane D.; Thieke, Shannon L.; Feuerhak, Kelly J.; Basu, Ananda; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Functional dyspepsia is predominantly attributed to gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions. The contribution of intestinal chemosensitivity to symptoms is not understood. We evaluated symptoms and plasma hormones during enteral nutrient infusion and the association with impaired glucose tolerance and quality-of-life (QOL) scores in functional dyspepsia vs health. Design Enteral hormonal responses and symptoms were measured during isocaloric and isovolumic dextrose and lipid infusions into the duodenum in 30 patients with functional dyspepsia (n=27) or nausea and vomiting (n=3) and 35 healthy controls. Infusions were administered in randomized order over 120 minutes each, with a 120-minute washout. Cholecystokinin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP1), and peptide YY were measured during infusions. Results Moderate or more severe symptoms during lipid (4 controls vs 14 patients) and dextrose (1 control vs 12 patients) infusions were more prevalent in patients than controls (P≤.01), associated with higher dyspepsia symptom score (P=.01), worse QOL (P=.01), and greater plasma hormone concentrations (eg, GLP1 during lipid infusion). Moderate or more severe symptoms during enteral infusion explained 18%, and depression score explained 21%, of interpatient variation in QOL. Eight patients had impaired glucose tolerance, associated with greater plasma GLP1 and peptide YY concentrations during dextrose and lipid infusions, respectively. Conclusions Increased sensitivity to enteral dextrose and lipid infusions was associated with greater plasma enteral hormone concentrations, more severe daily symptoms, and worse QOL in functional dyspepsia. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that enteral hormones mediate increased intestinal sensitivity to nutrients in functional dyspepsia. PMID:25403365

  19. Effects of increasing size and changing europium activator concentration in KCaI3 scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Adam C.; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Wu, Yuntao; Stand, Luis; Loyd, Matthew; Gokhale, Sasmit; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2016-09-01

    KCaI3:Eu crystals have been identified as very promising for use in spectroscopic detector applications related to nuclear nonproliferation and domestic security efforts. Initial studies have shown for small crystals a few mm3 in size with 3% europium dopant concentration, a high light yield of >70,000 ph/MeV and energy resolution of ≈3% at 662 keV is attainable which is comparable with the highest performance scintillators discovered. In this work, single crystals of KCaI3 with a range of Eu2+ doping between 0 and 5 at% substituting for Ca2+ were grown at 22 mm diameter and their performance for gamma-ray spectroscopy studied. Comparisons among crystals approximately Ø22 mm×22 mm (8.4 cm3 or ≈0.5 in3) provide a more accurate understanding of how scintillation performance changes with Eu doping and increased crystal size. KCaI3 in the undoped form is shown to be a highly efficient intrinsic scintillator with a defect-related emission at 404 nm which coexists with the Eu2+ 5d-4f emission in low dopant concentrations and is completely re-absorbed in more heavily doped crystals. For larger crystals, effects from self-absorption due to Eu activation become more evident by a near doubling of decay time for 0.5 in3 crystals as the activator is increased from 0.5 to 5.0 at% Eu. Comparisons of pulse-height spectra obtained for Ø22 mm×22 mm cylinders with varying Eu concentration suggests best performance is achieved using lower Eu additions closer to 0.5-1.0 at%. Using a modified crystal packaging featuring an offset reflector geometry, 0.5 in3 crystals of KCaI3:Eu can attain under 4% energy resolution at 662 keV.

  20. Water cycle dynamic increases resilience of vegetation under higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Gentine, P.; Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P. J.; Fatichi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water and carbon cycles. Photosynthesis requires stomata to open to take up carbon dioxide. In the process water vapor is released as transpiration. As atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, for the same amount of CO2 uptake, less water vapor is transpired, translating into higher water use efficiency. Reduced water vapor losses will increase soil water storage if the leaf area coverage remains similar. This will in turn alter the surface energy partitioning: more heat will be dissipated as sensible heat flux, resulting in possibly higher surface temperatures. In contrast with this common hypothesis, our study shows that the water saved during the growing season by increased WUE can be mobilized by the vegetation and help reduce the maximum temperature of mid-latitude heat waves. The large scale meteorological conditions of 2003 are the basis of four regional model simulations coupling an atmospheric model to a surface model. We performed two simulations with respectively 2003 (CTL) and 2100 (FUT) atmospheric CO2 applied to both the atmospheric and surface models. A third (RAD) and a fourth (FER) simulations are run with 2100 CO2 concentration applied to respectively the atmospheric model only and the surface model only. RAD investigates the impact of the radiative forcing, and FER the response to vegetation CO2 fertilization. Our results show that the water saved through higher water use efficiency during the growing season enabled by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations helps the vegetation to cope during severe heat and dryness conditions in the summer of mid-latitude climate. These results demonstrate that consideration of the vegetation carbon cycle is essential to model the seasonal water cycle dynamic and land-atmosphere interactions, and enhance the accuracy of the model outputs especially for extreme events. They also have important implications for the future of agriculture, water resources management, ecosystems

  1. Chronic P-glycoprotein inhibition increases the brain concentration of escitalopram: potential implications for treating depression.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Fionn E; Moloney, Gerard M; Scott, Karen A; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2015-12-01

    Recent preclinical studies have revealed a functionally important role for the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier in limiting brain levels and thus antidepressant-like activity of certain antidepressant drugs. Specifically, acute administration of P-gp inhibitors, such as verapamil and cyclosporin A (CsA), has been shown to augment brain concentrations and functional activity of the antidepressant escitalopram in rodents. However, depression is a chronic disorder and current treatments require prolonged administration to elicit their full therapeutic effect. Thus, it is important to investigate whether acute findings in relation to P-gp inhibition translate to chronic paradigms. To this end, the present study investigates whether chronic treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the antidepressant escitalopram results in enhanced brain distribution and antidepressant-like effects of escitalopram. Verapamil (10 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) and escitalopram (0.1 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) were administered once daily for 22 days. On the final day of treatment, brain regions and plasma were collected for analysis of cortical and plasma escitalopram concentrations, and to determine the hippocampal expression of genes previously reported to be altered by chronic antidepressant treatment. Verapamil treatment resulted in a greater than twofold increase in brain levels of escitalopram, without altering plasma levels. Neither gene expression analysis nor behavioral testing revealed an augmentation of responses to escitalopram treatment due to verapamil administration. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that P-gp inhibition can yield elevated brain concentrations of an antidepressant after chronic treatment. The functional relevance of these increased brain levels requires further elaboration. PMID:27022464

  2. Increasing foliar Zn:Ni or Cu:Ni concentration ratios increase severity of nickel deficiency symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous bioavailability of Ni is unknown. This study examines the linkage between Ni deficiency and endogenous foliar concentration of Ni, Zn, and Cu. It was hypothesized that expression of morphological symptoms of Ni deficiency by pecan [Carya i...

  3. Hydrogen-ion titrations of amino acids and proteins in solutions containing concentrated electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Fergg, F.; Kuehner, D.E.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes a first attempt to quantify the net charge as a function of solution pH for lysozyme and {alpha}-chymotrypsin at 0.1 M, 1.0 M and 3.0 M ionic strength, (IS). The calculations are based on the residue (titratable group) pK{sub a}`s in the amino-acid sequence of the protein. To determine these pK{sub a}`s, a simple theory was used which assumes that the pK{sub a}`s are independent from each other in the protein and are equal to their pK{sub a} values in free amino-acid solution (Independent-Site Theory, IST). Residue pK{sub a}`s were obtained from amino-acid hydrogen-ion titrations at three different KCl concentrations corresponding to 0.1M, 1.0M and 3.0M ionic strength. After construction of a suitable apparatus, the experimental procedure and data reduction were computerized to perform a large number of titrations. Most measured pK{sub a}`s showed high reproducibility (the difference of pK{sub a} values observed between two experiments was less than 0.05). For IS = 0.1M, observed pK{sub a}`s agreed with literature values to within a few hundredths of a pH unit. Furthermore, the ionic-strength dependence of the pK{sub a}`s followed the trends reported in the literature, viz. pK{sub a} values decrease with increasing ionic strength until they reach a minimum at about IS = 0.5M. At still higher IS, pK{sub a}`s increase as the ionic strength rises to 3M. The known pK{sub a}`s of all titratable groups in a protein were used with the IST to give a first approximation of how the protein net charge varies with pH at high ionic strength. A comparison of the titration curves based on the IST with experimental lysozyme and {alpha}-chymotrypsin titration data indicates acceptable agreement at IS = 0.1M. However, comparison of measured and calculated titration curves at IS = 1M and IS = 3M indicates only quantitative agreement.

  4. Breath concentration of acetic acid vapour is elevated in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Sovová, Kristýna; Dryahina, Kseniya; Doušová, Tereza; Dřevínek, Pavel; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    A study has been carried out of the volatile organic compounds present in the exhaled breath of 58 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. An important observation is that the acetic acid vapour concentration measured by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is significantly elevated in the exhaled breath of CF patients, independent of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection status (PA-infected median 170 ppbv; PA-negative median 182 ppbv), compared to that of healthy controls (median 48 ppbv). The cause for this may be decreased pH of the mucus lining the CF airways. Thus, we speculate that non-invasive measurement of breath acetic acid concentration could serve as an indicator of the acidity of the CF airways mucosa. PMID:27184114

  5. Extreme carbon dioxide concentrations in acidic pit lakes provoked by water/rock interaction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-España, Javier; Boehrer, Bertram; Yusta, Iñaki

    2014-04-15

    We quantify the gas pressure and concentration of a gas-charged acidic pit lake in SW Spain. We measured total dissolved gas pressure, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, major ion concentration, isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)C(DIC)), and other physicochemical parameters. CO2 is the dominant dissolved gas in this lake and results mainly from carbonate dissolution during the interaction of acidic water with wall rocks, followed by diffusive and advective transport through the water column. The δ(13)C(DIC) values suggest that the biological contribution is comparatively small. Maximum CO2 concentrations higher than 0.1 M (∼5000 mg/L) have been measured, which are only comparable to those found in volcanic crater lakes. The corresponding gas pressures of CO2 alone (pCO2 ∼3.6 bar) imply 60% saturation relative to local pressure at 50 m depth. High CO2 concentrations have been observed in other pit lakes of the region. We recommend gas-specific monitoring in acidic pit lakes and, if necessary, the design of feasible degassing strategies. PMID:24628479

  6. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was <1 and similar among all treatments. Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the

  7. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  8. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in Hepcidin transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Jacqueline M.; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E.; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N.

    2014-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a “murinized” ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis. PMID:25236856

  9. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis. PMID:25236856

  10. Uric acid secretion from adipose tissue and its increase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-09-20

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  11. Dietary oleic acid increases M2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding in...

  12. Intestinal concentrations of free and encapsulated dietary medium-chain fatty acids and effects on gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the digestive tract of piglets.

    PubMed

    Zentek, Jürgen; Buchheit-Renko, Susanne; Männer, Klaus; Pieper, Robert; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2012-02-01

    The influence of low dietary levels of free and encapsulated medium-chain fatty acids on their concentrations in the digesta, the gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in weaned piglets was studied. Starting after weaning, 36 piglets were fed a diet without (Control) or with medium-chain fatty acids uncoated (MCFA) or coated with vegetable fat and lecithin (MCFAc). After 4 weeks, the animals were killed, and digesta from the stomach and different sections of the GIT were collected. The concentrations of caprylic (p < 0.001) and capric (p = 0.001) acids were higher in the stomachs of piglets fed diets MCFA and MCFAc compared to the Control group. The concentrations dropped rapidly along the GIT, regardless of encapsulation, and tended to be higher in groups MCFA and MCFAc compared to the Control. Compared to the Control group, ingestion of diet MCFAc led to an increase in the number of eubacteria (p = 0.001), enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001), clostridial clusters I (p = 0.001) and IV (p = 0.019), Lactobacillus johnsonii (p < 0.001) and Lactobacillus amylovorus (p = 0.001) in gastric contents. A similar trend was seen with diet MCFA. Relative concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were characterised by lower propionic acid levels (p = 0.045), numerically (p < 0.1) higher acetic, lower n-butyric and i-valeric acid concentrations in the small intestine. Lactic acid concentrations were not significantly changed in the GIT, but ammonia concentrations increased (p < 0.001) in the distal small intestine in the MCFA and MCFAc groups. In conclusion, medium-chain fatty acids affected microbial ecology parameters in the gastric contents and bacterial metabolites in the small intestine. At low dietary levels, medium-chain fatty acids may be regarded as modulators of the gastric microbiota in weaned piglets. PMID:22397093

  13. Plasma Circulating Nucleic Acids Levels Increase According to the Morbidity of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Bernardo S.; Vitorino, Barbara L. F.; Coelho, Helena C.; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Santos, Marina L. S.; Campos, Fernanda M. F.; Brito, Cristiana F.; Fontes, Cor J.; Lacerda, Marcus V.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with severe and fatal disease, the identification of sensitive and reliable markers for vivax severity is crucial to improve patient care. Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been increasingly recognized as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools for various inflammatory diseases and tumors as their plasma concentrations increase according to malignancy. Given the marked inflammatory status of P. vivax infection, we investigated here the usefulness of CNAs as biomarkers for malaria morbidity. Methods and Findings CNAs levels in plasma from twenty-one acute P. vivax malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon and 14 malaria non-exposed healthy donors were quantified by two different methodologies: amplification of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genomic sequence by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), and the fluorometric dsDNA quantification by Pico Green. CNAs levels were significantly increased in plasma from P. vivax patients as compared to healthy donors (p<0.0001). Importantly, plasma CNAs levels were strongly associated with vivax morbidity (p<0.0001), including a drop in platelet counts (p = 0.0021). These findings were further sustained when we assessed CNAS levels in plasma samples from 14 additional P. vivax patients of a different endemic area in Brazil, in which CNAS levels strongly correlated with thrombocytopenia (p = 0.0072). We further show that plasma CNAs levels decrease and reach physiological levels after antimalarial treatment. Although we found both host and parasite specific genomic sequences circulating in plasma, only host CNAs clearly reflected the clinical spectrum of P. vivax malaria. Conclusions Here, we provide the first evidence of increased plasma CNAs levels in malaria patients and reveal their potential as sensitive biomarkers for vivax malaria morbidity. PMID:21611202

  14. A 17-fold increase of trifluoroacetic acid in landscape waters of Beijing, China during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zihan; Wu, Jing; Hu, Xia; Li, Li; Guo, Junyu; Zhang, Boya; Hu, Jianxin; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) were measured in urban landscape waters, tap water and snows in Beijing, China in 2012. Compared with the 2002 measurements, a 17-fold increase from 23-98ngL(-1) to 345-828ngL(-1) was observed for TFA concentrations in urban landscape waters, and an obvious increase from not detected (n.d.) to 155ngL(-1) occurred to TFA in tap water. By flux estimation between air and water interface, the remarkable increase of TFA was attributable to dry and wet deposition. The quantitative water-air-sediment interaction (QWASI) model simulated TFAs in various environmental media and showed that, over 99% of TFA distributed in water bodies. Our results recommend that measures are needed to control the increase of TFA in China. PMID:25262947

  15. Regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I during fasting in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) promotes increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Morash, Andrea J; McClelland, Grant B

    2011-01-01

    Periods of fasting, in most animals, are fueled principally by fatty acids, and changes in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation must exist to meet this change in metabolic substrate use. We examined the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, to help explain changes in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with fasting. After fasting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for 5 wk, the mitochondria were isolated from red muscle and liver to determine (1) mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate, (2) CPT I activity and the concentration of malonyl-CoA needed to inhibit this activity by 50% (IC(50)), (3) mitochondrial membrane fluidity, and (4) CPT I (all five known isoforms) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα and PPARβ) mRNA levels. Fatty acid oxidation in isolated mitochondria increased during fasting by 2.5- and 1.75-fold in liver and red muscle, respectively. Fasting also decreased sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA (increased IC(50)), by two and eight times in red muscle and liver, respectively, suggesting it facilitates the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In the liver, there was also a significant increase CPT I activity per milligram mitochondrial protein and in whole-tissue PPARα and PPARβ mRNA levels. However, there were no changes in mitochondrial membrane fluidity in either tissue, indicating that the decrease in CPT I sensitivity to malonyl-CoA is not due to bulk fluidity changes in the membrane. However, there were significant differences in CPT I mRNA levels during fasting. Overall, these data indicate some important changes in the regulation of CPT I that promote the increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation that occurs during fasting in trout. PMID:22030855

  16. Stretch increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Felix, J A; Woodruff, M L; Dirksen, E R

    1996-03-01

    Mechanical stimulation of airway epithelial cells with a microprobe leads to an increase in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] that appears to be due, in part, to release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores (Boitano et al., Science 258:292[1992]). To investigate whether intracellular IP3 concentration ([IP3]i) increases in response to mechanical stimulation, we grew confluent monolayers from rabbit tracheal mucosal explants on flexible substrates and measured [IP3]i after stretching the substrate. The effect of stretch on [IP3]i was measured in the presence of Li+, an inhibitor of IP3 degradation. In unstretched cells, IP3 measured approximately 5.1 pmol/10(6) cells, from which we estimated [IP3]i to be 1.8 microM. Addition of Li+ had no effect on resting [IP3]i. When the flexible cell support was stretched to increase its surface area by 13%, mean [IP3]i increased about 3-fold with a half-time of approximately 1 s. The increased [IP3]i was maintained in a plateau phase for approximately 8 s and then decayed to near the unstretched level over the next 10 s, despite the sustained application of stretch. A transient stretch (0.5 s) induced a similar rate of increase and peak [IP3]i; however, [IP3]i subsided without a plateau phase. The magnitude of the [IP3]i increase was proportional to stimulus intensity between 0 and 13% increase in substrate surface area. In addition, dissociated airway epithelial cells were exposed to hypotonic solution to induce cell swelling. [IP3]i increased about 4-fold above control levels after 10 s of exposure to hypotonic solution. Basal [IP3]i of dissociated cells in isotonic solution was estimated to be 0.7 microM. These results are consistent with mechanical stimulation leading to phospholipase C synthesis of IP3, which mediates intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:8845181

  17. Effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination on serum α1-acid glycoprotein concentrations in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D

    2014-06-01

    Increases in circulating acute phase protein (APP) levels occur in reaction to systemic infections in animals. However, no previous research has been conducted to monitor possible changes in APP levels of birds in response to prelay vaccinations of various live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in conjunction with their subsequent use as an overlay vaccine during the production period. Serum concentrations of the APP, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), were determined on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after subjecting commercial laying hens to one of the following treatments at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccination); 2) ts-11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination; 3) M. gallisepticum-bacterin (MGBac) vaccination; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG & MGBac) vaccination. Furthermore, at 45 woa, the birds in half of the units assigned to each treatment group were vaccinated with high-passage F-strain M. gallisepticum (HpFMG). Birds in treatment 1 that were (single control) and were not (double control) vaccinated with HpFMG, and birds in treatments 2, 3, and 4 that were vaccinated with HpFMG were further tested during lay on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after vaccination. On d 7, 14, and 28 postvaccination at 10 woa, the ts11MG & MGBac, ts11MG, and MGBac group AGP concentrations were not different from one another, but all were higher than those in the control group. Similarly, on d 3, 7, and 14 postvaccination, the single control, and the MGBac ts11MG, and ts11MG & MGBac treatment groups that were later vaccinated with HpFMG at 45 woa, were not different, but all were higher than that in the double control group. In conclusion, elevated circulation AGP concentrations may be used to detect and confirm subclinical infections in pullets up to 28 d after having been vaccinated with ts11MG, MGBac, or their combination. Furthermore, in association with depressed performance, elevated serum AGP concentrations in layers may be used to confirm Hp

  18. Separate and Concentrate Lactic Acid Using Combination of Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Williams, Karen; Wan, Caixia

    The processes of lactic acid production include two key stages, which are (a) fermentation and (b) product recovery. In this study, free cell of Bifidobacterium longum was used to produce lactic acid from cheese whey. The produced lactic acid was then separated and purified from the fermentation broth using combination of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 100-400 Da was used to separate lactic acid from lactose and cells in the cheese whey fermentation broth in the first step. The obtained permeate from the above nanofiltration is mainly composed of lactic acid and water, which was then concentrated with a reverse osmosis membrane in the second step. Among the tested nanofiltration membranes, HL membrane from GE Osmonics has the highest lactose retention (97±1%). In the reverse osmosis process, the ADF membrane could retain 100% of lactic acid to obtain permeate with water only. The effect of membrane and pressure on permeate flux and retention of lactose/lactic acid was also reported in this paper.

  19. CAUSE OF A MULTI-SPECIES RADIOIODINE PLUME THAT IS INCREASING IN CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    2010-09-30

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to understand the cause for steady increases in {sup 129}I concentrations emanating from radiological seepage basins located on the Savannah River Site. The basins were closed in 1988 by adding limestone and blast furnace slag and then capping with a RCRA low permeability engineered cover. Groundwater {sup 129}I concentrations in a well near the seepage basin in 1993 were 200 pCi L{sup -1} and are presently between 400 and 1000 pCi L{sup -1}. Iodine speciation in the plume was not uniform. Near the source, the iodine was comprised of 86% iodide, 2% iodate, and 12% organo-iodine (total activity = 178 pCi L{sup -1}). Whereas, groundwater iodine speciation 365 m down stream (25 m up stream from a wetland) was 0% iodide, 93% iodate, and 7% organo iodine. Batch desorption studies demonstrated that high concentrations of {sup 129}I could be incrementally desorbed from an archived seepage basin sediment sample by raising the pH. Batch sorption studies showed that iodate, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, sorbed more strongly than iodide, I{sup -}, to a subsurface clayey sediment, but equally well as iodide to a subsurface sandy sediment and a wetland sediment. Placing an organic-rich wetland sediment, but not nearby mineral sediments, under reducing (or microaerobic) conditions resulted in a large decrease in iodide K{sub d} values (from 73 to 10 mL g{sup -1}) and iodate K{sub d} values (from 80 to 7 mL g{sup -1}). Between pH and reduction-oxidation potential, it appears that pH seems to have a stronger influence on iodide and iodate sorption to mineral sediment. This may not be true for sediments containing higher concentrations of organic matter, such as the 7.6% organic matter sediment used in this study. First order calculations based on desorption studies with seepage basin sediments indicate that the modest increase of 0.7 pH units detected in the study site groundwater over the last 17 years since closure of the seepage basin may be

  20. Response of wheat and pea seedlings on increase of bromine concentration in the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Shtangeeva, Irina; Niemelä, Matti; Perämäki, Paavo; Timofeev, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycles of bromine (Br) and its quantitative requirements for different plant species are still studied poorly. There is a need to examine Br pathways in plants and evaluate the factors important for Br accumulation in a plant. In the present work, the effects of different Br compounds on an uptake of Br by two plant species (wheat and pea) that tolerate Br differently (pea is more sensitive to Br compared with wheat) have been studied. The growth medium was spiked with either KBr or NaBr at concentrations 0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L. Elemental analysis of the plants was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and ICP-MS analytical techniques after leaching of the samples with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide at mild temperature (60 °C). The experimental results have shown that wheat and pea seedlings can accumulate rather large amounts of Br. An increase of Br concentration in a plant was not always directly proportional to the variations in the Br concentration in the growth medium. In wheat, the greater part of Br was accumulated during first 7 days. In pea, the uptake of Br lasted until the end of the experiment. Certain differences in the ability of plants to accumulate Br were observed when the plants were grown in a medium spiked with different Br compounds. In most cases, Br accumulation was higher in the leaves of the plants grown in the medium spiked with KBr. The same tendency was observed for another halogen, chlorine (Cl). PMID:26233749

  1. Higher breakfast glycaemic load is associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk, including lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations and increased TAG concentrations, in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Analise; du Heaume, Mary; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Bremner, Alexandra P; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2014-12-28

    Almost all previous studies examining the associations between glycaemic load (GL) and metabolic syndrome risk have used a daily GL value. The daily value does not distinguish between peaks of GL intake over the day, which may be more closely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations between daily and mealtime measures of GL and metabolic syndrome risk, including metabolic syndrome components, in adolescents. Adolescents participating in the 14-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed 3 d food records and metabolic assessments. Breakfast GL, lunch GL, dinner GL and a score representing meal GL peaks over the day were determined in 516 adolescents. Logistic regression models were used to investigate whether GL variables were independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome in this population-based cohort (3.5% prevalence of the metabolic syndrome). Breakfast GL was found to be predictive of the metabolic syndrome in girls (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27; P <0.01), but not in boys. Other meal GL values and daily GL were found to be not significant predictors of the metabolic syndrome. When breakfast GL was examined in relation to each of the components of the metabolic syndrome in girls, it was found to be negatively associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P= 0.037; β = - 0.004; 95% CI - 0.008, - 0.002) and positively associated with fasting TAG concentrations (P= 0.008; exp(β) = 1.002; 95% CI 1.001, 1.004). he results of the present study suggest that there may be an association between breakfast composition and metabolic syndrome components in adolescent girls. These findings support further investigation into including lower-GL foods as part of a healthy breakfast in adolescence, particularly for girls. PMID:25327283

  2. Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; He, Feng; Marcott, Shaun A; Mix, Alan C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Schmittner, Andreas; Bard, Edouard

    2012-04-01

    The covariation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration and temperature in Antarctic ice-core records suggests a close link between CO(2) and climate during the Pleistocene ice ages. The role and relative importance of CO(2) in producing these climate changes remains unclear, however, in part because the ice-core deuterium record reflects local rather than global temperature. Here we construct a record of global surface temperature from 80 proxy records and show that temperature is correlated with and generally lags CO(2) during the last (that is, the most recent) deglaciation. Differences between the respective temperature changes of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere parallel variations in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation recorded in marine sediments. These observations, together with transient global climate model simulations, support the conclusion that an antiphased hemispheric temperature response to ocean circulation changes superimposed on globally in-phase warming driven by increasing CO(2) concentrations is an explanation for much of the temperature change at the end of the most recent ice age. PMID:22481357

  3. The predicted impact of increased formaldehyde emissions from industrial flares on ozone concentrations in Houston, TX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.

    2015-12-01

    Houston features one of the largest concentrations of the petrochemical industry in all of North America and flares are widely used there as the final treatment process for unwanted volatile organic compounds. These flares have the potential to produce formaldehyde as the result of incomplete combustion. Formaldehyde emissions are an important precursor to producing hydroxyl radicals and thus can impact atmospheric chemistry and the formation of ozone. Formaldehyde emissions from flares, however, are difficult to measure in situ. Recently, alternative measurement techniques have been developed, like open path optical methods, that allow the direct measurement of flare emissions from the facility's fence line (Johansson et al., 2014; Pikelnaya, Flynn, Tsai, & Stutz, 2013). This observational data indicates that the emission rate of formaldehyde from flares is about 10-20 times greater than those found in the regulatory models developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ). This research will use air quality models to quantify the impact that increased formaldehyde emission from flares will have on Houston ozone concentrations. This study relies on the CAMx model (version 6.1) and emission data developed by Alpine Geophysics LLC (AG) and Climate & Atmospheric Research Associates (CARA) based on the combined databases from TCEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and National Emission Inventory (NEI2008). This model also used meteorology data from the results of WRF-ARW dynamics. The CAMx generated process analysis data will also be used to quantify changes in radical budgets and NOx budgets critical to ozone production.

  4. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of Southern China, 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, A. J.; Poon, C. N.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Chan, L. Y.; Anson, M.

    2009-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Three methods are used to derive the rate of change in ozone. A linear fit to the 14-year record shows that the ozone concentration increased by 0.58 ppbv/yr, whereas comparing means in years 1994-2000 and 2001-2007 gives an increase of 0.87 ppbv/yr for a 7-year period. The ozone changes in air masses from various source regions are also examined. Using local wind and carbon monoxide (CO) data to filter out local influence, we find that ozone increased by 0.94 ppbv/yr from 1994-2000 to 2001-2007 in air masses from Eastern China, with similar changes in the other two continent-influenced air-mass groups, but no statistically significant change in the marine air. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in China's three fastest developing coastal regions, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period, and no obvious trend over the main shipping routes in the South China Sea was indicated. Thus the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is most likely due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well) in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China. The CO data at Hok Tsui showed less definitive changes compared to the satellite NO2 column. The increase in background ozone likely made a strong contribution (81%) to the rate of increase in "total ozone" at an urban site in Hong Kong, suggesting the need to consider distant sources when developing long-term strategies

  5. Low concentrations of copper in drinking water increase AP-1 binding in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shyang; Li, Huihui; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2015-12-01

    Copper (Cu) in trace amounts is essential for biological organisms. However, dysregulation of the redox-active metal has been implicated in different neurological disorders such as Wilson's, Menkes', Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Since many households use Cu tubing in the plumbing system, and corrosion causes the metal to leach into the drinking water, there may be adverse effects on the central nervous system connected with low-level chronic exposure. The present study demonstrates that treatment with a biologically relevant concentration of Cu for 3 months significantly increases activation of the redox-modulated transcription factor AP-1 in mouse brains. This was independent of an upstream kinase indicated in AP-1 activation. Another redox-active transcription factor, NF-κB, was not significantly modified by the Cu exposure. These results indicate that the effect of Cu on AP-1 is unique and may involve direct modulation of DNA binding. PMID:23719850

  6. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein concentrations in mice lacking brain serotonin.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Golo; Mosienko, Valentina; Gertz, Karen; Alenina, Natalia; Hellweg, Rainer; Klempin, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    The interplay between BDNF signaling and the serotonergic system remains incompletely understood. Using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we studied BDNF concentrations in hippocampus and cortex of two mouse models of altered serotonin signaling: tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)2-deficient (Tph2 (-/-)) mice lacking brain serotonin and serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient (SERT(-/-)) mice lacking serotonin re-uptake. Surprisingly, hippocampal BDNF was significantly elevated in Tph2 (-/-) mice, whereas no significant changes were observed in SERT(-/-) mice. Furthermore, BDNF levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex of Tph2 (-/-) but not of SERT(-/-) mice. Our results emphasize the interaction between serotonin signaling and BDNF. Complete lack of brain serotonin induces BDNF expression. PMID:26100147

  7. Increasing sulfate concentrations result in higher sulfide production and phosphorous mobilization in a shallow eutrophic freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Li, Xiao-Hong; He, Yu-Hong; Song, Na; Cai, Hai-Yuan; Wang, Changhui; Li, Yun-Tao; Chu, Hai-Yan; Krumholz, Lee R; Jiang, He-Long

    2016-06-01

    Increasing sulfate input has been seen as an issue in management of aquatic ecosystems, but its influences on eutrophic freshwater lakes is not clear. In this study, it was observed that increasing sulfate concentration without additional cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) addition did not have an obvious effect on element cycling during 1-year continuous flow mesocosm experiments in which water and sediments were taken from a shallow eutrophic lake with sulfate levels near 1 mM. However, following addition of CBB to mesocosms, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were observed in the water column, and increasing numbers of SRB in the water column were associated with higher sulfate input. Sulfate amendment (0-70 mg L(-1)) also resulted in a larger amount of total dissolved sulfide (peak values of 5.90 ± 0.36 to 7.60 ± 0.12 mg L(-1)) in the water column and acid volatile sulfide (1081.71 ± 69.91 to 1557.98 ± 41.72 mg kg(-1)) in 0-1 cm surface sediments due to sulfate reduction. During the period of CBB decomposition, increasing sulfate levels in the water column were positively correlated with increasing diffusive phosphate fluxes of 1.23 ± 0.32 to 2.17 ± 0.01 mg m(-2) d(-1) at the water-sediment interface. As increases in sulfide and phosphate release rates deteriorated the water quality/ecosystem and even spurred the occurrence of a black water problem in lakes, the control of sulfate input level should be considered for shallow eutrophic lake management, especially during cyanobacterial bloom periods. PMID:27023925

  8. Dihydrolipoic acid activates oligomycin-sensitive thiol groups and increases ATP synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, G; Mainka, L; Krüger, E

    1991-08-01

    Investigations with dihydrolipoic acid in rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts reveal an activation of ATP-synthase up to 45%, whereas ATPase activities decrease by 36%. In parallel with an increase in ATP synthesis oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial -SH groups are activated at 2-4 nmol dihydrolipoic acid/mg protein. ATPase activation by the uncouplers carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oleate is diminished by dihydrolipoic acid, and ATP synthesis depressed by oleate is partially restored. No such efficiency of dihydrolipoic acid is seen with palmitate-induced ATPase activation or decrease of ATP synthesis. This indicates different interference of oleate and palmitate with mitochondria. In addition to its known coenzymatic properties dihydrolipoic acid may act as a substitute for coenzyme A, thereby diminishing the uncoupling efficiency of oleate. Furthermore, dihydrolipoic acid is a very potent antioxidant, shifting the -SH-S-S- equilibrium in mitochondria to the reduced state and improving the energetic state of cells. PMID:1832845

  9. Melatonin increases following convulsive seizures may be related to its anticonvulsant properties at physiological concentrations.

    PubMed

    Molina-Carballo, A; Muñoz-Hoyos, A; Sánchez-Forte, M; Uberos-Fernández, J; Moreno-Madrid, F; Acuña-Castroviejo, D

    2007-06-01

    Melatonin ( N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, aMT) is an indoleamine produced by several organs and tissues including the pineal gland. Melatonin (aMT) modulates the activity of the brain, mainly acting on both GABA and glutamate receptors. Previous studies have shown the participation of melatonin in the control of convulsive crises, suggesting that aMT concentration increases during seizures, and that patients with seizures of diverse origins show an alteration of the aMT rhythm. However, what is not known is the duration of the aMT response to seizures, and whether aMT changes during seizures could be a marker of the disease. For this reason, the serum levels of aMT in 54 children with a convulsive crisis, febrile and epileptic, were analyzed during the crisis, as well as at 1 h and 24 hours after the seizure. The results show that aMT significantly increases during the seizure (Day group, 75.64+/-45.91 and Night group, 90.69+/-51.85 pg/mL), with normal values being recovered 1 h later (Day group, 26.33+/-10.15 and Night group, 27.78+/-7.82 pg/mL) and maintained for up to 24 hours, when the circadian variation of aMT returns to the normal acrophase. Due to the interindividual variation of aMT levels among healthy people, a single determination of the indoleamine concentration is not a suitable marker of the existence of a convulsive crisis unless the circadian profile of aMT secretion in the patient is known. The results obtained also support the view that the stimulation of aMT production by the convulsive crisis may participate in the response of the organism against the seizures. PMID:17985260

  10. Projections of the pace of warming following an abrupt increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.; Myhrvold, N. P.

    2013-09-01

    The temperature response of atmosphere-ocean climate models is analyzed based on atmospheric CO2 step-function-change simulations submitted to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). From these simulations and a control simulation, we estimate adjusted radiative forcing, the climate feedback parameter, and effective climate system thermal inertia, and we show that these results can be used to predict the temperature response to time-varying CO2 concentrations. We evaluate several kinds of simple mathematical models for the CMIP5 simulation results, including single- and multiple-exponential models and a one-dimensional ocean-diffusion model. All of these functional forms, except the single-exponential model, can produce curves that fit most CMIP5 results quite well for both continuous and step-function CO2-change pathways. Choice of model for any particular application would include consideration of factors such as the number of free parameters to be constrained and the conception of the underlying mechanistic model. Smooth curve fits to the CMIP5 simulation results realize approximately half (range 38%-61%) of equilibrium warming within the first decade after a CO2 concentration increase, but approximately one quarter (range 14%-40%) of equilibrium warming occurs more than a century after the CO2 increase. Following an instantaneous quadrupling of atmospheric CO2, fits to four of the 20 simulation results reach 4 ° C of warming within the first decade, but fits to three of the 20 simulation results require more than a century to reach 4 ° C. These results indicate the need to reduce uncertainty in the temporal response of climate models and to consider this uncertainty when evaluating the risks posed by climate change.

  11. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 an