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Sample records for acid content decreased

  1. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oraldi, Manuela; Trombetta, Antonella; Biasi, Fiorella; Canuto, Rosa A.; Maggiora, Marina; Muzio, Giuliana

    2009-01-01

    Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s). Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID:19841681

  2. Decrease in essential fatty acid content of edible fats during the frying process.

    PubMed

    Gere, A

    1982-09-01

    Degradation of sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and lard during the frying operation was investigated by studying the loss of essential fatty acids compared to the accumulation of decomposition products. Linoleic and/or linolenic acid concentration was measured by GLC, and for detecting decomposition products determination of polymer content by GPC was chosen. Twelve laboratory experiments with different heating or frying conditions were run aimed at modelling practice and studying the effects of certain factors. The results indicated that loss of essential fatty acids being a parallel process to the accumulation of breakdown products is suitable both for detecting the decrease in nutritive value and for quality assessment of used frying fats. It was also found that the rate of deterioration is considerably affected by the nature of fat and the frying parameters. Study of the relationship between polymer content and the decrease in essential fatty acid concentration (using data from 110 samples) showed that high, linear correlation depending on the nature of fat can be found. Correlation coefficients and equations of regression lines were calculated.

  3. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  4. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  5. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  6. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  7. Metabolomic analysis reveals decreased skeletal muscle amino acid content and altered fatty acid handling in obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Koves, Timothy R.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigate the effects of obesity and high fat diet (HFD) exposure on fatty acid oxidation and TCA cycle intermediates and amino acids in skeletal muscle to better characterize energy metabolism. Design and Methods Plasma and skeletal muscle metabolomic profiles were measured from lean and obese males before and after a 5 day HFD in the 4h post-prandial condition. Results At both time points, plasma short-chain acylcarnitine species (SCAC) were higher in the obese subjects, while the amino acids glycine, histidine, methionine, and citrulline were lower in skeletal muscle of obese subjects. Skeletal muscle medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCAC) C6, C8, C10:2, C10:1, C10, and C12:1 increased in obese subjects, but decreased in lean subjects, from Pre- to Post-HFD. Plasma content of C10:1 was also decreased in lean, but increased in the obese subjects from Pre- to Post-HFD. CD36 increased from Pre- to Post-HFD in obese but not lean subjects. Conclusions Lower skeletal muscle amino acid content and accumulation of plasma SCAC in obese subjects could reflect increased anaplerosis for TCA cycle intermediates, while accumulation of MCAC suggests limitations in β-oxidation. These measures may be important markers of or contributors to dysregulated metabolism observed in skeletal muscle of obese humans. PMID:25864501

  8. Frost decreases content of sugars, ascorbic acid and some quercetin glycosides but stimulates selected carotenes in Rosa canina hips.

    PubMed

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Zupan, Anka; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolites of Rosa canina hips were determined by HPLC/MS during ripening and after frost damage. Rose hips were harvested six times from the beginning of September until the beginning of December. Color parameters a*, b* and L* decreased during maturation. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars representing up to 92% total sugars, and citric acid was the major organic acid detected in rose hips (constituting up to 58% total organic acids). Total sugar and ascorbic acid content significantly decreased after frost damage; from 42.2 to 25.9 g 100 g(-1) DW for sugars and from 716.8 to 176.0 mg 100 g(-1) DW for ascorbic acid. Conversely, β-carotene and lycopene levels increased in frostbitten rose hips to 22.1 and 113.2 mg 100 g(-1) DW, respectively. In addition to cyanidin-3-glucoside (highest level in hips was 125.7 μg 100 g (-1) DW), 45 different phenolic compounds have been identified. The most abundant were proanthocyanidins (their levels amounted up to 90% of total flavanol content) and their content showed no significant differences during maturation. The levels of catechin, phloridzin, flavanones and several quercetin glycosides were highest on the first three sampling dates and decreased after frost. Antioxidant capacity similarly decreased in frostbitten rose hips. Total phenolic content increased until the third sampling and decreased on later samplings.

  9. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  10. Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Shen, Q. W.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed intake (AFI), average daily gain (ADG), final live body weight (BW) and carcass weight (p<0.05), while no difference in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was detected among chickens fed with and without ALA. Abdominal fat weight significantly decreased (p<0.05) for broilers fed 800 and 1200 ppm ALA. However when calculated as the percentage of carcass weight there was no significant difference between control and ALA treatments. Meat quality measurements showed that dietary ALA regulated postmortem glycolysis and improved meat quality as evidenced by increased muscle pH and decreased drip loss of meat (p<0.05). Although ALA did not change the tenderness of meat as indicated by meat shear force, dietary ALA decreased collagen content and mRNA expression of COL3A1 gene (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that dietary ALA may contribute to the improvement of meat quality in broilers. PMID:25049802

  11. Triploidy does not decrease contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in filets of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Artamonova, Valentina S; Makhrov, Alexander A; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kalachova, Galina S; Dgebuadze, Yury Y

    2017-02-01

    Triploid fish has become an important item of commercial aquaculture, but data on its fatty acid (FA) composition are still controversial, especially regarding essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). We studied FA composition and content of diploid and triploid pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, reared in aquaculture in a bay of the White Sea (Russia). FA composition, measured as percentages of total FA of triploids and immature diploid females significantly differed from that of mature diploid fish. Specifically, mature diploids had higher percentage of EPA and DHA in their muscle tissue (filets) compared to that of triploids and immature diploid females. Nevertheless, the contents of EPA and DHA per mass of the filets in diploid and triploid specimens were similar. Thus, no special efforts are needed to improve EPA and DHA contents in filets of triploids. PMID:27596393

  12. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  13. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  14. Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Lian, Guo-Qi; Blachier, Francois; Geng, Mei-Mei; Yin, Yu-Long

    2014-09-01

    The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P < .05) the numbers of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia). Soybean oligosaccharide supplementation also increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acid in the intestinal lumen, and it reduced (P < .05) the numbers of bacteria with pathogenic potential (e.g., Escherichia coli, Clostridium, and Streptococcus) and the concentration of several protein-derived catabolites (e.g., isobutyrate, isovalerate, and ammonia). In addition, SBOS supplementation increased (P < .05) expression of zonula occludens 1 messenger RNA, and it decreased (P < .05) expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 8 messenger RNA in the ileum and colon. These findings suggest that SBOS supplementation modifies the intestinal ecosystem in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets and has potentially beneficial effects on the gut.

  15. Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

  16. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  17. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant’s reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant’s relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant’s metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth—promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone. PMID:26067663

  18. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant's reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant's relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant's metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth-promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone.

  19. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately three to one ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potatoes. There is also interest in marketing “baby” potatoes, which are har...

  20. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinpu; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Jinjun; Cao, Xining; Zhou, Yue; Weng, Huali; Long, Chunlan; Zhang, Deying; Tu, Shengfen; Zhang, Yan; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu) and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley) pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10) and normal control group (n = 10). HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  1. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinpu; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Jinjun; Cao, Xining; Zhou, Yue; Weng, Huali; Long, Chunlan; Zhang, Deying; Tu, Shengfen; Zhang, Yan; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu) and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley) pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10) and normal control group (n = 10). HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder. PMID:27275115

  2. ASCORBID ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Evidence suggests that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA), plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased levels of AA have been reported in asthmatics but not at the site directly proximal to asthma pathology, i.e. the bronchial...

  3. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  4. Orotic acid content of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Durschlag, R P; Robinson, J L

    1980-10-01

    The orotic acid content of four commercially available infant formulas has been examined. Enfamil contains 118 microgram orotic acid per milliliter as fed, Similac 98, SMA 27, and Isomil less than 1 microgram/ml. As expressed relative to total solids, these formulas contain less than 0.1% orotic acid. Since consumption of 1% orotic acid does not lead to a fatty liver in any species examined other than the rat and 0.1% orotic acid fails to induce statistically significant hepatic changes in the rat, it is suggested that orotic acid at the level found in these formulas is not likely to pose a health hazard to the infants consuming them.

  5. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol.

  6. Decreasing Nicotine Content Reduces Subjective and Physiological Effects of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Assessment of the subjective and physiological effects of smoking cigarettes with different machine-smoked nicotine yields. Methods Eight volunteers rated the characteristics of cigarettes with varying levels of nicotine (Quest®). At 30 minute intervals, participants smoked one of three different Quest® brand cigarettes in a counterbalanced order (reported machine-smoked nicotine yield: 0.6 mg, 0.3 mg, or 0.05 mg). Smoking satisfaction and sensations were measured on a cigarette evaluation questionnaire. A mood questionnaire measured self-reported subjective changes in ‘happy’, ‘stimulated’, ‘anxious’, ‘desire to smoke’, and ‘desire not to smoke’. Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded continuously. Results As nicotine yield decreased, cigarettes produced smaller changes in subjective ratings on the evaluation questionnaire with the placebo nicotine cigarette always rated lower or less potent than the other two cigarettes evaluated. Heart rate was significantly increased by the reduced nicotine cigarettes, but was not affected by the nicotine-free cigarette. Conclusion These results indicate that machine-smoked yield is an important determinant of both the subjective and physiological effects of smoking. The use of reduced and nicotine free cigarettes in smoking cessation programs remains to be evaluated. PMID:25253991

  7. Treatment by gamma or electron radiation decreases cell wall and gossypol content of cottonseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayefi, M.; Salari, S.; Sari, M.; Behgar, M.

    2014-06-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of gamma and beam treatment (up to 40 kGy) on chemical composition and gossypol content of cottonseed meal. Irradiation decreased the crude fiber content. Gamma and electron treatment decreased total and free gossypol content.

  8. Amino acid supplementation decreases plasma and liver triglycerides in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T.; Tissier, Sandrine; Cree, Melanie G.; Rønsen, Ola; Morio, Beatrice; Ferrando, Arny A.; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AA supplementation on plasma, liver and muscle lipid concentrations and insulin sensitivity in elderly. Methods Twelve impaired glucose tolerant elderly (67.0 ± 5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of essential AA + arginine twice a day for 16 weeks, after a 7 week control run in. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Plasma lipid concentrations and oral glucose tolerance were measured every 4th week, and tissue lipid concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) every 8th week. Results No changes in plasma lipids were observed during the control run-in. AA supplementation lowered plasma triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.048) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P < 0.001) concentrations. Plasma TG dropped ~20% from the initial value of 1.45 ± 0.18 (SE) mmol/l (128 ± 16 mg/dl), with greatest decrease in the subjects starting out with highest concentrations (r = −0.83). Similarly, liver fat content (liver TG/intralipid standard) decreased ~50% from the initial value of 0.34 ± 0.06 (P = 0.021; n = 9), with greatest decrease in the subjects that initially had highest values (r = −0.86). Intramuscular fat content and insulin sensitivity did not change. Conclusion Diet supplementation with AA lowers plasma TG, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations, and liver lipid content in impaired glucose tolerant elderly. AA supplementation may have a potential role in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia or hepatic steatosis. PMID:19041223

  9. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  10. Pungency in paprika (Capsicum annuum). 1. Decrease of capsaicinoid content following cellular disruption.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum-Titze, Petra; Hiepler, Constanze; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2002-02-27

    The capsaicinoid content in fruits of Capsicum annuum decreased within several days to a level of only 10% of the starting value when cells were disrupted by homogenization. This decrease was not observed in fruits that were carefully cut into halves. The analysis of one half made it possible to determine the reference content at time zero for the second half. A much lower decrease was observed when minced fruits were stored under nitrogen, whereas storage under oxygen resulted in considerable losses of capsaicinoids, indicating oxidative processes as a cause for the decrease of capsaicinoid content.

  11. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids. PMID:27180424

  12. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  13. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans.

  14. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  15. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  16. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brigandi, Sarah A.; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (p < 0.001). In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20) compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism. PMID:25946342

  17. Phytic acid plus calcium, but not phytic acid alone, decreases fluoride bioavailability in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cerklewski, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Results of in vitro studies have suggested that fluoride becomes insoluble when some soy-based infant formulas are diluted with fluoridated water because of the presence of phytate, added calcium or a combination of these factors. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in vivo. Male albino rats were fed a purified diet containing phytic acid, calcium and fluoride for 4 weeks in a factorial design of treatments. Phytic acid was added to the diet by chemically reacting a phytic acid concentrate with casein prior to diet preparation to mimic a soy-protein. Food intake, weight gain and femur P were unaffected by dietary treatments. Both phytic acid and supplemental calcium alone had little or no effect upon fluoride uptake into either bone or teeth. The combination of phytic acid plus supplemental calcium, however, significantly increased % of fluoride intake found in the feces which was reflected in a significant decrease in fluoride concentration of femur, 2nd molar teeth and vertebrate bone. These results provide evidence that insoluble complex formation produced by a calcium and phytate interaction can explain reduced fluoride solubility in some soy-based infant formulas as well as decreased fluoride absorbability in vivo.

  18. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertrandt, Jerzy; Klos, Anna; Debski, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate an influence of nutritional deficiency and dietary addition of vit. B(2), B(6) and folic acid on PUFAs content in rats' serum and liver. Limitation of consumption full value diet to 50% of its previously determined daily consumption, enriched with m/a vitamins, significant decreased of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids as well as distinctly increased arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids content in serum in 30th day. In 60th day lower content of AA and DHA fatty acids was found. Nutrition with such diet, lasting 90 days caused decrease of LA content and increase of AA. Diet limitation to its 30% of daily consumption decreased of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in the 30th day, while AA and DHA content was increased in the 60th day. Distinct decrease of AA content and increase of EPA content were found in the 90th day of experiment. Use of diets, with limited consumption to 50% caused increase of LA and ALA acids content while AA and DHA acids content were significantly decreased in the liver, in 90th day. Limited consumption supplemented diet to 30% caused in liver significant decrease of LA and increase of EPA acids content.

  19. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.

  20. Changes in soil pH across England and Wales in response to decreased acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, G. J. D.; Bellamy, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    In our recent analysis of data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, we found widespread changes in soil pH across both countries between the two samplings of the Inventory. In general, soil pH increased - i.e. soils became less acid - under all land uses. The Inventory was first sampled in 1978-83 on a 5-km grid over the whole area. This yielded about 6,000 sites of which 5,662 could be sampled for soil. Roughly 40% of the sites were re-sampled at intervals from 12 to 25 years after the original sampling - in 1994/96 for agricultural land and in 2002/03 for non-agricultural. Exactly the same sampling and analytical protocols were used in the two samplings. In arable soils, the increase in pH was right across the range, whereas in grassland soils the main increase was at the acid end of the scale (pH < 5.5) with a small increase above pH 7. Some part of the change is likely to have been due to changes in land management. This includes better targeting of agricultural lime on acid soils; changes in nitrogen fertilizer use; deeper ploughing bringing up more calcareous subsoil on soils on calcareous materials; and so forth. However a major driver appears to have been decreased acid deposition to land. The total amounts of nitrogen compounds deposited were relatively unchanged over the survey period, but the amounts of acidifying sulphur compounds decreased by approximately 50%. We constructed a linear regression model to assess the relation between the rate of change in pH (normalised to an annual basis) and the rate of change in acid deposition, as modified by soil properties (pH, clay content, organic matter content), rainfall and past acid deposition. We used data on rainfall and acid deposition over the survey period on the same 5-km grid as the NSI data. We fitted the model separately for each land use category. The results for arable land showed a significant effect of the change in rate of acid deposition, though a significant part of the

  1. Decreased consumption of branched chain amino acids improves metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Kasza, Ildiko; Schmidt, Brian A.; Cava, Edda; Spelta, Francesco; Tosti, Valeria; Syed, Faizan A.; Baar, Emma L.; Veronese, Nicola; Cottrell, Sara E.; Fenske, Rachel J.; Bertozzi, Beatrice; Brar, Harpreet K.; Pietka, Terri; Bullock, Arnold D.; Figenshau, Robert S.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Merrins, Matthew J.; Alexander, Caroline M.; Kimple, Michelle E.; Lamming, Dudley W.

    2016-01-01

    Protein restricted, high carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Further, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderately protein restricted (PR) diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet, via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health, and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet. PMID:27346343

  2. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  3. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  4. Decrease in spermidine content during logarithmic phase of cell growth delays spore formation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, I; Takada, H; Terao, K; Kakegawa, T; Igarashi, K; Hirose, S

    1994-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168M contained a large amount of spermidine during the logarithmic phase of growth, but the amount decreased drastically during the stationary phase. The extracts, prepared from B. subtilis cells harvested in the logarithmic phase, contained activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) rather than the activity of ornithine decarboxylase. In the presence of alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ADC, the amount of spermidine in B. subtilis during the logarithmic phase decreased to about 25% of the control cells. Under these conditions, spore formation of B. subtilis 168M delayed greatly without significant inhibition of cell growth. The decrease in spermidine content in the logarithmic phase rather than in the stationary phase was involved in the delay of sporulation. Electron microscopy of cells at 24 hrs. of culture confirmed the delay of spore formation by the decrease of spermidine content. Furthermore, the delay of sporulation was negated by the addition of spermidine. These data suggest that a large amount of spermidine existing during the logarithmic phase plays an important role in the sporulation of B. subtilis.

  5. Accurate determination of the amino acid content of selected feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2009-01-01

    The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to accurately determine the content of amino acids in five different feedstuffs. These values were compared with 24-h hydrolysis values determined for the same feedstuffs. Overall, approximately two-thirds of the amino acids determined in this study (aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine) using 24-h hydrolysis were in good agreement (<3% difference). When examined across feedstuffs, the concentration of serine was underestimated by the 24-h hydrolysis method by 4.8%, while the concentrations of histidine and lysine were overestimated by 3.9% and 3.1%, respectively.

  6. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  7. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  8. Effects of high fat diet on fecal contents of bile acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Furihata, C; Matsushima, T

    1987-11-01

    The effects of dietary oils and fats used in Japan on the fecal contents of bile acids in rats were studied. F344/Du Crj female rats (8 weeks old) were fed on diet containing 20% corn oil, rape seed oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, lard, or tallow as high oil or fat diets or on 0.2% linoleic acid diet as a low fatty acid diet for 4 weeks, and then their feces were collected. Bile acids in the feces were partially purified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyses showed that lard or tallow in the diet resulted in significant increases in the contents of bile acids in the feces, whereas sesame oil in the diet resulted in significant decreases in their contents. PMID:3121554

  9. Decreased Integrity, Content, and Increased Transcript Level of Mitochondrial DNA Are Associated with Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Zhao-Li; Qu, Ming-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Wen; Li, Su-Xia; Chen, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus (KC). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is involved in mitochondrial function, and the mtDNA content, integrity, and transcript level may affect the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and be involved in the pathogenesis of KC. We designed a case-control study to research the relationship between KC and mtDNA integrity, content and transcription. One-hundred ninety-eight KC corneas and 106 normal corneas from Chinese patients were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the relative mtDNA content, transcript levels of mtDNA and related genes. Long-extension PCR was used to detect mtDNA damage. ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP were measured by respective assay kit, and Mito-Tracker Green was used to label the mitochondria. The relative mtDNA content of KC corneas was significantly lower than that of normal corneas (P = 9.19×10−24), possibly due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) gene (P = 3.26×10−3). In contrast, the transcript levels of mtDNA genes were significantly increased in KC corneas compared with normal corneas (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [ND1]: P = 1.79×10−3; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COX1]: P = 1.54×10−3; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, [ND6]: P = 4.62×10−3). The latter may be the result of increased expression levels of mtDNA transcription-related genes mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) (P = 2.55×10−4) and transcription factor B2 mitochondrial (TFB2M) (P = 7.88×10−5). KC corneas also had increased mtDNA damage (P = 3.63×10−10), higher ROS levels, and lower mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared with normal corneas. Decreased integrity, content and increased transcript level of mtDNA are associated with KC. These changes may affect the generation of ROS and play a role in the pathogenesis of KC. PMID:27783701

  10. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  11. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  12. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p<0.001) and plasma tHcy decreased (p<0.001) with both therapies. Folate-rich foods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  13. Cortisol modification of HeLa 65 alkaline phosphatase. Decreased phosphate content of the induced enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bazzell, K L; Price, G; Tu, S; Griffin, M

    1976-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase activity of HeLa cells is increased 5-20-fold during growth in medium with cortisol. The increase in enzyme activity is due to an enhanced catalytic efficiency rather than an increase in alkaline phosphatase protein in induced cells. In the present study the chemical composition of control and induced forms of alkaline phosphatase were investigated to determine the enzyme modification that may be responsible for the increased catalytic activity. HeLa alkaline phosphatase is a phosphoprotein and the induced form of the enzyme has approximately one-half of the phosphate residues associated with control enzyme. The decrease in phosphate residues of the enzyme apparently alters its catalytic activity. Other chemical components of purified alkaline phosphatase from control and induced cells are similar; these include sialic acid, hexosamine and sulfhydryl residues. PMID:1248469

  14. Short-term UV-B and UV-C radiations preferentially decrease spermidine contents and arginine decarboxylase transcript levels of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Jantaro, Saowarath; Pothipongsa, Apiradee; Khanthasuwan, Suparaporn; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the short term effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiations on changes in pigments and polyamine contents, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells after exposure to UV-radiation were extracted by dimethylformamide and perchloric acid for pigments and polyamines determination, respectively. Cell growth was slightly decreased after 1 h exposure to UV-A and UV-B radiations. UV-C had little effect on cell growth despite the decrease of photosynthetic rate by about 18%. UV-A and UV-B decreased the contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoids whereas UV-C decreased chlorophyll a but had no effect on carotenoids. Spermidine contents were unaffected by UV-A, in contrast to the reduction of 25 and 50% by UV-B and UV-C, respectively. All three types of UV-radiation particularly reduced perchloric acid-insoluble spermidine. Importantly, putrescine and spermine which accounted for less than 1% of intracellular polyamines were increased by about three- to eight-fold by UV-B and UV-C, respectively. The changes in polyamines contents by UV-B and UV-C were consistent with the changes in transcript levels of arginine decarboxylase mRNA, but not with the protein levels. The decrease in the transcripts of adc2 but not adc1 was observed with UV-B and UV-C treatments.

  15. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  16. Content of chalconaringenin and chlorogenic acid in cherry tomatoes is strongly reduced during postharvest ripening.

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Verheul, Michèl J

    2005-09-01

    The contents of chalconaringenin, chlorogenic acid, rutin, ascorbic acid, lycopene, and beta-carotene were analyzed during postharvest and vine ripening of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentumMill.) (cv. Jennita) produced in a greenhouse. A remarkable decrease in the content of chalconaringenin took place during postharvest ripening. The tomatoes were found to contain 15.26 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (FW) at harvest but held only 0.41 mg after 3 weeks at 20 degrees C in darkness. Chalconaringenin did not convert into naringenin. The content of chlorogenic acid fell from 0.51 to 0.06 mg 100 g(-1) FW at the same conditions. The content of rutin and that of total phenolics remained stable during postharvest ripening. The amounts of lycopene as well as beta-carotene and ascorbic acid increased during postharvest ripening. No significant change in the amount of methanol soluble antioxidants or total soluble solids was found during postharvest ripening of the tomato fruits. During vine ripening, the total amount of phenolics and that of soluble solids (% Brix) increased. The content of phenolics correlated well with the content of methanol soluble antioxidants (p < 0.001). The amount of ascorbic acid increased from 9.7 mg in green-yellow tomatoes to 17.1 mg 100 g(-1) FW in red tomatoes. The amount of chalconaringenin decreased to 8.16 mg 100 g(-1) FW, whereas no significant change was observed for chlorogenic acid or rutin. Possible causes for the decrease in chalconaringenin are discussed.

  17. Amino acid repletion does not decrease muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dominic S C; Adeniyi, Oladipo; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Boivin, Michel A; McClelland, Sandra; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Morgan, Nancy; Gonzales, Lawrence; Wolfe, Robert; Ferrando, Arny

    2007-06-01

    Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subjects were studied at baseline (pre-HD), 2 h of HD without amino acid infusion (HD-O), and 2 h of HD with amino acid infusion (HD+AA). Amino acid depletion during HD-O augmented the outward transport of amino acids from muscle into the vein. Increased delivery of amino acids to the leg during HD+AA facilitated the transport of amino acids from the artery into the intracellular compartment. Increase in muscle protein breakdown was more than the increase in synthesis during HD-O (46.7 vs. 22.3%, P < 0.001). Net balance (nmol.min(-1).100 ml (-1)) was more negative during HD-O compared with pre-HD (-33.7 +/- 1.5 vs. -6.0 +/- 2.3, P < 0.001). Despite an abundant supply of amino acids, the net balance (-16.9 +/- 1.8) did not switch from net release to net uptake. HD+AA induced a proportional increase in muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Branched chain amino acid catabolism increased significantly from baseline during HD-O and did not decrease during HD+AA. Protein synthesis efficiency, the fraction of amino acid in the intracellular pool that is utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreased from 42.1% pre-HD to 33.7 and 32.6% during HD-O and HD+AA, respectively (P < 0.01). Thus amino acid repletion during HD increased muscle protein synthesis but did not decrease muscle protein breakdown. PMID:17264222

  18. Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

  19. Correlation between Chlorophyll and Chlorogenic Acid Content in Tobacco Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A positive correlation (r = 0.75, P < 0.01) was obtained between chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid content in the seedling leaves of burley and dark tobaccos. The dark tobaccos contained significantly higher concentrations of both constituents than the burleys. Such a correlation also occurred in a cytoplasmic mutant of chlorophyll-variegated tobacco when the green and yellow laminae were compared. In addition, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol-oxidase was higher in the green lamina than in the yellow tissue, which coincided with quantitative distribution of chlorogenic acid. Chlorophyll deficiency induced by streptomycin in tobacco seedlings resulted in a progressive decrease in chlorogenic acid content. However, an interruption of streptomycin treatment provoked accumulation of the two compounds. Dark-grown seedlings showed an increase in the content of chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid upon illumination. Incorporation of l-phenylalanine-U-14C into chlorogenic acid during leaf greening was drastically reduced owing to the presence of phenylpyruvate; the latter compound is a possible by-product of chlorophyll biosynthesis. This phenomenon was also evident with light-grown leaves. Results suggest that in addition to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as a key enzyme regulating chlorogenic acid biosynthesis, an alternative pathway involving the conversion of phenylpyruvate to cinnamate may be functional in tobacco leaves. This pathway may bear importance as to higher chlorogenic acid content in dark tobaccos than in burleys. PMID:16658575

  20. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  1. Salicylic acid content of spices and its implications.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Srivastava, Rajeev; Baxter, Gwen J; Graham, Alan B; Lawrence, James R

    2006-04-19

    This work was done to determine the salicylate content of a variety of commonly used spices and to assess whether this potential dietary source of salicylate was bioavailable. Spices, Indian cooked dishes, and blood and urine samples taken after ingestion of a test meal were investigated for their salicylate content using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The serum salicylic acid concentrations in samples from villagers in southern India were also measured and have been compared with typical European values. Salicylic acid was determined in all spices (up to 1.5 wt %) and cooked dishes. The salicylate content of blood and urine was shown to increase following consumption of the meal, indicating that this dietary source of salicylic acid was bioavailable. Salicylic acid levels in the serum from rural Indians were significantly (median almost 3-fold) higher than values previously measured in Western vegetarians. Chemoprotective aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, and this phytochemical may contribute to the low cancer incidence in rural India.

  2. Metabolome analysis of photosynthesis and the related primary metabolites in the leaves of transgenic rice plants with increased or decreased Rubisco content.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Kanno, Keiichi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Makino, Amane

    2012-08-01

    Because the comprehensive effects on metabolism by genetic manipulation of leaf Rubisco content are unknown, metabolome analysis was carried out on transgenic rice plants with increased or decreased Rubisco content using the capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) technique. In RBCS-sense plants, an increase in Rubisco content did not improve light-saturated photosynthesis. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and sedoheputulose 7-phosphate levels increased, but ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), ATP and ADP levels were not affected. It is considered from these results that RuBP regeneration independent of ATP supply became a bottleneck for photosynthesis. In RBCS-antisense plants, a decline in Rubisco content decreased photosynthesis with a substantial accumulation of RuBP. ATP and ADP levels also increased and were associated with increases in the diphosphate and triphosphate compounds of other nucleosides. These results imply that a decline in Rubisco content slowed down the Calvin cycle and that the resultant excess energy of ATP was transferred to other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. The levels of amino acids tended to decline in RBCS-sense plants and increase in RBCS-antisense plants, probably reflecting the demand for Rubisco synthesis. Starch and carbohydrate levels decreased only in RBCS-antisense plants. Thus, genetic manipulation of Rubisco contents widely affected C and N metabolism in rice.

  3. Knockdown of FIBRILLIN4 Gene Expression in Apple Decreases Plastoglobule Plastoquinone Content

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra K.; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Smith, Philip B.; Maximova, Siela N.; McNellis, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrillin4 (FBN4) is a protein component of plastoglobules, which are antioxidant-rich sub-compartments attached to the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. FBN4 is required for normal plant biotic and abiotic stress resistance, including bacterial pathogens, herbicide, high light intensity, and ozone; FBN4 is also required for the accumulation of osmiophilic material inside plastoglobules. In this study, the contribution of FBN4 to plastoglobule lipid composition was examined using cultivated apple trees in which FBN4 gene expression was knocked down using RNA interference. Chloroplasts and plastoglobules were isolated from leaves of wild-type and fbn4 knock-down trees. Total lipids were extracted from chloroplasts and plastoglobules separately, and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Three lipids were consistently present at lower levels in the plastoglobules from fbn4 knock-down apple leaves compared to the wild-type as determined by LC-MS multiple ion monitoring. One of these species had a molecular mass and fragmentation pattern that identified it as plastoquinone, a known major component of plastoglobules. The plastoquinone level in fbn4 knock-down plastoglobules was less than 10% of that in wild-type plastoglobules. In contrast, plastoquinone was present at similar levels in the lipid extracts of whole chloroplasts from leaves of wild-type and fbn4 knock-down trees. These results suggest that the partitioning of plastoquinone between the plastoglobules and the rest of the chloroplast is disrupted in fbn4 knock-down leaves. These results indicate that FBN4 is required for high-level accumulation of plastoquinone and some other lipids in the plastoglobule. The dramatic decrease in plastoquinone content in fbn4 knock-down plastoglobules is consistent with the decreased plastoglobule osmiophilicity previously described for fbn4 knock-down plastoglobules. Failure to accumulate the antioxidant plastoquinone in the fbn4 knock

  4. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  5. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation. PMID:27107771

  6. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  7. Abscisic acid induces a cytosolic calcium decrease in barley aleurone protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Van Duijn, B; Schram, A W

    1991-01-14

    Cytosolic calcium concentrations (Cai) of barley aleurone protoplasts after stimulation with the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were measured by using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye Indo-1. The measured basal Cai is about 200 nM. Stimulation with ABA induces a strong dose-dependent decrease in Cai to a minimal value of about 50 nM. This decrease occurs within 5 s. The Ca2+ antagonists La3+ and Cd2+ inhibit the ABA-induced Cai decrease in a dose-dependent manner, while the Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine give no inhibition. The induction of Cai decrease by ABA is consistent with activation of the plasma membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase by ABA. The possible role of this ABA-induced Cai decrease in ABA signal transduction and in counteracting the effects of gibberellic acid are discussed.

  8. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability.

  9. Synthesis and decreasingcontent evaluation of arctigenin-4-yl carbamate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingyu; Li, Cong; Lei, Min; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2016-07-01

    A series of arctigenin-4-yl carbamate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for potency in reducing β-amyloid (Aβ) content in HEK293-APPswe cells. Most of the arctigenin-4-yl aralkyl or aryl carbamate derivatives showed improved potency in reducing Aβ content. Among the synthesized compounds, arctigenin-4-yl (3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (20) exhibited the strongest potency with 78.7% Aβ content reduction at 20μM. Furthermore, the effect of arctigenin-4-yl (4-chlorophenyl)carbamate (19) and arctigenin-4-yl (3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (20) on lowing Aβ content was better than arctigenin under the concentrations of 1, 10 and 20μM.

  10. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  12. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Medeiros-de-Moraes, Isabel Matos; Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  13. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  14. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  15. Synthesis and decreasingcontent evaluation of arctigenin-4-yl carbamate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingyu; Li, Cong; Lei, Min; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2016-07-01

    A series of arctigenin-4-yl carbamate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for potency in reducing β-amyloid (Aβ) content in HEK293-APPswe cells. Most of the arctigenin-4-yl aralkyl or aryl carbamate derivatives showed improved potency in reducing Aβ content. Among the synthesized compounds, arctigenin-4-yl (3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (20) exhibited the strongest potency with 78.7% Aβ content reduction at 20μM. Furthermore, the effect of arctigenin-4-yl (4-chlorophenyl)carbamate (19) and arctigenin-4-yl (3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (20) on lowing Aβ content was better than arctigenin under the concentrations of 1, 10 and 20μM. PMID:27212069

  16. Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit).

    PubMed

    Golden, K D; Williams, O J

    2001-06-01

    A study is conducted to determine the amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of breadfruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). An HPLC method is used for the determination of amino acids and fatty acids in breadfruit. Representative amino acid samples are derivatized with phenylisothiocianate and the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with a 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer and 0.01M ammonium acetate in acetonitrile-methanol-water (44:10:46, v/v). Representative fatty acid samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and the resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water. Amino acid and fatty acid derivatives are detected by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The analysis of the carbohydrates in breadfruit employs a GC method. Carbohydrates are derivatized using trimethylchlorosilane and hexamethyldisilazane to form trimethylsilyl ethers. Compounds in the samples are separated by the temperature programming of a GC using nitrogen as the carrier gas. Percent recoveries of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates are 72.5%, 68.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. The starch content of the breadfruit is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.

  17. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  19. [ANALYSIS OF ARACHIDONIC ACID RELATIVE CONTENT CHANGES IN ERYTHROCYTES AND PLATELETS PHOSPHOLIPIDS MEMBRANES FEATURES IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Lizogub, V G; Zavalska, T V; Merkulova, I O; Bryuzgina, T S

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes and platelets phospholipid membranes fatty acid spectrum was detected in coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation patients and in patients with coronary heart disease without atrial fibrillation. 87 patients were investigated. Significant decrease in the arachidonic acid relative content in coronary heart disease patients compared with healthy individuals was related. As well as a significant decrease in the arachidonic acid relative content in coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation patients compared with coronary heart disease patients without atrial fibrillation was related too. These dates may indicate that decreasing relative content arachidonic acid can be possible pathogenetic link in the development of arrhythmias.

  20. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Natarelli, Lucia; Ranaldi, Giulia; Leoni, Guido; Roselli, Marianna; Guantario, Barbara; Comitato, Raffaella; Ambra, Roberto; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio; Virgili, Fabio; Canali, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG). In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9) and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3) and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins. PMID:26544184

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  2. Heterogeneous response of central European streams to decreased acidic atmospheric deposition.

    PubMed

    Veseý, Josef; Majer, Vladimir; Norton, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between mountain streamwater chemistry and atmospheric pollution in an arca of 1611 km2 of the Czech Republic by comparing concentrations of SO4. NO3, Cl, Ca and the pH at 432 localities at the time of high (1984-1986) and relatively low (1996-2000) acidic atmospheric deposition. Medians of Cl. SO4, and NO3 decreased by 17, 96 and 60 microeq l(-1), or by 23, 17 and 49%, respectively, during 12 +/- 2 years. The decreased Cl corresponds to decreased emission of industrial Cl (as HCl). The decreased stream SO4 was proportionally lower than the 71% decrease in S-emissions due to leaching of previously accumulated SO4 from soils and non-zero background concentrations. Decreases of NO3 up to 60% in streamwaters with pH < or = 6 was greater than the decrease of N emission in central Europe, about 35%. Extensive regional decrease of NO3 is surprising and is probably described for the first time. The difference in NO3 concentrations between the two periods was probably enhanced by (a) an increase of mineralisation of forest floor in the mid-1980s and (b) by higher uptake of N in the late-1990s. The median pH of the 432 streams did not change but the pH of the sub-population with pH < 6 in the mid-1980s recovered substantially. The pH of circum-neutral streams (pH > 6.5) decreased even as acidic atmospheric deposition decreased.

  3. Ozone decreases spring root growth and root carbohydrate content in ponderosa pine the year following exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.P.; Hogsett, W.E.; Wessling, R.; Plocher, M.

    1991-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. The hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. The results suggest that (1) ponderosa pine seedlings exposed to 122 and 169 ppm hrs ozone for one season have significantly less root starch reserves available just prior to and during bud break the following year, and (2) spring root growth is decreased following ozone exposure. The carry-over effects of ozone stress may be important in long-lived perennial species which are annually subjected to ozone.

  4. Effect of water content on the acid-base equilibrium of cyanidin-3-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Isabel B; Freitas, Adilson; Maçanita, António L; Lima, J C

    2015-04-01

    Laser Flash Photolysis was employed to measure the deprotonation and reprotonation rate constants of cyanidin 3-monoglucoside (kuromanin) in water/methanol mixtures. It was found that the deprotonation rate constant kd decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin, which may accommodate and stabilize the outgoing protons. On the other hand, the reprotonation rate constant, kp, increases with the decrease in water concentration from a value of kp = 2 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) in water up to kp = 6 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) at 5.6M water concentration in the mixture. The higher value of kp at lower water concentrations reflects the fact that the proton is not freely escaping the solvation shell of the molecule. The deprotonation rate constant decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin that can accommodate the outgoing protons. Overall, the acidity constant of the flavylium cation decreases with the decrease in water concentration from pKa values of 3.8 in water to approximately 4.8 in water-depleted media, thus shifting the equilibrium towards the red-coloured form, AH(+), at low water contents. The presence, or lack, of water, will affect the colour shade (red to blue) of kuromanin. This is relevant for its role as an intrinsic food component and as a food pigment additive (E163). PMID:25442581

  5. Effect of water content on the acid-base equilibrium of cyanidin-3-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Isabel B; Freitas, Adilson; Maçanita, António L; Lima, J C

    2015-04-01

    Laser Flash Photolysis was employed to measure the deprotonation and reprotonation rate constants of cyanidin 3-monoglucoside (kuromanin) in water/methanol mixtures. It was found that the deprotonation rate constant kd decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin, which may accommodate and stabilize the outgoing protons. On the other hand, the reprotonation rate constant, kp, increases with the decrease in water concentration from a value of kp = 2 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) in water up to kp = 6 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) at 5.6M water concentration in the mixture. The higher value of kp at lower water concentrations reflects the fact that the proton is not freely escaping the solvation shell of the molecule. The deprotonation rate constant decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin that can accommodate the outgoing protons. Overall, the acidity constant of the flavylium cation decreases with the decrease in water concentration from pKa values of 3.8 in water to approximately 4.8 in water-depleted media, thus shifting the equilibrium towards the red-coloured form, AH(+), at low water contents. The presence, or lack, of water, will affect the colour shade (red to blue) of kuromanin. This is relevant for its role as an intrinsic food component and as a food pigment additive (E163).

  6. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation. PMID:25586670

  7. Nanocellulose coated with various free fatty acids can adsorb fumonisin B1, and decrease its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein Balal; Shahdadi, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adsorption and biological properties of nanocellulose coated with free fatty acids (NCCFFAs). At first, nanocellulose was synthesized by acid hydrolysis, and then separately coated with different free fatty acids (FFAs), including lauric acid, alpha linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Next, the serial concentrations of NCCFFAs (1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/mL) was separately added to fumonisin B1 (FB1) at 1000 μg/mL, and separately incubated at 37 °C for 1, 2, and 3h. Then, the percentage of adsorption was calculated. In the next experiment, the viability of mouse liver cells was measured when they exposed to serial concentrations of NCCFFAs, FFAs, and FB1. This study showed that the increase of incubation time and concentration of NCCFFAs led to increase of FB1 adsorption. Although FFAs and NCCFFAs had no remarkable toxicity, the high toxicity was observed for FB1. Importantly, the toxicity of FB1 was highly decreased, when incubated together with FFAs or NCCFFAs. These novel adsorbents, NCCFFAs, can be used together with different foodstuffs to remove FB1. PMID:26142625

  8. Decreased docosahexaenoic acid levels in retina and pigment epithelium of frogs fed crickets.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Wiegand, R D; Anderson, R E

    1992-06-01

    Whole retina, rod outer segments, and retinal pigment epithelium of frogs (Rana pipiens) fed crickets for more than 1 year had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n-3) than the same tissues of frogs fed crickets for less than 1 month. Decreases in 22:6n-3 levels in these tissues were compensated for by increases in the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily 22:5n-6. There were no changes in the levels of saturated, monoenoic, or dienoic acids. Analysis of diacyl phospholipid molecular species (PLMS) revealed decreases in both the 22:6(n-3)-containing dipolyenoic molecular species in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, and the monopolyenoic molecular species in phosphatidylcholine. These PLMS were replaced by species containing 22:5n-6 or other n-6 PUFAs. Examination of fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids extracted from crickets revealed that less than 1 mol% fatty acids were of the n-3 family, while more than 30 mol% were of the n-6 family. Thus, frogs raised on an n-3-deficient diet have reduced levels of n-3 PUFA in their retinas, rod outer segments, and retinal pigment epithelium. Although such changes have been reported for mammals, this is the first report of the effects of n-3 deficiency on the lipids of amphibians.

  9. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Frausto-Reyes, C.; Quintanar-Stephano, J. L.; Sato-Berrú, R.

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at ˜4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at ˜2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  10. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at approximately 4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at approximately 2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  11. Chemical carcinogen-induced decreases in genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, V L; Smith, R A; Longoria, J; Liotta, M A; Harper, C M; Harris, C C

    1987-01-01

    The genomic content of DNA 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m5dC) was measured in dividing normal human bronchial epithelial cells treated with a broad range of chemical carcinogens. At noncytotoxic concentrations, all of the carcinogenic agents tested significantly reduced cellular DNA m5dC content whereas the weakly carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents, benzo[e]pyrene and phenanthrene (respectively), did not. These reductions varied from 8% to 31% depending on the agent and the donor cells. The reductions in genomic m5dC levels were concentration dependent for the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene. We speculate that carcinogen-induced perturbation of DNA m5dC patterns may lead to heritable changes in gene expression and contribute to the molecular alterations involved in the initiation and the subsequent steps of the carcinogenesis process. PMID:3472209

  12. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-Bei; Chen, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Bai, Jing-Wen; Ding, Wen-Ya; Zhou, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xue-Ying; Liu, Di; Li, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin non-treated cells and treated cells), we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ATP-binding cassette superfamily ATP-binding cassette transporter (G7SD52), CpsR (K0FG35), Cps1/2H (G8DTL7), CPS16F (E9NQ13), putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259), putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6), amino acid permease (B0M0G6), and NsuB (G5L351)) were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide content of S. suis was significantly higher. PMID:27812354

  13. Effects of decreasing resolution on spectral and spatial information content in an agricultural area. [Pottawatmie study site, Iowa and Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of decreasing spatial resolution from 6 1/4 miles square to 50 miles square are described. The effects of increases in cell size is studied on; the mean and variance of spectral data; spatial trends; and vegetative index numbers. Information content changes on cadastral, vegetal, soil, water and physiographic information are summarized.

  14. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. PMID:26948608

  16. Cytometry of deoxyribonuclei acid content and morphology of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Because spermatogenesis is exquisitely sensitive to external influences, sperm can serve as a biological dosimeter. Advances in interpreting induced sperm abnormalities require a better understanding of sperm characteristics. This report reviews the application of several methods for automated, quantitative detection of shape changes, methods that are faster and more sensitive than conventional subjective technqiues. Variability of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid content as a bioassay of genetic damage is explored, and limitations of the bioassay are discussed. New flow cytometric techniques that could lead to sexing mammalian sperm are examined.

  17. Lithium Decreases Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in a Mouse Model of Alexander Disease.

    PubMed

    LaPash Daniels, Christine M; Paffenroth, Elizabeth; Austin, Elizabeth V; Glebov, Konstantin; Lewis, Diana; Walter, Jochen; Messing, Albee

    2015-01-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the astrocyte intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by elevated levels of GFAP and the formation of protein aggregates, known as Rosenthal fibers, within astrocytes. Lithium has previously been shown to decrease protein aggregates by increasing the autophagy pathway for protein degradation. In addition, lithium has also been reported to decrease activation of the transcription factor STAT3, which is a regulator of GFAP transcription and astrogliogenesis. Here we tested whether lithium treatment would decrease levels of GFAP in a mouse model of Alexander disease. Mice with the Gfap-R236H point mutation were fed lithium food pellets for 4 to 8 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with LiCl at 0.5% in food pellets decreased GFAP protein and transcripts in several brain regions, although with mild side effects and some mortality. Extending the duration of treatment to 8 weeks resulted in higher mortality, and again with a decrease in GFAP in the surviving animals. Indicators of autophagy, such as LC3, were not increased, suggesting that lithium may decrease levels of GFAP through other pathways. Lithium reduced the levels of phosphorylated STAT3, suggesting this as one pathway mediating the effects on GFAP. In conclusion, lithium has the potential to decrease GFAP levels in Alexander disease, but with a narrow therapeutic window separating efficacy and toxicity.

  18. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    PubMed

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  19. LOW BRAIN DHA CONTENT WORSENS SENSORIMOTOR OUTCOMES AFTER TBI AND DECREASES TBI-INDUCED TIMP1 EXPRESSION IN JUVENILE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Kristin L.; Berman, Nancy E. J.; Levant, Beth

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The effects of dietary modulation of brain DHA content on outcomes after TBI were examined in a juvenile rat model. Long-Evans rats with normal or diet-induced decreases in brain DHA were subjected to a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery on postnatal day 17. Rats with the greatest decreases in brain DHA had the poorest sensorimotor outcomes after TBI. Ccl2, Gfap, and Mmp 9 mRNA levels, and MMP-2 and −9 enzymatic activities were increased after TBI regardless of brain DHA level. Lesion volume was not affected by brain DHA level. In contrast, TBI-induced Timp1 expression was lower in rats on the Deficient diet and correlated with brain DHA level. These data suggest that decreased brain DHA content contributes to poorer sensorimotor outcomes after TBI through a mechanism involving modulation of Timp1 expression. PMID:23796971

  20. Effect of Decreasing of Cobalt Content in Properties for Diamond/Cemented Carbide Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Waratta, A.; Hamdi, M.; Ariga, T.

    2010-03-11

    Powder metallurgy plays a role in manufacturing such as automotive and cutting tool applications. Diamond/cemented carbide tools are also made from this technique. Diamond particle and other matrix materials were employed in this study. The purpose is to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of different Cobalt (Co) content samples by using Taguchi's method. The materials used in the experiments were mixed by using a ball-mill machine. The mixed powders were pressed by conventional method. Then the green samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace. After reaching 500 deg. C, the samples were sintered with Argon (Ar) gas. The sintered samples were investigated density by immersion method, porosity by water saturation method, and hardness by Vicker hardness tester. It was found that with 59.5% Co content, plain diamond type, sintering temperature of 950 deg. C, sintering time of 40 minutes, and pressure of 625 MPa, density, porosity, and hardness got the best result in this study. From the Taguchi's analysis, the significant factors effected the performance were composition, sintering temperature, and sintering time.

  1. The effects of growing conditions on oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some sunflower varieties produced in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alpaslan, M; Gündüz, H

    2000-12-01

    The properties of some extensively cultivated sunflower seed varieties in Turkey and their oils were investigated. 1991-1992 crop year sunflower varieties harvested from Trakya University, Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, Experiment field of Crop Science Department were used as research materials. The oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of sunflower seeds in 1991 and 1992 crop years were determined as 44.2-51.2% (on dry weight basis), 43.0-51.5% (on dry weight basis); oleic acid 14.8-18.5%, 32.9-40.1%; linoleic acid 69.5-74.5%, 49.7-55.7% and tocopherol content (as alpha-tocopherol) 648-860 mg/kg, 524-880 mg/kg, respectively. It was determined that the growing conditions significantly affected the fatty acid compositions of sunflower varieties studied. While the oleic acid content of the 1992 crop increased, the linoleic acid content of the same crop decreased compared to the 1991 crop.

  2. Overexpression of spinach non-symbiotic hemoglobin in Arabidopsis resulted in decreased NO content and lowered nitrate and other abiotic stresses tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xuegui; Long, Juan; He, Xiaozhao; Yan, Jinping; Chen, Xuanqin; Tan, Yong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei; Xu, Huini

    2016-01-01

    A class 1 non-symbiotic hemoglobin family gene, SoHb, was isolated from spinach. qRT-PCR showed that SoHb was induced by excess nitrate, polyethylene glycol, NaCl, H2O2, and salicylic acid. Besides, SoHb was strongly induced by application of nitric oxide (NO) donor, while was suppressed by NO scavenger, nitrate reductase inhibitor, and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Overexpression of SoHb in Arabidopsis resulted in decreased NO level and sensitivity to nitrate stress, as shown by reduced root length, fresh weight, the maximum photosystem II quantum ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), and higher malondialdehyde contents. The activities and gene transcription of superoxide dioxidase, and catalase decreased under nitrate stress. Expression levels of RD22, RD29A, DREB2A, and P5CS1 decreased after nitrate treatment in SoHb-overexpressing plants, while increased in the WT plants. Moreover, SoHb-overexpressing plants showed decreased tolerance to NaCl and osmotic stress. In addition, the SoHb-overexpression lines showed earlier flower by regulating the expression of SOC, GI and FLC genes. Our results indicated that the decreasing NO content in Arabidopsis by overexpressing SoHb might be responsible for lowered tolerance to nitrate and other abiotic stresses. PMID:27211528

  3. Humic acid decreases acute toxicity and ventilation frequency in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global problem leading to the acidification of freshwaters, as well as contamination by heavy metals. The ability of humic substances (HS) such as humic acid (HA) to decrease toxicity of heavy metals is widely known, whereas limited studies have examined the ability of HS to decrease toxicity linked with multiple stressors such as those associated with AMD. This study investigated the ability of HA to decrease acute toxicity defined as morbidity and ventilation frequency (measured via the time elapsed for ten operculum movements) in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to the multiple stressors of AMD-driven heavy metal concentrations, together with low pH. Water from the Mount Morgan open pit (a now closed gold and copper mine site), located at Mount Morgan, Central Queensland, Australia, was used as the AMD source. Fish were exposed to zero per cent (pH 7.3), two per cent (pH 6.7), three per cent (pH 5.7) and four per cent (pH 4.6) AMD in the presence of 0, 10 and 20mg/L Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA) over 96h. HA was shown to significantly decrease the acute toxicity of AMD and its adverse effects on ventilation frequency. These results are important in showing that HA can influence toxicity of metal mixtures and low pH, thus indicating a potential role for HA in decreasing toxicity of multiple environmental stressors more widely, and possible value as a rehabilitation aid. PMID:25173849

  4. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  5. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  6. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  7. [Aconitine analogues in wild Aconitum plants: contents toxicity to mice and decrease by boiling].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi; Numazawa, Toshiaki; Wada, Akinobu

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of four aconitine analogues (ACs) (AC; aconitine, HA; hypaconitine, JA; jesaconitine, MA; mesaconitine) in leaves and roots of wild Aconitum plants (Aconitum japonicum THUNBERG, Aconitum okuyamae Nakai) was carried out to elucidate the relation between toxicity to mice and ACs content determind by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The total amounts of ACs in leaves, roots, petals and nectaries of Aconitum japonicum collected at Sagae-shi Tashiro were 5.9 μg/g, 928.1 μg/g, 46.1 μg/g, and 69.8 μg/g, respectively. Despite the high contents in nectary, commercial honey contained no ACs. Extract of wild Aconitum japonicum roots which contained ACs (2.69 mg/g) was administered to 5 mice orally at 1.0 g/kg (fresh root equivalent), and 2 mice died. On the other hand, 3 of 5 mice died after being given the standard AC (3.0 mg/kg, p.o.). These findings confirmed good coincidence between toxicity and quantitative values. Mice given extract of Aconitum okuyamae root (100 g/kg, p.o.) without ACs showed no toxic symptoms. Residual ACs in Aconitum leaves were examined after boiling. The remaining percentage of ACs in leaves after 0.5 minutes boiling was 31.6%, and the amount in the boiling water was 54.5%. MA is converted into benzoylmesaconine by hydrolysis (by boiling). Therefore food poisoning caused by Aconitum plants is explained by detection of benzoylmesaconine formed during food preparation.

  8. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  9. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism decreases tumor cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Monthanapisut, Paopanga; Saensuk, Theeranuch

    2010-11-01

    Head and neck cancers are known to synthesize arachidonic acid metabolites. Interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism may inhibit growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. In this study we investigate effects of sulindac (the non-selective COX inhibitor), aspirin (the irreversible, preferential COX-1 inhibitor), NS-398 (the selective COX-2 inhibitor), NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid, the selective LOX inhibitor) and ETYA (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, the COX and LOX inhibitor) on cell viability, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, and in vitro invasion of cancer cells derived from primary and metastatic head and neck, and colon cancers. The inhibitors of COX and/or LOX could inhibit cell proliferation, MMP activity and invasion in head and neck and colon cancer cells. However, the inhibitory effect was obviously observed in colon cancer cells. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism caused a decrease in cancer cell motility, which partially explained by the inhibition of MMPs. Therefore, COX and LOX pathways play important roles in head and neck cancer cell growth. PMID:20654727

  10. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  11. Decreased content of integral membrane calcium-binding protein (IMCAL) in tissues of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kowarski, S.; Cowen, L.A.; Schachter, D.

    1986-02-01

    Prior studies report that plasma membranes of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (Okamoto-Aoki strain) bind less calcium than do the corresponding preparations from Wistar Kyoto controls. The possibility that the differences result from a decrease in the content of integral membrane calcium-binding protein (IMCAL) was explored by the application of immunoassays with polyclonal antisera and a mouse monoclonal antibody. IMCAL binds calcium with relatively high affinity, and its content in many rat tissues is regulated by vitamin D and the level of dietary calcium. Radioimmunoassays of tissue IMCAL demonstrate significant reductions in content in the erythrocyte ghost, intestinal mucosa, kidney, heart, testis, and liver of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as compared to the control strains. The decreases are observed both at 4-5 weeks of age, before the onset of severe hypertension and at 8-9 weeks in the presence of severe hypertension. Moreover, the magnitude of the decrease in erythrocyte IMCAL can account for much of the decrease in the calcium-binding capacity of erythrocyte membranes reported by others. The results are especially significant because an abnormality in the membrane binding of calcium and in the regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration could underlie the pathogenesis of the hypertension.

  12. Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Hanna; Freier, Korbinian P; Gierig, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg(-1) dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg(-1) dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a(-1) in 2008 to 1.5 t a(-1) in 2013. PMID:27472434

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  14. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  15. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  16. Effects of selenite on chlorophyll fluorescence, starch content and fatty acid in the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Yang; Cheng, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    Developing a Se-enriched feed for animal has become a considerable effort. In this study, Landoltia punctata 7449 was grown over a 12 day period under concentrations of selenite (Na2SeO3) from 0 to 80 μmol L(-1). The growth rate, the chlorophyll fluorescence, the starch content and fatty acid were measured. Se at low concentrations of ≤20 μmol L(-1) had positive effects also on growth rate, fatty acid content and yield of the L. punctata. The appropriate Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. However, negative impact to the L. punctata was observed when the duckweed was exposed to high Se concentrations (≥40 μmol L(-1)). Significant increases in starch content in the duckweed were observed after Se application. The present study suggests that the changes in growth rate, the photosynthetic system, the starch content and the fatty acid were closely associated with the application of Se. An increased Se concentration (0-20 μmol L(-1)) in duckweed could positively induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the yield of L. punctata and could be a resource for high nutritive quality Se-enrich feed.

  17. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  18. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  19. Agriculture intensification decreases soil C content and respiration activity in a Mediterranean Vertisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Roberta; Francaviglia, Rosa; Felici, Barbara; Renzi, Gianluca; Troccoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of intensive and non-conservative farming practices in Mediterranean areas, often causes a strong reduction of soil organic C, with major side effects on soil functioning and CO2 emissions to atmosphere. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the effect of durum wheat-(Triticum durum Desf.) (DW) based rotations, common in Southern Italy, on soil organic C content and soil potential respiration, after 19 years of cultivation. The rotation experiment was carried out since 1992 in Foggia (Apulia, Italy) at the experimental farm of the Cereal Research Centre in a clayey vertisol. Here we report results concerning two rotations, among seven: continuous durum wheat (CDW) and bare fallow-durum wheat-durum wheat- (BF-DW-DW) compared with an adjoining soil, covered with permanent grassland undisturbed, since 1972, considered at steady state. Results showed a negative trend of soil C in both rotations. The C reduction respect to the undisturbed soil (14.5 g C kg-1 of soil) were 0.15 and 0.13% for CDW and BF-DW-DW, respectively. Daily soil potential respiration was always higher in the undisturbed soil: it was 13.65, 10.46 and 8.64 mg C-CO2/kg soil day-1, for undisturbed soil, BF-DW-DW and DWC respectively. The cumulative respiration in 28 days for CDW and BF-DW-DW rotations compared with undisturbed soil was lower by 23 and 32%, respectively. Among the two rotations compared, BF-DW-DW showed to be slightly more conservative than the DWC rotation for soil C, even though none of the two rotations was able to keep the soil C level at values comparable to steady state, due both to soil disturbance and to lower C inputs respect to the permanent cover.

  20. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase Decreases Expression of Stemness Markers in Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yasumoto, Yuki; Miyazaki, Hirofumi; Vaidyan, Linda Koshy; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Ebrahimi, Majid; Yamamoto, Yui; Ogata, Masaki; Katsuyama, Yu; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Owada, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolic changes, especially to lipid metabolism, have recently been recognized as a hallmark of various cancer cells. However, little is known about the significance of cellular lipid metabolism in the regulation of biological activity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined the expression and role of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme, in GSCs. In the de novo lipid synthesis assay, GSCs exhibited higher lipogenesis than differentiated non-GSCs. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses revealed that FASN is strongly expressed in multiple lines of patient-derived GSCs (G144 and Y10), but its expression was markedly reduced upon differentiation. When GSCs were treated with 20 μM cerulenin, a pharmacological inhibitor of FASN, their proliferation and migration were significantly suppressed and de novo lipogenesis decreased. Furthermore, following cerulenin treatment, expression of the GSC markers nestin, Sox2 and fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), markers of GCSs, decreased while that of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression increased. Taken together, our results indicate that FASN plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of GSC stemness, and FASN-mediated de novo lipid biosynthesis is closely associated with tumor growth and invasion in glioblastoma. PMID:26808816

  1. Retinoic acid treatment of fibroblasts causes a rapid decrease in ( sup 3 H)inositol uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Creek, K.E.; Silverman-Jones, C.; de Luca, L.M. )

    1989-04-01

    NIH 3T3 fibroblasts treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) showed a dramatic decrease in the uptake of ({sup 3}H)inositol compared to solvent-treated controls. The onset of RA-induced inhibition of ({sup 3}H)inositol uptake was rapid with a 10-15% decrease occurring after 2-3 h of RA exposure and 60-70% reduction after 16 h of RA treatment. A progressive dose-dependent decrease in inositol uptake was found as the concentration of RA increased from 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}5} M and the effect was fully reversible within 48 h after RA removal. RA inhibition of inositol uptake was also observed in 3T3-Swiss and Balb/3T3 cells but not in two virally transformed 3T3 cell lines. Phlorizin, amiloride, and monensin inhibited inositol uptake by 66, 74, and 58%, respectively, and this inhibition was additive when the cells were treated with RA as well as these inhibitors. A decreased incorporation of ({sup 3}H)inositol into polyphosphoinositides was also observed in RA-treated cells but not to the same extent as for ({sup 3}H)inositol uptake. In conclusion, RA treatment of 3T3 fibroblasts decreases the uptake of ({sup 3}H)inositol by up to 70% within 8 to 10 h at near physiological concentrations in a reversible and specific manner.

  2. Decreased acid deposition and the chemical recovery of Killarney, Ontario, lakes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Wendel; Heneberry, Jocelyne H; Dixit, Sushil S

    2003-04-01

    Lakes in Killarney Park near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, have shown dramatic water quality changes including general increases in pH and alkalinity, and decreases in SO4(2-), base cations and metals. While some lakes have recovered to pH > 6.0, many are still highly acidic despite decades of improvement. Very high historical S deposition related to emissions from the Sudbury metal smelters dominated the acidification process in this region. However, since the implementation of substantial S emission controls (90%) at the smelters, the Sudbury emissions are no longer the major source of S deposition in the Sudbury area. Wet deposition of SO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in lakewaters at Killarney now approach values in the Dorset, Ontario, area, about 200 km from Sudbury. This suggests that the S deposition to the Killarney area is now primarily from long-range transport, not from local sources. Studies of Killarney lakes are revealing the complex nature of the chemical recovery process. As lake acidity decreases, other changes including decreased Ca2+ concentrations, increased transparency, and altered thermal regimes may potentially affect some of these ecosystems. It is clear that continuing assessments of the recovery of Killarney lakes, within a multiple-stressor framework, are needed.

  3. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits.

  4. Acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid decrease tumor cell viability and glucose metabolism modulating 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Guilherme A; Furtado, Cristiane M; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Zancan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The common observation that cancer cells present higher glycolytic rates when compared to control cells leads to the proposal of glycolysis as a potential target for the development of anti-tumoral agents. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA), present anti-tumoral properties, inducing apoptosis and altering tumor glucose utilization. The present work aims at evaluating whether ASA could directly decrease cell glycolysis through inhibition of the major regulatory enzyme within this pathway, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK). We show that ASA and SA inhibit purified PFK in a dose-dependent manner, and that this inhibition occurs due to the modulation of the enzyme quaternary structure. ASA and SA promote the dissociation of the enzyme active tetramers into quite inactive dimers, a common regulatory mechanism of this enzyme. The inhibitory effects of ASA and SA on PFK are fully reversible and can be prevented or reverted by the binding of the enzyme to the actin filaments. Both drugs are also able to decrease glucose consumption by human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, as well as its viability, which decrease parallelly to the inhibition of PFK on these cells. In the end, we demonstrate the ability of ASA and SA to directly modulate an important regulatory intracellular enzyme, and propose that this is one of their mechanisms promoting anti-tumoral effects.

  5. Decreased hepatic contents of coenzyme A molecular species in mice after subchronic mild social defeat stress.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshifumi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Hagiya, Yuki; Chohnan, Shigeru; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychiatric disorders such as depression, which is related to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated the effects of social stress on central and peripheral metabolism using a model of depression in mice. In the present study, we focused on coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species [i.e. non-esterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA] which play important roles in numerous metabolic pathways, and we analyzed changes in expression of these molecules in the hypothalamus and liver of adult male mice (C57BL/6J) subjected to 10 days of subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) with ICR mice as aggressors. Mice (n = 12) exposed to showed hyperphagia- and polydipsia-like symptoms and increased body weight gain compared with control mice which were not affected by exposure to ICR mice (n = 12). To elucidate the underlying metabolic features in the sCSDS model, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and CoASH tissue levels were analyzed using the acyl-CoA cycling method. The levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, which decreases feeding behavior, were not influenced by sCSDS. However, sCSDS reduced levels of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and total CoA (sum of the three CoA molecular species) in the liver. Hence, hyperphagia-like symptoms in sCSDS mice evidently occurred independently of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, but might consequently lead to down-regulation of hepatic CoA via altered expression of nudix hydrolase 7. Future studies should investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the down-regulation of liver CoA pools in sCSDS mice.

  6. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time. PMID:17415952

  7. Tranexamic Acid Decreases Incidence of Blood Transfusion in Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bagsby, Deren T; Samujh, Christopher A; Vissing, Jacqueline L; Empson, Janene A; Pomeroy, Donald L; Malkani, Arthur L

    2015-12-01

    Blood management for simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients is more challenging than in unilateral arthroplasty. We examined if administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA would reduce blood loss and decrease allogeneic blood transfusion requirements. A retrospective review of 103 patients, 57 in the control and 46 in the TXA group, was performed. There was higher postoperative day 1 hemoglobin in patients receiving TXA (2.95±1.33 versus 4.33±1.19, P<0.0001). There was also a decrease in the transfusion incidence with administration of TXA (17.4% versus 57.9%, P<0.0001). In conclusion, we have shown that TXA is an effective tool in reducing the transfusion rates by almost 70% in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  8. Decreased solubilization of Pu(IV) polymers by humic acids under anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lin, Jianfeng; Liang, Wei; Li, Mei; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2016-11-01

    Pu(IV) polymer has a very low solubility (log[Pu(IV)aq]total = -10.4 at pH 7.2 and I = 0). However, some aspects of their environmental fate remain unclear. Humic acids are able to complex with Pu4+ ions and their dissolved species (<10 kD) in the groundwater (neutral to alkaline pH) may cause solubilization of the polymers. Also, humic acids have the native reducing capacity and potentially reduce the polymeric Pu(IV) to Pu(III)aq (log[Pu(III)aq]total = -5.3 at pH 7.2 and I = 0). Solubilization and reduction of the polymers can enhance their mobility in subsurface environments. Nevertheless, humic acids readily coat the surfaces of metal oxides via electrostatic interaction and ligand exchange mechanisms. The humic coatings are expected to prevent both solubilization and reduction of the polymers. Experiments were conducted under anoxic and slightly alkaline (pH 7.2) conditions in order to study whether humic acids have effects on stability of the polymers. The results show that the polymeric Pu(IV) was almost completely transformed into aqueous Pu(IV) in the presence of EDTA ligands. In contrast, the dissolved humic acids did not solubilize the polymers but in fact decreased their solubility by one order of magnitude. The humic coatings were responsible for the decreased solubilization. Such coatings limited the contact between the polymers and EDTA ligands, especially at the relatively high concentrations of humic acids (>0.57 mg/L). Solubilization of the humic-coated polymers was thus inhibited to a significant extent although EDTA, having the great complexation ability, was present in the humic solutions. Reduction of Pu(IV) polymers by the humic acids was also not observed in the absence of EDTA. In the presence of EDTA, the polymers were partially reduced to Pu(III)aq by the humic acids of 0.57 mg/L and the percentage of Pu(III)aq accounted for 51.7% of the total aqueous Pu. This demonstrates that the humic acids were able to reduce the aqueous Pu

  9. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding.

  10. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  11. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  12. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  13. Changes in the Content of Biogenic Amines and Fatty Acids in High Pressure-Processed Carp Flesh (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    KříŽek, Martin; Matějkoá, Kateřina; Dadáková, Eva; Špička, Jiří; Vácha, František; Vrchotová, NaděŽda

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic amine and fatty acid contents were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Samples were pressure treated at 300 and 500 MPa and were stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 28 days (control, 0 MPa) and 70 days (pressure-treated). The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine and cadaverine were influenced by all factors (temperature, pressurization level, and time of storage). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of sample; levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated both the loss of meat freshness and temperature abuse, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Neither storage temperature nor pressurization level had a statistically important effect on the contents of fatty acids. Only polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly if the storage time exceeded 42 days.

  14. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth characteristics and biochemical content of wheat seeds under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the phytotoxic effect of As on wheat seedlings and pre-application of salicylic acid in alleviating toxic effect of arsenic. Wheat seedlings treated with different concentrations (50-400 μM) of arsenic decreased the germination rate (34.7% and 86.9%), root and coleptile length, fresh and dry weight of roots and coleoptile, chlorophyll (67%) and protein content (27.1%), while increased proline and MDA content. However, pretreatment with 1mM saliycilic acid partially alleviated the toxic effect of arsenic on germination parameters and significantly reduced the proline (181.2%) and MDA (80%) content thereby increasing chlorophyll and protein content in As stressed wheat plants (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The data suggests that saliycilic acid reduced the damaging effects generated by As and enhanced the tolerance of wheat plants to arsenic toxicity.

  15. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  16. Effect of particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation treatments on phytic acid content and some physicochemical properties of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Pashangeh, Safoora; Farahnaky, Asgar; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi; Jamalian, Jalal

    2014-10-01

    With the aim of reducing phytic acid content of wheat bran, particle size reduction (from 1,200 to 90 μm), hydrothermal (wet steeping in acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 55 °C for 60 min) and fermentation (using bakery yeast for 8 h at 30 °C) and combination of these treatments with particle size reduction were applied and their effects on some properties of the bran were studied. Phytic acid content decreased from 50.1 to 21.6, 32.8 and 43.9 mg/g after particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation, respectively. Particle size reduction along with these treatments further reduced phytic acid content up to 76.4 % and 57.3 %, respectively. Hydrothermal and fermentation decreased, while particle size reduction alone or in combination increased bran lightness. With reducing particle size, total, soluble and insoluble fiber content decreased from 69.7 to 32.1 %, 12.2 to 7.9 % and 57.4 to 24.3 %, respectively. The highest total (74.4 %) and soluble (21.4 %) and the lowest insoluble fiber (52.1 %) content were determined for the hydrothermaled bran. Particle size reduction decreased swelling power, water solubility and water holding capacity. Swelling power and water holding capacity of the hydrothermaled and fermented brans were lower, while water solubility was higher than the control. The amount of Fe(+2), Zn(+2) and Ca(+2) decreased with reducing particle size. Fermentation had no effect on Fe(+2)and Zn(+2) but slightly reduced Ca(+2). The hydrothermal treatment slightly decreased these elements. Amongst all, hydrothermal treatment along with particle size reduction resulted in the lowest phytic acid and highest fiber content. PMID:25328222

  17. Lithocholic acid decreases expression of bile salt export pump through farnesoid X receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinghua; Lo, Jane-L; Huang, Li; Zhao, Annie; Metzger, Edward; Adams, Alan; Meinke, Peter T; Wright, Samuel D; Cui, Jisong

    2002-08-30

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a major bile acid transporter in the liver. Mutations in BSEP result in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis, a severe liver disease that impairs bile flow and causes irreversible liver damage. BSEP is a target for inhibition and down-regulation by drugs and abnormal bile salt metabolites, and such inhibition and down-regulation may result in bile acid retention and intrahepatic cholestasis. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the regulation of BSEP expression by FXR ligands in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that BSEP expression is dramatically regulated by ligands of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Both the endogenous FXR agonist chenodeoxycholate (CDCA) and synthetic FXR ligand GW4064 effectively increased BSEP mRNA in both cell types. This up-regulation was readily detectable at as early as 3 h, and the ligand potency for BSEP regulation correlates with the intrinsic activity on FXR. These results suggest BSEP as a direct target of FXR and support the recent report that the BSEP promoter is transactivated by FXR. In contrast to CDCA and GW4064, lithocholate (LCA), a hydrophobic bile acid and a potent inducer of cholestasis, strongly decreased BSEP expression. Previous studies did not identify LCA as an FXR antagonist ligand in cells, but we show here that LCA is an FXR antagonist with partial agonist activity in cells. In an in vitro co-activator association assay, LCA decreased CDCA- and GW4064-induced FXR activation with an IC(50) of 1 microm. In HepG2 cells, LCA also effectively antagonized GW4064-enhanced FXR transactivation. These data suggest that the toxic and cholestatic effect of LCA in animals may result from its down-regulation of BSEP through FXR. Taken together, these observations indicate that FXR plays an important role in BSEP gene expression and that FXR ligands may be potential therapeutic drugs for intrahepatic cholestasis.

  18. Poly-lactic-glycolic-acid surface nanotopographies selectively decrease breast adenocarcinoma cell functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-04-01

    The ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50 PLG/PGA, wt%) nanotopographies to decrease lung epithelial carcinoma cell functions (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion) has been previously reported. Specifically, results demonstrated decreased lung epithelial carcinoma cell VEGF synthesis on 23 nm surface-featured PLGA compared to traditional nanosmooth PLGA. However, clearly, different cell lines could have different behaviors on similar biomaterials. Thus, to investigate the universality of nanopatterned PLGA substrates to inhibit numerous cancer cell functions, here, breast epithelial adenocarcinoma cell (MCF-7) adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and VEGF secretion were determined on different PLGA nanometer surface topographies. To isolate surface nanotopographical effects from all other surface properties, PLGA surfaces with various nanotopographies but similar chemistry and hydrophobicity were fabricated here. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified the varied nanotopographies on the PLGA surfaces prepared in this study. Importantly, results demonstrated for the first time significantly decreased breast adenocarcinoma cell functions (including decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis and decreased VEGF synthesis) on 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA surface topographies fabricated (specifically, nanosmooth, 300 and 400 nm surface-featured PLGA surfaces). In contrast, healthy breast epithelial cells proliferated more (24%) on the 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA samples. In summary, these results provided further insights into understanding the role PLGA surface nanotopographies can have on cancer cell functions and, more importantly, open the possibility of using polymer nanotopographies for a wide range of anticancer regenerative medicine applications (without resorting to the use of chemotherapeutics).

  19. [Effect of the B-group vitamin complex on the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vodoevich, V P; Buko, V U

    1986-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, under the influence of the functionally-associated vitamin-B complex, in 45 patients with coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. The vitamins were given daily in the following doses: thiamine diphosphate 50 mg, riboflavine 40 mg, calcium pantothenate 200 mg, nicotinic acid 200 mg and lipoic acid 50 mg. Favourable shifts leading to positive clinical effects were recorded in the fatty acid metabolism after 10-day taking the vitamin-B complex: the content of unsaturated (linoleic and arachidonic) fatty acids increased while that of saturated (stearic and palmitic) fatty acids decreased. PMID:3705551

  20. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings.

  1. [Effects of simulated acid rain and its acidified soil on soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanhe; Liang, Huiling

    2005-08-01

    The study showed that the cation release of simulated rain caused soil acidification and base ions release. With the decrease of simulated acid rain pH from 5.6 to 2.5, the acid rain-leached soil pH decreased from 6.06 to 3.41, and its total amount of exchange base ions decreased from 56.5 to 41.1 mmol x kg(-1). Spraying simulated acid rain on the shoots of wheat seedlings planted on such acidified soils caused a rapid decrease in the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents of wheat seedlings, and reduced some of their physiological activities. The effect of spraying simulated acid rain on the soluble sugar, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of wheat stems and leaves was larger than that of acidified soil, while the effect of the latter on the soluble sugar and nitrogen contents and the physiological activity of NR and GOGAT in root system of wheat seedlings was larger than that of the former. The intensive acid rain of pH < or = 3.0 and the corresponding acidified soil had an obvious harm to the growth and physiological activity of wheat seedlings. PMID:16262064

  2. Role of a decrease in body heat content in the thermoregulatory reaction of the concha auriculae vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slepchuk, N. A.; Rumyantsev, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    At the constant ambient temperature 28-30 C the rabbit ear vessels were dilated and their temperature was 34.8/0.1 C. Administration of the 23-29 C water into the stomach entailed thermoregulatory construction of the ear vessels within 15-25 min. The response occurred at various combinations of temperature changes in different parts of the body. The heat content of the rabbit body, as calculated by the blood temperature in the aorta arc, reduced by 266.3 + or - 26.2 cal/kg at the beginning of the response. The decrease in the organism heat content seems to serve as a signal for occurrence of a corresponding thermoregulatory response.

  3. Acupuncture inhibits the decrease in brain catecholamine contents and the impairment of passive avoidance task in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Toriizuka, K; Okumura, M; Iijima, K; Haruyama, K; Cyong, J C

    1999-01-01

    The effects of acupuncture on the disorders elicited by abnormalities of endocrine system were investigated in ovariectomized mice. Female mice (strain; C57BL/6) were ovariectomized (OVX) and acupuncture points, Shenshu ([Japanese pictograph see text] : BL23) on both side of the back were continuously stimulated by subcutaneous needles for 20 days. After completion of experimental sessions, animals were sacrificed and specific brain regions were assayed for catecholamine contents by high performance liquid chromatography with electro chemical detector (ECD-HPLC). The mitogenic activities of splenic lymphocytes were measured by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTS) assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Furthermore, the effects of needle stimulation on learning and memory ability were studied by the step-through type passive avoidance test. Norepinephrine and dopamine contents in the frontoparietal cerebral cortex, ventral hippocampus and olfactory bulb were decreased in the OVX group, and both MTS activity and ALP activity were decreased 20 days after ovariectomy. The mean latent period was also shortened in the passive avoidance test in the OVX group. However, applying needle stimulation increased norepinephrine and dopamine contents in the brain regions, and enhanced mitogenic activities of splenic lymphocytes. The stimulation also improved memory-related behavior. It was concluded from this study that after mice were stimulated by subcutaneous needle insertion, overall changes were observed in central nervous system (including retention of memory) and immune functions. The study suggests that acupuncture improves the memory loss and decrease of immune responses accompanying aging and/or menopause, and the that it may have an important role in medical care for the elderly.

  4. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  5. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen. PMID:25345052

  6. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  7. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  8. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gonzalez-Reyes, Susana; Juarez-Figueroa, Ulises E.; Gonzalez, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs. PMID:23533689

  9. Hormone-sensitive lipase activity and triacylglycerol hydrolysis are decreased in rat soleus muscle by cyclopiazonic acid.

    PubMed

    Watt, Matthew J; Steinberg, Gregory R; Heigenhauser, G J F; Spriet, Lawrence L; Dyck, David J

    2003-08-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor that increases intracellular calcium. The role of CPA in regulating the oxidation and esterification of palmitate, the hydrolysis of intramuscular lipids, and the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was examined in isolated rat soleus muscles at rest. CPA (40 micro M) was added to the incubation medium to levels that resulted in subcontraction increases in muscle tension, and lipid metabolism was monitored using the previously described pulse-chase procedure. CPA did not alter the cellular energy state, as reflected by similar muscle contents of ATP, phosphocreatine, free AMP, and free ADP. CPA increased total palmitate uptake into soleus muscle (11%, P < 0.05) and was without effect on palmitate oxidation. This resulted in greater esterification of exogenous palmitate into the triacylglycerol (18%, P < 0.05) and phospholipid (89%, P < 0.05) pools. CPA decreased (P < 0.05) intramuscular lipid hydrolysis, and this occurred as a result of reduced HSL activity (20%, P < 0.05). Incubation of muscles with 3 mM caffeine, which is also known to increase Ca2+ without affecting the cellular energy state, reduced HSL activity (24%, P < 0.05). KN-93, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CaMKII), blocked the effects of CPA and caffeine, and HSL activity returned to preincubation values. The results of the present study demonstrate that CPA simultaneously decreases intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) hydrolysis and promotes lipid storage in isolated, intact soleus muscle. The decreased IMTG hydrolysis is likely mediated by reduced HSL activity, possibly via the CaMKII pathway. These responses are not consistent with the increased hydrolysis and decreased esterification observed in contracting muscle when substrate availability and the hormonal milieu are tightly controlled. It is possible that more powerful signals or a higher [Ca2+] may override the lipid-storage effect of the CPA

  10. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and... foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a food... product or main dish product, less than 0.5 g of fat per labeled serving; and (ii) The food contains...

  11. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. Methods A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. Results The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41–79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Conclusion Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes. PMID:24588940

  12. Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H; Nagamani, Sandesh C S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we evaluated whether treatment with NaPBA leads to a decrease in plasma BCAA levels. Our analysis shows that NaPBA use independently affects the plasma BCAA levels even after accounting for multiple confounding covariates. Moreover, NaPBA use increases the risk for BCAA deficiency. This effect of NaPBA seems specific to plasma BCAA levels, as levels of other essential amino acids are not altered by its use. Our study, in an unselected population of UCD subjects, is the largest to analyze the effects of NaPBA on BCAA metabolism and potentially has significant clinical implications. Our results indicate that plasma BCAA levels should to be monitored in patients treated with NaPBA since patients taking the medication are at increased risk for BCAA deficiency. On a broader scale, these findings could open avenues to explore NaPBA as a therapy in maple syrup urine disease and other common complex disorders with dysregulation of BCAA metabolism. PMID:25042691

  13. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  14. Estradiol decreases taurine level by reducing cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase via the estrogen receptor-α in female mice liver.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiwang; Zhao, Jianjun; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jiali; Cui, Sheng

    2015-02-15

    Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) and cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) are two rate-limiting enzymes in taurine de novo synthesis, and their expressions are associated with estrogen concentration. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E₂) and taurine in female mice liver. We initially observed the mice had lower levels of CSAD, CDO, and taurine during estrus than diestrus. We then, respectively, treated the ovariectomized mice, the cultured hepatocytes, and Hep G2 cells with different doses of E₂, and the CSAD and CDO expressions and taurine levels were analyzed. The results showed that E₂ decreased taurine level in the serum and the cultured cells by inhibiting CSAD and CDO expressions. Furthermore, we identified the molecular receptor types through which E₂ plays its role in regulating taurine synthesis, and our results showed that estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was much higher than estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) in the liver and hepatocytes, and the inhibiting effects of E₂ on CSAD, CDO, and taurine level were partially abrogated in the ICI-182,780-pretreated liver and hepatocytes, and in ERα knockout mice. These results indicate that estradiol decreases taurine content by reducing taurine biosynthetic enzyme expression in mice liver.

  15. Warming decreased and grazing increased plant uptake of amino acids in an alpine meadow.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lirong; Che, Rongxiao; Wang, Fang; Liu, Hanke; Niu, Haishan; Wang, Shiping; Cui, Xiaoyong

    2015-09-01

    Organic nitrogen (N) uptake by plants has been recognized as a significant component of terrestrial N cycle. Several studies indicated that plants have the ability to switch their preference between inorganic and organic forms of N in diverse environments; however, research on plant community response in organic nitrogen uptake to warming and grazing is scarce. Here, we demonstrated that organic N uptake by an alpine plant community decreased under warming with (13)C-(15)N-enriched glycine addition method. After 6 years of treatment, warming decreased plant organic N uptake by 37% as compared to control treatment. Under the condition of grazing, warming reduced plant organic N uptake by 44%. Grazing alone significantly increased organic N absorption by 15%, whereas under warming condition grazing did not affect organic N uptake by the Kobresia humilis community on Tibetan Plateau. Besides, soil NO 3-N content explained more than 70% of the variability observed in glycine uptake, and C:N ratio in soil dissolved organic matter remarkably increased under warming treatment. These results suggested warming promoted soil microbial activity and dissolved organic N mineralization. Grazing stimulated organic N uptake by plants, which counteracted the effect of warming. PMID:26442646

  16. Increased physical activity decreases hepatic free fatty acid uptake: a study in human monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Hannukainen, Jarna C; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ronald, Borra; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Janatuinen, Tuula; Heinonen, Olli J; Kapanen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Haaparanta, Merja; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Parkkola, Riitta; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2007-01-01

    Exercise is considered to be beneficial for free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, although reports of the effects of increased physical activity on FFA uptake and oxidation in different tissues in vivo in humans have been inconsistent. To investigate the heredity-independent effects of physical activity and fitness on FFA uptake in skeletal muscle, the myocardium, and liver we used positron emission tomography (PET) in nine healthy young male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity and fitness. The cotwins with higher physical activity constituting the more active group had a similar body mass index but less body fat and 18 ± 10% higher V˙O2,max (P < 0.001) compared to the less active brothers with lower physical activity. Low-intensity knee-extension exercise increased skeletal muscle FFA and oxygen uptake six to 10 times compared to resting values but no differences were observed between the groups at rest or during exercise. At rest the more active group had lower hepatic FFA uptake compared to the less active group (5.5 ± 4.3 versus 9.0 ± 6.1 μmol (100 ml)−1 min−1, P = 0.04). Hepatic FFA uptake associated significantly with body fat percentage (P = 0.05). Myocardial FFA uptake was similar between the groups. In conclusion, in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors, moderately increased physical activity and aerobic fitness decrease body adiposity even in normal-weighted healthy young adult men. Further, increased physical activity together with decreased intra-abdominal adiposity seems to decrease hepatic FFA uptake but has no effects on skeletal muscle or myocardial FFA uptake. PMID:17053033

  17. ABCG2 dysfunction increases serum uric acid by decreased intestinal urate excretion.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tappei; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Murakami, Keizo; Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Kasuga, Hiroshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), also known as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is identified as a high-capacity urate exporter and its dysfunction has an association with serum uric acid (SUA) levels and gout/hyperuricemia risk. However, pathophysiologically important pathway(s) responsible for the ABCG2-mediated urate excretion were unknown. In this study, we investigated how ABCG2 dysfunction affected the urate excretion pathways. First, we revealed that mouse Abcg2 mediates urate transport using the membrane vesicle system. The export process by mouse Abcg2 was ATP-dependent and not saturable under the physiological concentration of urate. Then, we characterized the excretion of urate into urine, bile, and intestinal lumen using in vivo mouse model. SUA of Abcg2-knockout mice was significantly higher than that of control mice. Under this condition, the renal urate excretion was increased in Abcg2-knockout mice, whereas the urate excretion from the intestine was decreased to less than a half. Biliary urate excretion showed no significant difference regardless of Abcg2 genotype. From these results, we estimated the relative contribution of each pathway to total urate excretion; in wild-type mice, the renal excretion pathway contributes approximately two-thirds, the intestinal excretion pathway contributes one-third of the total urate excretion, and the urate excretion into bile is minor. Decreased intestinal excretion could account for the increased SUA of Abcg2-knockout mice. Thus, ABCG2 is suggested to have an important role in extra-renal urate excretion, especially in intestinal excretion. Accordingly, increased SUA in patients with ABCG2 dysfunction could be explained by the decreased excretion of urate from the intestine.

  18. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development. PMID:25878356

  19. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development.

  20. Prolonged swimming exercise does not affect contents and fatty acids composition of rat muscle triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether or not muscle triacylglycerol (MTG) contributed as a main energy source and MTG level and utilized fatty acid (FA) composition decreased during a 4-hour swimming exercise in rats fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixty male Wistar rats aged 5 weeks were fed a normal diet (CE-2, n = 25, experiment A) or HFD (n = 35, experiment B) for 22 days. On the final day, rats in both experiments were killed either without exercise or 1, 2, 3, or 4 hours after beginning the swimming exercise. MTG accumulation was higher in rats fed the HFD than those fed the CE-2 in both slow- and fast-typed muscles. Serum concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose were increased and muscle glycogen contents were decreased with the continuance of swimming exercise, especially in rats fed the CE-2. The prolonged swimming did not influence MTG contents and FA compositions of MTG in either the experiment. These results might indicate that specific FA of MTG was not oxidized and MTG did not contribute as a main energy source during the prolonged swimming exercise in rats; instead, serum FFA, glucose, and muscle glycogen were mainly used.

  1. Ribonucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and Protein Content of Cells of Different Ages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Relationship to Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Anne S.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1968-01-01

    The amount of ribonucleic acid (RNA), protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was determined in pellicle cultures of different ages of the H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, grown on a synthetic medium. We found that the highest content of RNA and protein was present in 2-week-old cultures, indicating that these cells were in the logarithmic phase of growth. DNA content was highest at 1 and 2 weeks. The amount of all three compounds then decreased about 50% during the following 6 weeks. Two-week-old cells should therefore be used for preparation of the immunogenic ribosomal fraction. The optimal concentration of zinc chloride increased RNA and protein synthesis, and also improved the appearance of the pellicle growth. Two-week-old cells, which contained the largest amount of RNA and protein, immunized mice significantly better than older cells. Since protein and DNA are not involved in the production of immunity, a correlation could be made between amount of RNA and the capacity of viable H37Ra cells to immunize mice. The immunizing capacity of these cells was not affected by ribonuclease, probably because the ribonuclease did not penetrate into the whole cells. PMID:4966539

  2. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics.

  3. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  4. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  5. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  6. Boric acid-dependent decrease in regulatory histone H3 acetylation is not mutagenic in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Schmidt, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast commonly found on human mucosal membranes that switches from yeast to hyphal morphology in response to environmental factors. The change to hyphal growth requires histone H3 modifications by the yeast-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. In addition to its role in morphogenesis, Rtt109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residues 9 and 56 has regulatory functions during DNA replication and repair. Boric acid (BA) is a broad-spectrum agent that specifically inhibits C. albicans hyphal growth, locking the fungus in its harmless commensal yeast state. The present study characterizes the effect of BA on C. albicans histone acetylation in respect to specificity, time-course and significance. We demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of BA reduce H3K9/H3K56 acetylation, both on a basal level and in response to genotoxic stress. Acetylation at other selected histone sites were not affected by BA. qRT-PCR expression analysis of the DNA repair gene Rad51 indicated no elevated level of genotoxic stress during BA exposure. A forward-mutation analysis demonstrated the BA does not increase spontaneous or induced mutations. The findings suggest that DNA repair remains effective even when histone H3 acetylation decreases and dispels the notion that BA treatment impairs genome integrity in yeast. PMID:27190149

  7. Boric acid-dependent decrease in regulatory histone H3 acetylation is not mutagenic in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Schmidt, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast commonly found on human mucosal membranes that switches from yeast to hyphal morphology in response to environmental factors. The change to hyphal growth requires histone H3 modifications by the yeast-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. In addition to its role in morphogenesis, Rtt109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residues 9 and 56 has regulatory functions during DNA replication and repair. Boric acid (BA) is a broad-spectrum agent that specifically inhibits C. albicans hyphal growth, locking the fungus in its harmless commensal yeast state. The present study characterizes the effect of BA on C. albicans histone acetylation in respect to specificity, time-course and significance. We demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of BA reduce H3K9/H3K56 acetylation, both on a basal level and in response to genotoxic stress. Acetylation at other selected histone sites were not affected by BA. qRT-PCR expression analysis of the DNA repair gene Rad51 indicated no elevated level of genotoxic stress during BA exposure. A forward-mutation analysis demonstrated the BA does not increase spontaneous or induced mutations. The findings suggest that DNA repair remains effective even when histone H3 acetylation decreases and dispels the notion that BA treatment impairs genome integrity in yeast.

  8. Retinoic acid reverses the PTU related decrease in neurogranin level in mice brain.

    PubMed

    Enderlin, V; Vallortigara, J; Alfos, S; Féart, C; Pallet, V; Higueret, P

    2004-09-01

    Recent data have shown that fine regulation of retinoid mediated gene expression is fundamentally important for optimal brain functioning in aged mice. Nevertheless, alteration of the thyroid hormone signalling pathway may be a limiting factor, which impedes retinoic acid (RA) from exerting its modulating effect. Mild hypothyroidism is often described in the elderly. Thus, in the present study, it was of interest to determine if RA exerts its neurological modulating effect in mild hypothyroidism. To obtain further insight into this question, mice were submitted to a low propylthiouracyl (PTU) drink (0.05%) in order to slightly reduce the serum level of triiodothyronine (T3). A quantitative evaluation of RA nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR), T3 nuclear receptor (TR) and of neurogranin (RC3, a RA target gene which codes for a protein considered as a good marker of synaptic plasticity) in PTU treated mice injected with vehicle or RA or T3 was carried out. The PTU-related decrease in expression of RAR, RXR and RC3 was restored following RA or T3 administration, as observed in aged mice. The amount of TR mRNA, which was not affected in PTU treated mice, was increased only after T3 treatment as observed in overt hypothyroidism. These results suggest that neurobiological alterations observed in aged mice are probably related to RA and T3 signalling pathway modifications associated, in part, with mild changes in thyroid function.

  9. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  10. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  11. Large decreases in ionospheric total electron content as a result of thermospheric composition changes during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigwarth, J. B.; Foster, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    The geomagnetic storms of April 17-21,2002 and May 29-30,2003 caused large decreases in the O/N2 column density ratio in the thermosphere. For these storms, ON2 column density decreases of greater than 50% were observed to extend to mid-to-low latitudes with the FUV sensitive Earth Camera of the Visible Imaging System (VIS) on the Polar spacecraft. Simultaneously in these same regions, the ground-based GPS network observed approximately 80% reductions in the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere. The reduction in the Om2 column density ratio is due mainly to increases in the molecular species that have welled-up into the thermosphere from the lower levels of the atmosphere due to auroral heating. The geomagnetic-storm driven increase in molecular densities at typical ionospheric heights rapidly charge exchange with the ambient ionized atoms and subsequently dissociatively recombine with the ionospheric electrons leading to a reduction in the total charge density. The transition boundaries between high and low regions of O/N2 as well as TEC can be tracked in the images and the thermospheric winds can be determined from the motion of the boundaries. The motion of these boundaries during the development of the geomagnetic storm will be discussed.

  12. Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    di Rocco, A; Bottiglieri, T; Dorfman, D; Werner, P; Morrison, C; Simpson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to HVA levels in CSF in a group of 13 healthy control subjects. HIV-infected patients were also assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic tests and HVA levels were then correlated with performance on specific neuropsychologic tests. The mean (+/-SD) HVA level in CSF was 100.9 +/- 29.3 nmol/L in the HIV-infected study group and 230.5 +/- 50.0 nmol/L in the non-HIV-infected control group (p < 0.0001). The decrease in concentrations of HVA in CSF correlated with impairment on performance on neuropsychologic testing (Spearman r = 0.67; p = 0.03). When the relationship between HVA levels and specific cognitive domains was evaluated, we observed trends for positive correlation between HVA levels and tests that measure motor speed (r = 0.59; p = 0.074) and those testing attention, concentration, and executive control (r = 0.54; p = 0.108). There was no relationship between performance on memory tests and CSF HVA levels (r = -0.0061; p = 0.987). These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and suggest that specific motor and cognitive abnormalities may be related to depressed dopaminergic activity. This may have important implications for the development of treatments or preventive strategies for ADC. PMID:11020122

  13. Gallic acid decreases hepatitis C virus expression through its antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    GOVEA-SALAS, MAYELA; RIVAS-ESTILLA, ANA MARIA; RODRÍGUEZ-HERRERA, RAUL; LOZANO-SEPÚLVEDA, SONIA A.; AGUILAR-GONZALEZ, CRISTOBAL N.; ZUGASTI-CRUZ, ALEJANDRO; SALAS-VILLALOBOS, TANYA B.; MORLETT-CHÁVEZ, JESUS ANTONIO

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a natural phenolic compound that possesses various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, anticancer, antiviral and cardiovascular protection activities. In addition, numerous studies have reported that antioxidants possess antiviral activities. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver diseases worldwide, but until recently, only a small number of antiviral agents had been developed against HCV. Therefore, the present study investigated whether GA exhibits an anti-HCV activity. The effects of GA on HCV expression were examined using a subgenomic HCV replicon cell culture system that expressed HCV nonstructural proteins (NSs). In addition, GA cytotoxicity was evaluated at concentrations between 100–600 mg/ml using an MTT assay. Huh-7 replicon cells were incubated with 300 mg/ml GA for different times, and the HCV-RNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used as an antioxidant control and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured during the exposure. The results indicated that GA did not produce a statistically significant cytotoxicity in parental and HCV replicon cells. Furthermore, GA downregulated the expression levels of NS5A-HCV protein (~55%) and HCV-RNA (~50%) in a time-dependent manner compared with the levels in untreated cells. Notably, GA treatment decreased ROS production at the early time points of exposure in cells expressing HCV proteins. Similar results were obtained upon PDTC exposure. These findings suggest that the antioxidant capacity of GA may be involved in the downregulation of HCV replication in hepatoma cells. PMID:26893656

  14. L-FABP T94A decreased fatty acid uptake and altered hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in Chang liver cells stably transfected with L-FABP.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Qu, Xia; Yan, Jin; Huang, Qi; Yuan, Hao-Yong; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, FABP1) is a highly conserved key factor in lipid metabolism. This study was undertaken to verify whether the T94A mutation in the L-FABP gene affects fatty acid uptake and intracellular esterification into specific lipid pools. Candidate SNPs were recreated using site-directed mutagenesis and tested for physical function in stably transfected Chang liver cell lines. We found that the T94A mutant of L-FABP lowered FFA uptake but had no effect on FFA efflux. L-FABP T94A-expressing cells showed decreased triglyceride content and increased cholesterol accumulation compared to the wild-type control for cells incubated with an FFA mixture (oleate: palmitate, 2:1 ratio). In conclusion, our study provided additional indications of the functional relevance of the L-FABP T94A SNP in hepatic fatty acid and lipid metabolism in humans.

  15. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  16. Effects of +G/sub x/ acceleration and aduetron on nuclei acid content and other parameters of mouse peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Minkova, M.I.; Nikolov, I.T.; Datsov, Y.R.; Pantev, T.P.; Tenchova, V.B.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of acceleration and adeturon, a radioprotector, on the content of nucleic acids and the count, composition and osmotic resistance of white and red blood cells was investigated. Male mice of the H strain were exposed to +20G sub x for 5 min. The above parameters were measured 1, 24, and 48 hours after the exposure. The nuclei acid content decreased significantly immediately after the exposure and tended to return to normal afterwards. The leucocyte count was increased during all observation periods, and the erythrocyte count was decreased 1 hour after the exposure. Osmotic resistance of white and red blood cells varied in a different manner after the exposure. Adeturon administered at optimal protective doses (300 mg/kg) modified regulatory mechanisms of the animal body.

  17. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  18. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  19. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  20. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  1. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  2. [Effect of vitamin B3-active compounds on the content of free and combined gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the brain of mice].

    PubMed

    Rozanov, V A; Reĭtarova, T E

    1983-01-01

    The bound and free GABA and glutamic acid content in the brain of F1 (CBA X C57B1/6) hybrid mice was investigated by the Eliott method. A tendency to a decrease of GABA and glutamate content in the brain with their practically constant bound/free ratio was observed 24 h after calcium-D-pantothenate injections (150 mumole/kg, 9 injections for 3 days). Calcium-D-homopantothenate injected in the same way caused a significant decrease in the GABA content, and a sharp drop of the bound/free GABA ratio. The effect is not associated with the influence of calcium ions in the composition of the injected compounds. PMID:6140785

  3. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( < 0.001) for RC than for grass. For both forage species, 18:3-3 and TFA content decreased linearly ( < 0.001) with advancing growth stage, with the highest abundance at the vegetative stage. Most of lipid in fresh RC and grass herbage (97%) was esterified, whereas NEFA accounted for 71% of TFA in both silages. Ensiling resulted in marginal increases in TFA content and the amounts of individual fatty acids compared with fresh herbages. Herbage total PPO activity was higher ( < 0.001) for RC than grass (11 vs. 0.11 μkatal/g leaf fresh weight). Net lipolysis during ensiling was extensive for both forage species (660 to 759 g/kg fatty acid for grass and 563 to 737 g/kg fatty acid for RC). Formic acid application (0 vs. 6 L/t) resulted in a marked decrease ( = 0.026) in net lipolysis during the ensiling of RC, whereas the opposite was true ( = 0.026) for grass

  4. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  5. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    PubMed

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  6. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and protein carbonylation level in rats with alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Onopchenko, O V; Kosiakova, G V; Meged, E F; Klimashevsky, V M; Hula, N M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on liver free fatty acid composition, cholesterol content and carbonylated protein level in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR) was studied in the work. The experimental insulin resistance was induced by prolonged high fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat) for 6 months combined with one injection of low-dose (15 mg/kg) of streptozotocin. The lipid assay showed a rise in liver free cholesterol content anda significant reduction in cholesterol esters level. Analyzing liver fatty acid composition, a decrease in polyunsaturated of fatty acid (PUFA) level and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was found. Fatty acid imbalance with high content of MUFA was associated with elevated level ofprotein carbonylation. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) for 2 weeks decreased free cholesterol content, increased cholesterol esters level and reduced free oleic fatty acid content in the liver of rats with IR. The effect of NSE on lipid imbalance led to a decrease in protein carbonylation level that may result in improvement of transmembrane protein function under obesity-induced insulin resistance state. PMID:25816612

  7. Therapeutic effect of organic gallium on ovariectomized osteopenic rats by decreased serum minerals and increased bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaoji; Fu, Qin

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of organic gallium on ovariectomized osteopenic rats. Thirty Wistar female rats used were divided into three groups: (1) sham-operation rats (control), (2) ovariectomized (OVX) rats with osteopenia, and (3) OVX rats with osteopenia treated with organic gallium. Treatments were performed over an 8-week period. At sacrifice, the fifth lumbar vertebral body, one tibia, one femur, and the fourth lumbar vertebrae were removed, subjected to micro-CT for determination of trabecular bone structure, and then processed for histomorphometry to assess bone turnover. The femoral neck was used for mechanical compression testing. Treatment with organic gallium increased bone volume in OVX animals. Organic gallium-treated animals had significant increases in trabecular and cortical thickness and bone strength. The plasma total calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations in OVX rats decreased and bone mineral content in the lumbar vertebrae and femur increased after treatment with organic gallium. These data provide an important proof of concept that organic gallium may represent a powerful approach to treating or reversing severe osteoporosis in humans. PMID:19578822

  8. Linoleic acid content in adipose tissue and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Riemersma, R A; Wood, D A; Butler, S; Elton, R A; Oliver, M; Salo, M; Nikkari, T; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Gey, F

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse relation between essential fatty acids in adipose tissue, in particular linoleic acid, and mortality from coronary heart disease was studied by a cross sectional survey of random population samples of apparently healthy men aged 40-49 from four European regions with differing mortality from coronary heart disease. The proportion of linoleic acid in adipose tissue was lowest in men from north Karelia, Finland, where mortality from coronary heart disease is highest, and highest in men from Italy, where mortality is lowest, with intermediate proportions in men from Scotland and south west Finland. Similar gradients were observed for the desaturation and elongation products dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in adipose tissue was highest in Finland, intermediate in Scotland, and lowest in Italy. Italian men also had the highest proportion of oleate in their adipose tissue and the lowest proportion of myristoleate and palmitoleate. Finnish men were more obese and had a higher blood pressure. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in north Karelia and south west Finland than in Scotland or Italy. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations reflected the regional differences in serum cholesterol, being higher in Finland and lower in Italy. The ratios of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol, however, did not differ. The regional differences in linoleic acid in adipose tissue remained highly significant when the observed differences in other known risk factors for coronary heart disease among the four areas were taken into account by multivariate analysis. The gradients in proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids probably reflect differences in dietary intake of linoleic acid. PMID:3087455

  9. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  10. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Ulleryd, Marcus A.; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics, S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus. Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. PMID:26857576

  11. Effect of defatting on acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-11-01

    The effect of defatting on the physiochemical properties and the acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents was evaluated in this study. The increase in the number of pores and the stripping of starch surface layers were observed after defatting by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the peaks attributing to the amylose-lipid complex disappeared. The relative crystallinity increased by 19% for high-amylose maize starch (HMS) on defatting, while the other tested starches virtually unchanged. Differential scanning calorimetry study indicated an increase in the thermal stability for the defatted starches. Compared with native waxy maize starch, the acid hydrolysis rate of the defatted one increased by 6% after 10 days. For normal maize starch (NMS) and HMS, the higher rate of hydrolysis was observed during the first 5 days. Thereafter, the hydrolysis rate was lower than that of their native counterpart. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis (in the first 5 days) was mainly attributed to the defective and porous structures formed during defatting process, while the decrease of hydrolysis rate for NMS and HMS samples (after the first 5 days) probably resulted from the increase in the relative crystallinity.

  12. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  13. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  14. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Padgett, William T; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  15. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  16. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. PMID:18608541

  17. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    hypocholesterolemic fatty acids and decrease the content of saturated hypercholesterolemic fatty acids. PMID:26908896

  18. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  19. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness. PMID:22745735

  20. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  1. Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A M; Nyman, E M; Björck, I M

    2001-09-01

    Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) processed to differ in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates were used to study hindgut fermentability and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Bean flours with low or high content of resistant starch (RS), mainly raw and physically-inaccessible starch, were obtained by milling the beans before or after boiling. Flours containing retrograded starch and with a high or low content of oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving followed by freeze-drying with or without the boiling water. Six diets were prepared from these flours yielding a total concentration of indigestible carbohydrates of 90 or 120 g/kg (dry weight basis). The total fermentability of the indigestible carbohydrates was high with all diets (80-87 %). Raw and physically-inaccessible starch was more readily fermented than retrograded starch (97-99 % v. 86-95 %; ). Non-starch glucans were fermented to a lesser extent than RS, but the fermentability was higher in the case of autoclaved (50-54 %) than boiled beans (37-41 %). The distribution between acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the caecum was similar for all diets, with a comparatively high percentage of butyric acid (approximately 18). However, with diets containing the high amounts of RS, the butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in the distal colon than in the proximal colon ( and for the high- and low-level diets respectively), whereas it remained constant, or decreased along the colon in the case of the other diets. Furthermore, the two diets richest in RS also promoted the highest percentages of butyric acid in the distal colon (24 and 17 v. 12 and 12-16 for the high- and low-level diets respectively). PMID:11570990

  2. Evolution in Caffeoylquinic Acid Content and Histolocalization During Coffea canephora Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    MONDOLOT, LAURENCE; LA FISCA, PHILIPPE; BUATOIS, BRUNO; TALANSIER, EMELINE; DE KOCHKO, ALEXANDRE; CAMPA, CLAUDINE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Caffeoylquinic acids are cinnamate conjugates derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. They are generally involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress and one of them, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA), is an intermediate in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Caffeoylquinic acids, and particularly 5-CQA, are accumulated in coffee beans, where they can form vacuolar complexes with caffeine. Coffea canephora beans are known to have high caffeoylquinic acid content, but little is known about the content and diversity of these compounds in other plant parts. To gain new insights into the caffeoylquinic acid metabolism of C. canephora, caffeoylquinic acid content and in situ localization were assessed in leaves at different growth stages. • Methods HPLC analyses of caffeoylquinic acid content of leaves was conducted in conjunction with detailed histochemical and microspectrofluorometrical analysis. • Key Results and Conclusions HPLC analyses revealed that caffeoylquinic acid content was 10-fold lower in adult than in juvenile leaves. The most abundant cinnamate conjugate was 5-CQA, but dicaffeoylquinic acids (particularly in juvenile leaves) and feruloylquinic acids were also present. Using specific reagents, histochemical and microspectrofluorometrical analysis showed that caffeoylquinic acids (mono- and di-esters) were closely associated with chloroplasts in very young leaves. During leaf ageing, they were found to first accumulate intensively in specific chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells and then in phloem sclerenchyma cells. The association with chloroplasts suggests that caffeoylquinic acids have a protective role against light damage. In older tissues, their presence in the leaf vascular system indicates that they are transported via phloem and confirms their involvement in lignification processes. In accordance with the hypothesis of a complex formation with caffeine, similar tissue distribution was

  3. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid content of fermented cow milk.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nadia; Pizzolongo, Fabiana; Montefusco, Immacolata; Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    The ability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12), to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus during milk fermentation has been evaluated in this study. Pasteurized cow milk and infant formula were used. Infant formula was selected for its high linoleic acid content, for being a source of CLA and for its prebiotic compounds, e.g. galacto-oligosaccharides. The microorganisms were not able to increase the CLA content of the fermented products under the given experimental conditions. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) occurred between the CLA content in milk and the fermented samples. The CLA contents of 10 commercial fermented milk products were determined. The highest CLA content was observed in fermented milk containing only Str. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:25657101

  4. Estrogen-induced decrease of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid concentration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, A; Barden, N

    1987-06-01

    Using Northern blots and hybridization techniques, we have identified an approximately 6.5 kilobase glucocorticoid receptor mRNA species in rat anterior pituitary gland. Ovariectomy resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA concentrations. This effect was maximal 8 days after surgery and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels remained elevated for at least up to 4 weeks. Administration of 17-beta-estradiol completely reversed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content of pituitary gland. Treatment of rats with corticosterone did not influence the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content, indicating that this increase is not mediated via effects on circulating glucocorticoid levels or availability. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed the ovariectomy-induced increase in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA content and indicated that this action is widely distributed throughout the anterior pituitary gland.

  5. Acetylsalicylic acid decreases the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99M.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, Vanessa C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the most widely used drug as antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomena in the heart, brain and peripheral circulation. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of in vivo treatment with acetylsalicylic acid on the in vitro labeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc. Wistar rats were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg/kg) of acetylsalicylic acid during 1 hour. At higher dose used (6.0 mg/kg) animals were treated during different period of time (0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 hours). Animals treated with physiologic saline solution were used as control. After the labeled process; plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated. Afterwards, the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was calculated. The treatment during 1 hour with acetylsalicylic acid at higher dose has significantly (p < 0.05) modified the fixation of 99mTc on blood cells. Considering the results, we suggest that acetylsalicylic acid used at therapeutic doses may interfere with the nuclear medicine procedures related to these blood constituents.

  6. Decreased ribonucleic acid synthesis in isolated rat liver nuclei during starvation

    PubMed Central

    Rickwood, D.; Klemperer, H. G.

    1970-01-01

    1. Isolated nuclei from starved rats showed a lowered incorporation of [14C]UMP into RNA. 2. The Mg2+-dependent incorporation was decreased by 30% after 1 day of starvation, but incorporation in the presence of Mn2+ and ammonium sulphate decreased only after longer periods of starvation. 3. RNA synthesis by nuclei in the presence of excess of added RNA polymerase was unchanged after 1 day of starvation and was inhibited by 20% after 4 days. 4. The capacity of nuclei to bind actinomycin D was unchanged after 1 day and was decreased by 20% after 4 days of starvation. PMID:5493859

  7. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  8. Fatty acid content of New Zealand-grown walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Zwarts, L; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    1999-05-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) samples were collected during the 1994 and 1995 harvest from ten different cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard at Lincoln University, New Zealand. Two US commercial cultivars (Tehama and Vina), three European commercial cultivars (Esterhazy, 139, G120) and five New Zealand selections (Rex, Dublin's Glory, Meyric, McKinster, Stanley) were evaluated. Total oil was extracted using a cold press and individual fatty acids were analysed by GLC. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 62.4 to 68.7%. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 14.3 to 26.1% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 49.3 to 62.3% and the linolenic contents from 8.0 to 13.8%. PMID:10627834

  9. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  10. Enhancement of the dewaterability of sludge during bioleaching mainly controlled by microbial quantity change and the decrease of slime extracellular polymeric substances content.

    PubMed

    Huo, Minbo; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2014-09-01

    Contribution rates of factors controlling sludge dewaterability during bioleaching, such as sludge pH, microbial quantity, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), etc., were investigated in this study. Results showed that the dewaterability of bioleached sludge was jointly enhanced by the growth of Acidithiobacillus sp., the increase of Fe(3+) concentration, the decreases of sludge pH, heterotrophic microorganism quantity change, and the decreases of EPS and bound water contents. Ridge regression analysis further revealed that the contribution rates of microbial quantity change, bound water content and slime EPS content on sludge dewaterability enhancement were 32.50%, 24.24%, and 22.37%, respectively, all of which are dominant factors. Therefore, the enhancement of sludge dewaterability was mainly controlled by microbial quantity change and the decrease of bound water and slime EPS contents during bioleaching.

  11. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  12. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC <0 μeq L -1) decreased from 15.5% (284 lakes) to 8.3% (152 lakes) since the implementation of the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery

  13. Inhibition of L-carnitine biosynthesis and transport by methyl-γ-butyrobetaine decreases fatty acid oxidation and protects against myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Liepinsh, E; Makrecka-Kuka, M; Kuka, J; Vilskersts, R; Makarova, E; Cirule, H; Loza, E; Lola, D; Grinberga, S; Pugovics, O; Kalvins, I; Dambrova, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The important pathological consequences of ischaemic heart disease arise from the detrimental effects of the accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines in the case of acute ischaemia-reperfusion. The aim of this study is to test whether decreasing the L-carnitine content represents an effective strategy to decrease accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines and to reduce fatty acid oxidation in order to protect the heart against acute ischaemia–reperfusion injury. Key Results In this study, we used a novel compound, 4-[ethyl(dimethyl)ammonio]butanoate (Methyl-GBB), which inhibits γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (IC50 3 μM) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2, IC50 3 μM), and, in turn, decreases levels of L-carnitine and acylcarnitines in heart tissue. Methyl-GBB reduced both mitochondrial and peroxisomal palmitate oxidation rates by 44 and 53% respectively. In isolated hearts treated with Methyl-GBB, uptake and oxidation rates of labelled palmitate were decreased by 40%, while glucose oxidation was increased twofold. Methyl-GBB (5 or 20 mg·kg−1) decreased the infarct size by 45–48%. In vivo pretreatment with Methyl-GBB (20 mg·kg−1) attenuated the infarct size by 45% and improved 24 h survival of rats by 20–30%. Conclusions and Implications Reduction of L-carnitine and long-chain acylcarnitine content by the inhibition of OCTN2 represents an effective strategy to protect the heart against ischaemia–reperfusion-induced damage. Methyl-GBB treatment exerted cardioprotective effects and increased survival by limiting long-chain fatty acid oxidation and facilitating glucose metabolism. PMID:25363063

  14. Determination of the Fatty Acid content of pumpkin seed, pygeum, and saw palmetto.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, M; Croom, E M; Khan, I A

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of many plants, foods and medicines, including pumpkin seeds (Cucubita pepo), pygeum bark (Prunus africana) and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). With the gas chromatography methods reported here, free fatty acids of these species can be quantified as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. Because of their different fatty acid contents and composition, the gas chromatography method can distinguish which of three plant species was extracted, and, in the case of S. repens, the method of extraction. Although phytosterols can be separated by this method, their content is too low to be assigned directly. The total fatty acid content can be determined through formation of the methyl esters. This is helpful for estimation of the kind and percentage of fatty acids that are present as triglyceride esters in the plant material and for standardization of the products.

  15. Notch1 deficiency decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by induction of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Yang, Sunghee; Wu, Chunyan; Seo, Cho-Rong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Baik, Sang-Ha; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bo Youn; Bahn, Gahee; Kim, Suji; Kwon, So-Mi; Park, Jin Su; Baek, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Joo; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Mattson, Mark P; Lee, Sung-Joon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling pathways modulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and communication. Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch1 signaling also regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid synthesis. However, the effect of Notch1 signaling on hepatic lipid oxidation has not yet been directly investigated. To define the function of Notch1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism, wild type mice and Notch1 deficient antisense transgenic (NAS) mice were fed a high-fat diet. High-fat diet -fed NAS mice exhibited a marked reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation compared with wild type obese mice. The improved fatty liver was associated with an increased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However, lipogenic genes were not differentially expressed in the NAS liver, suggesting lipolytic-specific regulatory effects by Notch1 signaling. Expression of fatty acid oxidative genes and the rate of fatty acid oxidation were also increased by inhibition of Notch1 signaling in HepG2 cells. In addition, similar regulatory effects on lipid accumulation were observed in adipocytes. Taken together, these data show that inhibition of Notch1 signaling can regulate the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and may provide therapeutic strategies in obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:26786165

  16. Notch1 deficiency decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by induction of fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Yang, Sunghee; Wu, Chunyan; Seo, Cho-Rong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Baik, Sang-Ha; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bo Youn; Bahn, Gahee; Kim, Suji; Kwon, So-Mi; Park, Jin Su; Baek, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Joo; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Mattson, Mark P.; Lee, Sung-Joon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling pathways modulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and communication. Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch1 signaling also regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid synthesis. However, the effect of Notch1 signaling on hepatic lipid oxidation has not yet been directly investigated. To define the function of Notch1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism, wild type mice and Notch1 deficient antisense transgenic (NAS) mice were fed a high-fat diet. High-fat diet -fed NAS mice exhibited a marked reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation compared with wild type obese mice. The improved fatty liver was associated with an increased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However, lipogenic genes were not differentially expressed in the NAS liver, suggesting lipolytic-specific regulatory effects by Notch1 signaling. Expression of fatty acid oxidative genes and the rate of fatty acid oxidation were also increased by inhibition of Notch1 signaling in HepG2 cells. In addition, similar regulatory effects on lipid accumulation were observed in adipocytes. Taken together, these data show that inhibition of Notch1 signaling can regulate the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and may provide therapeutic strategies in obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:26786165

  17. Influence of postharvest treatments on quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid content of stored "spring belle" peach (prunus persica) fruit.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Ivano; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2009-08-12

    The influence of four postharvest treatments, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2), followed by fruit storage at 10 degrees C or of hydrocooling (H2O) at 1 degrees C, followed by storage at 0 degrees C on fruit quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid (ABA) content as well as on ethylene and carbon dioxide production of "Spring Belle" peach fruits, has been examined. Ethylene production was reduced by all the treatments and raised after transfer the fruits at 20 degrees C, their ethylene production in general being lower than that of fruits continuously held at 20 degrees C. Nevertheless, 1-MCP removal enhanced the rise in ethylene occurring at 20 degrees C by the end of storage. Those changes were likely related to fruit softening but not to changes in color or in the soluble solid content (SSC). HPLC analyses showed a relative high content of xanthophylls, particularly violaxanthin. In fruits maintained in air at 20 degrees C, violaxanthin and beta-carotene contents decreased while beta-criptoxanthin increased. ABA content showed a great increase in 1-MCP and significant decrease in carbon dioxide and hydrocooling treated peaches. The results indicated hydrocooling, in combination with low temperature storage, as the best treatment maintaining fruit firmness due to the lowered respiration rate and the content of relevant carotenoids.

  18. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  19. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues. PMID:26314861

  20. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues.

  1. Effects of dietary vitamin E on muscle vitamin E and fatty acid content in Aohan fine-wool sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of mutton can help to improve its nutritional value for consumers. Several laboratories have evaluated the effects of vitamin E on the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in sheep. However, little information is available on wool sheep, even though wool sheep breeds are an important source of mutton, especially in northern China where sheep are extensively farmed. The present study was designed to address the effects of vitamin E on muscle FA composition in male Aohan fine-wool sheep. Methods Forty-two male Aohan fine-wool lambs (5 mo old) with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into seven groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, or 2,400 IU/sheep/d vitamin E for 12 mo. Three lambs from each group were slaughtered to measure vitamin E and FA content in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Results Vitamin E concentrations in the LL and GM increased significantly after 12 mo of vitamin E supplementation (P < 0.05). However, this increase did not occur in a dose-dependent manner because the muscle vitamin E concentration was highest in the 200 IU/sheep/d group. Dietary vitamin E supplementation also caused a significant reduction in SFA content and an increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content in the LL and GM (P < 0.05). All six doses of vitamin E significantly increased cis9 trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA) content in the LL compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased muscle vitamin E content and improved the nutritional value of mutton by decreasing SFA content and increasing MUFA and c9t11-CLA contents in Aohan fine-wool sheep. These effects were greatest in sheep fed a diet containing 200 IU/sheep/d vitamin E. PMID:23777843

  2. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  3. P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance phenotype of L1210/VCR cells is associated with decreases of oligo- and/or polysaccharide contents.

    PubMed

    Fiala, R; Sulová, Z; El-Saggan, A H; Uhrík, B; Liptaj, T; Dovinová, I; Hanusovská, E; Drobná, Z; Barancík, M; Breier, A

    2003-11-20

    Multidrug resistance of murine leukaemic cell line L1210/VCR (obtained by adaptation of parental drug-sensitive L1210 cells to vincristine) is associated with overexpression of mdr1 gene product P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-the ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. 31P-NMR spectra of L1210 and L1210/VCR cells (the latter in the presence of vincristine) revealed, besides the decrease of ATP level, a considerable lower level of UDP-saccharides in L1210/VCR cells. Histochemical staining of negatively charged cell surface binding sites (mostly sialic acid) by ruthenium red (RR) revealed a compact layer of RR bound to the external coat of sensitive cells. In resistant cells cultivated in the absence or presence of vincristine, the RR layer is either reduced or absent. Consistently, resistant cells were found to be less sensitive to Concanavalin A (ConA). Moreover, differences in the amount and spectrum of glycoproteins interacting with ConA-Sepharose were demonstrated between sensitive and resistant cells. Finally, the content of glycogen in resistant cells is lower than in sensitive cells. All the above facts indicate that multidrug resistance of L1210/VCR cells mediated predominantly by drug efflux activity of Pgp is accompanied by a considerable depression of oligo- and/or polysaccharides biosynthesis.

  4. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer’s disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically-induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/−APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25616451

  5. Amino Acid Correction of Regulatory Volume Decrease Evoked by Hypotonic Stress in Mouse Oocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, M A; Golichenkov, V A; Pogorelova, V N; Panait, A I; Smirnov, A A; Pogorelov, A G

    2015-05-01

    Regulatory volume decrease in response to hypotonic stress is typical of the oocytes and early mouse embryos. Changes in the kinetics of osmotic reaction can be used as a marker of the modulating effect of the incubation medium on transmembrane transport in embryonic cells. Quantitative laser scanning microtomography (QLSM) was used to measure oocyte volume. In this paper, it is shown that addition of 5 μM glycine, taurine, or GABA, as well as ATP to Dulbecco's medium abolished the regulatory volume decrease in mature mouse oocytes. PMID:26033585

  6. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  7. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  8. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain with a Decreased Ability To Produce Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Margolles, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain. PMID:22389372

  9. Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Cummings, Nicole E; Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Neuman, Joshua C; Kasza, Ildiko; Schmidt, Brian A; Cava, Edda; Spelta, Francesco; Tosti, Valeria; Syed, Faizan A; Baar, Emma L; Veronese, Nicola; Cottrell, Sara E; Fenske, Rachel J; Bertozzi, Beatrice; Brar, Harpreet K; Pietka, Terri; Bullock, Arnold D; Figenshau, Robert S; Andriole, Gerald L; Merrins, Matthew J; Alexander, Caroline M; Kimple, Michelle E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-07-12

    Protein-restricted (PR), high-carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Furthermore, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderate PR diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet. PMID:27346343

  10. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers.

  11. Effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids in sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Oki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yumi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid (CA) and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in sweet potato leaves using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography method. Six cultivars and two breeding lines were used in this study. Leaves were collected at monthly intervals from 1st harvest (May) to 4th harvest (August) in 2011 and 2012. ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of CQAs were significantly different among all cultivars and breeding lines, but no significant differences were found for CA. No annual variation was confirmed in CA and CQAs. Repeated harvest of sweet potato leaves affected the content of only 4-CQA and 5-CQA. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey's method indicated that the contents of 4-CQA and 5-CQA in sweet potato leaves harvested at first time were significantly higher compared to those at the other harvest times.

  12. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  13. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  14. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  15. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Tomato Fruit Organic Acid Content Guided by Biochemical Analysis of an Introgression Line1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Megan J.; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J.; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity. PMID:23166354

  17. Fatty Acid Composition and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content in Different Carcass parts of Dağlıç Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Ali; Boztepe, Saim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare fatty acid composition and content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different regions of sheep carcasses. Lambs of the Dağlıç breed were used for this purpose. Subsequent to a 68-day period of intensive fattening, fatty acids were examined in samples taken from the legs, shoulders, breasts, and ribs of lamb carcasses. According to the analysis, in leg, shoulder, breast, and rib, respectively, total saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found to be 40.38, 42.69, 42.56, and 40.27%, unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found to be 40.38, 44.17, 46.17, and 49.50%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 4.79, 4.29, 3.80, and 3.72%, and CLAs were found to be 1.49, 1.69, 1.53, and 1.59%. PMID:24523647

  18. Influence of cadmium on water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid content in expanding bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Poschenrieder, C.; Gunse, B.; Barcelo, J. )

    1989-08-01

    Ten day old bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Contender) were used to analyze the effects of 3 micromolar Cd on the time courses of expansion growth, dry weight, leaf water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots and leaves. Control and Cd-treated plants were grown for 144 hours in nutrient solution. Samples were taken at 24 hour intervals. At the 96 and 144 hour harvests, additional measurements were made on excised leaves which were allowed to dry for 2 hours. From the 48 hour harvest, Cd-treated plants showed lower leaf relative water contents and higher stomatal resistances than controls. At the same time, root and leaf expansion growth, but not dry weight, was significantly reduced. The turgor potentials of leaves from Cd-treated plants were nonsignificantly higher than those of control leaves. A significant increase (almost 400%) of the leaf ABA concentration was detected after 120 hours exposure to Cd. But Cd was found to inhibit ABA accumulation during drying of excised leaves. It is concluded that Cd-induced decrease of expansion growth is not due to turgor decrease. The possible mechanisms of Cd-induced stomatal closure are discussed.

  19. Testosterone control of nucleic acid content and proliferation of epithelium and stroma in rat seminal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, S J; Burchell, J M; Mainwaring, W I

    1976-01-01

    Tissue wet weight, nucleic acid content and epithelial and stromal cell numbers were measured in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature male rats. After castration, tissue weight and RNA decreased rapidly and in aprallel to reach, after 14 days, values only 15-20% of those in control (not castrated) animals. During this period, DNA decreased to a much lesser extent (by about 40%), but this change in DNA correlates well with the observed loss of cells from the epithelium. Testosterone in vivo promoted an immediate resynthesis of RNA, the value characteristic of control animals being reached within 80h. Delays occurred in the hormone-induced regain of tissue weight (30h) and DNA (40h), each of which preceded proliferation of the epithelium (40--50h). The cells of the stroma were unaffected by these changes in the androgenic statls of the animal. It is suggested that these proliferative changes in the epithelium cannot account for the previously reported induction by testosterone of basic secretory proteins in this tissue. PMID:1008845

  20. Aluminum resistance in wheat involves maintenance of leaf Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content, decreased lipid peroxidation and Al accumulation, and low photosystem II excitation pressure.

    PubMed

    Moustaka, Julietta; Ouzounidou, Georgia; Bayçu, Gülriz; Moustakas, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The phytotoxic aluminum species (Al(3+)) is considered as the primary factor limiting crop productivity in over 40 % of world's arable land that is acidic. We evaluated the responses of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) with differential Al resistance, cv. Yecora E (Al-resistant) and cv. Dio (Al-sensitive), exposed to 0, 37, 74 and 148 μM Al for 14 days in hydroponic culture at pH 4.5. With increasing Al concentration, leaf Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content decreased, as well as the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Φ PSII ), while a gradual increase in leaf membrane lipid peroxidation, Al accumulation, photoinhibition (estimated as F v /F m ), and PSII excitation pressure (1 - q p ) occurred. However, the Al-resistant cultivar with lower Al accumulation, retained larger concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the leaves and kept a larger fraction of the PSII reaction centres (RCs) in an open configuration, i.e. a higher ratio of oxidized to reduced quinone A (QA), than plants of the Al-sensitive cultivar. Four times higher Al concentration in the nutrient solution was required for Al-resistant plants (148 μM Al) than for Al-sensitive (37 μM Al), in order to establish the same closed RCs. Yet, the decline in photosynthetic efficiency in the cultivar Dio was not only due to closure of PSII RCs but also to a decrease in the quantum yield of the open RCs. We suggest that Al(3+) toxicity may be mediated by nutrient deficiency and oxidative stress, and that Al-resistance of the wheat cultivar Yecora E, may be due at least partially, from the decreased Al accumulation that resulted to decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. However, under equal internal Al accumulation (exposure Al concentration: Dio 74 μM, Yecora E 148 μM) that resulted to the same oxidative stress, the reduced PSII excitation pressure and the better PSII functioning of the Al-resistant cultivar was probably due to the larger concentrations of Ca

  1. Effect of steaming, blanching, and high temperature/high pressure processing on the amino Acid contents of commonly consumed korean vegetables and pulses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Min; Kim, Jung-Bong; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Heon-Woong; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Se-Na; Cho, Young-Sook; Choi, Han-Seok; Park, Ki-Moon

    2014-09-01

    In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant decreases in the lysine and arginine contents of vegetables and the lysine, arginine, and cysteine contents of pulses. Moreover, the amino acid contents of blanched vegetables and steamed pulses were more similar than the amino acid contents of the HTHP vegetables and HTHP pulses. Interestingly, lysine, arginine, and cysteine were more sensitive to HTHP than the other amino acids. Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analyses were also performed to discriminate the clusters and patterns of amino acids.

  2. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  3. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  4. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  5. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin. PMID:26323130

  6. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin.

  7. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  8. Determining and surveying the role of carnitine and folic acid to decrease fatigue in β-thalassemia minor subjects.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mazloom, Maryam; Shahriari, Mahdi; Zareifar, Soheila; Azimi, Ali; Hadaegh, Amirhossein; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-11-01

    Beta-thalassemia minor (BTM) patients usually experience fatigue, bone pain complaint, and muscle weakness. Carnitine is an essential protein for transportation of long-chain fatty acids to the matrix for beta-oxidation. BTM patients have abnormally low plasma carnitine concentrations, which results in deficient ATP production. Carnitine and folic acid together may have a role in preventing bone pain complaint and fatigue in these patients. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of carnitine and folic acid supplementation in subjects with BTM. Seventy three BTM (mean age 11.06 ± 5.46 years) and 23 healthy controls (mean age 8.48 ± 3.78 years) were enrolled in the study. Fasting blood was drawn to determine baseline free and total carnitine levels, red blood cell folate concentration, and hemoglobin level. BTM were divided into three groups and received different types of supplementation for 3 months: Group 1, 50 mg/kg/day carnitine; Group 2, 50 mg/kg/day carnitine plus 1 mg/day folic acid; and Group 3, 1 mg/day folic acid. Controls did not receive supplementation. Laboratory parameters were again evaluated after 3 months' supplementation. A detailed quality of life questionnaire was designed to investigate muscle symptoms before and after supplementation. Free and total plasma carnitine concentration and hemoglobin levels in BTM subjects increased significantly after carnitine supplementation (P < .0001). Bone pain complaint and muscle weakness decreased with carnitine. Red blood cell folate level increased after folic acid supplementation. Carnitine and folic acid supplementation resulted in a decrease in bone pain complaint and muscle weakness in cases with β-thalassemia minor.

  9. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

  10. Homozygous and heterozygous GH transgenesis alters fatty acid composition and content in the liver of Amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae).

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Manabu; Takenaga, Fumio; Kitani, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Goshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Araki, Kazuo; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Mori, Tsukasa

    2012-10-15

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic Amago (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae), containing the sockeye GH1 gene fused with metallothionein-B promoter from the same species, were generated and the physiological condition through lipid metabolism compared among homozygous (Tg/Tg) and heterozygous GH transgenic (Tg/+) Amago and the wild type control (+/+). Previously, we have reported that the adipose tissue was generally smaller in GH transgenic fish compared to the control, and that the Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase gene was down-regulated in the Tg/+ fish. However, fatty acid (FA) compositions have not been measured previously in these fish. In this study we compared the FAs composition and content in the liver using gas chromatography. Eleven kinds of FA were detected. The composition of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA) such as myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis-18:1n-7) was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in GH transgenic Amago. On the other hand, the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) was significantly (P<0.05) increased. Levels of serum glucose and triacylglycerol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the GH transgenics compared with +/+ fish. Furthermore, 3'-tag digital gene expression profiling was performed using liver tissues from Tg/Tg and +/+ fish, and showed that Mid1 interacting protein 1 (Mid1ip1), which is an important factor to activate Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), was down-regulated in Tg/Tg fish, while genes involved in FA catabolism were up-regulated, including long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 1 (ACSL1) and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 (ACOX3). These data suggest that liver tissue from GH transgenic Amago showed starvation by alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism due to GH overexpression. The decrease of serum glucose suppressed Mid1ip1, and caused a decrease of de novo FA

  11. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD. PMID:25726582

  12. Decreased platelet membrane anisotropy in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy treated with erucic acid (22:1)-rich triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Stöckler, S; Opper, C; Greinacher, A; Hunneman, D H; Korenke, G C; Unkrig, C J; Hanefeld, F

    1997-03-01

    Low platelet count and bleeding diathesis have been observed in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) treated with erucic acid (22:1)-rich triglycerides ("Lorenzo's oil'). To investigate possible alterations of biophysical membrane properties, we measured platelet membrane anisotropy, which is inversely related to membrane fluidity, in 16 patients with and in 3 patients without treatment. In patients on treatment, platelet membrane anisotropy was significantly decreased. Additionally, we found increased platelet concentrations of 22:1 and compromised in vitro platelet aggregation response. The decrease of platelet membrane anisotropy is probably a main cause of bleeding diathesis. Long-term haematological side-effects must be considered in ALD patients treated with Lorenzo's oil.

  13. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palma, M. N. N.; Rocha, G. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Detmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. PMID:26333671

  14. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  15. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  16. Decreased ovarian reserve in female Sprague-Dawley rats induced by isotretinoin (retinoic acid) exposure.

    PubMed

    Abali, Remzi; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Aktas, Cevat; Celik, Cem; Guzel, Savas; Erfan, Gamze; Sahin, Onder

    2013-08-01

    Isotretinoin is a retinoid widely used for the treatment of severe nodulocystic acne. Although it has broad side effects, there is no well-designed study about its effects on the ovary. This study investigated possible toxic effects of isotretinoin on female gonads. A total of 30 female rats were randomly divided into three equal groups according to the dose of isotretinoin they were administered: 0 mg/kg/day (group 1), 7.5 mg/kg/day (group 2) or 15 mg/kg/day (group 3). Thirty days after the treatment, the effects of isotretinoin on the ovaries were evaluated with serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations, apoptosis by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical observations by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The percentage of atretic follicles was calculated for each stage of folliculogenesis. The serum AMH concentrations were found to be lower in both isotretinoin groups. The percentage of atretic follicles in both isotretinoin groups was higher than the control. The number of PCNA-positive granulosa cells was decreased in the isotretinoin groups. The number of ovarian follicles with apoptotic granulosa cells was increased in the experimental groups. These data are the first to identify that exposure of isotretinoin may be responsible for decreased ovarian reserve and toxic effects on rat ovaries.

  17. Loss of selenium-binding protein 1 decreases sensitivity to clastogens and intracellular selenium content in HeLa cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesized that loss of SBP1 modulates cellular selenium content and the response of ...

  18. Effect of nicotinamide on amino acids content in bone collagen depending on biological availability of vitamins in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Guzyk, M M; Sergiichuk, Iu T; Dyakun, K O; Yanitska, L V; Kuchmerovska, T M

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue is highly susceptible to imbalances induced by diabetes. Diabetes-related osteopenia, decreased bone strength etc. may be associated with altered metabolism of various collagens: Although it is assumed that alterations in collagen amino acids (AA) may strongly affect protein properties andphysiological functions, however, very limited evidences are present at the moment regarding AA composition of bone type I collagen and its relevance to abnormal availability of vitamins which are necessary for collagen synthesis in diabetes. We have tested whether nicotinamide (NAm) can influence type Icollagen formation and AA composition as well as vitamins availability in diabetes. After 4 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/ kg) male Wistar rats were injected for 2 weeks with/without NAm (200 mg/kg b. w). Acid extraction of type I collagen from the bones was performed with following stepwise salting out. The content of type I collagen after its acid extraction from the bones was estimated by the amounts of hydroxyproline. Amino acids were assayed by cation exchange chromatography Diabetes-associated changes in AA composition of type I collagen mainly affect those amino acids which are known to be involved in helix formation and cross-linking of the molecules. Diabetes was found to significantly reduce bone collagen contents of o-Pro, Gly, Ala, o-Lys and Pro, whereas Lys, His, Arg, Glu, Thr, Leu, Phe contents were elevated (P < 0.05). NAm treatment was able to partially normalise AA contents. In diabetes, blood serum and hepatic vitamin C and B3 contents were shown to be significantly lowered, whereas a-tocopherol was slightly increased compared with control (P < 0.05). Restoration of circulatory and liver vitamin C and B3 was observed. The data demonstrate the close relationship between the diabetes-associated decrease in type I collagen deposition, altered amino acids metabolism and impaired availability of vitamins, which are necessary for collagen

  19. Consumption of acidic water alters the gut microbiome and decreases the risk of diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kyle J; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Hartmann, Riley; Khafipour, Ehsan; Lorenz, Robin G

    2014-04-01

    Infant formula and breastfeeding are environmental factors that influence the incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) as well as the acidity of newborn diets. To determine if altering the intestinal microbiome is one mechanism through which an acidic liquid plays a role in T1D, we placed non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJt mice on neutral (N) or acidified H2O and monitored the impact on microbial composition and diabetes incidence. NOD-N mice showed an increased development of diabetes, while exhibiting a decrease in Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria from as early as 2 weeks of age. NOD-N mice had a decrease in the levels of Foxp3 expression in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells, as well as decreased CD4(+)IL17(+) cells, and a lower ratio of IL17/IFNγ CD4+ T-cells. Our data clearly indicates that a change in the acidity of liquids consumed dramatically alters the intestinal microbiome, the presence of protective Th17 and Treg cells, and the incidence of diabetes. This data suggests that early dietary manipulation of intestinal microbiota may be a novel mechanism to delay T1D onset in genetically pre-disposed individuals.

  20. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  1. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique. PMID:25305221

  2. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  3. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have large implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Helmink, E D; McMahon, D J; Fife, R L; Pariza, M W

    1999-02-01

    Extruded oilseeds were fed to 24 dairy cows to study the influence on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese. Cows were fed one of three diets that contained forage and grain in a ratio of 47:53. A control diet containing 13.5% soybean meal was compared with diets containing 12% full fat extruded soybeans or 12% full fat extruded cottonseed. The control, extruded soybean, and extruded cottonseed diets contained 2.73, 4.89, and 4.56% fatty acids, respectively. Measurements were made during the last 5 wk of the 8-wk experiment. The DM intakes and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were higher for cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets than for cows fed the control diet. A tendency for lower fat and protein contents in the milk of cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets was detected. Most of the C18 fatty acids were increased in the milk and cheese when extruded soybeans and cottonseeds were fed. The conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and cheese increased a mean of 109% when full fat extruded soybeans were fed and increased 77% when cottonseeds were fed compared with the conjugated linoleic acid content when the control diet was fed. Processing the milk into cheese did not alter the conjugated linoleic acid content. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese can be increased by the inclusion of full fat extruded soybeans and full fat extruded cottonseeds in the diets of dairy cows.

  5. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population.

  6. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits.

  7. Oil, fatty acid, and protein content of seeds harvested from soybeans exposed to O sub 3 and/or SO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwald, C. ); Endress, A.G. )

    1988-09-01

    In a series of greenhouse experiments, we exposed soybean plant (Corsoy-79) to low levels of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}, singly and in combination. Exposure to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} alone increased the oil content of the harvested seeds, but the protein content was essentially unchanged. The seed oil: protein ratio increased with increasing pollutant concentration in both experiments. These responses, however, were not observed in seeds harvested from plants exposed to mixtures of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}. Differences in fatty acid content and composition were also noted. Ozone alone caused an increase in seed fatty acid content as a result of increased linoleic and stearic acids coupled with decreased oleic acid. After exposure to SO{sub 2} alone, no significant alterations of the fatty acid composition were observed. No statistically significant pattern could be identified for the content of fatty acids in seeds harvested from plants exposed to the O{sub 3} + SO{sub 2} mixtures, although the accumulation of linoleic acid appeared to be depressed.

  8. The effect of extrusion conditions on the acidic polysaccharide, ginsenoside contents and antioxidant properties of extruded Korean red ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extrusion conditions (moisture content 20% and 30%, screw speed 200 and 250 rpm, barrel temperature 115℃ and 130℃) on the acidic polysaccharide, ginsenoside contents and antioxidant properties of extruded Korean red ginseng (KRG). Extruded KRGs showed relatively higher amounts of acidic polysaccharide (6.80% to 9.34%) than nonextruded KRG (4.34%). Increased barrel temperature and screw speed significantly increased the content of acidic polysaccharide. The major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2s, Rg3s, Rh1, and Rg3r) of KRG increased through extrusion, while the ginsenoside (Rg1) decreased. The EX8 (moisture 30%, screw speed 250 rpm, and temperature 130℃) had more total phenolics and had a better scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals than those of extruded KRG samples. The extrusion cooking showed a significant increase (6.8% to 20.9%) in reducing power. Increased barrel temperature significantly increased the values of reducing power, the highest value was 1.152 obtained from EX4 (feed moisture 20%, screw speed 250 rpm, and temperature 130℃). These results suggest that extrusion conditions can be optimized to retain the health promoting compounds in KRG products. PMID:23717175

  9. [Dynamic change of four triterpenic acids contents in different organs of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and phenology].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yang; Xie, Xiao-mei; Li, Qian-wen; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Sheng-lin; Wang, He-qun; Yu, Wen-xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-03-01

    The loquat is widely cultivated in China, its succulent fruits, leaves and flower are used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. The study is aimed to analyse the content of the four triterpene compounds ( ursolic acid, corosolic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid) in different organs, and investigate the dynamic changes in different phenological period. The triterpenic acids content in the samples was measured by HPLC based on the plant phenological observations. The results showed that order of four triterpenic acids content in different organs from high to low was defoliation (23.2 mg x g(-1)) > mature leaves (21.7 mg x g(-1)) > young leaves (17.5 mg x g(-1)) > fruits (7.36 mg x g(-1)) > flowers (6.40 mg x g(-1)). The triterpenic acids were not detected in the seeds. The total amount of the four triterpenic acids in the loquat leaves collected in the different phenological stages of sprout, flower bud, blossom and fruit varied between 17.8 and 26.2 mg x g(-1) (defoliation), 16.5 and 23.5 mg x g(-1) (mature leaves), 14.7 and 21.5 mg x g(-1) (young leaves), respectively. The content increased progressively with the leaf development, maturation and aging. There was a higher level of the dry material and triterpenic acids accumulation in the mature leaves during fruit enlargement. This paper attempts to present the case for medicinal plants of a broad geographical distribution to study on the secondary metabolites and harvesting time.

  10. Glycine intake decreases plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell size, and blood pressure in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    El Hafidi, Mohammed; Pérez, Israel; Zamora, Jose; Soto, Virgilia; Carvajal-Sandoval, Guillermo; Baños, Guadalupe

    2004-12-01

    The study investigated the mechanism by which glycine protects against increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), fat cell size, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, and blood pressure (BP) induced in male Wistar rats by sucrose ingestion. The addition of 1% glycine to the drinking water containing 30% sucrose, for 4 wk, markedly reduced high BP in sucrose-fed rats (SFR) (122.3 +/- 5.6 vs. 147.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg in SFR without glycine, P < 0.001). Decreases in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (0.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.3 mM, P < 0.001), intra-abdominal fat (6.8 +/- 2.16 vs. 14.8 +/- 4.0 g, P < 0.01), and adipose cell size were observed in SFR treated with glycine compared with SFR without treatment. Total NEFA concentration in the plasma of SFR was significantly decreased by glycine intake (0.64 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.09 mM in SFR without glycine, P < 0.001). In control animals, glycine decreased glucose, TGs, and total NEFA but without reaching significance. In SFR treated with glycine, mitochondrial respiration, as an indicator of the rate of fat oxidation, showed an increase in the state IV oxidation rate of the beta-oxidation substrates octanoic acid and palmitoyl carnitine. This suggests an enhancement of hepatic fatty acid metabolism, i.e., in their transport, activation, or beta-oxidation. These findings imply that the protection by glycine against elevated BP might be attributed to its effect in increasing fatty acid oxidation, reducing intra-abdominal fat accumulation and circulating NEFA, which have been proposed as links between obesity and hypertension.

  11. Influence of different light intensities on the content of diosgenin, lipids, carotenoids and fatty acids in leaves of Dioscorea zingiberensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huming; Radunz, Alfons; He, Ping; Schmid, Georg H

    2002-01-01

    in rhizomes, to an increase of leaf dry weight, to a reduction of the grana structure in chloroplasts and therewith to a decrease of the chlorophyll content. The total lipid content is highest under the cultivation at 100 microE x m(-2) x sec(-1) and reduced by 30% at 10 and 270 microE x m(-2) x sec(-1). Carotenoids, however, are highest in shaded plants (10 microE x m(-2) x sec(-1)) and plants grown under high light conditions of 270 microE x m(-2) x sec(-1). At 100 microE x m(-2) x sec(-1) a decrease of saturated fatty acids is observed in comparison to plants grown under shaded conditions.

  12. Acute and chronic administration of the branched-chain amino acids decreases nerve growth factor in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Furlanetto, Camila B; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mina, Francielle; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-12-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of BCAA on protein levels and mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) considering that patients with MSUD present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Considering previous observations, it is suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD. We also investigated the influence of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine) in order to verify the influence of oxidative stress in the modulation of NGF levels. Our results demonstrated decreased protein levels of NGF in the hippocampus after acute and chronic administration of BCAA. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the expression of ngf in the hippocampus only following acute administration in 10-day-old rats. Interestingly, antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the decrease in NGF levels by increasing ngf expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that BCAA is involved in the regulation of NGF in the developing rat. Thus, it is possible that alteration of neurotrophin levels during brain maturation could be of pivotal importance in the impairment of cognition provoked by BCAA. Moreover, the decrease in NGF levels was prevented by antioxidant treatment, reinforcing that the hypothesis of oxidative stress can be an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD. PMID:23559405

  13. Impact of modifications in acid development on the insoluble calcium content and rheological properties of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-R; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2005-11-01

    Cheddar cheese was made from milk concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to increase the lactose content or from whole milk. Manufacturing parameters (pH at coagulant addition, whey drainage, and milling) were altered to produce cheeses with different total Ca contents and low pH values (i.e., <5.0) during ripening. The concentration of insoluble (INSOL) Ca in cheese was measured by cheese juice method, buffering by acid-base titration, rheological properties by small amplitude oscillatory rheometry, and melting properties by UW-Melt Profiler. The INSOL Ca content as a percentage of total Ca in all cheeses rapidly decreased during the first week of aging but surprisingly did not decrease below approximately 41% even in cheeses with a very low pH (e.g., approximately 4.7). Insoluble Ca content in cheese was positively correlated (r = 0.79) with cheese pH in both RO and nonRO treatments, reflecting the key role of pH and acid development in altering the extent of solubilization of INSOL Ca. The INSOL Ca content in cheese was positively correlated with the maximum loss tangent value from the rheology test and the degree of flow from the UW-Melt Profiler. When cheeses with pH <5.0 where heated in the rheometer the loss tangent values remained low (<0.5), which coincided with limited meltability of Cheddar cheeses. We believe that this lack of meltability was due to the dominant effects of reduced electrostatic repulsion between casein particles at low pH values (<5.0).

  14. Content of antioxidative caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in field-grown Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz and responses to sunlight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Min; Jeon, Je-Seung; Kang, Suk Woo; Jung, Yu-Jin; Ly, Lin Na; Um, Byung-Hun

    2012-06-01

    Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz, a commercial leafy vegetable, contains caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (CQAs) as major phenolic constituents. The HPLC chromatograms of leaf extracts collected from different areas in Korea showed a significant variation in CQA amount, and two tri-O-caffeoylquinic acids (triCQAs) were purified and structurally identified by NMR and MS from this plant. Radical scavenging activities among CQAs were found to be increased in proportion to the number of caffeoyl groups. Since this plant prefers damp and shady growth conditions, the effects of sunlight were investigated by growing plantlets in sunlight and shade for four weeks. Greater leaf thickness and higher phenolic contents were found for leaves grown in sunlight than in shade. Four major CQAs-5-mono-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-monoCQA), and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (diCQA)-were induced by solar irradiation, whereas the content of these compounds decreased steadily in shade leaves. The leaves of L. fischeri clearly showed adaptation responses to sunlight, and these characteristics can be exploited for cultivation of this plant for potential use as a nutraceutical and functional food.

  15. Lipid, fatty acid and protein content of late larval to early juvenile stages of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    PubMed

    Limbourn, Andrew J; Nichols, Peter D

    2009-03-01

    Lipid, fatty acid and protein content were determined individually on 7 phyllosomata, 69 clear pueruli, 286 pre-moult pueruli, and 86 juvenile western rock lobster (WRL) collected from four locations between the settlement seasons 2000 to 2006 to evaluate compositional changes during the non-feeding puerulus stage. Only the lipid content, particularly the phospholipids, decreased significantly with development. Protein declined sharply following moult to the juvenile. PL comprised between 86-94% of total lipid in all animals, and declined most between phyllosomata and clear pueruli (238.5 to 121.4 mg g(-1) DW) (p<0.001). Triacylglycerols were the only lipid to increase in absolute amounts with development, but declined 53% on average following moult to juvenile. This increase in TAG is likely due to the conversion of phospholipids to triacylglycerols. Monounsaturated fatty acids were the main energy form utilised during benthic development while polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a high degree of sparing. The n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratio of juveniles indicates that they may be approaching critically low levels of stored lipid energy reserves. Both protein, and lipid, declined sharply from the final puerulus phase to the juvenile confirming that a high energetic demand is required to fuel the moulting process.

  16. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  17. Quantitative analysis of cyclic dimer fatty acid content in the dimerization product by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Minyoung; Seok, Seunghwan; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, (1)H NMR is utilized for the quantitative analysis of a specific cyclic dimer fatty acid in a dimer acid mixture using the pseudo-standard material of mesitylene on the basis of its structural similarity. Mesitylene and cyclic dimer acid levels were determined using the signal of the proton on the cyclic ring (δ=6.8) referenced to the signal of maleic acid (δ=6.2). The content of the cyclic dimer fatty acid was successfully determined through the standard curve of mesitylene and the reported equation. Using the linearity of the mesitylene curve, the cyclic dimer fatty acid in the oil mixture was quantified. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to quantify cyclic compounds in mixtures to optimize the dimerization process.

  18. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects. PMID:24596461

  19. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects.

  20. Determination and comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in pu-erh and other types of Chinese tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Wei, Zhen-zhen; Yuan, Wen-xia; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Chun-hua; Xue, Xiao-ting; Zhou, Hong-jie

    2011-04-27

    Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p < 0.05) and that the GABA content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p < 0.05). This mass analysis and comparison suggested GABA was not a major bioactive constituent and resolved the disagreement GABA content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p < 0.05), leading to the possibility of producing GABA-enriched white tea.

  1. [Determination of Acid-Insoluble Aluminum Content in Steel by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Jia, Yun-hai; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very attractive and popular chemical analysis technique in material science for its advantage of rapid analysis, non-contact measurement, micro surface analysis and online analysis. In this paper, LIBS were used to determine insoluble aluminum content by analyzing the scanning data on massive steel samples. Abnormal data were discarded by Nalimov criterion, and the remaining data was used to calculate the average and the standard deviation. The threshold to distinguish acid-insoluble aluminum and soluble aluminum was identified as the average value plus triple standard deviation. Two different mathematical models were proposed to calculate insoluble aluminum content, respectively according to the ratio of the total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength to total aluminum signal strength and acid-insoluble signal number to total aluminum signal number. The total aluminum content was determined by the calibration curve. Insoluble aluminum content of certified reference materials and plate blank samples obtained by mathematical model is coincident to chemical wet method results. The result according to total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength is much better. LIBS can be used as a rapid analysis method to characterize insoluble aluminum content in steel samples.

  2. Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Malyshevskaya, Kseniya K; Markevich, Grigory N

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and content of 2 forms of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from lakes in Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) were compared. One form of sockeye salmon was anadromous ("marine"), that is, adult fish migrated in ocean to feed and grow and than return in the lake to breed. Fish of another form, kokanee, never migrate in the ocean. Per cent levels of the main indicators of nutritive value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were significantly higher in the landlocked O. nerka. However, concentrations of EPA and DHA per wet weight of filets were higher in the marine form, because of the relatively higher content of sum of fatty acids in their muscle tissue. As concluded, fish fed in marine environment had higher contents of long-chain n-3 fatty acids per wet weight than fish of the same species, fed in fresh waters. In general, both the anadromous sockeye salmon and the landlocked kokanee salmon can be recommended for human diet as a valuable product concerning contents of EPA and DHA. PMID:23240970

  3. (n-7) and (n-9) cis-Monounsaturated fatty acid contents of 12 Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2008-01-01

    cis-Vaccenic acid or cis-11-octadecenoic acid, a C18:1 (n-7) isomer of oleic acid (C18:1 (n-9)) has been found in several oilseeds. It is synthesized from palmitic acid (C16:0) via production of C16:1 (n-7) by a Delta9 desaturase and elongation by an elongase giving C18:1 (n-7). In this study, the fatty acid composition of 12 Brassica species was analyzed by GC-FID and confirmed by GC-MS. All species contained C18:1 (n-7), C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7) fatty acid isomers, suggesting that C18:1 (n-7) was elongated. The levels of these fatty acids varied according to the species. C18:1(n-7)) represented from 0.4% to 3.3% of the total relative fatty acid contents of the seeds. The contents of C20:1(n-7) and C22:1(n-7) levels were lower than C18:1(n-7) contents; the relative fatty acid composition varied from 0.02% to 1.3% and from below the limit of detection to 1.3% for C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7), respectively. The ratios of (n-7)/(n-9) ranged from 2.8% to 16.7%, 0.6% to 29.5% and 0% to 2.6% for C18:1, C20:1 and C22:2, respectively. Using statistical similarities or differences of the C18:1 (n-7)/(n-9) ratios for chemotaxonomy, the surveyed species could be arranged into three groups. The first group would include Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. tournefortii with Eruca sativa branching only related to B. napus. The second group would include B. tournefortii, Raphanus sativus and Sinapis alba. The last group would include B. juncea, B. carinata and B. nigra with no similarity/relationship between them and between the other species. Results suggested that the level of C20:1 (n-7) influenced the levels of all monounsaturated fatty acids with chain length higher than 20 carbons. On the other hand, palmitoleic acid (C16:1) levels, C16:1 being the parent of all (n-7) fatty acids, had no statistically significant correlation with the content of any of the fatty acids of the (n-7) or (n-9) family.

  4. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  5. A Hyperlipidic Diet Combined with Short-Term Ovariectomy Increases Adiposity and Hyperleptinemia and Decreases Cytokine Content in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Nelson Inacio Pinto; Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth Sousa; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6Rα, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet. PMID:26170534

  6. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (∼23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ∼30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus.

  7. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  8. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-12-12

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed.

  9. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  10. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1. PMID:27404728

  11. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1.

  12. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1. PMID:27404728

  13. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  14. Xenia effects on oil content and fatty acid and tocopherol concentrations in autogamous almond cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kodad, Ossama; Estopañán, Gloria; Juan, Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafel

    2009-11-25

    The increasing utilization of self-compatible almond cultivars in solid plantings of a single genotype has raised the question of the effect of the pollen source on the kernel quality of these new autogamous cultivars. Thus, the effect of two different pollen sources, in addition to their own pollen, on the oil content and fatty acid and tocopherol concentrations was studied in four autogamous almond genotypes. The oil content was not affected by the pollination treatment, but self-pollination resulted in significantly higher values for oleic acid. For the tocopherol homologues, the alpha-tocopherol content of the self-pollinated kernels was intermediate between those obtained after cross-pollination with the two foreign pollens, but the self-pollinated kernels had higher values of delta-tocopherol than the cross-pollinated kernels. Thus, the effect of the pollen source was shown to have a clear effect on the fatty acid composition but not on the oil or tocopherol contents of the almond kernels, with an increased quality of the kernels produced after self-pollination because of a higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio.

  15. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver.

    PubMed

    Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver.

  16. Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gonzalez, Juan A; Avallone, Sylvie; Brat, Pierre; Trystram, Gilles; Bohuon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The influence of thermal treatment (frying of plantain) on the micronutrients ascorbic acid, potassium and carotenoids is evaluated. Cylinders (diameter 30 mm, thickness 10 mm) of plantain (Musa AAB 'barraganete') were fried at four thermal treatments (120-180 degrees C and from 24 to 4 min) to obtain products with approximately the same water content (approximately 0.8+/-0.02 kg/kg1) and fat content (approximately 0.15+/-0.06 kg/kg). The thermal study used the cook value and the mean cook value as indicators of the effect of several different treatment temperatures and times on quality. Deep-fat frying had no significant effect on carotenoid contents at any frying conditions, and on potassium content, except at 120 degrees C and 24 min (loss acid. The process with the greatest effect was low temperature and long time (120 degrees C/24 min), as observed for potassium and ascorbic acid. These results are in agreement with other studies that demonstrated short thermal treatments at high temperatures protect food nutritional quality, as shown by the cook value and the mean cook value. In our work, deep-fat frying of plantain preserved most of the micronutrient contents that were evaluated.

  17. Influence of cultivar, harvest time, storage conditions, and peeling on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Joël; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed in some varieties (such as the Delbar Estival apple and Durondeau pear). Storage conditions were important. Our results also showed that fruits should be consumed rapidly after purchase and with their peel. After one week of domestic storage, the ascorbic acid content was found to decrease by 75%. Peeling led to a more than 25% decrease in total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The harvest time (at normal ripeness) had only a limited impact, but significant year-to-year variations were observed. In conclusion, well-chosen and well-stored apples and pears may contribute to an antioxidant-rich diet if consumed rapidly and with their peel.

  18. Amino acid contents and transport of fixed N in nodules of Leucaena leucocephala variety K-8

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 were grown with a N-free fertilizer or fertilizer containing /sup 15/N-depleted (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.01 atom /sup 15/N; 10 ppm). The nodules of 5 month old trees grown on N-free media were used for /sup 15/N-enriched treatment and as controls. Nodules from plants grown on /sup 15/N-depleted media were also used. Nodules were extracted with 0.5% aqueous toluene and aliquots were analyzed with a Beckman 120B Amino Acid Analyzer. Samples were separated into free ammonium, Asp-N, Glu-N, Asn and Gln amide- and amino-N, and remaining amino acids. Fractions were then analyzed for /sup 15/N content. Asn (27.3 umol/gfw) represented 56% of the total free amino acid pool in the nodules. Asn (amide-N and amino-N) also represented approximately 77% of the total N fixed during the one hour /sup 15/N-enriched N/sub 2/ and the /sup 15/N-depleted treatments. Based on these findings and the fact that the ureide fraction is barely detectable in the nodules (0.25 ..mu..mol/gfw), the authors considers L. leucocephala an amide transporter of fixed N. Additional information will be presented on the amino acid contents of tissues, as well as a time course of amino acid content from seed through nodulation.

  19. Increased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics and decreased porin content caused by envB mutations of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Oppezzo, O J; Avanzati, B; Antón, D N

    1991-01-01

    Isogenic derivatives carrying envB6, envB9, or envB+ alleles were obtained from a strain of Salmonella typhimurium that was partially resistant to mecillinam, a beta-lactam antibiotic specific for penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2). Testing of the isogenic strains with several antibacterial agents demonstrated that envB mutations either increased resistance (mecillinam) or did not affect the response (imipemen) to beta-lactams that act primarily on PBP 2, while susceptibilities to beta-lactams that act on PBP 1B, PBP 3, or both were increased. Furthermore, the susceptibilities of envB strains to hydrophobic compounds such as rifampin, novobiocin, or chloramphenicol were not modified, even though their susceptibilities to deoxycholate and crystal violet were enhanced. Outer cell membranes of envB mutants presented a 50% reduction in protein content compared with that of the isogenic envB+ strains, and OmpF and OmpD porins were particularly affected by the reduction. No alteration in the amount or pattern of periplasmic proteins was noticed, and lipopolysaccharides from envB mutants appeared to be normal by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By using derivatives that produced a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase, it was demonstrated that envB cells are slightly less permeable to cephalothin than envB+ bacteria are. It is concluded that the high susceptibility of envB mutants to beta-lactams is due to the increased effectiveness of the antibiotics on PBP 1B, PBP 3, or both. Images PMID:1656857

  20. Chronic treatment with selective I2-imidazoline receptor ligands decreases the content of pro-apoptotic markers in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Garau, Celia; Miralles, Antonio; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2013-02-01

    Selective I(2)-imidazoline receptor ligands induce neuroprotection through various molecular mechanisms including blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To investigate new neuroprotective mechanisms associated with I(2)-imidazoline receptors, the effects of selective (2-styryl-2-imidazoline (LSL 61122), 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI), 2-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl) quinoline hydrochloride (BU-224)) and non-selective (idazoxan) I(2)-drugs on canonical apoptotic pathways were assessed in rat brain cortex. The acute treatment with LSL 61122 (10 mg/kg) reduced the content of mitochondrial (pro-apoptotic) Bax (-33%) and cytochrome c (-31%), which was prevented by idazoxan, an I(2)-receptor antagonist. The sustained stimulation of I(2)-imidazoline receptors with selective drugs (10 mg/kg, every 12 h for seven days) was associated with down-regulation of key components of the extrinsic (Fas receptor: -20%; Fas associated protein with death domain (FADD) adaptor: -47-54%) and/or intrinsic (Bax: -20-23%; cytochrome c: -22-28%) apoptotic signalling and/or up-regulation of survival anti-apoptotic factors (p-Ser194 FADD/FADD ratio: +1.6-2.5-fold; and/or Bcl-2/Bax ratio: +1.5-fold), which in the long-term could dampen cell death in the brain. Similar chronic treatments with LSL 60101 (the imidazole analogue of 2-BFI) and idazoxan (a mixed I(2)/α(2)-ligand) did not induce significant alterations of pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins. The disclosed anti-apoptotic mechanisms of selective I(2)-imidazoline drugs may work in concert with other molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection (e.g. blockade of NMDA receptors) that are engaged by I(2)-ligands.

  1. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p < 0.05) decreases (between % 5.7 and 75.7) were observed in calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, magnesium and manganese contents of the lupin seeds. Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation. PMID:26396330

  2. The functional impact of Pgm amino acid polymorphism on glycogen content in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Verrelli, B C; Eanes, W F

    2001-01-01

    Earlier studies of the common PGM allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster reported no in vitro activity differences. However, our study of nucleotide variation observed that PGM allozymes are a heterogeneous mixture of amino acid polymorphisms. In this study, we analyze 10 PGM protein haplotypes with respect to PGM activity, thermostability, and adult glycogen content. We find a twofold difference in activity among PGM protein haplotypes that is associated with a threefold difference in glycogen content. The latitudinal clines for several Pgm amino acid polymorphisms show that high PGM activity, and apparently higher flux to glycogen synthesis, parallel the low activity clines at G6PD for reduced pentose shunt flux in northern latitudes. This suggests that amino acid polymorphism is under selection at this branch point and may be favored for increased metabolic storage associated with stress resistance and adaptation to temperate regions. PMID:11560897

  3. Effect of CH4/O2 ratio on fatty acid profile and polyhydroxybutyrate content in a heterotrophic-methanotrophic consortium.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Nadarajan, Saravanan; Lee, Patrick K H; Heimann, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of heterotrophic-methanotrophic (H-Meth) communities is important for improvement of methane (CH4) oxidation capacities (MOC) particularly in conjunction with bio-product development in industrial bio-filters. Initially, a H-Meth consortium was established and enriched from marine sediments and characterized by next generation sequencing of the 16s rDNA gene. The enriched consortium was subjected to 10-50% CH4 (i.e., 0.20-1.6 CH4/O2 ratios) to study the effects on MOCs, biomass growth, fatty acid profiles and biopolymer (e.g. polyhydroxybutyrate; PHB) content. Methylocystis, Methylophaga and Pseudoxanthomonas dominated the H-Meth consortium. Culture enrichment of the H-Meth consortium resulted in 15-20-folds higher MOC compared to seed sediments. Increasing CH4 concentration (and decreased O2 levels) yielded higher MOCs, but did not improve total fatty acid contents. PHB contents varied between 2.5% and 8.5% independently of CH4/O2 ratios. The results suggest that H-Meth consortia could potentially be used in industrial bio-filters for production of biopolymer/biofuel precursors from CH4. PMID:26247542

  4. Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not renal portal vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Swan, G E

    2009-04-01

    Diclofenac (DF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is largely regarded as one of the most devastating environmental toxicant in recent times, after accidental exposure via their food-chain lead to massive mortalities in three vulture species on the Asian subcontinent. Although the use of diclofenac was recently banned on the Indian subcontinent, following the favourable safety profile of meloxicam, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. In an attempt to establish this mechanism, we test three hypotheses using models established from either the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) or the African White-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We demonstrate that both DF and meloxicam are toxic to renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells following 12 h of exposure, due to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be temporarily ameliorated by pre-incubation with uric acid (UA). When cultures were incubated with either drug for only 2 h, meloxicam showed no toxicity in contrast to diclofenac. In both cases no increase in ROS production was evident. In addition, diclofenac decreased the transport of uric acid, by interfering with the p-amino-hippuric acid (PAH) channel. We conclude that vulture susceptibility to diclofenac results from a combination of an increased ROS, interference with UA transport and the duration of exposure.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  6. FoxO1 Deacetylation Decreases Fatty Acid Oxidation in β-Cells and Sustains Insulin Secretion in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Kim, Young Jung R; Fan, Jason; Zhao, Shangang; Banks, Alexander S; Prentki, Marc; Accili, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction contributes to onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. In this state β-cells become metabolically inflexible, losing the ability to select between carbohydrates and lipids as substrates for mitochondrial oxidation. These changes lead to β-cell dedifferentiation. We have proposed that FoxO proteins are activated through deacetylation-dependent nuclear translocation to forestall the progression of these abnormalities. However, how deacetylated FoxO exert their actions remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed islet function in mice homozygous for knock-in alleles encoding deacetylated FoxO1 (6KR). Islets expressing 6KR mutant FoxO1 have enhanced insulin secretion in vivo and ex vivo and decreased fatty acid oxidation ex vivo Remarkably, the gene expression signature associated with FoxO1 deacetylation differs from wild type by only ∼2% of the >4000 genes regulated in response to re-feeding. But this narrow swath includes key genes required for β-cell identity, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial fatty acid and solute transport. The data support the notion that deacetylated FoxO1 protects β-cell function by limiting mitochondrial lipid utilization and raise the possibility that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in β-cells is beneficial to diabetes treatment.

  7. Decreased long-chain fatty acid oxidation impairs postischemic recovery of the insulin-resistant rat heart.

    PubMed

    Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G; Guthrie, Patrick H; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction are more likely to die than nondiabetic patients. In the present study we examined the effect of insulin resistance on myocardial ischemia tolerance. Hearts of rats, rendered insulin resistant by high-sucrose feeding, were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion ex vivo. Cardiac power of control hearts from chow-fed rats recovered to 93%, while insulin-resistant hearts recovered only to 80% (P<0.001 vs. control). Unexpectedly, impaired contractile recovery did not result from an impairment of glucose oxidation (576±36 vs. 593±42 nmol/min/g dry weight; not significant), but from a failure to increase and to sustain oxidation of the long-chain fatty acid oleate on reperfusion (1878±56 vs. 2070±67 nmol/min/g dry weight; P<0.05). This phenomenon was due to a reduced ability to transport oleate into mitochondria and associated with a 38-58% decrease in the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) levels. Contractile function was rescued by replacing oleate with a medium-chain fatty acid or by restoring UCP3 levels with 24 h of food withdrawal. Lastly, the knockdown of UCP3 in rat L6 myocytes also decreased oleate oxidation by 13-18% following ischemia. Together the results expose UCP3 as a critical regulator of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in the stressed heart postischemia and identify octanoate as an intervention by which myocardial metabolism can be manipulated to improve function of the insulin-resistant heart.

  8. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  9. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population. PMID:16711652

  10. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Martina D; Kainz, Martin J; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  11. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Martina D.; Kainz, Martin J.; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M.

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  12. Changes in the contents and profiles of selected phenolics, soyasapogenols, tocopherols, and amino acids during soybean-rice mixture cooking: Electric rice cooker vs electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yu, Bo-Ra; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the changes in the contents and profiles of 35 phenolics (including 12 isoflavones), four tocopherols, two soyasapogenols and 20 amino acids when soybean and rice were cooked together (soybean-rice mixture) using either an electric rice cooker (ERC) or an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The contents of the 35 selected phenolics in soybean decreased by 12% and 8% upon cooking by ERC and EPRC, respectively, and their profiles were different from that prior to cooking (P<0.05). Total tocopherol content of soybeans decreased by 7% after cooking in an ERC, but increased by 3% in soybeans cooked by EPRC. Total soyasapogenol content in soybeans cooked by ERC and EPRC decreased by 15% and 6%, respectively. Lastly, the total amino acid content of soybeans increased by 41% and 10% after cooking by ERC and EPRC, respectively. This study extends our knowledge about the effects of heat and pressure on the contents and profiles of bioactive compounds during soybean-rice mixture cooking. These results may be useful for improving the quality of bioactive compounds in soybean and rice depending on cooking conditions.

  13. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  14. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:17127473

  16. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

  18. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  19. Low-quality vegetable oils as feedstock for biodiesel production using K-pumice as solid catalyst. Tolerance of water and free fatty acids contents.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L; Borges, M E

    2012-08-15

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt.

  20. Age-related changes in intramuscular and subcutaneous fat content and fatty acid composition in growing pigs using longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Bosch, L; Tor, M; Reixach, J; Estany, J

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of intramuscular fat (IMF) and subcutaneous backfat (SB) content and fatty acid composition with age was investigated. A repeated sampling scheme (n=517) for longissimus dorsi (LM) and SB specimens was performed from 160 to 220 days on 216 purebred Duroc barrows. IMF content increased linearly with age at a rate of 0.05%/day, with major compositional changes occurring in C18:1 and C18.2, which increased and decreased by around 4%, respectively. Backfat thickness increase rate declined with age, showing similar compositional changes to IMF but halved in magnitude. Fat content itself also influenced fat composition. At a fixed age, both saturated (SFA) (C16:0) and monounsaturated (MUFA) (C18:1) increased with IMF but only SFA (C16:0 and C18:0) with SB. Aging mostly affected MUFA while fatness SFA. A delay in age at slaughter will enhance IMF and C18:1 in relation to overall fatness but at expense of decreasing body and loin growth rate.

  1. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils. PMID:26239443

  2. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils.

  3. Decreased Mitochondrial DNA Content in Association with Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in House Dust during Wintertime: From a Population Enquiry to Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (±SD) 0.95±0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 390.7–767.3) and 1385ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 1000–1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: −15.16 to −4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was −7.3% (95% CI: −13.71 to −0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans

  4. Sialic acid content of infant saliva: comparison of breast fed with formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Tram, T; Miller, J; McNeil, Y; McVeagh, P

    1997-01-01

    

 Sialic acid is found in especially high concentrations in brain gangliosides, and supplementary sialic acid is associated with increased learning behaviour in animals. It was hypothesised that breast fed infants may have higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids and tissues because human milk is a rich source of sialylated oligosaccharides, while formulas contain very little. The aim therefore was to compare the sialic acid content of saliva collected from full term infants who were either solely breast fed or formula fed until weaning at 3-5 months of age. Thirty three infants, 18 breast fed and 15 formula fed, were studied at a mean (SD) age of 5 (2) months. The breast fed infants, when compared with formula fed infants, were found to have almost two times more free sialic acid in saliva (mean (SE) 16.0 (2.7) v 8.2 (2.1) mg/l, p < 0.036) and nearly 50% more total sialic acid (47.3 (3.9) v 32.2 (4.4) mg/l, p<0.014). The findings provide a preliminary indication that an exogenous source of sialic acids derived from human milk may contribute to higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids. There are important implications for the formulation of human milk substitutes.

 PMID:9389234

  5. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  6. Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Leenhardt, Fanny; Levrat-Verny, Marie-Anne; Chanliaud, Elisabeth; Rémésy, Christian

    2005-01-12

    Whole wheat bread is an important source of minerals but also contains considerable amounts of phytic acid, which is known to impair their absorption. An in vitro trial was performed to assess the effect of a moderate drop of the dough pH (around 5.5) by way of sourdough fermentation or by exogenous organic acid addition on phytate hydrolysis. It was shown that a slight acidification of the dough (pH 5.5) with either sourdough or lactic acid addition allowed a significant phytate breakdown (70% of the initial flour content compared to 40% without any leavening agent or acidification). This result highlights the predominance of wheat phytase activity over sourdough microflora phytase activity during moderate sourdough fermentation and shows that a slight drop of the pH (pH value around 5.5) is sufficient to reduce significantly the phytate content of a wholemeal flour. Mg "bioaccessibility"of whole wheat dough was improved by direct solubilization of the cation and by phytate hydrolysis.

  7. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  8. Assessment of magnesium influence on fatty acid content in isolated rat hepatocytes subjected to incubation.

    PubMed

    Całyniuk, B; Grochowska-Niedworok, E; Kardas, M; Muc-Wierzgoń, M; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium salts are components of many dietary supplements used in treatment or prevention of magnesium deficiency. Hypomagnesemia usually results from an improper lifestyle, including unbalanced diet. Isolated hepatocytes of animals or humans are the preferred model used to study the in vitro effects of exogenous factors on cellular metabolic changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and their esters in isolated rat hepatocytes influenced by different magnesium concentrations. The isolated rat hepatocytes were used as the test material. Hepatocytes were prepared in culture medium (Hepatocyte Medium) + MgCl(2) solution to concentrations of 2 mM/dm(3) MgCl(2), 4 mM/dm(3) MgCl(2). After incubation with different concentrations of magnesium ions, changes in the content of fatty acids and their esters were found for the whole hepatocytes and hepatocyte membranes. Despite changes in the fatty acid content in the whole hepatocytes and their membranes, there were no changes in the coefficient of degree of saturation of fatty acids when different concentrations of MgCl2 were used.

  9. Variation and optimization of acid-dissolved aluminum content in stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le-chen; Bao, Yan-ping; Wang, Min; Zhang, Chao-jie

    2016-04-01

    As a key step in secondary refining, the deoxidation process in clean stainless steel production is widely researched by many scholars. In this study, vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD) deoxidation refining in a 40-t electric arc furnace + VOD + ingot casting process was analyzed and optimized on the basis of Al deoxidation of stainless steel and thermodynamic equilibrium reactions between the slag and steel. Under good stirring conditions in VOD, the deoxidation reaction reaches equilibrium rapidly, and the oxygen activity in the bulk steel is controlled by the slag composition and Al content. A basicity of 3-5 and an Al content greater than 0.015wt% in the melt resulted in an oxygen content less than 0.0006wt%. In addition, the dissolved oxygen content decreased slightly when the Al content in the steel was greater than 0.02wt%. Because of the equilibrium of the Si-O reaction between the slag and steel, the activity of SiO2 will increase while the Si content increases; thus, the Si content should be lowered to enable the formation of a high-basicity slag. A high-basicity, low-Al2O3 slag and an increased Si content will reduce the Al consumption caused by SiO2 reduction.

  10. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property.

  11. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source. PMID:24497746

  12. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water “brownification” in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager’s ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits

  13. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water "brownification" in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager's ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits, such as

  14. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water "brownification" in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager's ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits, such as

  15. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  16. Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-Xun; Guo, Dong-Quan; Xing, Guo-Jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  17. Virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the free amino acid content of host wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, Kurt D; Giovanini, Marcelo P; Zheng, Cheng; Williams, Christie E

    2008-11-01

    Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that supports larval growth and development. To determine if changes in host plant free amino acid levels are associated with virulent Biotype L Hessian fly larval feeding, we quantified free amino acid levels in crown tissues of susceptible Newton wheat plants 1, 4, and 7 days after Hessian fly egg hatch. Hessian fly-infested susceptible plants were more responsive than resistant plants or uninfested controls, showing higher concentrations of alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and serine 4 days after egg hatch. This 4-day post-hatch time point corresponds to the maturation of nutritive tissue cells in susceptible plants and the onset of rapid larval growth. By 7 days after egg hatch, when virulent second instars are actively feeding on the contents of nutritive tissue cells, the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine were more abundant compared to uninfested controls, but the levels of other free amino acids were no longer elevated. Changes in free amino acid abundance described in this report were associated with increased levels of mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in amino acid synthesis and transport.

  18. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  19. The bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid directly modulates metabolic pathways in white adipose tissue in vitro: insight into how bile acids decrease obesity.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, João Soeiro; Rolo, Anabela Pinto; Jarak, Ivana; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Carvalho, Rui Albuquerque

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and associated pathologies, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations, are increasingly escalating morbidity and mortality. Despite intensive study, no effective simple treatment for these conditions exists. As such, the need for go-to drugs is serious. Bile acids (BAs) present the possibility of reversing these problems, as various in vivo studies and clinical trials have shown significant effects with regard to weight and obesity reduction, insulin sensitivity restoration and cardiovascular improvements. However, the mechanism of action of BA-induced metabolic improvement has yet to be fully established. The currently most accepted model involves non-shivering thermogenesis for energy waste, but this is disputed. As such, we propose to determine whether the BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) can exert anti-obesogenic effects in vitro, independent of thermogenic brown adipose tissue activation. By exposing differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes to high glucose and CDCA, we demonstrate that this BA has anti-obesity effects in vitro. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of metabolic pathways clearly indicates an improvement in metabolic status, as these cells become more oxidative rather than glycolytic, which may be associated with an increase in fatty acid oxidation. Our work demonstrates that CDCA-induced metabolic alterations occur in white and brown adipocytes and are not totally dependent on endocrine/nervous system signaling, as thought until now. Furthermore, future exploration of the mechanisms behind these effects will undoubtedly reveal interesting targets for clinical modulation. PMID:27488269

  20. The anthocyanin metabolites gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde decrease human colon cancer cell viability by regulating pro-oncogenic signals.

    PubMed

    Forester, Sarah C; Choy, Ying Y; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Oteiza, Patricia I

    2014-06-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of polyphenols abundant in the skins of red grapes, and have been shown to have anti-cancer effects in models of colon cancer [Cooke et al. Int J Cancer 2006;119:2213-2220; Jing et al. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:9391-9398]. Gut microflora metabolize anthocyanins to phenolic acids and aldehydes. These metabolites may explain the relationship between anthocyanin consumption and reduced incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, gallic acid (Gal), 3-O-methylgallic acid (Megal), and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde (THBA) were found to decrease Caco-2 cell viability to a larger extent than other anthocyanin metabolites. To better understand the potential anti-CRC action of these compounds, this paper investigated their capacity to modulate the cell cycle, and induce apoptotic cell death. Dividing Caco-2 cells were incubated for 24-72 h in the presence of 10-100 µM Gal, Megal, THBA, and malvidin-3-glucoside (M3g). THBA reduced cell viability only at 100 µM, while Gal and Megal (10-100 µM) caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. After 72 h incubation, the metabolites caused cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 . The activation of the apoptotic pathway by Megal, Gal, and THBA was evidenced by the activation of caspase-3. However, only Megal and Gal caused DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. Megal, Gal, and THBA inhibited transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1, STAT-1, and OCT-1 which are known to be activated in CRC. In conclusion, the anti-cancer effects of Megal and Gal occurs as a consequence of both the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. The inhibition of transcription factors that promote cell proliferation and survival can in part underlie the observed effects.

  1. Decreased bile-acid synthesis in livers of hepatocyte-conditional NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice results in increased bile acids in serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (H-Cpr-null) have been engineered to understand the in vivo function of hepatic P450s in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. However, the impact of hepatic Cpr on BA homeostasis is not clear. The present study revealed that H-Cpr-null mice had a 60% decrease in total BA concentration in liver, whereas the total BA concentration in serum was almost doubled. The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. Feedback mechanisms responsible for the reduced liver BA concentrations and/or increased serum BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice included the following: 1) enhanced alternative BA synthesis pathway, as evidenced by the fact that classic BA synthesis is diminished but chenodeoxycholic acid still increases in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice; 2) inhibition of farnesoid X receptor activation, which increased the mRNA of Cyp7a1 and 8b1; 3) induction of intestinal BA transporters to facilitate BA absorption from the intestine to the circulation; 4) induction of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters to increase BA efflux from the liver to blood; and 5) increased generation of secondary BAs. In summary, the present study reveals an important contribution of the alternative BA synthesis pathway and BA transporters in regulating BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice.

  2. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque

    PubMed Central

    Powell, David R; Gay, Jason P; Smith, Melinda; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Harris, Angela; Holland, Autumn; Reyes, Maricela; Kirkham, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Zambrowicz, Brian; Hansen, Gwenn; Platt, Kenneth A; van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi

    2016-01-01

    Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for ω3, ω6, and ω9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels measured in brain and liver phospholipid fractions of Fads1 KO mice were consistent with decreased D5D activity and normal D6D activity. The beneficial metabolic phenotype demonstrated in Fads1 KO mice suggests that selective D5D inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of human obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27382320

  3. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; Gay, Jason P; Smith, Melinda; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Harris, Angela; Holland, Autumn; Reyes, Maricela; Kirkham, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Zambrowicz, Brian; Hansen, Gwenn; Platt, Kenneth A; van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi

    2016-01-01

    Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for ω3, ω6, and ω9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels measured in brain and liver phospholipid fractions of Fads1 KO mice were consistent with decreased D5D activity and normal D6D activity. The beneficial metabolic phenotype demonstrated in Fads1 KO mice suggests that selective D5D inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of human obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27382320

  4. Trivalent chromium alleviates oleic acid induced steatosis in SMMC-7721 cells by decreasing fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaonan; Hu, Linlin; Fang, Zhijia; Huang, Zhiwei; Shi, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] has been shown as an essential trace element for human health. Previous studies depict that Cr(III) plays important roles in maintaining normal glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas its effect on the hepatic lipid metabolism is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of Cr on hepatic steatosis induced by oleic acid (OA) in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. Hepatic steatosis model was co-administered with Cr. Indexes of lipid accumulation were determined and associated genes expression were analyzed. The data showed that OA could induce lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in SMMC-7721 cells, and significantly increase the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2). This steatosis effect of OA was ameliorated by Cr. The TG accumulation and up-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 genes followed steatosis induction were inhibited by Cr. After the treatment of Cr, excessive intracellular OA content was also attenuated. Furthermore, Cr still performed inhibitory effect of DGAT2 expression at the presence of DGAT2 agonist or inhibitor, which indicated that the inhibitory effect of Cr on lipogenesis is associated with the downregulation of DGAT2 expression. These findings demonstrate that Cr alleviates hepatic steatosis via suppressing CD36 expression to prevent fatty acid uptake, as well as suppressing DGAT2 expression to inhibit TG synthesis. It suggests that CD36 and DGAT2 might become the novel drug targets for their properties in hepatic steatosis. Most importantly, Cr may be a potential anti-steatosis candidate to offer protective effects against liver damage. PMID:27497686

  5. Influence of a dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency on the cerebral catecholamine contents, EEG and learning ability in rat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Fukumoto, Yutaka; Harada, Etsumori

    2002-04-01

    Female rats were fed on a diet deficient in (n-3) fatty acid or enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet from mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups fed on the same diet as their dams were used for experiments. The effects of dietary (n-3) fatty acid deficiency on cerebral catecholamine contents and electroencephalogram (EEG) in rat pups during the postnatal development were investigated. The (n-3) deficient rat pups showed significantly lower levels of noradrenaline (NA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, compared with those in the DHA adequate rats. Dopamine (DA) contents were significantly lower in the (n-3) deficient rats until the 7th day of age. These results were consistent with observations in the EEG analysis, relative powers of fast activities in the EEG recorded from the (n-3) deficient rats were significantly lower than those in the DHA adequate rats. The effect of supplementation with DHA in (n-3) deficient rats on learning ability was also studied in a model of learning, active avoidance test and three-panel run way test, after weaning. Although the percentages of avoidance in the (n-3) deficient rats (saline group) were constantly 20% or less until the 3rd session, the percentage of avoidance in the DHA supplemented rats rapidly increased to 53% following the first administration. While in the three-panel runway test, there were no significant differences between two groups. These results suggest that chronic consumption of a (n-3) fatty acid deficient diet could modify the biosynthesis of catecholamine in the brain, and might induce the behavioral disturbances. Furthermore, the decreased learning ability induced by (n-3) deficiency in the active avoidance test is a reversible following a supplementing DHA after the weaning.

  6. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  7. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program.

  8. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  9. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded.

  10. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  11. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  12. Experimental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deposition decreases summer soil temperatures, water contents, and soil CO2 concentrations in a northern bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, S.; Moore, T.; Bubier, J.; Blodau, C.

    2010-08-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands depend on airborne nitrogen (N), whose deposition has increased in the past and lead to disappearance of mosses and increased shrub biomass in fertilization experiments. The response of soil water content, temperature, and carbon gas concentrations to increased nutrient loading is poorly known and we thus determined these data at the long-term N fertilization site Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, during a two month period in summer. Soil temperatures decreased with NPK addition in shallow peat soil primarily during the daytime (t-test, p<0.05) owing to increased shading, whereas they increased in deeper peat soil (t-test, p<0.05), probably by enhanced thermal conductivity. RMANOVA suggested interactions between N and PK addition in particular soil layers and strong interactions between soil temperatures and volumetric water contents (p<0.05). Averaged over all fertilized treatments, the mean soil temperatures at 5 cm depth decreased by 1.3 °C and by 4.7 °C (standard deviation 0.9 °C) at noon. Water content was most strongly affected by within-plot spatial heterogeneity but also responded to both N and PK load according to RMANOVA (p<0.05). Overall, water content and CO2 concentrations in the near-surface peat (t-test, p<0.05) were lower with increasing N load, suggesting more rapid soil gas exchange. The results thus suggest that changes in bog ecosystem structure with N deposition have significant ramifications for physical parameters that in turn control biogeochemical processes.

  13. Experimental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deposition decreases summer soil temperatures, water contents, and soil CO2 concentrations in a northern bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, S.; Moore, T.; Bubier, J.; Blodau, C.

    2011-03-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands depend on airborne nitrogen (N), whose deposition has increased in the past and lead to disappearance of mosses and increased shrub biomass in fertilization experiments. The response of soil water content, temperature, and carbon gas concentrations to increased nutrient loading is poorly known and we thus determined these data at the long-term N fertilization site Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, during a two month period in summer. Soil temperatures decreased with NPK addition in shallow peat soil primarily during the daytime (t-test, p < 0.05) owing to increased shading, whereas they increased in deeper peat soil (t-test, p < 0.05), probably by enhanced thermal conductivity. These effects were confirmed by RMANOVA, which also suggested an influence of volumetric water contents as co-variable on soil temperature and vice versa (p < 0.05). Averaged over all fertilized treatments, the mean soil temperatures at 5 cm depth decreased by 1.3 °C and by 4.7 °C (standard deviation 0.9 °C) at noon. Water content was most strongly affected by within-plot spatial heterogeneity but also responded to both N and PK load according to RMANOVA (p < 0.05). Overall, water content and CO2 concentrations in the near-surface peat (t-test, p < 0.05) were lower with increasing N load, suggesting more rapid soil gas exchange. The results thus suggest that changes in bog ecosystem structure with N deposition have significant ramifications for physical parameters that in turn control biogeochemical processes.

  14. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  15. Structural organization of fatty acid desaturase loci in linseed lines with contrasting linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax. With one gene every 3.2-4.6 kb, the desaturase loci have a higher gene density than the genome's average of one gene per 7.8-8.2 kb. The gene order and orientation across the two genotypes were generally conserved with the exception of the sad1 locus that was predicted to have additional genes in CDC Bethune. High sequence conservation in both genic and intergenic regions of the sad and fad2b loci contrasted with the significant level of variation of the fad2a and fad3 loci, with SNPs being the most frequently observed mutation type. The fad2a locus had 297 SNPs and 36 indels over ~95 kb contrasting with the fad2b locus that had a mere seven SNPs and four indels in ~110 kb. Annotation of the gene-rich loci revealed other genes of known role in lipid or carbohydrate metabolic/catabolic pathways. The organization of the fad2b locus was particularly complex with seven copies of the fad2b gene in both genotypes. The presence of Gypsy, Copia, MITE, Mutator, hAT and other novel repeat elements at the desaturase loci was similar to that of the whole genome. This structural genomic analysis provided some insights into the genomic organization and composition of the main desaturase loci of linseed and of their complex evolution through both tandem and whole genome duplications. PMID:27142663

  16. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-base Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Michal; van Driel, Jan

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students’ difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1) students’ difficulties in understanding acid-base chemistry and (2) models of acids and bases in their teaching practice. In the interviews, the teachers were asked to comment on authentic student responses collected in a previous study that included student interviews about their understanding of acids and bases. Further, the teachers drew story-lines representing their level of satisfaction with their acid-base teaching. The results show that, although all teachers recognised some of the students’ difficulties as confusion between models, only a few chose to emphasise the different models of acids and bases. Most of the teachers thought it was sufficient to distinguish clearly between the phenomenological level and the particle level. The ways the teachers reflected on their teaching, in order to improve it, also differed. Some teachers reflected more on students’ difficulties; others were more concerned about their own performance. Implications for chemistry (teacher) education are discussed.

  17. Folic acid content in thermostabilized and freeze-dried space shuttle foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Kloeris, V. L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether freeze-dried and thermostabilized foods on a space shuttle contain adequate folate and to investigate any effects of freeze-drying on folacin. Frozen vegetables were analyzed after three states of processing: thawed; cooked; and rehydrated. Thermostabilized items were analyzed as supplied with no further processing. Measurable folate decreased in some freeze-dried vegetables and increased in others. Folacin content of thermostabilized food items was comparable with published values. We concluded that although the folacin content of some freeze-dried foods was low, adequate folate is available from the shuttle menu to meet RDA guidelines.

  18. Olive oils modulate fatty acid content and signaling protein expression in apolipoprotein E knockout mice brain.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Regina; Navarro, María A; Vögler, Oliver; Perona, Javier S; Osada, Jesús; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis contributes to disruption of neuronal signaling pathways by producing lipid-dependent modifications of brain plasma membranes, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether long-term (11 weeks) consumption of refined- (ROO) and pomace- (POO) olive oil modulated the fatty acid composition and the levels of membrane signaling proteins in the brain of apolipoprotein E (apoE) knockout (KO) mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis. Both of these oils are rich in bioactive molecules with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. ROO and POO long-term consumption increased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), particularly of oleic acid, while reducing the level of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic and stearic acid. As a result, the MUFA:SFA ratio was higher in apoE KO mice brain fed with ROO and POO. Furthermore, both oils reduced the level of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid, suggesting a decrease in the generation of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. Finally, ROO and POO induced an increase in the density of membrane proteins implicated in both the Galphas/PKA and Galphaq/PLCbeta1/PKCalpha signaling pathways. The combined effects of long-term ROO and POO consumption on fatty acid composition and the level of signaling proteins involved in PKA and PKC activation, suggest positive effects on neuroinflammation and brain function in apoE KO mice brain, and convert these oils into promising functional foods in diseases involving apoE deficiency.

  19. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers.

  20. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Xinxia; Meng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC), and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers. PMID:25709230

  1. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. PMID:23993490

  2. Measurement of sialic acid content is insufficient to assess bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Taniguchi, Yuya; Hosono, Mareto; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ishikawa, Rika; Shimada, Yoshihiro; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kutsukake, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biological potency and its comparison with clinical effects are important in the quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins. Animal models are usually used for evaluating bioactivity of these compounds. However, alternative methods are required to simplify the bioassay and avoid ethical issues associated with animal studies. Negatively charged sialic acid residues are known to be critical for in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). In this study, we used capillary zone electrophoresis, a charge-based separation method, to estimate the sialic acid content for predicting in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. In vivo bioactivities of rhEPO subfractions were measured and compared with sialylation levels. The results obtained indicated that in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO is not simply correlated with the sialylation level, which suggests that it is difficult to predict biological potency from the sialic acid content alone. N-Glycan moieties as well as sialic acid residues may have a significant impact on in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. PMID:20823580

  3. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  4. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    PubMed

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  5. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    PubMed

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings.

  6. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    PubMed

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  7. Salicylic acid treatment via the rooting medium interferes with stomatal response, CO2 fixation rate and carbohydrate metabolism in tomato, and decreases harmful effects of subsequent salt stress.

    PubMed

    Poór, P; Gémes, K; Horváth, F; Szepesi, A; Simon, M L; Tari, I

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) applied at 10(-3) m in hydroponic culture decreased stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximal CO(2) fixation rate (A(max) ) and initial slopes of the CO(2) (A/C(i)) and light response (A/PPFD) curves, carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (CE) and photosynthetic quantum efficiency (Q), resulting in the death of tomato plants. However, plants could acclimate to lower concentrations of SA (10(-7) -10(-4) m) and, after 3 weeks, returned to control levels of g(s), photosynthetic performance and soluble sugar content. In response to high salinity (100 mm NaCl), the pre-treated plants exhibited higher A(max) as a function of internal CO(2) concentration (C(i) ) or photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and higher CE and Q values than salt-treated controls, suggesting more effective photosynthesis after SA treatment. Growth in 10(-7) or 10(-4) m SA-containing solution led to accumulation of soluble sugars in both leaf and root tissues, which remained higher in both plant parts during salt stress at 10(-4) m SA. The activity of hexokinase (HXK) with glucose, but not fructose, as substrate was reduced by SA treatment in leaf and root samples, leading to accumulation of glucose and fructose in leaf tissues. HXK activity decreased further under high salinity in both plant organs. The accumulation of soluble sugars and sucrose in roots of plants growing in the presence of 10(-4) m SA contributed to osmotic adjustment and improved tolerance to subsequent salt stress. Apart from its putative role in delaying senescence, decreased HXK activity may divert hexoses from catabolic reactions to osmotic adaptation.

  8. Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases CD133 Colon Cancer Stem-Like Cell Marker Expression While Increasing Sensitivity to Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    De Carlo, Flavia; Witte, Theodore R.; Hardman, W. Elaine; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can attenuate the proliferation of cancer cells, including colon cancer, and increase the efficacy of various anticancer drugs. However, these studies address the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the bulk of the tumor cells and not on the undifferentiated colon cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that are responsible for tumor formation and maintenance. CSLCs have also been linked to the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance and to tumor relapse. Colon CSLCs have been immunophenotyped using several antibodies against cellular markers including CD133, CD44, EpCAM, and ALDH. Anti-CD133 has been used to isolate a population of colon cancer cells that retains stem cells properties (CSLCs) from both established cell lines and primary cell cultures. We demonstrated that the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was actively incorporated into the membrane lipids of COLO 320 DM cells. 25 uM EPA decreased the cell number of the overall population of cancer cells, but not of the CD133 (+) CSLCs. Also, we observed that EPA induced down-regulation of CD133 expression and up-regulation of colonic epithelium differentiation markers, Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and Mucin 2 (MUC2). Finally, we demonstrated that EPA increased the sensitivity of COLO 320 DM cells (total population) to both standard-of-care chemotherapies (5-Fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), whereas EPA increased the sensitivity of the CD133 (+) CSLCs to only 5-Fluorouracil. PMID:23874993

  9. Lower ω-6/ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios Decrease Fat Deposition by Inhibiting Fat Synthesis in Gosling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Shunan; Ding, Luoyang; Liang, Xianghuan; Wang, Mengzhi; Dong, Li; Wang, Hongrong

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on lipid metabolism in goslings. One hundred and sixty 21-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed different PUFA-supplemented diets (the 4 diets had ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios of 12:1, 9:1, 6:1, or 3:1). The geese were slaughtered and samples of liver and muscle were collected at day 70. The activities and the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. The results show that the activities of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), malic enzyme (ME), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were lower (p<0.05), but the activities of hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were higher (p<0.05), in the liver and the muscle from the 3:1 and 6:1 groups compared with those in the 9:1 and 12:1 groups. Expression of the genes for FAS (p<0.01), ME (p<0.01) and ACC (p<0.05) were higher in the muscle of groups fed diets with higher ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios. Additionally, in situ hybridization tests showed that the expression intensities of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-R) gene in the 12:1 and 9:1 groups were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the 3:1 group in the muscle of goslings. In conclusion, diets containing lower ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios (3:1 or 6:1) could decrease fat deposition by inhibiting fat synthesis in goslings. PMID:27189638

  10. Lower ω-6/ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios Decrease Fat Deposition by Inhibiting Fat Synthesis in Gosling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Shunan; Ding, Luoyang; Liang, Xianghuan; Wang, Mengzhi; Dong, Li; Wang, Hongrong

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on lipid metabolism in goslings. One hundred and sixty 21-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed different PUFA-supplemented diets (the 4 diets had ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios of 12:1, 9:1, 6:1, or 3:1). The geese were slaughtered and samples of liver and muscle were collected at day 70. The activities and the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. The results show that the activities of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), malic enzyme (ME), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were lower (p<0.05), but the activities of hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were higher (p<0.05), in the liver and the muscle from the 3:1 and 6:1 groups compared with those in the 9:1 and 12:1 groups. Expression of the genes for FAS (p<0.01), ME (p<0.01) and ACC (p<0.05) were higher in the muscle of groups fed diets with higher ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios. Additionally, in situ hybridization tests showed that the expression intensities of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-R) gene in the 12:1 and 9:1 groups were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the 3:1 group in the muscle of goslings. In conclusion, diets containing lower ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios (3:1 or 6:1) could decrease fat deposition by inhibiting fat synthesis in goslings.

  11. High concentrations of plasma n3 fatty acids are associated with decreased risk for late age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Malet, Florence; Féart, Catherine; Le Goff, Mélanie; Peuchant, Evelyne; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Colin, Joseph; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    High dietary intakes of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We assessed the associations of late AMD with plasma n3 PUFA, a nutritional biomarker of n3 PUFA status. The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y. Participants had a first eye examination in 2006-2008 and were followed for 31 mo on average. Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC from fasting blood samples collected in 1999-2001. AMD was graded from non-mydriatic color retinal photographs at all examinations and spectral domain optical coherence tomography at follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01]. This study gives further support to the potential role of n3 PUFAs in the prevention of late AMD and highlights the necessity of randomized clinical trials to determine more accurately the value of n3 PUFAs as a means of reducing AMD incidence. PMID:23406618

  12. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.

  13. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  14. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  15. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  16. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  17. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  18. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion in obese men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Ooi, Esther M M; Ng, Theodore W K; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2013-07-01

    Dysregulated VLDL-TAG (very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol) metabolism in obesity may account for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and increased cardiovascular disease. ω-3 FAEEs (omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters) decrease plasma TAG and VLDL concentrations, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we carried out a 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of high-dose ω-3 FAEE supplementation (3.2 g/day) on the metabolism of VLDL-TAG in obese men using intravenous administration of d5-glycerol. We also explored the relationship of VLDL-TAG kinetics with the metabolism of VLDL-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100 and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I. VLDL-TAG isotopic enrichment was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Compared with placebo, ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly lowered plasma concentrations of total (-14%, P<0.05) and VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.05), as well as hepatic secretion of VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.03). The FCR (fractional catabolic rate) of VLDL-TAG was not altered by ω-3 FAEEs. There was a significant association between the change in secretion rates of VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 (r=0.706, P<0.05). However, the change in VLDL-TAG secretion rate was not associated with change in HDL-apoA-I FCR (r=0.139, P>0.05). Our results suggest that the TAG-lowering effect of ω-3 FAEEs is associated with the decreased VLDL-TAG secretion rate and hence lower plasma VLDL-TAG concentration in obesity. The changes in VLDL-TAG and apoB-100 kinetics are closely coupled. PMID:23356247

  20. Developmental Subchronic Exposure to Diphenylarsinic Acid Induced Increased Exploratory Behavior, Impaired Learning Behavior, and Decreased Cerebellar Glutathione Concentration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, people using water from the well contaminated with high-level arsenic developed neurological, mostly cerebellar, symptoms, where diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a major compound. Here, we investigated the adverse effects of developmental exposure to 20mg/l DPAA in drinking water (early period [0–6 weeks of age] and/or late period [7–12]) on behavior and cerebellar development in male rats. In the open field test at 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly increased exploratory behaviors. At 12 weeks of age, late exposure to DPAA similarly increased exploratory behavior independent of the early exposure although a 6-week recovery from DPAA could reverse that change. In the passive avoidance test at 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly decreased the avoidance performance. Even at 12 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly decreased the test performance, which was independent of the late exposure to DPAA. These results suggest that the DPAA-induced increase in exploratory behavior is transient, whereas the DPAA-induced impairment of passive avoidance is long lasting. At 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly reduced the concentration of cerebellar total glutathione. At 12 weeks of age, late, but not early, exposure to DPAA also significantly reduced the concentration of cerebellar glutathione, which might be a primary cause of oxidative stress. Early exposure to DPAA induced late-onset suppressed expression of NMDAR1 and PSD95 protein at 12 weeks of age, indicating impaired glutamatergic system in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to DPAA. PMID:24008832

  1. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass.

    PubMed

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O C; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1-LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1 may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1((-/-)) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1((-/-)) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1((-/-)) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology.

  2. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876

  3. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  4. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27001403

  5. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding.

  6. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  7. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX.

  8. Serum bile acids and GLP-1 decrease following telemetric induced weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Penner, Marina; Borucki, Katrin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Rönicke, Raik; Biemann, Kathleen; Weikert, Cornelia; Lux, Anke; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schneider, Jochen G; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45-55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm. Before and after a 6 months intervention period clinical and laboratory parameters, body composition, serum BA profile, FGF-19, and GLP-1 concentrations were determined in fasting blood samples. 30 participants in the control and 33 participants in the treatment arm completed the study and were included in the data analysis. In participants of the treatment arm lifestyle-induced weight loss resulted in markedly improved insulin sensitivity. Serum levels of BA species and total GLP-1 decreased, while FGF-19 remained stable. Serum BA composition changed towards an increased 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hydroxylated ratio. None of these parameters changed in participants of the control arm. Our results demonstrate that improved metabolic control by lifestyle modifications lowers serum levels of BAs and GLP-1 and changes serum BA composition towards an increased 12α/non-12α ratio (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). PMID:27452603

  9. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX. PMID:26543027

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation activates transforming growth factor-beta in cerebrospinal fluid and decreases spontaneous motor activity.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Teppei; Fujita, Ryo; Iwaki, Yoko; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    We have previously reported that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is involved in the mechanism underlying the regulation of spontaneous motor activity (SMA) by the central nervous system after exercise. However, it remained unclear what physiological condition triggers the activation of TGF-beta. We hypothesized that the shortage of energy derived from fatty acid (FA) oxidation observed in the early phase of exercise activated TGF-beta in the CSF. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether mercaptoacetate (MA), an inhibitor of FA oxidation, could induce an activation of TGF-beta in the CSF and a decrease in SMA. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MA activated TGF-beta in CSF in rats and depressed SMA; 2-deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of carbohydrate oxidation, on the other hand, depressed SMA but failed to activate CSF TGF-beta. Intracisternal administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody abolished the depressive effect of MA on SMA. We also found that the depression of SMA and the activation of TGF-beta in the CSF by i.p. MA administration were eliminated by vagotomy. Our data suggest that TGF-beta in the CSF is activated by the inhibition of FA oxidation via the vagus nerve and that this subsequently induces depression of SMA.

  11. Serum bile acids and GLP-1 decrease following telemetric induced weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Biemann, Ronald; Penner, Marina; Borucki, Katrin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Rönicke, Raik; Biemann, Kathleen; Weikert, Cornelia; Lux, Anke; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Schneider, Jochen G.; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45–55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm. Before and after a 6 months intervention period clinical and laboratory parameters, body composition, serum BA profile, FGF-19, and GLP-1 concentrations were determined in fasting blood samples. 30 participants in the control and 33 participants in the treatment arm completed the study and were included in the data analysis. In participants of the treatment arm lifestyle-induced weight loss resulted in markedly improved insulin sensitivity. Serum levels of BA species and total GLP-1 decreased, while FGF-19 remained stable. Serum BA composition changed towards an increased 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hydroxylated ratio. None of these parameters changed in participants of the control arm. Our results demonstrate that improved metabolic control by lifestyle modifications lowers serum levels of BAs and GLP-1 and changes serum BA composition towards an increased 12α/non-12α ratio (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). PMID:27452603

  12. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The fluorine and chlorine exchange on the hydroxyl site in micas is used to monitor changes in fluid composition (Munoz 1984). Most studies assume that the OH-site does not contain vaccancies, since the vast majority of studies use analytical techniques that does not allow to directly measure the OH- content of the mica. Nevertheless, studies have shown that significant amounts of O2- are present, and its concentration increases with temperature and titanium content. This feature was intrepreted as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange in amphibolite and granulite facies rocks (Dyar et al. 1993, Cesare et al. 2008). Here, we present OH, F, Cl data for biotite from contact aureoles from biotite-schist to partially molten sillimanite-cordierite schists. OH-F-Cl content of biotites were analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and major elements were analyzed by EMP. Samples were collected in the mid-crustal Western Adamello contact aureole (Italian Alps, Floess and Baumgartner, 2013). For that purpose we used biotite standards with water content constrained by Thermal Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA) see Bauer and Vennemann 2014, at a level of precision of 0.1-0.2 wt% (2SD). SIMS measurements typically have a precision of 0.1wt% (2SD), corresponding to the homogeneity of the internal standard at the SwissSIMS laboratory. OH- content decreases in samples with increasing peak temperature and Ti content (Ti range for biotites of 0.15-0.42 p.f.u for all samples). Nevertheless, within each individual sample, OH- is not a function of Ti. Ti variations are about 0.4 p.f.u., which is ten times the analytical uncertainty of the EMP analysis (0.004 p.f.u., 1SD). Water content is constant within analytical precision for each sample. The mean of OH- measurements is 3.41 p.f.u. in biotite and garnet grade samples, whereas those of samples in the partially molten zone have values of 3.27 p.f.u. We do not see any correlation with XMg or F and Cl. Hence, we

  13. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  14. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:468476

  15. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  16. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential.

  17. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. PMID:23548399

  18. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  19. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  20. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6 μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6 μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction. PMID:27091636

  1. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001) and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S.; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001) and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B’s diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans’ movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  3. Salvaging effect of triacontanol on plant growth, thermotolerance, macro-nutrient content, amino acid concentration and modulation of defense hormonal levels under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Bilal, Saqib; Hamayun, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-02-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that application of triacontanol, a ubiquitous saturated primary alcohol, at different times-before (TBHS), mid (TMHS), and after (TAHS) heat stress-will extend heat stress (HS) protection in mungbean. The effect of triacontanol on the levels of defense hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was investigated along with the plant growth promotion, nutrient and amino acid content with and without heat stress. Heat stress caused a prominent reduction in plant growth attributes, nutrient and amino acid content, which were attributed to the decreased level of ABA and JA. However, application of triacontanol, particularly in the TBHS and TMHS treatments, reversed the deleterious effects of HS by showing increased ABA and JA levels that favored the significant increase in plant growth attributes, enhanced nutrient content, and high amount of amino acid. TAHS, a short-term application of triacontanol, also significantly increased ABA and JA levels and thus revealed important information of its association with hormonal modulation. The growth-promoting effect of triacontanol was also confirmed under normal growth conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the beneficial effects of triacontanol, with or without heat stress, on mungbean and its interaction with or regulation of the levels of defense hormones.

  4. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  5. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2ω6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2ω6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2ω6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2ω6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle.

  6. Hydroxamic acid content and toxicity of rye at selected growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rice, Clifford P; Park, Yong Bong; Adam, Frédérick; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Teasdale, John R

    2005-08-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important cover crop that provides many benefits to cropping systems including weed and pest suppression resulting from allelopathic substances. Hydroxamic acids have been identified as allelopathic compounds in rye. This research was conducted to improve the methodology for quantifying hydroxamic acids and to determine the relationship between hydroxamic acid content and phytotoxicity of extracts of rye root and shoot tissue harvested at selected growth stages. Detection limits for an LC/MS-MS method for analysis of hydroxamic acids from crude aqueous extracts were better than have been reported previously. (2R)-2-beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-G), 2,4-dihydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), and the methoxy-substituted form of these compounds, (2R)-2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA glucose), 2,4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), were all detected in rye tissue. DIBOA and BOA were prevalent in shoot tissue, whereas the methoxy-substituted compounds, DIMBOA glucose and MBOA, were prevalent in root tissue. Total hydroxamic acid concentration in rye tissue generally declined with age. Aqueous crude extracts of rye shoot tissue were more toxic than extracts of root tissue to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) root length. Extracts of rye seedlings (Feekes growth stage 2) were most phytotoxic, but there was no pattern to the phytotoxicity of extracts of rye sampled at growth stages 4 to 10.5.4, and no correlation of hydroxamic acid content and phytotoxicity (I50 values). Analysis of dose-response model slope coefficients indicated a lack of parallelism among models for rye extracts from different growth stages, suggesting that phytotoxicity may be attributed to compounds with different modes of action at

  7. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide on free amino acid and soluble protein contents in tobacco leaves].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Li-Min; Long, Rui-Jun; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2006-04-01

    The work focused on the effects of signal molecules of nitric oxide (NO), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on compounds of nitric metabolites of free amino acid, soluble protein and proline in tobacco. The results indicated that NO, SA and H(2)O(2) were able to regulate the proline, free amino acid and soluble protein content in tobacco. Lower concentration of NO and H(2)O(2) raised the level of proline; while higher concentration of NO and H(2)O(2) lowered the proline, free amino acid content in tobacco. The above three signal molecules also showed similar effects on proline, free amino acid and soluble protein content in tobacco.

  8. Establishing safe and potentially efficacious fortification contents for folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dary, Omar

    2008-06-01

    Determining the micronutrient contents infortified foods depends not only on the health goal (additional intake to complement the diet), but also on ensuring that fortification does not raise micronutrient intakes beyond the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), i.e., the safe limit. Technological incompatibility and cost may also restrict the fortification contents. For folic acid, the limiting factor is safety, while for vitamin B12, it is cost. However, adequate fortification contents that are both safe and efficacious can be estimated for both nutrients. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from the fortification programs, three different formulas responding to three categories of consumption, as specified by the median and 95th percentile of consumption, are proposed. The model presented is based on the estimation of a Feasible Fortification Level (FFL), which then is used to determine the average, minimum, and maximum contents of the nutrients during production, taking into consideration the acceptable variation of the fortification process. Finally, the regulatory parameters, which support standards and enforcement, are calculated by reducing the proportion of the nutrient that is degraded during the usual marketing process of the fortified food. It is expected that this model will establish a common standard for food fortification, and improve the reliability and enforcement procedures of these programs. The model was applied to flours as vehicles for folic acid in the United States, Guatemala, and Chile. Analysis of the data revealed that, with the exception of Chile, where wheat flour consumption is very high and probably within a narrow range, supplementation with folic acid is still needed to cover individuals at the low end of consumption. This is especially true when the difference in flour consumption is too wide, as in the case of Guatemala, where the proportional difference between consumption at the 95th percentile of the nonpoor group is as high

  9. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  10. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli-type chickpeas, which are

  11. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  12. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  13. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  14. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  15. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  16. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature t...

  17. Hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content in acid catalysed esterification of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Wang, Quan-Yi; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-11-15

    A simple synthesis pathway has been developed for the design of hierarchically structured spongy or spherical voids assembled meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content on the basis of the aqueous polymerisation of new stabilized alkoxy-bridged single molecular precursors. The intimate mixing of an aluminosilicate ester (sec-BuO)(2)-Al-O-Si(OEt)(3) and a silica co-reactant (tetramethoxysilane, TMOS) with variable ratios and the use of alkaline solutions (pH 13.0 and 13.5) improve significantly the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminium alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica co-reactant, leading to aluminosilicate materials with high intra-framework aluminium content and low Si/Al ratios. The spherically-shaped meso-macroporosity was spontaneously generated by the release of high amount of liquid by-products (water/alcohol molecules) produced during the rapid hydrolysis and condensation processes of this double alkoxide and the TMOS co-reactant. It has been observed that both pH value and Al-Si/TMOS molar ratio can strongly affect the macroporous structure formation. Increasing pH value, even slightly from 13 to 13.5, can significantly favour the incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position of the framework. After the total ionic exchange of Na(+) compensating cations, catalytic tests of obtained materials were realised in the esterification reaction of high free fatty acid (FFA) oils, showing their higher catalytic activity compared to commercial Bentonite clay, and their potential applications as catalyst supports in acid catalysed reactions.

  18. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan. W.; Ho, Dong-Ru; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s) of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (n = 10), 12 weeks (n = 10), and 24 weeks (n = 10). At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP) during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED. PMID:26491965

  19. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan W; Ho, Dong-Ru; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s) of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (n = 10), 12 weeks (n = 10), and 24 weeks (n = 10). At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP) during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED.

  20. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  1. Ascorbic acid inhibits TPA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation by decreasing cellular H₂O₂ and ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yiang, Giou-Teng; Chen, Jen-Ni; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chang, Wei-Jung; Chen, Chinshuh; Wei, Chyou-Wei; Yu, Yung-Luen

    2015-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), vitamin D and 12-O‑tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) can induce HL-60 cells to differentiate into granulocytes, monocytes and macrophages, respectively. Similar to RA and vitamin D, ascorbic acid also belongs to the vitamin family. High‑dose ascorbic acid (>100 µM) induces HL‑60 cell apoptosis and induces a small fraction of HL‑60 cells to express the granulocyte marker, CD66b. In addition, ascorbic acid exerts an anti‑oxidative stress function. Oxidative stress is required for HL‑60 cell differentiation following treatment with TPA, however, the effect of ascorbic acid on HL‑60 cell differentiation in combination with TPA treatment remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular effects of ascorbic acid treatment on TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells. TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells were used for this investigation, this study and the levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), caspase activity and ERK phosphorylation were determined following combined treatment with TPA and ascorbic acid. The results demonstrated that low‑dose ascorbic acid (5 µM) reduced the cellular levels of H2O2 and inhibited the differentiation of HL‑60 cells into macrophages following treatment with TPA. In addition, the results of the present study further demonstrated that low‑dose ascorbic acid inactivates the ERK phosphorylation pathway, which inhibited HL‑60 cell differentiation following treatment with TPA.

  2. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  3. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing. PMID:7508281

  4. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed. PMID:26703531

  5. Soaking and extrusion effects on physicochemical parameters, phytic acid, nutrient content and mineral bio-accessibility of whole rice grain.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; José González, Rolando; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2015-03-01

    A combination of soaking and extrusion processes of whole rice grain was studied. The effects of temperature (35-55 °C) and time (24-48 h) of soaking treatment on phytic acid (PA), protein and ashes losses using a factorial design were evaluated. Taking into account ash, protein and PA losses, whole rice was soaked 24 h at 45 °C and extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Effects of extrusion temperature (160-190 °C) and moisture content (14-19 g/100 g) on product characteristics were evaluated using surface response methodology. Values corresponding to the different responses were: Expansion (1.64-3.28), Specific Volume (5.68-11.06 cm(3)/g), Water absorption (3.41-4.43 mL/g) and Solubility (45.44-66.20 g/100 g). The content of PA was reduced from 740.09 to 163.47 mg/100 g (77%) after both processes, resulting in a higher mineral bio-accessibility, and a 7.3% decrease of protein digestibility. Total soluble phenolics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were affected according to the treatment. Both treatments were important to obtain a nutritionally improved whole grain product.

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  7. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  8. The effect of ambient ozone pollution and acidic rain on the growth and chlorophyll content of green and white ash.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C L; Eberhardt, J C; Brennan, E G

    1987-01-01

    Two- and three-year old green ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) seedlings were exposed to combinations of ambient ozone and acidic ambient rainfall in New Brunswick, New Jersey. During the 3-year study the potted seedlings did not develop typical foliar ozone toxicity symptoms, despite the occurrence of as many as 78 h in exceedance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 0.12 ppm. Although the pH of the rainfall was as low as 3.6 and averaged 4.1, no symptoms were observed resulting from the ambient precipitation. The rate of shoot growth in terms of height and diameter was generally not affected by either of the pollutants during the growing season. Although the chlorophyll content of white ash foliage was low following frequent rainfall in the early summer of 1984, there was no statistically significant evidence that acid raid or ambient ozone decreased chlorophyll in ash seedlings during the 3-year study.

  9. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-03-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using /sup 14/C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD.

  10. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  11. Microbial biomass in a shallow, urban aquifer contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons: analysis by phospholipid fatty acid content and composition.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, P D; Patterson, B M; Power, T R; Nichols, P D; Davis, G B

    1996-06-01

    The city of Perth contains a number of sites that have been contaminated with hydrocarbons due to leakage from petroleum underground storage tanks. Microbial biomass in groundwater and sediment cores from above and below the water table, and from within and outside a plume of hydrocarbon contamination, was examined using phospholipid fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Microbial numbers, calculated from the phospholipid content, ranged from 0.9 x 10(6) to 7.8 x 10(6) 'Escherichia coli equivalent cells' g-1 dry wt of sediment. Over 96% of the microbial biomass was attached to the sediment and the proportion of attached cells did not decrease within the plume of contaminants. The amount of biomass within aquifer samples seemed to be related more to the proximity of the rhizosphere to the shallow aquifer, and other unknown urban inputs, rather than to the effects of the plume of contaminants. Fatty acids common to many bacterial groups dominated within the plume, and as such the analyses gave limited insight into microbial community structure. For site assessment of intrinsic remediation of shallow aquifers in urban areas, estimates of microbial biomass may not provide information that is readily applicable to plume management.

  12. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  13. Variations in caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents of coffees: what are we drinking?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Cid, Concepción; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    The effect of roasting of coffee beans and the extraction of ground coffee with different volumes of hot pressurised water on the caffeine and the total caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) content of the resultant beverages was investigated. While caffeine was stable higher roasting temperatures resulted in a loss of CQAs so that the caffeine/CQA ratio was a good marker of the degree of roasting. The caffeine and CQA content and volume was determined for 104 espresso coffees obtained from coffee shops in Scotland, Italy and Spain, limited numbers of cappuccino coffees from commercial outlets and several instant coffees. The caffeine content ranged from 48-317 mg per serving and CQAs from 6-188 mg. It is evident that the ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine per day can be readily and unwittingly exceeded by regular coffee drinkers. This is the upper limit of caffeine intake from all sources recommended by US and UK health agencies for pregnant women. In view of the variable volume of serving sizes, it is also clear that the term "one cup of coffee" is not a reproducible measurement for consumption, yet it is the prevailing unit used in epidemiology to assess coffee consumption and to link the potential effects of the beverage and its components on the outcome of diseases. More accurate measurement of the intake of coffee and its potentially bioactive components are required if epidemiological studies are to produce more reliable information. PMID:25014672

  14. Folic acid functionalized surface highlights 5-methylcytosine-genomic content within circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Malara, Natalia; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Limongi, Tania; Asande, Monica; Trunzo, Valentina; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Raso, Cinzia; Candeloro, Patrizio; Perozziello, Gerardo; Raimondo, Raffaella; De Vitis, Stefania; Roveda, Laura; Renne, Maria; Prati, Ubaldo; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2014-11-12

    Although the detection of methylated cell free DNA represents one of the most promising approaches for relapse risk assessment in cancer patients, the low concentration of cell-free circulating DNA constitutes the biggest obstacle in the development of DNA methylation-based biomarkers from blood. This paper describes a method for the measurement of genomic methylation content directly on circulating tumor cells (CTC), which could be used to deceive the aforementioned problem. Since CTC are disease related blood-based biomarkers, they result essential to monitor tumor's stadiation, therapy, and early relapsing lesions. Within surface's bio-functionalization and cell's isolation procedure standardization, the presented approach reveals a singular ability to detect high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content in the whole CTC compound, by choosing folic acid (FA) as transducer molecule. Sensitivity and specificity, calculated for FA functionalized surface (FA-surface), result respectively on about 83% and 60%. FA-surface, allowing the detection and characterization of early metastatic dissemination, provides a unique advance in the comprehension of tumors progression and dissemination confirming the presence of CTC and its association with high risk of relapse. This functionalized surface identifying and quantifying high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content into the patient's blood lead significant progress in cancer risk assessment, also providing a novel therapeutic strategy.

  15. Variations in caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents of coffees: what are we drinking?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Cid, Concepción; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    The effect of roasting of coffee beans and the extraction of ground coffee with different volumes of hot pressurised water on the caffeine and the total caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) content of the resultant beverages was investigated. While caffeine was stable higher roasting temperatures resulted in a loss of CQAs so that the caffeine/CQA ratio was a good marker of the degree of roasting. The caffeine and CQA content and volume was determined for 104 espresso coffees obtained from coffee shops in Scotland, Italy and Spain, limited numbers of cappuccino coffees from commercial outlets and several instant coffees. The caffeine content ranged from 48-317 mg per serving and CQAs from 6-188 mg. It is evident that the ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine per day can be readily and unwittingly exceeded by regular coffee drinkers. This is the upper limit of caffeine intake from all sources recommended by US and UK health agencies for pregnant women. In view of the variable volume of serving sizes, it is also clear that the term "one cup of coffee" is not a reproducible measurement for consumption, yet it is the prevailing unit used in epidemiology to assess coffee consumption and to link the potential effects of the beverage and its components on the outcome of diseases. More accurate measurement of the intake of coffee and its potentially bioactive components are required if epidemiological studies are to produce more reliable information.

  16. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products. PMID:19019125

  17. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  18. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each diet; (b) 3 d of fasting; or (c) a combination of 3% beta-alanine added for 8 d and 3 d of fasting. Each maneuver lowered the cortex taurine concentration, but did not significantly lower plasma taurine values compared with controls. Increased BBMV taurine uptake occurred after each manipulation. Feeding 3% glycine did not alter the plasma, renal cortex, or urinary taurine concentrations, or BBMV uptake of taurine. Feeding 3% methionine raised plasma and urinary taurine excretion but renal tissue taurine was unchanged, as was initial BBMV uptake. Hence, nonsulfur-containing alpha-amino acids did not change beta-amino acid transport. The increase in BBMV uptake correlates with the decline in renal cortex and plasma taurine content. However, since 3% methionine changed plasma taurine without altering BBMV uptake, it is more likely that the change in BBMV uptake and the adaptive response expressed at the brush border surface relate to changes in renal cortex taurine concentrations. Finally, despite changes in urine and renal cortex taurine content, brain taurine values were unchanged, which suggests that this renal adaptive response maintains stable taurine concentrations where taurine serves as a neuromodulator. PMID:3935668

  19. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum sims grown in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Berhow, Mark A; Affum, Andrews Obeng; Gyan, Ben A

    2012-07-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important antioxidant polyphenol that is found in a variety of spices and herbs, including Ocimum canum Sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical thin-layer chromatography was used to examine the composition of the polyphenols in leaf extracts. The polyphenol content in the aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaf, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, were 314 and 315 mg gallic acid equivalent/g leaf sample, respectively. The total flavonoid concentration as determined by the aluminum(III) chloride method was 135 mg catechin equivalent/g leaf sample. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was also used to determine the polyphenol fingerprint profile in the leaf extracts of O. canum. Although the average RA concentration in the O. canum leaf extracts from Ghana was 1.69 mg/g dry weight (reported values range from 0.01 to 99.62 mg/g dry weight), this polyphenol was still a prominent peak in addition to caffeic acid derivatives.

  20. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  1. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  2. Effects of soil freezing and drought stress on abscisic acid content of sugar maple sap and leaves.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Robitaille, G; Nadeau, P; Boutin, R

    1994-04-01

    In 1991 and 1992, mature maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were freeze-stressed or drought-stressed by preventing precipitation (snow or rain) from reaching the forest floor under selected trees. Lack of snow cover caused a decrease in soil temperature to well below 0 degrees C from December to April and a lowering of the soil water content to 10%. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the spring sap of deep-soil frost-stressed trees was significantly higher than in control or drought-stressed trees. The increase in ABA concentration in the xylem sap in the spring of 1991 and 1992 preceded symptoms of canopy decline and a decrease in leaf area that were observed during the summers of 1991 and 1992. These results suggest a role for ABA in root-to-shoot communication in response to environmental stress. The largest differences in ABA concentration induced by the treatments was found in sap collected at the end of sap flow. The increase in ABA concentration in spring sap at the end of the sap flow could be used as an early indicator of stress suffered by trees during the winter. Not only did the increase in ABA concentration occur before any visible symptoms of tree decline appeared, but the trees that showed the most evident decline had the highest ABA concentrations in the spring sap. Leaf ABA concentration was not a good indicator of induced stress. PMID:14967696

  3. Effects of soil freezing and drought stress on abscisic acid content of sugar maple sap and leaves.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Robitaille, G; Nadeau, P; Boutin, R

    1994-04-01

    In 1991 and 1992, mature maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were freeze-stressed or drought-stressed by preventing precipitation (snow or rain) from reaching the forest floor under selected trees. Lack of snow cover caused a decrease in soil temperature to well below 0 degrees C from December to April and a lowering of the soil water content to 10%. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the spring sap of deep-soil frost-stressed trees was significantly higher than in control or drought-stressed trees. The increase in ABA concentration in the xylem sap in the spring of 1991 and 1992 preceded symptoms of canopy decline and a decrease in leaf area that were observed during the summers of 1991 and 1992. These results suggest a role for ABA in root-to-shoot communication in response to environmental stress. The largest differences in ABA concentration induced by the treatments was found in sap collected at the end of sap flow. The increase in ABA concentration in spring sap at the end of the sap flow could be used as an early indicator of stress suffered by trees during the winter. Not only did the increase in ABA concentration occur before any visible symptoms of tree decline appeared, but the trees that showed the most evident decline had the highest ABA concentrations in the spring sap. Leaf ABA concentration was not a good indicator of induced stress.

  4. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L.

    PubMed

    Desmaison, A M; Tixier, M

    1986-06-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa.

  5. Microbiological titration of proteins and of single amino acid content in biological materials without purification and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Puppo, S; Morpurgo, G; Nardi, S; Conti, G

    1978-04-01

    A method is described for the microbiological determination of the protein content of biological materials. This method can also be adopted to titrate the concentration of a single amino acid in the protein and has the following advantages: (1) titration can be done without purification and hydrolysis of proteins; (2) the titration graph is a straight line between 25 and 800 microgram/ml; (3) protein values agree with those obtained using the Kjeldhal method; and (4) each mutant requiring one amino acid may be used to titrate the concentration of a single amino acid of the protein. The leucine content of various kinds of flour was measured with this system.

  6. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  7. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  8. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Dhaenens, Maarten; Shearer, Neil; Goossens, Joline; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; D'Herde, Katharina; Thompson, Arthur; Deforce, Dieter; Boyen, Filip; Leyman, Bregje; Van Parys, Alexander; De Backer, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank

    2012-03-22

    The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL) promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL) promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL) causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  9. QTLs and candidate genes for desiccation and abscisic acid content in maize kernels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kernel moisture at harvest is an important trait since a low value is required to prevent unexpected early germination and ensure seed preservation. It is also well known that early germination occurs in viviparous mutants, which are impaired in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. To provide some insight into the genetic determinism of kernel desiccation in maize, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for traits related to kernel moisture and ABA content in both embryo and endosperm during kernel desiccation. In parallel, the expression and mapping of genes involved in kernel desiccation and ABA biosynthesis, were examined to detect candidate genes. Results The use of an intermated recombinant inbred line population allowed for precise QTL mapping. For 29 traits examined in an unreplicated time course trial of days after pollination, a total of 78 QTLs were detected, 43 being related to kernel desiccation, 15 to kernel weight and 20 to ABA content. Multi QTL models explained 35 to 50% of the phenotypic variation for traits related to water status, indicating a large genetic control amenable to breeding. Ten of the 20 loci controlling ABA content colocated with previously detected QTLs controlling water status and ABA content in water stressed leaves. Mapping of candidate genes associated with kernel desiccation and ABA biosynthesis revealed several colocations between genes with putative functions and QTLs. Parallel investigation via RT-PCR experiments showed that the expression patterns of the ABA-responsive Rab17 and Rab28 genes as well as the late embryogenesis abundant Emb5 and aquaporin genes were related to desiccation rate and parental allele effect. Database searches led to the identification and mapping of two zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) and five novel 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) related genes, both gene families being involved in ABA biosynthesis. The expression of these genes appeared independent in the embryo and endosperm

  10. Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. Objective In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. Design We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum (p = 0.39). Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed (p = 0.72). However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. Conclusions Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. PMID:21663641

  11. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the leptocephalus larva of tropical eels.

    PubMed

    Deibel, D; Parrish, C C; Grønkjær, P; Munk, P; Nielsen, T Gissel

    2012-06-01

    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan and lipids, is required to fuel migration, metamorphosis and metabolism of the subsequent glass eel stage. Despite the importance of energy storage by leptocephali for survival and recruitment, their diet, condition and lipid content and composition is essentially unknown. To gain further insight into energy storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight(-1), at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had proportions of bacterial markers >4.4 %, consistent with the possibility that they consume appendicularian houses or other marine snow that is bacteria rich.

  12. Analysis of QTLs for erucic acid and oil content in seeds on A8 chromosome and the linkage drag between the alleles for the two traits in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhengying; Tian, Fang; Wang, Nian; Jiang, Congcong; Lin, Bing; Xia, Wei; Shi, Jiaqin; Long, Yan; Zhang, Chunyu; Meng, Jinling

    2010-04-01

    The history of canola breeding began with the discovery of germplasm with low erucic acid content in seeds of spring forage cultivar in the 1950's. FAE1 mutations led to a dramatic decrease of the seed erucic acid content in Arabidopsis thaliana. The products of the two FAE1 loci, BnA8.FAE1 and BnC3.FAE1, showed additive effects to the level of erucic acid content in oilseed rape. Previous research believed that the pleiotropy of FAE1 was responsible for the decrease in seed oil content along with the reduction of seed erucic acid content in the modern cultivars. TN DH population was developed from a canola cultivar Tapidor and a Chinese traditional cultivar Ningyou7. The population had been tested in 10 and 11 environments to map QTLs for the erucic acid content and oil content in seeds. As the map resolution increased, a novel QTL for seed erucic acid content was revealed, after Meta-analysis, 7 cM away from the most significant seed erucic acid content QTL where BnA8.FAE1 is located. Seven independent QTLs for seed oil content (qOC) were detected around the two seed erucic acid content QTLs (qEA) across 39.20 cM on linkage group A8. Two of the qOCs co-localized with the two qEAs, respectively, and were detected in a single environment. The other five qOCs were detected in 10 of 11 environments independent of qEAs. Alleles from Tapidor in all the QTLs at the 0-39.20 cM region contributed negative effects to either erucic acid content or oil content in seeds. Parallel, genotyping showed that on 5 of the 7 QTLs regions, Tapidor alleles had the same genotypes with that in 'Liho', the original low seed erucic acid content source. Through rounds of crossbreeding with oil-cropped cultivars and intensive selection for multi generations, Tapidor still had the inferior alleles for low seed oil content from 'Liho', the forage rape. This showed a strong linkage drag of low seed oil content, which was controlled by the five qEA-independent qOCs, with low seed erucic acid

  13. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of t