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Sample records for acid content determined

  1. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Xinxia; Meng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC), and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers. PMID:25709230

  2. Use of capillary electrophoresis to determine oleic and linoleic acid content of peanut seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common consumer complaint regarding peanut products is one involving short shelf life and rapid rancidity. Peanut cultivars with elevated oleic acid content (and decreased linoleic content) have been shown to have an increased shelf life and thus have become largely preferred by peanut processors...

  3. Evaluation of microwave acid digestion for determination of fiber-volume contents in carbon-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.C.; McLaughlin, V.N.; El-Amin, L.; Ilias, S.

    1995-06-01

    The analysis of carbon-epoxy composites for fiber-volume contents is significant in determining the quality and strength of a given composite. The method commonly being used is acid digestion in a hot water bath, which takes about 2.5 hours for digestion alone. A study has been done using a new technique, what is known as Microwave Acid Digestion (MAD) for quick determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites. This technique uses a specially designed teflon bomb for digestion. The bomb allows for temperatures up to 250 C and pressures up to 1,200 psi. Under such operating conditions, the MAD technique reduces digestion time to about 70 seconds. The study demonstrated that the microwave acid digestion (MAD) is an efficient means for determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites.

  4. Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beefdetermination limits in all the meat samples, while the susceptibility of these meat to lipid oxidation decreased from beef to chicken, with the exception of turkey meat, which presented a high TBARS content towards even though its total CRCs was the highest. The structure of homocarnosine was elucidated by high resolving power multistage mass spectrometry. PMID:25213980

  5. Voltammetric determination of polyphenolic content in pomegranate juice using a poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Refat; Newair, Emad F

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE) electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA) exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10(-6) to 3.38 × 10(-5) M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10(-6) M (S/N = 3). The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101%) recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results. PMID:27547628

  6. Voltammetric determination of polyphenolic content in pomegranate juice using a poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrode

    PubMed Central

    Newair, Emad F

    2016-01-01

    Summary A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE) electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA) exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10−6 to 3.38 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3). The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101%) recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results. PMID:27547628

  7. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  8. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  9. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid content of a single seed: A comparison of available methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  10. A Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Chlorogenic Acid and Sesquiterpene Lactone Content in Industrial Chicory Root Foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Hance, Philippe; Fertin, Anne; Voedts, Najia; Duhal, Nathalie; Goossens, Jean-François; Hilbert, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of free chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sesquiterpene lactones (STL) in chicory root and its dried (flour) and roasted (grain) forms is described. The method uses one extraction and one analysis for all chicory root products. Various solvents with low to high polarity, such as methanol, chloroform, or n-hexane, were tested alone, in combination in different proportions or with acidified or neutral aqueous solvent. The water/chloroform/methanol (30/30/40, v/v/v) mixture generated the best extraction yield, 21% higher than alcohol mixtures. The profiling of CGA and STL content was performed through a conventional HPLC-DAD method using a PFP core shell column in a fast single run. Good retention time and area repeatability (RDD mean % 0.46 and 5.6, resp.) and linearity (R2 ≥ 0.96) were obtained. The STL and chlorogenic acids levels determined were 254.7 and 100.2 μg/g of dry matter in the root, 792.5 and 1,547 μg/g in flour, and 160.4 and 822.5 μg/g in the roasted grains, respectively. With an average recovery of 106% and precision of 90%, this method is rapid, reproducible, and straightforward way to quantify the chlorogenic acids and STL in chicory raw material and end products. PMID:25548785

  11. Determination of the Fatty Acid Content of Biological Membranes: A Highly Versatile GC-MS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2001-07-01

    The experiment involves the GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from bacterial membranes. It takes about 2 h, from cell harvest to injection. This experiment is done in a lab course for non-science majors and in biochemistry. For non-science majors the focus is on GC-MS as a technique for fingerprinting and on the underlying basis of that fingerprinting. In biochemistry the focus is on the composition of membranes and how this changes with temperature--specifically how the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids changes to maintain constant cell fluidity. Combined with a parallel DNA experiment, the two major types of intermolecular forces important for the structure and function of biomolecules are compared. How this versatile experiment could be adapted in other chemistry courses is presented. The experiment has obvious appeal to biology majors, can be used to develop several important chemistry concepts, involves teamwork, and employs an important instrument. It could be used in the laboratory portion of a course other than biochemistry to fulfill the new ACS biochemistry requirement.

  12. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  13. Non-destructive determination of high oleic acid content in single soybean seeds by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean with increased oleic acid is desirable to improve oxidative stability and functionality of soybean seed oil. Recently, soybean genotypes with high oleic acid (= 70%) were developed by conventional breeding and molecular genetic selection of mutant fatty acid desaturase alleles. Determination...

  14. Determination of soluble solids content and titratable acidity of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin using a hand-held NIR instrument in transmittance mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin was investigated using a hand-held NIR instrument “NIR-Gun” in transmittance mode. The resulting calibration equation measured SSC of intact fruit and juice with a standard error o...

  15. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  16. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  17. Determination of digestibility, tissue deposition, and metabolism of the omega-3 fatty acid content of krill protein concentrate in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Kayla M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Altman, Stephanie; Jaczynski, Jacek; Tou, Janet C

    2010-03-10

    Krill protein concentrate (KPC) consists of high-quality protein (77.7% dry basis) and lipids (8.1% dry basis) that are rich (27% of total fatty acids) in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The objective of the study was to determine digestibility, tissue deposition, metabolism, and tissue oxidative stability of the omega-3 PUFAs provided by KPC. Young female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were fed ad libitum isocaloric diets for 4 weeks with either 10% freeze-dried KPC or 10% casein. The casein diet contained 5.3% added corn oil (CO), whereas the KPC contained 5.3% total lipids from 0.9% krill oil (KO) provided by KPC and 4.4% added corn oil (KO + CO). Fatty acid compositions of various tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total antioxidant capacity and urinary eicosanoid metabolites were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The omega-3 PUFAs provided in KO from KPC increased (P = 0.003) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain. DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in fat pads and liver were increased (P < 0.01), whereas the omega-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), was decreased (P < 0.01) in rats fed the KPC diet containing the KO + CO mixture compared to rats fed the casein diet containing pure CO. Feeding the KPC diet decreased pro-inflammatory 2-series prostaglandin and thromboxane metabolites. There was no significant difference in TBARS or total antioxidant capacity in the tissues of rats fed the different diets. On the basis of the study results, the low amount of omega-3 PUFAs provided by the KO content of KPC provides beneficial effects of increasing tissue EPA and DHA deposition and reduced AA-derived 2-series eicosanoid metabolites without increasing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, consumption of KPC has the potential to provide a healthy and sustainable source of omega-3 PUFAs. PMID:20131797

  18. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  19. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  20. Estimation of free acid content in lanthanide salt solutions used for potentiometric determination of stability constant of lanthanide complexes with organic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Zheltvai, T.I.; Tishchenko, M.A.

    1985-08-20

    This paper studies the possibility of alkalimetric titration of free acid after binding the metal ions by the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic (complexone III). The proposed method of free acid determination in lanthanide salt solutions is very simple and helps to avoid gross methodical errors in works involving determination of stability constants of lanthanide complexes.

  1. Determinants of Erythrocyte Omega‐3 Fatty Acid Content in Response to Fish Oil Supplementation: A Dose–Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Michael R.; Skulas‐Ray, Ann C.; Harris, William S.; Etherton, Terry D.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which constitutes the omega‐3 index (O3I), predicts cardiovascular disease mortality. The amount of EPA+DHA needed to achieve a target O3I is poorly defined, as are the determinants of the O3I response to a change in EPA+DHA intake. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model of the O3I response to EPA+DHA supplementation in healthy adults, specifically identifying factors that determine the response. Methods and Results A randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind, parallel‐group study was conducted in 115 healthy men and women. One of 5 doses (0, 300, 600, 900, 1800 mg) of EPA+DHA was given daily as placebo or fish oil supplements for ≈5 months. The O3I was measured at baseline and at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline. The O3I increased in a dose‐dependent manner (P<0.0001), with the dose of EPA+DHA alone accounting for 68% (quadratic, P<0.0001) of the variability in the O3I response. Dose adjusted per unit body weight (g/kg) accounted for 70% (linear, P<0.0001). Additional factors that improved prediction of treatment response were baseline O3I, age, sex, and physical activity. Collectively, these explained 78% of the response variability (P<0.0001). Conclusions Our findings validate the O3I as a biomarker of EPA+DHA consumption and identify additional factors, particularly body weight, that can be used to tailor EPA+DHA recommendations to achieve a target O3I. PMID:24252845

  2. Determination of trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid content in pure royal jelly and royal jelly products by column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Genç, M; Aslan, A

    1999-04-16

    In this research, several royal jellies and commercial products containing royal jelly were analysed for their trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) content by using a column liquid chromatography technique. Ten samples claimed to be pure royal jelly, containing 10-HDA between 0.75 and 2.54%. Seven samples claimed to contain royal jelly as an ingredient which ranged from non-detectable to 0.054%. The technique was found to be rapid with high recovery. PMID:10327631

  3. Ascorbic acid contents of Pakistani fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Perwaiz; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Mehboobali, Naseema

    2006-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin C which is known for its antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. The objective of this study was to determine ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables available in Pakistani markets. Most commonly used fresh fruits and vegetables were homogenized in 5% trichloroacetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents in the extracts were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Banana, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya were found to be very rich in ascorbic acid. Among vegetables, capsicum (green sweet pepper), cauliflower, bittergourd, roundgourd, beetroot, spinach, cabbage and radish contained high concentrations of ascorbic acid. Chikoo, grapes, pear, apricot, peach, carrot, cucumber, lettuce and "kakri" were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Several Pakistani fruits and vegetables (pear, melon, onion, sweet green pepper, spinach, cucumber) had ascorbic acid values similar to those reported by US Department of Agriculture in these fruits and vegetables in USA. However, wide differences in vitamin C contents were also observed in certain other fruits and vegetables from these two countries. This indicates that regional varieties of fruits and vegetables could vary in their ascorbic acid contents. Since subclinical deficiency of vitamin C appears to be quite common in developing countries like Pakistan, there is a need to develop awareness among masses to consume fresh fruits and vegetables with high contents of vitamin C. PMID:17105704

  4. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and

  5. Simultaneous determination of six short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents of colitis mice after oral administration of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jian-Ming; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the intestinal bacteria are very critical for the intestinal barrier, mucosal cytoprotection and normal intestinal biology. However, accumulation of SCFAs promoted by the polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat remains unknown. Thus, it is necessary to investigate SCFAs in the colonic contents of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice after oral administration of the polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat which is very helpful to unravel how it works. In this study, a rapid and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for simultaneous determination of six SCFAs such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid (IBA), valeric acid (VA) and isovaleric acid (IVA) has been developed and validated. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions and sample extraction procedure, good separation for 6 target compounds was obtained on a HP-INNOWAX column within 12min. Results revealed that polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat positively affected the SCFAs intestinal production. The polysaccharides group had greater SCFAs concentration in colonic content than the DSS-treated group (P<0.05), which was decreased remarkably compared to the normal group (P<0.01). With the decrease of the polysaccharides dosage, the contents of AA, PA and VA increased gradually, while the change of BA concentration was the opposite. There was no significant difference in the content of IBA at the different administration concentrations. And the content of IVA reached the highest concentration 0.953mg/g at lower dose of the polysaccharides. Additionally, oral administration of the polysaccharides prominently attenuated the body weight loss, reduced the disease activity index, rectal bleeding and stool consistency, improved colon shortening and macroscopic score of colitis. Our results indicated that the polysaccharides of C. morifolium Ramat might be used as

  6. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied. PMID:9659435

  7. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  8. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100-500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts. PMID:23533530

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100–500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts. PMID:23533530

  11. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  12. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  13. Determining BACB Examination Content and Standards.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James M; Mellichamp, Fae H; Shook, Gerald L; Carr, James E

    2014-05-01

    The standards associated with high-stakes professional credentialing are well established in the field of testing and measurement and are well supported by antitrust, administrative, and contract law. These standards have evolved to assure that the scope of work for a field's practitioners is appropriately reflected in the content of credentialing examinations and that the means by which credentials are earned include practitioners and other stakeholders throughout all phases of the credentialing process. This article describes the procedures by which the content of credentialing examinations is determined. The certification programs administered by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board are used as an illustration throughout. The article also considers the implications of these procedures and mechanisms. PMID:27057483

  14. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids. PMID:26473812

  15. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  16. Enzyme Analysis to Determine Glucose Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles; Ward, Robert E.

    Enzyme analysis is used for many purposes in food science and technology. Enzyme activity is used to indicate adequate processing, to assess enzyme preparations, and to measure constituents of foods that are enzyme substrates. In this experiment, the glucose content of corn syrup solids is determined using the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which then reacts with a dye in the presence of peroxidase to give a stable colored product.

  17. Electrical methods of determining soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, L. F.; Schultz, F. V.; Zalusky, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical permittivity of soils is a useful indicator of soil moisture content. Two methods of determining the permittivity profile in soils are examined. A method due to Becher is found to be inapplicable to this situation. A method of Slichter, however, appears to be feasible. The results of Slichter's method are extended to the proposal of an instrument design that could measure available soil moisture profile (percent available soil moisture as a function of depth) from a surface measurement to an expected resolution of 10 to 20 cm.

  18. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  19. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  20. Determination of shell content in palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Siew, W L

    1996-01-01

    A method for determining shell in palm kernel cake (PKC) is described. This simple and rapid method requires little pretreatment compared with the method currently used in PKC trade, in which the sample undergoes defatting, acid and alkali digestion, and washing, before a chloroform-alcohol solution is used to separate the shells. In the proposed method, only defatting the sample is required. The shells are separated by the density difference between the shell and PKC in a potassium iodide solution. Recoveries of at least 93% were obtained, and the correlation coefficient between the actual shell content and the determined shell content was 0.999, with gradients of 0.97 and 0.98 for fine and coarse shell, respectively. PMID:8620115

  1. Design and content determination of nimesulide injectable formulation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Tao, Wanfu; Bourkaib, Nadia; Luo, Yonghuang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate Nimesulide inject able solution, establish a method for content determination, and accumulate data for registration of a new Nimesulide formulation. The optimal Nimesulide inject able formulation was determined based on the results of single factor test and orthogonal test. Moreover, clarity, stability, pH, content and related substances of Nimesulide were used as the main study indicators. The content of Nimesulide in inject able solution was determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The mobile phase consisted of V (methanol): V (potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 4.2)=60:40 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was carried out with UV detector (λ(max) =254 nm) under a column temperature of 25°C and an injection volume of 20μL. The optimal inject able formulation was 4% Nimesulide, 4% ethanolamine, 0.1% L-cysteine, 0.01% EDTA-2Na, a suitable amount of lactic acid and water for injection. Nimesulide detection limits range from 20 to 80 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 and high average recovery 99.91% (RSD=0.06%). In conclusion, the formulation was suitable for Nimesulide inject able form, and the determination method was simple, sensitive and accurate. Therefore, the Nimesulide inject able formulation can be used for industrial production and effectively controlled. PMID:26142510

  2. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. PMID:27542484

  3. Determining resin/fiber content of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Article discusses procedure where hydrazine is used to extract graphite fibers from cured polyimide resin. Method does not attack graphite fibers and is faster than hot-concentrated-acid digestion process.

  4. Neuraminic acid content of sputum in chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Keal, E. E.; Reid, Lynne

    1972-01-01

    The neuraminic acid content of sputum from 48 men with early chronic bronchitis has been estimated in samples collected over a period of three years. The results are compared with those from 29 advanced bronchitic patients and are related to the clinical features of both groups and to the physical and biological properties of the sputum. A seasonal variation in neuraminic acid content has been noted for the first time with higher levels during the winter months. Clinical assessment of sputum pourability correlated well with measured viscosity. The viscosity of mucoid sputum was related to its neuraminic acid content but also to the yield of dry macromolecular material. In the early bronchitic group whose sputum was assessed for purulence at monthly intervals pus was more often present in those men whose mucoid sputum contained higher levels of neuraminic acid. These findings are discussed in relation to the cause of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. PMID:4647626

  5. [Comparative study on selenium and amino acids content in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Chen, Hai-Rong; Shen, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most important Chinese herbs. It is widely used in Asian medicine to improve impaired brain function and to treat headaches, and used to treat prostate cancer. It is also known to be anti-inflammatory and antifungal, and also seems to have antiviral properties, including possible effectiveness against HIV. Scutellaria baicalensis tea and other products are in development. In the present study, the content of selenium (Se) in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis was determined by fluorescence photometer. The contents of 18 kinds of amino acids in the leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis were determined with amino acids instruments. The results showed that the two kinds of leaves were rich in Se content, and the content of Se in planted Scutellaria baicalensis (0.051 microg x g(-1)) was not significantly different from that in wild one (0.051 microg x g(-1), alpha = 0.05). The amino acids, of which the total content was up to 14.62% and 10.25% separately, were rich in both planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. Among the 18 kinds of amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine were comparatively high in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. There are 8 kinds of amino acids essential to human body, which were higher in leaves of planted Scutellaria baicalensis than those of wild one. This study, for the first time, determined Se and amino acids content in Scutellaria baicalensis and concluded that the leaves of planted type have Se and amino acids content not lower or higher than that of wild type, and the planted type could be a good substitute of wild type in the development of Scutellaria baicalensis products. This study also provided useful data for explaining the multifunction of Scutellaria baicalensis and theological basis for developing its medical and edible value. PMID:19385241

  6. Contents of phenolic acids, alkyl- and alkenylresorcinols, and avenanthramides in commercial grain products.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hellström, Jarkko

    2005-10-19

    The contents of free and total phenolic acids and alk(en)ylresorcinols were analyzed in commercial products of eight grains: oat (Avena sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), rye (Secale cerale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa), and corn (Zea mays). Avenanthramides were determined in three oat products. Free phenolic acids, alk(en)ylresorcinols, and avenanthramides were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, 100% methanol, and 80% methanol, respectively, and quantified by HPLC. The contents of total phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The highest contents of total phenolic acids were in brans of wheat (4527 mg/kg) and rye (4190 mg/kg) and in whole-grain flours of these grains (1342 and 1366 mg/kg, respectively). In other products, the contents varied from 111 mg/kg (white wheat bread) to 765 mg/kg (whole-grain rye bread). Common phenolic acids found in the grain products were ferulic acid (most abundant), ferulic acid dehydrodimers, sinapic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The grain products were found to contain either none or only low amounts of free phenolic acids. The content of avenanthramides in oat flakes (26-27 mg/kg) was about double that found in oat bran (13 mg/kg). The highest contents of alk(en)ylresorcinols were observed in brans of rye (4108 mg/kg) and wheat (3225 mg/kg). In addition, whole-grain rye products (rye bread, rye flour, and whole-wheat flour) contained considerable levels of alk(en)ylresorcinols (524, 927, and 759 mg/kg, respectively). PMID:16218677

  7. Determining the Spectral Content of MOSES Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jacob; Kankelborg, Charles

    2016-05-01

    The MOSES (Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph) sounding rocket was launched February 8th, 2006. The MOSES concave grating forms solar images in multiple spectral orders, in an effort to measure line profiles from a single exposure over a wide field of view. We present a preliminary identification of spectral content in MOSES images. The cross correlation of subtracted images provide evidence of spectral content besides the normal 304 Anstrom He II line. We place confidence on the peaks in correlation by cross correlating random data that is statistically representative of MOSES data. These significant peaks indicate a contribution to intensity from several coronal lines. These lines are individually weak, but if not taken into account, they would significantly increase the residuals when inverting MOSES images to obtain spectra.

  8. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  9. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Tilak R; Nam, Seung-Hee; Ure, Amy L

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been recently studied mainly because of its potential in protecting against cancer, atherogenesis, and diabetes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a series of conjugated dienoic positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, which are found in relative abundance in milk and tissue fat of ruminants compared with other foods. The cis-9, trans-11 isomer is the principle dietary form of CLA found in ruminant products and is produced by partial ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid or by endogenous synthesis in the tissues themselves. The CLA content in milk and meat is affected by several factors, such as animal's breed, age, diet, and management factors related to feed supplements affecting the diet. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk or meat has been shown to be a stable compound under normal cooking and storage conditions. Total CLA content in milk or dairy products ranges from 0.34 to 1.07% of total fat. Total CLA content in raw or processed beef ranges from 0.12 to 0.68% of total fat. It is currently estimated that the average adult consumes only one third to one half of the amount of CLA that has been shown to reduce cancer in animal studies. For this reason, increasing the CLA contents of milk and meat has the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products and meat. PMID:16183568

  10. [Fatty acid content of the lipid fraction of the liver and fatty tissues of fattened geese].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, K; Monov, G

    1986-01-01

    The content of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the liver and in the body fats of fattened gray Landen geese. Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatography Chrom 41 supplied with Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatograph Chrom 41 supplied with a flame-ionization detector. It was found that the average content of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) as expressed by percent of their total amount was 45.90% and 54.10% (liver), 36.58% and 63.42% (subcutaneous fatty tissue), 42.79% and 57.31% (inner lard), and 39.01% and 60.99% (skin fats). PMID:3727379

  11. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  12. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  13. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  14. [Rapid determination of silicon content in black liquor of straw fibrous material].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhan, Huai-Yu; Liu, Meng-Ru; Fu, Shi-Yu; Sun, Li-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The present paper reports a novel method for the determination of silicon content in straw fibrous material black liquor based on alpha-Si--Mo heteropoly acid spectrophotometry. The selected conditions were as follows: detection wavelength 360 nm, pH 4.0, and reaction time 10 min. It was found that the acidic soluble lignin in the sample liquor was the major interference species in the silicon content determination. The interference of acidic soluble lignin can be eliminated by hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid digestion method. The present method is not only simple, rapid, stable and less interferential, but also of good measurement precision and accuracy, with the relative standard deviations of 0.9%, and recoveries of 99.0%-102%. It is suitable for use in high silicon content of black liquor routine rapid analyses. PMID:22870666

  15. Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul E.

    1995-07-01

    The mass of iron, in milligrams, present in a 5 gram sample of vegetable, nut, or tap water is determined by the reddishbrown color of the hexathiocyanatoferrate(III) ion. The iron in the ash of the incinerated food sample is dissolved with 2 M HCl, filtered, and mixed with KSCN. Using a spectrophotometer, the absorbance of the resulting reddishbrown solution is compared to previously prepared standards.

  16. Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Seddigheh; Nazari, Bahar; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Parkhideh, Sahar; Saberi, Salbali; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage, calbas, hamburgers and pizzas, were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets and restaurants. Each time a 10 g sample was drawn and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Total and individual fatty acids were quantified according to standard methods by gas chromatography with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector. The most common saturated fatty acids in Iranian fast foods is stearic acid (C18:0) which ranged from 14.0% to 20.9%. Saturated fatty acid content in calbas was significantly higher than that found in other groups. Trans fatty acids constitute almost 23.6% to 30.6% of total fatty acids of these products. The most common TFA in these fast foods was elaidic acid (C18:1 9t). Total cis unsaturated fatty acid content of tested fast foods varied from 25.3%(in sausage) to 46.8(in calbas) with oleic acid (C18:1 9c) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) being the most common fatty acids in these products. This study showed higher TFAs contents in commercially available fast foods compared to the amounts recommended by dietary guidelines in Iran. Further studies must assess the effects of these fatty acids on human health. PMID:19713177

  17. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  18. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  19. Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure by which the reactions are used to quantitatively determine the amount of total acid, the amount of total ascorbic acid and the amount of citric acid in a given sample of powdered drink mix, are described. A safe, reliable and low-cost quantitative method to analyze consumer product for acid content is provided.

  20. Simple Colorimetric Determination of the Manganese Content in Photosynthetic Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Semin, B. K.; Seibert, M.

    2009-01-01

    The functional Mn content of intact photosystem II membrane fragments was measured as 4.06 {+-} 0.13 Mn/reaction center when determined using a simple, sensitive colorimetric assay that will also work with thylakoids and core complexes. This procedure requires minimal sample material, does not need expensive assay equipment, requires four simple steps, and only takes 20-30 min to perform. These include (a) removal of the adventitious Mn ions by CaCl{sub 2} treatment of the membranes, (b) extraction of the Mn from the O{sub 2}-evolving complex with hydrochloric acid, (c) purification of the extract by centrifugation followed by filtration of the supernatant through an Acrodisc syringe filter (0.2 {micro}m nylon membrane), and (d) colorimetric determination of Mn in the extract using the reaction of the chromogenic agent, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine, with previously oxidized Mn(II) cations carried out at high pH. The colorimetric assay itself has been used previously by Serrat (Mikrochim Acta 129:77-80, 1998) for assaying Mn concentrations in sea water and drinking water.

  1. Dry matter production and nutrient content of longan grown on an acid Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the adaptability of longan (Dimocarpus longan) to acidic soils high in aluminum (Al). A 2-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient content in shoots of four cultivars of longan. S...

  2. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  3. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  4. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  5. Analytical Determinations of the Phenolic Content of Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T.; Kenny, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Indicators suggest that the amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is increasing. Climate Change has been proposed as a potential contributor to the trend, and under this mechanism, the phenolic content of DOM may also be increasing. We have explored the possibility of assessing the phenolic character of DOM using fluorescence spectroscopy as a more convenient alternative to wet chemistry methods. In this work, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs) of humic samples in an attempt to analyze their phenolic content. The PARAFAC results were correlated with phenol concentrations derived from the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent-based method. The reagent-based method showed that the phenolic content of five International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) DOM samples vary from approximately 5 to 22 ppm Tannic Acid Equivalents (TAE) in phenol concentration. A five-component PARAFAC fit was applied to the EEMs of the IHSS sample dataset and it was determined by PARAFAC score correlations with phenol concentrations from the reagent-based method that components C1 (R2=0.78), C4 (R2=0.82), and C5 (R2=0.88) have the highest probability of containing phenolic groups. Furthermore, when the scores of components C4 and C5 were summed, the correlation improved (R2=0.99). Likewise, when the scores of C1, C4, and C5 were summed, their correlations were stronger than their individual parts (R2=0.89). Since the reagent-based method is providing an indicator of “total phenol” amount, regardless of the exact molecular structure of C1, C4, and C5, it seems reasonable that each of these components individually contributes a portion to the summed “total phenol” profile, and that the sum of their phenol-related spectral parts represents a larger portion of the “total phenol” index. However, when the sum of all five components were plotted against the reagent-based phenol concentrations, due to the considerable

  6. 7 CFR 2902.7 - Determining biobased content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determines biobased content based on the amount of biobased carbon in the material or product as percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the material or product. (d) Products with the...

  7. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits. PMID:19353365

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Zhi-li; Shi, Bao-lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-xin; Wang, Su-li; Gao, Bao-jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  10. Spectrofluorimetric determination of ellagic acid in brandy.

    PubMed

    Sádecká, Jana; Tóthová, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Two spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the rapid determination of ellagic acid. The first method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and borax in methanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 456nm with excitation at 383nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 2.5×10(-8) to 7.5×10(-7)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 4×10(-9)molL(-1). The second method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and boric acid in ethanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 447nm with excitation at 387nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 1.25×10(-7) to 1.00×10(-6)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 7×10(-9)molL(-1). The methods were successfully applied for the determination of ellagic acid in brandy samples. The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method. PMID:22953802

  11. Potentiometric determination of free acidity in presence of hydrolysable ions and a sequential determination of hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, S; Khan, Fahmida; Ahmed, M K; Pandey, S K

    2011-08-15

    A simple potentiometric method for the determination of free acidity in presence of hydrolysable ions and sequential determination of hydrazine is developed and described. Both free acid and hydrazine are estimated from the same aliquot. In this method, free acid is titrated with standard sodium carbonate solution after the metal ions in solutions are masked with EDTA. Once the end point for the free acid is determined at pH 3.0, an aliquot of formaldehyde is added to liberate the acid equivalent to hydrazine which is then titrated with the same standard sodium carbonate solution using an automatic titration system. The described method is simple, accurate and reproducible. This method is especially applicable to all ranges of nitric acid and heavy metal ion concentration relevant to Purex process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. The overall recovery of nitric acid is 98.9% with 1.2% relative standard deviation. Hydrazine content has also been determined in the same aliquot with a recovery of nitric acid is 99% with 2% relative standard deviation. The major advantage of the method is that generation of corrosive analytical wastes containing oxalate or sulphate is avoided. Valuable metals like uranium and plutonium can easily be recovered from analytical waste before final disposal. PMID:21726724

  12. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  13. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  14. Bioluminescent determination of free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kather, H; Wieland, E

    1984-08-01

    A simple, highly specific, and sensitive bioluminescent method for determination of free fatty acids in unextracted plasma or serum has been developed. The method is based on the activation of free fatty acids by acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.3). The pyrophosphate formed is used to phosphorylate fructose 6-phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase (EC 4.1.2.13). The triosephosphates produced from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by aldolase are oxidized by NAD in the presence of arsenate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The NADH is detected via the bacterial NADH-linked luciferase system. Excellent agreement has been obtained by comparison with accepted methods. In addition, for the determination of serum free fatty acids, the method is particularly applicable for following lipolysis of isolated adipocytes. PMID:6486422

  15. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

  16. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. PMID:26948608

  17. Cytometry of deoxyribonuclei acid content and morphology of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Because spermatogenesis is exquisitely sensitive to external influences, sperm can serve as a biological dosimeter. Advances in interpreting induced sperm abnormalities require a better understanding of sperm characteristics. This report reviews the application of several methods for automated, quantitative detection of shape changes, methods that are faster and more sensitive than conventional subjective technqiues. Variability of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid content as a bioassay of genetic damage is explored, and limitations of the bioassay are discussed. New flow cytometric techniques that could lead to sexing mammalian sperm are examined.

  18. The effects of dormancy status on the endogenous contents and biological activities of jasmonic acid, n-(jasmonoyl)-isoleucine, and tuberonic acid in potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of storage and dormancy progression on the endogenous contents and the growth-regulating activities of jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), and tuberonic acid (TA) were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) minitubers and seed tubers over several ha...

  19. Carbohydrate content of acid alpha-glucosidase (gamma-amylase) from human liver.

    PubMed

    Belen'ky, D M; Mikhajlov, V I; Rosenfeld, E L

    1979-05-01

    The presence of carbohydrates in homogeneous preparations of human liver acid alpha-glucosidase has been established and the carbohydrate content of the enzyme determined. The enzyme was purified with the specific purpose of removing all low-molecular-weight carbohydrates. It was specifically adsorbed on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, eluted with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and gave a positive reaction with the phenol-sulphuric acid reagent. These facts taken together provide evidence that the enzyme studied is a glycoprotein. The analysis of the carbohydrate content of human liver acid alpha-glucosidase showed that there were 8.3 glucosamine, 13.2 mannose and possibly 3--4 glucose residues per molecule of the enzyme with a molecular weight of 98,000. PMID:376187

  20. Determination of plant silicon content with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Smis, Adriaan; Ancin Murguzur, Francisco Javier; Struyf, Eric; Soininen, Eeva M.; Herranz Jusdado, Juan G.; Meire, Patrick; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most common elements in the earth bedrock, and its continental cycle is strongly biologically controlled. Yet, research on the biogeochemical cycle of Si in ecosystems is hampered by the time and cost associated with the currently used chemical analysis methods. Here, we assessed the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for measuring Si content in plant tissues. NIR spectra depend on the characteristics of the present bonds between H and N, C and O, which can be calibrated against concentrations of various compounds. Because Si in plants always occurs as hydrated condensates of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), linked to organic biomolecules, we hypothesized that NIRS is suitable for measuring Si content in plants across a range of plant species. We based our testing on 442 samples of 29 plant species belonging to a range of growth forms. We calibrated the NIRS method against a well-established plant Si analysis method by using partial least-squares regression. Si concentrations ranged from detection limit (0.24 ppmSi) to 7.8% Si on dry weight and were well predicted by NIRS. The model fit with validation data was good across all plant species (n = 141, R2 = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.24), but improved when only graminoids were modeled (n = 66, R2 = 0.95, RMSEP = 0.10). A species specific model for the grass Deschampsia cespitosa showed even slightly better results than the model for all graminoids (n = 16, R2 = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.015). We show for the first time that NIRS is applicable for determining plant Si concentration across a range of plant species and growth forms, and represents a time- and cost-effective alternative to the chemical Si analysis methods. As NIRS can be applied concurrently to a range of plant organic constituents, it opens up unprecedented research possibilities for studying interrelations between Si and other plant compounds in vegetation, and for addressing the role of Si in ecosystems across a range of Si

  1. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  2. Turbidimetric determination of the total glucozinolate content of rape

    SciTech Connect

    Kononova, R.V.; Chaika, I.K.; Levitskii, A.P.; Lucashenok, E.V.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a procedure for the determination of the total GZ (glucozinolate--non-nurishing substances found in rapeseed) content from the content of sulfate ion SO/sup 2 -4/which is formed in the fermentative hydrolysis of GZ, based on the degree of turbidity formed by the addition of a barium chloride solution in the presence of the surfactant Tween-80 (poly(20)ethoxysorbitan monooleate.). The supernatant liquid is used to determine the SO/sup 2 -4 -/ion before and after fermentative hydrolysis. The GZ content of the analyzed sample of rapeseed raw material was calculated from an equation. Data show that the precision, reliability, and reproducibility of the results obtained by the proposed method are satisfactory. The procedure can be sued for serial analysis in selection establishments as well as feed production plants.

  3. NIR reflectance method to determine the Moisture Content in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is an important property that is measured and monitored at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. In this work an NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) reflectance method, that would rapidly determine the average mc of a peanut sample (about ...

  4. Folic Acid Determination Using Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Shamaeizadeh, Nahal; Mirzanasiri, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in the human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. One of the modern techniques which overcome the disadvantages of conventional determination methods is the sensors. Possibility of miniaturization, the development of microfabricated electrochemical (EC) sensors has resulted in high sensitivity, portability, improved performance and spatial resolution, low power consumption, and the opportunity for integration with other technologies made Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems-based EC sensors suitable to identify low concentration analytes and microorganisms in a variety of mediums. PMID:26605021

  5. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  6. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  7. Determination principal component content of seed oils by THz-TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Li, Xiang-jun

    2009-07-01

    The terahertz transmission spectra of seed oils are measured in the frequency range extending from 0.2 to 1.4 THz using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption spectra of three acid compounds (octadecanoic acid, octadecenoic acid and octadecadienoic acid) in seed oils are recorded and simulated using both THz-TDS and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Support vector regression (SVR) model using the raw measured terahertz spectral data directly as input of the principal component is established and is employed to determinate three acid compounds content for the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Comparison of the experimental data using liquid chromatography with predictions based on support vector regression, respectively, exhibits excellent agreement.

  8. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:17127473

  9. Ultrasonic determination of carbon content in uranium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncelow, J.; Morrell, J.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.

    2012-05-01

    A nondestructive method to determine solute content of carbon in polycrystalline uranium by ultrasonic techniques is currently being developed. The problem is approached by considering first theories developed in the field of physical acoustics applicable to variation in attenuation and elasticity with respect to interstitial and second-phase contents. Attention is given to the physical metallurgy of uranium, specifically phase stability and the effects of carbon concentration on physical properties. Experimental verification of theory is provided using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) and pulse-echo time of flight measurements, the former yielding elastic moduli and quality factors and the latter supplying attenuation and velocity information.

  10. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

  11. Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1

    PubMed Central

    Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

  12. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  13. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding. PMID:25040314

  14. Changes in acid-phosphate content in enamel mineral during porcine amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, S; Aoba, T; Moreno, E C

    1991-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in the acid-phosphate content of porcine enamel mineral during its development and to assess separately the HPO4(2-) pools in labile and stable forms. Enamel samples at the secretory and maturing stages of amelogenesis were obtained from the permanent incisors of five- to six-month-old slaughtered piglets. Human enamel from erupted, extracted teeth, synthetic hydroxyapatite, and carbonatoapatite containing acid phosphate were included as references. The acid-phosphate content of each sample was determined chemically through its pyrolytic conversion to pyrophosphate. The assessment of HPO4(2-) in labile forms was made by analysis of samples preequilibrated with solutions containing 3 mmol/L phosphate at pH11 (to de-protonate the HPO4(2-) species on crystal surfaces). The analytical results of porcine enamel samples showed that: (a) the outermost secretory (youngest) enamel contained the highest HPO4(2-), corresponding to about 16% of the total phosphate; (b) the acid-phosphate content decreased gradually to 10% in the inner (older) secretory and to 6% in the maturing tissue; (c) a substantial part of the HPO4(2-) in developing enamel tissue (50-60% of the HPO4(2-) for the secretory enamel) was in labile forms; and (d) the pool of the labile HPO4(2-) decreased with the growth of enamel mineral. In parallel studies with mature human enamel, it was ascertained that the total acid phosphate was only about 3% of the total phosphate, much lower than in developing porcine enamel, and that the labile pool of HPO4(2-) was also small, corresponding to about 15% of the total acid phosphate determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1774383

  15. Titrimetric determination of ascorbic acid using chloranil.

    PubMed

    Verma, K K; Jain, A; Rawat, R

    1984-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is oxidized and quantitatively titrated with chloranil (2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone) in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine in acetone-water; the end point is determined visually by the appearance of a golden yellow color. Colored solutions are assayed by setting the initial absorbance at 451 nm to zero or the minimum, titrating with chloranil solution, and measuring absorbance after each increment of titrant. A plot of the volume of chloranil added against the absorbance gives a straight line with the volume intercept as the end point. Interference by the thiol group of cysteine, glutathione, etc., is avoided by masking with acrylamide; interference by iron(II) is masked with ammonium thiocyanate and sodium potassium tartrate. Hydrogen sulfite and thiourea (which do not interfere) are added as antioxidants during extraction of ascorbic acid from drugs and fruits. PMID:6725194

  16. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  17. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. PMID:24054210

  18. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation. PMID:10626652

  19. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source. PMID:24497746

  20. Determination of benzoic acid, chlorobenzoic acids and chlorendic acid in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, E.A.; Cortellucci, N.J.; Singley, K.F. )

    1993-01-01

    To characterize and conduct treatment studies of a landfill leachate an analysis procedure was required to determine concentrations of benzoic acid, the three isomers of chlorobenzoic acid and chlorendic acid. The title compounds were isolated from acidified (pH 1) water by extraction with methyl t-butyl ether. Analytes were concentrated by back-extracting the ether with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide which was separated and acidified. This solution was analyzed by C[sub 18] reversed-phase HPLC with water/acetonitrile/acetic acid eluent and UV detection at 222 nm. The method has detection limits of 200 [mu]g/L for chlorendic acid and 100 [mu]g/L for benzoic acid and each isomer of chlorobenzoic acid. Validation studies with water which was fortified with the analytes at concentrations ranging from one to ten times detection limits resulted in average recoveries of >95%.

  1. Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Ward, Jr., Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

  2. Effect of Ethionine on the Ribonucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and Protein Content of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert C.; Salmon, W. D.

    1965-01-01

    Smith, Robert C. (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), and W. D. Salmon. Effect of ethionine on the ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, and protein content of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:687–692. 1965.—The addition of ethionine to cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 W6, a methionine-requiring auxotroph, led to inhibition of the rate of increase in optical density when the ratio of ethionine to methionine was 200:1. When the ratio was 600:1, the increase in optical density became linear. When ethionine was substituted for methionine in the medium, the optical density of the culture increased, and there was a parallel increase in protein content. There was no cell division in these cultures. The rate of synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a culture containing ethionine was similar to that of a culture deprived of methionine, but the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in a culture with ethionine was about twice that of a culture deprived of methionine. No detectable radioactivity from ethionine-ethyl-1-C14 was incorporated into RNA. Ethionine-ethyl-1-C14 was readily incorporated into the protein fraction. PMID:14273646

  3. [Determination of constituents of polysaccharide and contents of saccharide from Mongolian medicine Agari-8].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ying; Song, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Xu, Xiu-Ting; Hai, Ping

    2007-04-01

    The water soluble polysaccharide was extracted from Agari-8, and the contents of the water soluble polysaccharide were determined by phenyl hydrate-sulfuric acid method. The average recovery was 101.80%. The RSD was 0. 92Y. The components of the water soluble polysaccharide were identified by gas chromatography with: arabinose, xylose, mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 0.40 : 0.10 : 5.67 : 22.78. Their IR and UV spectra were studied. PMID:17608211

  4. Amino acid determination in some edible Mexican insects.

    PubMed

    Ladrón de Guevara, O; Padilla, P; García, L; Pino, J M; Ramos-Elorduy, J

    1995-06-01

    The amino acid contents of edible insects from different provinces of Mexico and reference proteins were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The insect amino acid contents were higher than the adult requirements indicated by the WHO/FAO pattern. PMID:24178816

  5. Virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the free amino acid content of host wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, Kurt D; Giovanini, Marcelo P; Zheng, Cheng; Williams, Christie E

    2008-11-01

    Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that supports larval growth and development. To determine if changes in host plant free amino acid levels are associated with virulent Biotype L Hessian fly larval feeding, we quantified free amino acid levels in crown tissues of susceptible Newton wheat plants 1, 4, and 7 days after Hessian fly egg hatch. Hessian fly-infested susceptible plants were more responsive than resistant plants or uninfested controls, showing higher concentrations of alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and serine 4 days after egg hatch. This 4-day post-hatch time point corresponds to the maturation of nutritive tissue cells in susceptible plants and the onset of rapid larval growth. By 7 days after egg hatch, when virulent second instars are actively feeding on the contents of nutritive tissue cells, the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine were more abundant compared to uninfested controls, but the levels of other free amino acids were no longer elevated. Changes in free amino acid abundance described in this report were associated with increased levels of mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in amino acid synthesis and transport. PMID:18841417

  6. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  7. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  8. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  9. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  10. Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Justine; Barr, Daniel; Sinclair, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted using solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quantified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples analysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids. PMID:18818158

  11. Determination of fat content in NMR images of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we present an application to food science of image processing technique. We describe a method for determining fat content in beef meat. The industry of meat faces a permanent need for improved methods for meat quality evaluation. Researchers want improved techniques to deepen their understanding of meat features. Expectations of consumers for meat quality grow constantly, which induces the necessity of quality control. Recent advances in the area of computer and video processing have created new ways to monitor quality in the food industry. We investigate the use of a new technology to control the quality of food: NMR imaging. The inherent advantages of NMR images are many. Chief among these unprecedented contrasts between the various structures present in meat like muscle, fat, and connective tissue. Moreover, the three-dimensional nature of the NMR method allow us to analyze isolated cross-sectional slices of the meat and to measure the volumetric content of fat, not only the fat visible on the surface. We propose a segmentation algorithm for the detection of fat together with a filtering technique to remove intensity inhomogeneities in NMR images caused by non-uniformities of the magnetic field during acquisition. Measurements have been successfully correlated with chemical analysis and digital photography. Results show that the NMR technique is a promising non-invasive method to determine the fat content in meat.

  12. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  13. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. Methods A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. Results The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41–79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Conclusion Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes. PMID:24588940

  14. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  15. Molecular analysis of soybean lines with low palmitic acid content in the seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmitic acid is the major saturated fatty acid found in soybean oil, accounting for approximately 11% of the seed oil content. Reducing the palmitic acid levels of the oil is desirable because of the negative health effects specifically associated with this fatty acid. One of the genetic loci known...

  16. Content and Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Neutral Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Anthocyanin in Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. γ-Methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents. Images PMID:16660921

  17. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  18. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  19. Green chromatography determination of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Carlos Molina; Alayón, Andrea Brito; García Rodríguez, María Teresa; Jiménez Abizanda, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Francisco Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a green, simple and rapid chromatographic methodology for separation and determination of a group of 13 fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) by using a capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The method was successfully applied for the determination of FAMEs in biodiesel samples from commercial and waste cooking oils, synthesized by homogeneous catalysis. Detection and quantification limits were in the μg L(-1) level. Direct injection of sample solution was compared with solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction procedures, giving similar results. The lower analysis time represent considerable improvement compared with other papers. The described methodology is especially suitable for process control applications. The samples analysed showed total contents of FAMEs higher than 96.5%, which verifies the European regulations. PMID:25666201

  20. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage.

    PubMed

    Hloucalová, Pavlína; Skládanka, Jiří; Horký, Pavel; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelikán, Jan; Knotová, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety "Amos"), alfalfa (variety "Holyně"), and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Higher levels ( p < 0.05) of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g (-1) of dry weight) and formononetin (4.315 mg·g (-1) of dry weight) were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05), representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest. PMID:27429009

  1. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  2. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Silica Content and Distribution in Sugarcane 12

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Peter B.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Lee, Myong; Carlson, Thomas J.; Jones, John D.; Rigot, Ward; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Kraus, Steve; Moore, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on the content and distribution of silicon in the stem, leaf sheath, and leaf lamina of sugarcane was analyzed in relation to the effect of gibberellic acid on stem growth. Silicon content was measured by neutron activation analysis, and its distribution was followed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Foliarly applied gibberellic acid increased stem length and fresh weight and decreased silicon content. Gibberellic acid treatments had little or no effect on growth or silicon content of leaf laminae or sheaths. The close correlation between increase in growth of an internode in response to gibberellic acid and the decrease in silicon content of that internode indicated a dilution effect of growth on the amount of silicon rather than a direct effect of gibberellic acid on silicon deposition. This conclusion was supported by scanning electrom microscopy, X-ray map photos, and counts of silica cells per unit of epidermis area. PMID:16661908

  3. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  4. Method of determining a content of a nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Bernardi, Richard T.; Entwistle, David

    2003-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for identifying contents of a nuclear waste container. The method includes the steps of forming an image of the contents of the container using digital radiography, visually comparing contents of the image with expected contents of the container and performing computer tomography on the container when the visual inspection reveals an inconsistency between the contents of the image and the expected contents of the container.

  5. The alpha-linolenic acid content of green vegetables commonly available in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C; Li, D; Sinclair, A J

    2001-07-01

    Green vegetable consumption has long been considered to have health benefits mainly due to the vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients (such as vitamin C, folate, antioxidants etc) contained in a vegetable-rich diet. Additionally, green vegetables are known to contain a relatively high proportion of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). However, there are no data available on the fatty acid composition and concentration of green vegetables commonly consumed in Australia. The present study determined the fatty acid content of 11 green vegetables that are commonly available in Australia. The total fatty acid concentrations of the vegetables under study ranged from 44 mg/100 g wet weight in Chinese cabbage to 372 mg/100 g in watercress. There were three PUFAs in all vegetables analyzed; these were 16:3n-3, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 fatty acids. Sample vegetables contained significant quantities of 16:3n-3 and 18:3n-3, ranging from 23 to 225 mg/100 g. Watercress and mint contained the highest amounts of 16:3n-3 and 18:3n-3, and parsley had the highest amount of 18:2n-6 in both percentage composition and concentration. Mint had the highest concentration of 18:3n-3 with a value of 195 mg/100 g, while watercress contained the highest concentration of 16:3n-3 at 45 mg/100 g. All 11 green vegetables contained a high proportion of PUFAs, ranging from 59 to 72% of total fatty acids. The omega-3 PUFA composition ranged from 40 to 62% of total fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid composition was less than 6% of total fatty acids. The proportion of saturated fatty acids ranged from 21% in watercress and mint to 32% of total fatty acids in Brussels sprouts. No eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were detected in any of the samples. Consumption of green vegetables could contribute to 18:3n-3 PUFA intake, especially for vegetarian populations. PMID:11582857

  6. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  7. [Influence of rations with various linoleic acid contents on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood platelets of rats].

    PubMed

    Atrokhov, V V; Markov, Kh M

    1987-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in platelets of Wistar-Kioto rats which received semisynthetic rations with varying content of linoleic acid, 1 week prenatally and 18 weeks postnatally. In ration I the level of 18:2n6 was lower than 0.1 cal%, ration II contained 9.0 cal%, and ration III -- 16.0 cal%. Ration III, as compared to ration II, induced an increase in the content of linoleic fatty acids, arachidonic fatty acid content being unchanged. Ration I, as compared to ration II induced a decrease in linoleic fatty acid content, and an increase in the content of oleic and linolenic fatty acids attended by the appearance of appreciable amounts of 20:3n9 and 20:5n3. Long-term linoleic acid deficiency induced no changes in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in platelet phospholipids of rats given ration I. This is an evidence of high reserve possibilities of the mechanisms regulating fatty acid metabolism in the mammals. PMID:2894094

  8. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  9. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  10. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  11. Screening the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or don...

  12. Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the USDA castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 4...

  13. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    PubMed Central

    Hloucalová, Pavlína; Skládanka, Jiří; Horký, Pavel; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelikán, Jan; Knotová, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Phytoestrogens comprise a group of substances negatively influencing the development and function of animal reproductive organs. Their appearance in forage crops can reduce feeding values, cause dietary disorders, and lead to animal health damage. This study evaluated the occurrence of individual phytoestrogens in various species of annual and perennial legumes and their levels in dry forage. It appeared that feeding large amounts of red clover presents a potential risk, but red clover can be replaced with the annual Persian clover, in which markedly lower phytoestrogen levels were detected. Abstract The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”), alfalfa (variety “Holyně”), and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Higher levels (p < 0.05) of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g−1 of dry weight) and formononetin (4.315 mg·g−1 of dry weight) were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter (p < 0.05), representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest. PMID:27429009

  14. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  15. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding

    PubMed Central

    Staggs, C.G.; Sealey, W.M.; McCabe, B.J.; Teague, A.M.; Mock, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing dietary biotin content, biotin bioavailability, and resulting biotin status are crucial in determining whether biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans. Accuracy in estimating dietary biotin is limited both by data gaps in food composition tables and by inaccuracies in published data. The present study applied sensitive and specific analytical techniques to determine values for biotin content in a select group of foods. Total biotin content of 87 foods was determined using acid hydrolysis and the HPLC/avidin-binding assay. These values are consistent with published values in that meat, fish, poultry, egg, dairy, and some vegetables are relatively rich sources of biotin. However, these biotin values disagreed substantially with published values for many foods. Assay values varied between 247 times greater than published values for a given food to as much as 36% less than the published biotin value. Among 51 foods assayed for which published values were available, only seven agreed within analytical variability (720%). We conclude that published values for biotin content of foods are likely to be inaccurate. PMID:16648879

  16. Decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialic acid content is associated with increased erythrocyte aggregation in human diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M E; Williams, D T; Niththyananthan, R; Rampling, M W; Heslop, K E; Johnston, D G

    1992-03-01

    1. Sialic acid moieties of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins are the principal determinants of the negative charge on the cell surface. The resultant electrostatic repulsion between the cells reduces erythrocyte aggregation and hence the low shear rate viscosity and yield stress of blood. 2. Using g.c.-m.s., a decrease in sialic acid content has been observed in the major erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein, glycophorin A, obtained from nine diabetic patients compared with that from seven normal control subjects [median (range): 3.30 (0.01-11.90) versus 18.60 (3.20-32.60) micrograms/100 micrograms of protein, P less than 0.02]. 3. Erythrocyte aggregation, measured by viscometry as the ratio of suspension viscosity to supernatant viscosity (LS/S) in fibrinogen solution, was increased in ten diabetic patients compared with ten normal control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 37.6 +/- 1.3 versus 33.8 +/- 0.6, P less than 0.02). 4. In the patients in whom both viscometry and carbohydrate analysis were performed, the decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialylation and the increase in erythrocyte aggregation in fibrinogen solution were related statistically (LS/S correlated negatively with glycophorin sialic acid content, r = 0.73, P less than 0.05). 5. Decreased glycophorin sialylation provides an explanation at the molecular level for increased erythrocyte aggregation and it may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:1312416

  17. Methods and principles for determining task dependent interface content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalin, Valerie L.; Geddes, Norman D.; Mikesell, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    Computer generated information displays provide a promising technology for offsetting the increasing complexity of the National Airspace System. To realize this promise, however, we must extend and adapt the domain-dependent knowledge that informally guides the design of traditional dedicated displays. In our view, the successful exploitation of computer generated displays revolves around the idea of information management, that is, the identification, organization, and presentation of relevant and timely information in a complex task environment. The program of research that is described leads to methods and principles for information management in the domain of commercial aviation. The multi-year objective of the proposed program of research is to develop methods and principles for determining task dependent interface content.

  18. Determination of alloy content from plume spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1991-01-01

    The mathematical derivation for a method to determine the identities and amounts of alloys present in a flame where numerous alloys may be present is described. This method is applicable if the total number of elemental species from all alloys that may be in the flame is greater than or equal to the total number of alloys. Arranging the atomic spectral line emission equations for the elemental species as a series of simultaneous equations enables solution for identity and amount of the alloy present in the flame. This technique is intended for identification and quantification of alloy content in the plume of a rocket engine. Spectroscopic measurements reveal the atomic species entrained in the plume. Identification of eroding alloys may lead to the identification of the eroding component.

  19. High biobased content epoxy-anhydride thermosets from epoxidized sucrose esters of Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Sengupta, Partha; Webster, Dean C

    2011-06-13

    Novel highly functional biobased epoxy compounds, epoxidized sucrose esters of fatty acids (ESEFAs), were cross-linked with a liquid cycloaliphatic anhydride to prepare polyester thermosets. The degree of cure or conversion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sol content of the thermosets was determined using solvent extraction. The mechanical properties were studied using tensile testing to determine Young's modulus, tensile stress, and elongation at break. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to determine glass-transition temperature, storage modulus, and cross-link density. The nanomechanical properties of the surfaces were studied using nanoindentation to determine reduced modulus and indentation hardness. The properties of coatings on steel substrates were studied to determine coating hardness, adhesion, solvent resistance, and mechanical durability. Compared with the control, epoxidized soybean oil, the anhydride-cured ESEFAs have high modulus and are hard and ductile, high-performance thermoset materials while maintaining a high biobased content (71-77% in theory). The exceptional performance of the ESEFAs is attributed to the unique structure of these macromolecules: well-defined compact structures with high epoxide functionality. These biobased thermosets have potential uses in applications such as composites, adhesives, and coatings. PMID:21561167

  20. Oil content and saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a function of planting date, N rate, and hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acids (FA) composition of sunflower determines its uses and health effects on humans, while oil content determines the price paid to producers. The hypothesis of this study was that agronomic factors (genotype, planting date, and N rate) will affect total saturated fatty acid (TSFA) concen...

  1. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  2. Method for Determining the Coalbed Methane Content with Determination the Uncertainty of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Korzec, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Methane has a bad influence on safety in underground mines as it is emitted to the air during mining works. Appropriate identification of methane hazard is essential to determining methane hazard prevention methods, ventilation systems and methane drainage systems. Methane hazard is identified while roadways are driven and boreholes are drilled. Coalbed methane content is one of the parameters which is used to assess this threat. This is a requirement according to the Decree of the Minister of Economy dated 28 June 2002 on work safety and hygiene, operation and special firefighting protection in underground mines. For this purpose a new method for determining coalbed methane content in underground coal mines has been developed. This method consists of two stages - collecting samples in a mine and testing the sample in the laboratory. The stage of determining methane content in a coal sample in a laboratory is essential. This article presents the estimation of measurement uncertainty of determining methane content in a coal sample according to this methodology.

  3. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  4. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  5. Milk Fat Content and DGAT1 Genotype Determine Lipid Composition of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows. PMID:23874734

  6. Determination of Ionospheric Total Electron Content Derived from Gnss Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyurt, S.; Mekik, C.; Yildirim, O.

    2014-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been used in numerous fields especially related to satellite- based radio navigation system for a long time. Ionosphere, one of the upper atmosphere layers ranges from 60 km to 1500 km, is a dispersive medium and it includes a number of free electrons and ions. The ionization is mainly subject to the sun and its activity. Ionospheric activity depends also on seasonal, diurnal variations and geographical location. Total Electron Content (TEC), which is also called Slant Total Electron Content (STEC), is a parameter that changes according to ionospheric conditions and has highly variable structure. Furthermore, Vertical TEC (VTEC) can be explained as TEC value in the direction of zenith. Thanks to VTEC, TEC values can be modelled. TEC is measured in units of TECU and 1TECU= 1016 electrons/m2. Ionospheric modelling has a great importance for improving the accuracies of positioning and understanding the ionosphere. Thus, various models have been developed to detect TEC value in the last years. Single Layer Model (SLM) which provides determining TEC value and GPS positioning in the ionosphere accurately is one of the most commonly used models. SLM assumes that all free electrons are concentrated in a shell of infinitesimal thickness. In this paper SLM model was used to derive TEC values by means of Bernese 5.0 program developed by the University of Bern, Sweden. In this study, we have used regional ionosphere model to derive TEC value. First of all, GPS data have been collected from 10 stations in Turkey and 13 IGS stations for 7 days from 06.03.2010 to 12.03.2010. Then, Regional Ionosphere Model (RIM) is created with the reference of the GPS data. At the end of the process, the result files are stored as IONEX format. TEC results for those days are obtained with two hours interval. TEC variation related to the research area ranges from nearly 6 TECU to approximately 20 TECU. The obtained results show that TEC values start

  7. Analytical method for determination of benzene-arsenic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.L.; Bayse, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensitive analytical method has been modified for use in determination of several benzenearsonic acids, including arsanilic acid (p-aminobenzenearsonic acid), Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzenearsonic acid), and p-ureidobenzene arsonic acid. Controlled acid hydrolysis of these compounds produces a quantitative yield of arsenate, which is measured colorimetrically as the molybdenum blue complex at 865 nm. The method obeys Beer's Law over the micromolar concentration range. These benzenearsonic acids are routinely used as feed additives in poultry and swine. This method should be useful in assessing tissue levels of the arsenicals in appropriate extracts.

  8. A new technique to determine organic and inorganic acid contamination.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly

    2002-01-01

    A new acid indicator pad was developed for the detection of acid breakthrough of gloves and chemical protective clothing. The pad carries a reagent which responds to acid contaminant by producing a color change. The pad was used to detect both organic and inorganic acids permeating through glove materials using the modified ASTM F-739 and direct permeability testing procedures. Breakthrough times for each type of glove were determined, and found to range from 4 min to > 4 h for propionic acid, from 3 min to > 4 h for acrylic acid, and from 26 min to > 4 h for HCl. A quantification was performed for propionic and acrylic acids following solvent desorption and gas chromatography. Both acids exhibited > 99% adsorption [the acid and its reactivity (the acid reacted with an indicator to contribute the color change)] on the pads at a spiking level of 1.8 microL for each acid. Acid recovery during quantification was calculated for each acid, ranging from 52-72% (RSD < or = 4.0%) for both acids over the spiking range 0.2-1.8 microL. The quantitative mass of the acids on the pads at the time of breakthrough detection ranged from 260-282 and 270-296 microg cm(-2) for propionic acid and acrylic acid, respectively. The new colorimetric indicator pad should be useful in detecting and collecting acid permeation samples through gloves and chemical protective clothing in both laboratory and field studies, for quantitative analysis. PMID:11827389

  9. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  10. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  11. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  12. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Study Design: Over 5 years, lactate was measured on all blood gases taken from neonatal admissions, as well as organic acid whenever electrolytes were required. Results: Arterial blood gases from 63 infants given high calcium TPN were analyzed. Twenty two needed continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) only and 31 intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and surfactant followed by CPAP to treat respiratory distress syndrome in 51 and meconium aspiration syndrome in 2. All survived and were free of infection. Excluded gases were those with high and falling lactate soon after delivery representing perinatal asphyxia, and those on dexamethasone. Strong inverse relations between carbonic and lactic acids were found at all gestational ages and, independent of glomerular filtration, between carbonic and organic acids. Lactate (mmol/L) = 62.53 X PCO2 -0.96(mmHg) r2 0.315, n 1232, p <0.001. Sixty divided by PCO2 is a convenient measure of physiological lactate at any given PCO2. In the first week, 9.13 ± 2.57% of arterial gases from infants on IPPV had lactates above 120/PCO2, significantly more than 4.74 ± 2.73% on CPAP (p<0.05) and 2.47 ± 2.39% on no support. Conclusion: Changes in arterial blood carbonic acid cause immediate inverse changes in lactic acid, because their anions interchange across cell membranes according to the Gibbs –Donnan equilibrium. Increasing PCO2 from 40 to 120 mmHg decreased lactate from 1.5 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, so that the sum of carbonic and lactic acids increased from 2.72 mmol/L to only 4.17 mmol/L. This helps explain the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnoea and highlights the importance of avoiding any degree of hypocapnoea in infants on IPPV. PMID:24392387

  13. Assessment of the arachidonic acid content in foods commonly consumed in the American diet.

    PubMed

    Taber, L; Chiu, C H; Whelan, J

    1998-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. When provided in the diet, it is cogently incorporated in membrane phospholipids and enhances eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro; however, controversy exists as to the levels of AA in food and in the diet. This study determined the amount of AA in cooked and raw portions of beef (rib eye), chicken (breast and thigh), eggs, pork (loin), turkey (breast), and tuna; it compared these results to values published in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 (HB-8). The cooked portions were prepared as described in HB-8. With the exception of chicken thigh and tuna, the levels of AA (w/w) in the selected foods analyzed were significantly higher, in general, than those values published in HB-8. The greatest differences were observed in beef (raw and cooked), turkey breast (raw and cooked), and pork (cooked) where AA levels were twice that of the values in HB-8. In contrast, the AA and n-3 fatty acid contents in tuna were almost half the HB-8 values. The present data indicate that HB-8 tends to underreport the amounts of AA in a number of foods commonly consumed in the American diet, and new initiatives should be considered to validate and update the current database for fatty acid composition of foods. PMID:9930399

  14. Variability of fatty acid content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M; Hillebrand, A; Winkler, J; Leitner, E; Pfannhauser, W

    1996-09-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common salad oil which is produced in Slovenia, Hungary and the southern parts of Austria. It is dark green and has a high content of free fatty acids. The seed itself can be eaten. Due to its colour and the foam formation, the oil cannot be used for cooking. The content of vitamin E, especially gamma-tocopherol, is very high. The oil content of the pumpkin seed is about 50%. The variability in the oil content is very high resulting from a broad genetic diversity. Thus a breeding programme for increasing the oil productivity is very promising. The four dominant fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. These four fatty acids make up 98 +/- 0.13% of the total amount of fatty acids, others being found at levels well below 0.5%. PMID:8873459

  15. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. PMID:18608541

  16. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  17. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid: effect of water content.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G

    2002-06-01

    The effect of the water content on the lipase-catalyzed (Candida rugosa) interesterification (acidolysis) of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid was studied for amounts of added water ranging from 0-4% (w/w). The rate of the acidolysis reaction increased with increasing water content, but the corresponding percentage of n-3 fatty acids liberated also increased. The implications of water content for minimization of the release of n-3 fatty acid residues while maximizing incorporation of CLA are discussed. PMID:12115120

  18. Simultaneous determination of contents of three active components in Jiejia tincture by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Wang, Fei; Diao, Yun-Peng; Pan, Xiao-qiu; Yun-Juan, E; Zhang, Huo-Li

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the contents of three active components in Jiejia tincture by establishing HPLC method. Test articles were prepared by ultrasonic extraction. Separation was performed using a Kromasil C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) chromatographic column, and gradient elution was performed with acetonitrile-0.3% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase at a volumetric flow rate of 0.80 mL/min. The contents of catechin, baicalin and berberine in Jiejia tincture were determined at the wavelength of 276 nm and a column temperature of 30 □. The results revealed that catechin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 100∼800 µg/mL (r=0.9997); baicalin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 15∼120 µg/mL (r=0.9996), and berberine at the range of 7∼56 µg/mL (r=0.9995). Their average recovery rates were 99.67% (RSD 1.01%, n=6), 98.7% (RSD 1.93%, n=6) and 100.5% (RSD 2.88%, n=6) respectively. The study concluded that the high-performance liquid chromatography established in this study was simple, accurate and reproducible, and can also be used in the determination of catechin, baicalin and berberine contents in Jiejia tincture. PMID:24311852

  19. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  20. Determination of rutin and isoquercetin contents in Hibisci mutabilis Folium in different collection periods by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Diangang; Mei, Qing; Wan, Xiangluan; Que, Hongling; Li, Luyang; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-01-01

    Hibisci mutabilis Folium (HMF), the dried leaf of Hibiscus mutabilis (Malvaceae), is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. This article aimed to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of rutin and isoquercitrin contents in the HMF, and to compare the content variation in all the samples, including nearly withered yellow leaf, in different collection periods, so as to provide research basis for the quality evaluation and determination of the optimal collection period. A reversed-phase HPLC separation method was employed, with a BDS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 m × 250 mm, 5 μm), under the following conditions: acetonitrile-0.3% phosphoric acid (15:85, v/v) solution as the mobile phase, flow rate 1.0 mL/min at 30°C and detection wavelength 254 nm. The calibration curves for rutin and isoquercitrin were linear over the range of 1.5-48 and 0.25-8 μg/mL, and the average recoveries were 99.92 and 100.45% (RSD: 2.39% and 2.11%, respectively)]. Based on the analysis results, it was found that contents of rutin and isoquercitrin in HMF (mature green leaf) harvested in different periods had significant difference, and reached the highest in mid-December. It was also found that the contents of the two components in the mature green leaf were much higher than those in the nearly withered leaf from the same collection period. In conclusion, the results indicated that the HPLC method was easy-to-operate and precise, and could be applied for the determination of rutin and isoquercitrin contents in the HMF. The experimental data also showed that early winter should be the most suitable collection period for HMF. PMID:26089170

  1. Effect of the roasting method on the content of 5-hydroxytryptamides of carboxylic acids in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Nebesny, E; Budryn, G

    2002-08-01

    Coffee beans of Coffea liberica (robusta) variety were roasted using convection and microwave heating. For roasting we used green coffee beans of 7.5% moisture content, and beans wetted to 10% moisture content and dried to 5% moisture content. The content of 5-hydroxytryptamides of carboxylic acids C-5-HT (determined by TLC) as the index of substances irritating alimentary canal was investigated in the roasted beans, depending on the bean treatment before roasting and applied roasting method. Analytical results show that predrying of the coffee beans caused 15-30% loss of C-5-HT, depending on the applied drying conditions. The content of C-5-HT in the roasted beans depended on the roasting method and preliminary treatment of the beans prior to roasting. A higher C-5-HT loss occurred in the case of beans subjected to two-stage processing, predrying and roasting. Convection roasting caused higher degradation of C-5-HT than microwave roasting. PMID:12224425

  2. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  3. Determination of free fatty acids in beer wort.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Benedetti, Paolo; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-15

    The importance of free fatty acids (FFAs) in wort has been known for a long time because of their influence on beer quality and yeast metabolism. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as negative effects on beer quality. Lipids content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids seems to be related to gushing problems. A novel, simple, and reliable procedure for quantitative analysis of FFAs in wort was developed and validated. The determination of FFAs in wort was achieved via liquid-liquid cartridge extraction, purification of FFA fraction by solid phase extraction, boron trifluoride in methanol methylation, and injection into GC-FID system. The proposed method has high accuracy (<0.3%, expressed as the bias), high precision (<1.2%, RSD), and recoveries ranging from 74% to 98%. The method was tested on two different wort samples (9° and 12° Plato). PMID:24423546

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of tranexamic acid with chloranil.

    PubMed

    Wahbi, A A; Lotfi, E A; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    1984-01-01

    Tranexamic acid is reacted with aqueous alcoholic chloranil, buffered at pH 9, to give a complex with maximum absorption at 346 nm and with an apparent molar absorptivity of 15.7 x 10(3) l.mole(-1).cm(-1). A(max) is linearly related to concentration over the range 2-10 mug ml . When applied to tablets labelled as containing 500 mg each, the mean found was 496 +/- 4 mg. The results were comparable with those of the traditional formol titration method for amino-acids. PMID:18963530

  5. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family

    PubMed Central

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production. PMID:21838261

  7. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    PubMed

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments. PMID:25078662

  8. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation. PMID:25216642

  9. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  10. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  11. Fatty acid content of New Zealand-grown walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Zwarts, L; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    1999-05-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) samples were collected during the 1994 and 1995 harvest from ten different cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard at Lincoln University, New Zealand. Two US commercial cultivars (Tehama and Vina), three European commercial cultivars (Esterhazy, 139, G120) and five New Zealand selections (Rex, Dublin's Glory, Meyric, McKinster, Stanley) were evaluated. Total oil was extracted using a cold press and individual fatty acids were analysed by GLC. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 62.4 to 68.7%. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 14.3 to 26.1% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 49.3 to 62.3% and the linolenic contents from 8.0 to 13.8%. PMID:10627834

  12. Determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates in foods by high-performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingchuan

    2004-07-28

    A high-performance anion exchange chromatographic method was adapted for the quantitative determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphate isomers (excluding enantiomers) in foods. Because of the cost and limited availability of inositol phosphate standards, a phytic acid sodium salt standard was used for the calculation of an average relative response factor for the quantification of inositol pentakisphosphate isomers, and the purity of phytic acid sodium salt standard was also accurately established. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates were in the range of 1.5-3.4 microM (0.1-0.2 microg/100 microL). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates in a variety of beans and nuts after extraction with 0.5 M HCl and cleanup with solid phase extraction cartridges. The results demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between either the phytic acid content or the total content of phytic acid together with inositol pentakisphosphates and the total dietary fiber content in the group of all raw dry beans and in the group of raw dry black beans but not in the group of raw dry red kidney beans, which was probably due to the insufficient number of the raw dry red kidney bean samples. PMID:15264889

  13. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  14. Variations in caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents of coffees: what are we drinking?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Cid, Concepción; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    The effect of roasting of coffee beans and the extraction of ground coffee with different volumes of hot pressurised water on the caffeine and the total caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) content of the resultant beverages was investigated. While caffeine was stable higher roasting temperatures resulted in a loss of CQAs so that the caffeine/CQA ratio was a good marker of the degree of roasting. The caffeine and CQA content and volume was determined for 104 espresso coffees obtained from coffee shops in Scotland, Italy and Spain, limited numbers of cappuccino coffees from commercial outlets and several instant coffees. The caffeine content ranged from 48-317 mg per serving and CQAs from 6-188 mg. It is evident that the ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine per day can be readily and unwittingly exceeded by regular coffee drinkers. This is the upper limit of caffeine intake from all sources recommended by US and UK health agencies for pregnant women. In view of the variable volume of serving sizes, it is also clear that the term "one cup of coffee" is not a reproducible measurement for consumption, yet it is the prevailing unit used in epidemiology to assess coffee consumption and to link the potential effects of the beverage and its components on the outcome of diseases. More accurate measurement of the intake of coffee and its potentially bioactive components are required if epidemiological studies are to produce more reliable information. PMID:25014672

  15. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries. PMID:27123360

  16. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries. PMID:27123360

  17. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  18. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26231126

  19. Determination of fumaric acid, maleic acid, and phthalic acid in groundwater and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, E.A.; Singley, K.F. . Technology Center)

    1994-01-01

    When present at > 1 [mu]g/mL, each title compound was determined in groundwater by ion-exclusion chromatography after sample acidification and filtration. For groundwater with one or all analyte concentrations of < 1 [mu]g/mL, the acid anions were first concentrated from a 100-mL sample using a quaternary amine anion-exchange cartridge. The acids were recovered by eluting the cartridge with 1 mL of N H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and 2-mL deionized water washes; this solution then was examined by anion-exclusion chromatography. Analytes were monitored with a UV detector operated at 200 nm. The analysis procedures for groundwater were validated with solutions which were fortified with from 50 ng/mL to 200 [mu]g/mL of each analyte; recoveries ranged from 90 to 110%. The soil method was validated using fortified samples which contained each acid at concentrations of from 5 to 160 [mu]g/g. Recovery values were between 81 and 120%. For samples exhibiting minimal detector response from compounds other than the acids of interest, 100-[mu]L injection volumes provided an estimated detection limit of 1 [mu]g/g for soil and 10 ng/mL for groundwater.

  20. Effects of DDT and BHC on amino acid content and its varieties in Chlorella vulgaris Beij. and Cladophora sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yixiong

    1991-03-01

    In Chlorella vulgaris Beij. and Cladophora sp. treated with different concentrations of r-BHC and p, p-DDT, the protein and free amino acid content in both were higher than those in the controls, and the free amino acid content was even higher than the protein amino acid content.

  1. 7 CFR 3201.7 - Determining biobased content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biobased content must be based on third party ASTM/ISO compliant test facility testing using the ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D 6866. ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.7 - Determining biobased content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biobased content must be based on third party ASTM/ISO compliant test facility testing using the ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D 6866. ASTM International Radioisotope Standard Method D...

  3. Determination of lipid content of oleaginous microalgal biomass by NMR spectroscopic and GC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Sarpal, Amarijt S; Teixeira, Claudia M L L; Silva, Paulo R M; Lima, Gustavo M; Silva, Samantha R; Monteiro, Thays V; Cunha, Valnei S; Daroda, Romeu J

    2015-05-01

    Direct methods based on (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques have been developed for the determination of neutral lipids (triglycerides and free fatty acids) and polar lipids (glyceroglycolipids/phospholipids) in the solvent extracts of oleaginous microalgal biomasses cultivated on a laboratory scale with two species in different media. The chemical shift assignments observed in the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra corresponding to unsaturated (C18:N, N = 1-3, C20:3, C20:5, C22:6, epoxy) and saturated (C14-C18) fatty acid ester components in a complex matrix involving overlapped resonances have been unambiguously confirmed by the application of 2D NMR spectroscopy (total correlation spectroscopy and heteronuclear single quantum coherence-total correlation spectroscopy). The study of the effect of a polar lipid matrix on the determination of neutral lipids by an internal reference blending process by a systematic designed experimental protocol has provided absolute quantification. The fatty acid composition of algal extracts was found to be similar to that of vegetable oils containing saturated (C16-C18:0) and unsaturated (C18:N, N = 1-3, C20:N, N = 3-4, C22:6) fatty acids as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The NMR methods developed offer great potential for rapid screening of algal strains for generation of algal biomass with the desired lipid content, quality, and potential for biodiesel and value-added polyunsaturated fatty acids in view of the cost economics of the overall cost of generation of the biomass. PMID:25801382

  4. Gibberellic-acid-induced cell elongation in pea epicotyls: Effect on polyploidy and DNA content.

    PubMed

    Boeken, G; Van Oostveldt, P

    1977-01-01

    In gibberellic-acid(GA3)-treated epicotyls of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) grown in the light, DNA (per cell and per epicotyl) is followed. Histofluorometric DNA determinations show that GA3-promoted cell elongation is not accompanied by increased endomitosis, but chemical estimations show an increased DNA content per epicotyl. This difference must therefore be the result of increased mitotic activity in the GA3-treated tissue. Epicotyls of seedlings grown with or without cotyledons under continuous light with GA3 are tetraploid, as are those of ecotylized embryos grown in darkness. These epicotyls reach no more than half the length of octaploid epicotyls of seedlings grown in darkness. This result provides evidence for a relationship between polyploidy and final possible cell length. PMID:24419898

  5. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  6. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  7. Effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids in sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Oki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yumi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid (CA) and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in sweet potato leaves using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography method. Six cultivars and two breeding lines were used in this study. Leaves were collected at monthly intervals from 1st harvest (May) to 4th harvest (August) in 2011 and 2012. ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of CQAs were significantly different among all cultivars and breeding lines, but no significant differences were found for CA. No annual variation was confirmed in CA and CQAs. Repeated harvest of sweet potato leaves affected the content of only 4-CQA and 5-CQA. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey's method indicated that the contents of 4-CQA and 5-CQA in sweet potato leaves harvested at first time were significantly higher compared to those at the other harvest times. PMID:25971339

  8. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  9. Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Fensin, M. L.; Lee, S. Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M. A.; Smith, L. E.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-06-30

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an"assembly library" was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed

  10. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin. PMID:26323130

  11. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm. PMID:22540530

  12. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antioxidant activities of Dracocephalum kotschyi and determination of its luteolin content

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Mansureh; Khosroyar, Susan; Kamali, Hossein; Ahmadzadeh Sani, Tooba; Mohammadi, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae family) has been used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver disorders, headache and congestion. In the present study, we have investigated phytochemical properties and antioxidant activities of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of D.kotschyi. Material and Methods: Antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated using the integration of HPLC-DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. In addition, the luteolincontent was determined using HPLC method. Results: The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the methanol extract (among the three tested extracts) showing 50% DPPH scavenging activity at 4.85µg/ml as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (3.00 µg/ml, 0.97 µg/ml). Also, luteolin was detected in methanol extract; it was identified by comparing its retention time and DAD spectra with standard and it was one of antioxidant components of this plant. In addition, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract was higher than BHT, in FRAP assay. Total phenolic content was in the range of 11.62-22.29 mg Gallic acid /gram of dry extract and flavonoid content was in the range of 3.97-5.042 mg Quercetin/ gram of extract for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The quantity of luteolin in D.kotschyiwas found to be 1061.005 µg/g of dried plant. Conclusion: The results of this investigation indicated that luteolin plays major role in the antioxidant activity of the plant. PMID:27516983

  13. In situ determination of slurry nutrient content by electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Provolo, G; Martínez-Suller, L

    2007-12-01

    Land application of animal slurries has both agronomic and environmental implications. It can be supported by the quantification of available nutrients in the field. A prototype device for indirect measurement of the nutrient content of slurry based on electrical conductivity (EC) was calibrated on manure samples collected from farms with different livestock typologies. The resulting correlations between EC and nutrient contents of slurries from laboratory analyses have shown good agreement (r(2) from 0.73 to 0.95) with total and ammoniacal nitrogen and, with some exception, Potassium, but failed to demonstrate any significant relationship with total phosphorous. The mean errors obtained using the device in field conditions for nitrogen content were always lower or equal to 10%, while the standard deviations were 12-13% for pig and calf slurries, and 20-21% for dairy cow slurry. The results obtained suggest that the equipment, provided the regression line used to convert EC readings to nutrient contents is related to the livestock typology under observation, can provide good support to practical slurry spreading, even though it does not reach an accuracy comparable to laboratory methods and does not give reliable information on phosphorus. PMID:16919932

  14. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palma, M. N. N.; Rocha, G. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Detmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. PMID:26333671

  15. Determination of Acidity Constants by Gradient Flow-Injection Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceicao, Antonio C. L.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2006-01-01

    A three-hour laboratory experiment, designed for an advanced undergraduate course in instrumental analysis that illustrates the application of the gradient chamber flow-injection titration (GCFIT) method with spectrophotometric detection to determine acidity constants is presented. The procedure involves the use of an acid-base indicator to obtain…

  16. Effect of particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation treatments on phytic acid content and some physicochemical properties of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Pashangeh, Safoora; Farahnaky, Asgar; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi; Jamalian, Jalal

    2014-10-01

    With the aim of reducing phytic acid content of wheat bran, particle size reduction (from 1,200 to 90 μm), hydrothermal (wet steeping in acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 55 °C for 60 min) and fermentation (using bakery yeast for 8 h at 30 °C) and combination of these treatments with particle size reduction were applied and their effects on some properties of the bran were studied. Phytic acid content decreased from 50.1 to 21.6, 32.8 and 43.9 mg/g after particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation, respectively. Particle size reduction along with these treatments further reduced phytic acid content up to 76.4 % and 57.3 %, respectively. Hydrothermal and fermentation decreased, while particle size reduction alone or in combination increased bran lightness. With reducing particle size, total, soluble and insoluble fiber content decreased from 69.7 to 32.1 %, 12.2 to 7.9 % and 57.4 to 24.3 %, respectively. The highest total (74.4 %) and soluble (21.4 %) and the lowest insoluble fiber (52.1 %) content were determined for the hydrothermaled bran. Particle size reduction decreased swelling power, water solubility and water holding capacity. Swelling power and water holding capacity of the hydrothermaled and fermented brans were lower, while water solubility was higher than the control. The amount of Fe(+2), Zn(+2) and Ca(+2) decreased with reducing particle size. Fermentation had no effect on Fe(+2)and Zn(+2) but slightly reduced Ca(+2). The hydrothermal treatment slightly decreased these elements. Amongst all, hydrothermal treatment along with particle size reduction resulted in the lowest phytic acid and highest fiber content. PMID:25328222

  17. The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review.

    PubMed

    Vahmani, Payam; Mapiye, Cletos; Prieto, Nuria; Rolland, David C; McAllister, Tim A; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Dugan, Michael E R

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids. PMID:26199725

  18. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  19. Temperature Regulation of Growth and Endogenous Abscisic Acid-like Content of Tulipa gesneriana L

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Louis H.; De Hertogh, August A.

    1979-01-01

    The ontogenetic changes of dry matter and abscisic acid (ABA)-like content in the component organs of Tulipa gesneriana L. `Paul Richter' and `Golden Melody' under two temperature storage regimes were determined. The organ dry matter and ABA showed marked differences during 13 and 5 C dry storage and during subsequent growth at 13 C. Scale dry matter of both cultivars declined sharply when grown at 13 C. The basalplate of the cultivars showed an initial gain in dry matter, but declined subsequently. The shoot of both cultivars stored at 13 C exhibited greater dry matter gain than at 5 C. In contrast, the bulblets of the cultivars at 5 C showed a much higher rate of dry matter accumulation than at 13 C. An inhibitory substance extracted from tulip bulb organs co-chromatographed with authentic ABA and had identical thin layer chromatographic RF values of ABA in five solvent systems. The total ABA content per bulb increased 3-fold in `Golden Melody' and 2- to 4-fold in `Paul Richter' during the course of the temperature treatments. ABA was low in the scales and shoot, but it was high in the basalplate, bulblets, and roots. It is suggested that the probable ABA biosynthetic sites of tulip bulb are the developing bulblets, basalplate, and roots. PMID:16660867

  20. Changes in free amino acids content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, R I; Franco, J M; Aubourg, S; Gallardo, J M

    1988-11-01

    The effects of cooking and sterilization at several temperatures on the free amino acids (FAA) content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle were studied during the processing of canned tuna. FAAs were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde, separated on a C18 column by HPLC and detected by both fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors. After cooking the loss of FAAs was not significant. However, in the final product sterilized at 115 degrees C and 110 degrees C (throughout the whole process) there were significant losses with regard to the start material, but not at 118 degrees C (all temperatures leading to the same lethal F-value). The influence of the thermal process time at 115 degrees C was evaluated for 60 and 100 min. Significant losses were found between both canned products (approximately 25%) and between the raw fish and the final product (approximately 12% and approximately 34%, process time 60 and 100 min, respectively). The determination of the content of FAA present in canned albacore may be a useful indication of the severity of the thermal processing. PMID:3206942

  1. Evaluation of ultrafiltration for determining molecular weight of fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Two commonly used ultrafiltration membranes are evaluated for the determination of molecular weights of humic substances. Polyacrylic acids of Mr 2000 and 5000 and two well-characterized fulvic acids are used as standards. Molecular size characteristics of standards, as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, are presented. Great care in evaluating molecular weight data obtained by ultrafiltration is needed because of broad nominal cutoffs and membrane-solute interactions.

  2. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique. PMID:25305221

  3. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  4. Determining the volumetric steam content in a BWR gravity leg

    SciTech Connect

    Fedulin, V.N.; Bartolomei, G.G.; Solodkii, V.A.; Shmelev, V.E.

    1987-09-01

    The structure of two-phase flow in a large-diameter limited-height gravity leg was investigated in the VK-50 reactor. Phase distribution properties and a physical model of the steam-water mixture flow in the gravity leg were described. On the basis of experimentally derived date a method was proposed for the calculation of volumetric steam content in the leg.

  5. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Helmink, E D; McMahon, D J; Fife, R L; Pariza, M W

    1999-02-01

    Extruded oilseeds were fed to 24 dairy cows to study the influence on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese. Cows were fed one of three diets that contained forage and grain in a ratio of 47:53. A control diet containing 13.5% soybean meal was compared with diets containing 12% full fat extruded soybeans or 12% full fat extruded cottonseed. The control, extruded soybean, and extruded cottonseed diets contained 2.73, 4.89, and 4.56% fatty acids, respectively. Measurements were made during the last 5 wk of the 8-wk experiment. The DM intakes and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were higher for cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets than for cows fed the control diet. A tendency for lower fat and protein contents in the milk of cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets was detected. Most of the C18 fatty acids were increased in the milk and cheese when extruded soybeans and cottonseeds were fed. The conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and cheese increased a mean of 109% when full fat extruded soybeans were fed and increased 77% when cottonseeds were fed compared with the conjugated linoleic acid content when the control diet was fed. Processing the milk into cheese did not alter the conjugated linoleic acid content. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese can be increased by the inclusion of full fat extruded soybeans and full fat extruded cottonseeds in the diets of dairy cows. PMID:10068962

  7. 40 CFR 63.5758 - How do I determine the organic HAP content of materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... mvolatiles=Total volatile matter content of the coating, including organic HAP, volatile organic compounds... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the organic HAP... Methods for Determining Hazardous Air Pollutant Content § 63.5758 How do I determine the organic...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4370 - How often must I determine the sulfur content of the fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How often must I determine the sulfur... Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4370 How often must I determine the sulfur content of the fuel? The frequency of determining the sulfur content of the fuel must be as follows:...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4370 - How often must I determine the sulfur content of the fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How often must I determine the sulfur... Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4370 How often must I determine the sulfur content of the fuel? The frequency of determining the sulfur content of the fuel must be as follows:...

  10. [Study on content determination of alkaloids and HPLC fingerprint of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiu-shi; He, Yan-feng; Gao, Shi-man; Zhang, Ben-gang; Liu, Hai-tao; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2015-08-01

    This study is to determine the content of three alkaloids and establish the HPLC fingerprint of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. The HPLC method of content determination was as follows: Thermo C18 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was conducted with acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfonate solution-acetic acid (56: 43: 1) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. The method of HPLC fingerprint was as follows: Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was conducted with gradient elution of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), the monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. Similarities evaluation and hierarchical clustering analysis were applied to demonstrate the variability of 12 batches of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula samples. The results demonstrated that 11 batches showed good similarity on chemical constituents. The method could well display the chemical information of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. It was simple, reliable and could be used for the chemical quality control of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. PMID:26790300

  11. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (p<0.05). Meanwhile, low amount of acrylamide were detected. Its concentration increased after 7-days' fermentation and then decreased gradually. The results provided the useful information for the manipulation of fermentation process according to the changes of amino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea. PMID:26471603

  12. Alteration in the D-amino acid content of the rat pineal gland under anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hamase, K; Homma, H; Takigawa, Y; Imai, K

    1999-01-01

    In a previous report (Hamase, K. et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1134: 214-222 (1997)), we showed that the rat pineal gland contains D-leucine (D-Leu) as well as D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). In this communication we report alterations in the content of these D-amino acids during anesthesia. The D-Asp content was significantly increased from 2.8 to 5.0, 4.8 and 5.8 nmol/pineal gland by administration of ether, urethane and pentobarbital, respectively. In contrast, the D-Leu content was decreased by administration of urethane or pentobarbital. The D-Leu content decreased from 4.2 to 2.2 pmol/pineal gland 4 hours after administration of urethane, although the content remained unchanged until 1.5 hours after administration. The content of the L-enantiomers of these amino acids were not affected by anesthesia. The urethane-induced decrease in D-leucine content was almost completely suppressed by a beta-agonist, (-)-isoproterenol, whereas the agonist itself had no effect. PMID:10582126

  13. Zygosity determination of multiple pregnancy by deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Azuma, C; Kamiura, S; Nobunaga, T; Negoro, T; Saji, F; Tanizawa, O

    1989-03-01

    We used a new method of deoxyribonucleic acid analysis to determine zygosity in multiple pregnancies. This method uses a minisatellite core probe, requires only a small amount of deoxyribonucleic acid, and detects the restriction fragment length polymorphisms that are a result of allelic differences in the number of tandem repeats that contain the core sequence. Southern blot hybridization showed an individual-specific deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprint and each polymorphic band in the sibling could be identified within one (but not both) of the parents. Identical deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprints among the siblings of multiple pregnancy indicate they must be monozygotic. This method is sufficiently reliable and rapid so the determination of zygosity in multiple pregnancy can be made the same day the fetal deoxyribonucleic acid is made available. PMID:2564742

  14. Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis' calli.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Nartop, Pinar; Gurel, Aynur; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2007-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Stem explants of very young shoots were cultured in both woody plant medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 7g/L agar, 30g/L sucrose, and 1 and 3mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for callus initiation. Induced calli were subcultured 4 times with intervals of 7-10 days. MS medium supplemented with 1mg/L NAA proved to be the best medium for the production of callus (65.0%) among the samples tested. The lyophilized calli were subjected to solvent extraction. Active constituents of 8 calli extracts were analyzed by HPLC, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was determined to be the primary compound. Calli cultivated in WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA and extracted at 50 degrees C, yielded the highest amount of RA (34.4mg/g dry weight). Moreover, antioxidant activity of calli extracts was determined using a number of in vitro assays, including total phenol assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). On the basis of the current findings, we conclude that WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA yields higher phenolic content as well as higher antioxidant activity. PMID:17913287

  15. Structural organization of fatty acid desaturase loci in linseed lines with contrasting linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax. With one gene every 3.2-4.6 kb, the desaturase loci have a higher gene density than the genome's average of one gene per 7.8-8.2 kb. The gene order and orientation across the two genotypes were generally conserved with the exception of the sad1 locus that was predicted to have additional genes in CDC Bethune. High sequence conservation in both genic and intergenic regions of the sad and fad2b loci contrasted with the significant level of variation of the fad2a and fad3 loci, with SNPs being the most frequently observed mutation type. The fad2a locus had 297 SNPs and 36 indels over ~95 kb contrasting with the fad2b locus that had a mere seven SNPs and four indels in ~110 kb. Annotation of the gene-rich loci revealed other genes of known role in lipid or carbohydrate metabolic/catabolic pathways. The organization of the fad2b locus was particularly complex with seven copies of the fad2b gene in both genotypes. The presence of Gypsy, Copia, MITE, Mutator, hAT and other novel repeat elements at the desaturase loci was similar to that of the whole genome. This structural genomic analysis provided some insights into the genomic organization and composition of the main desaturase loci of linseed and of their complex evolution through both tandem and whole genome duplications. PMID:27142663

  16. New layers in understanding and predicting α-linolenic acid content in plants using amino acid characteristics of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Zinati, Zahra; Zamansani, Fatemeh; Hossein KayvanJoo, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh

    2014-11-01

    α-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most frequent omega-3 in plants. The content of ALA is highly variable, ranging from 0 to 1% in rice and corn to >50% in perilla and flax. ALA production is strongly correlated with the enzymatic activity of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of omega-3 diversity, 895 protein features of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase were compared between plants with high and low omega-3. Attribute weighting showed that this enzyme in plants with high omega-3 content has higher amounts of Lys, Lys-Phe, and Pro-Asn but lower Aliphatic index, Gly-His, and Pro-Leu. The Random Forest model with Accuracy criterion when run on the dataset pre-filtered with Info Gain algorithm was the best model in distinguishing high omega-3 content based on the frequency of Lys-Lys in the structure of fatty acid desaturase. Interestingly, the discriminant function algorithm could predict the level of omega-3 only based on the six important selected attributes (out of 895 protein attributes) of fatty acid desaturase with 75% accuracy. We developed "Plant omega3 predictor" to predict the content of α-linolenic acid based on structural features of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. The software calculates the 6 key structural protein features from imported Fasta sequence of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase or utilizes the imported features and predicts the ALA content using discriminant function formula. This work unravels an underpinning mechanism of omega-3 diversity via discovery of the key protein attributes in the structure of omega-3 desaturase offering a new approach to obtain higher omega-3 content. PMID:25199845

  17. Nitrogen fertilizer factory effects on the amino acid and nitrogen content in the needles of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kupsinskiene, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between the site at a 0.5-km distance from the factory and the site at a 17-km distance from the factory--with the site closest to the factory showing the highest concentrations of protein (119%), total arginine (166%), total other amino acids (depending on amino acid, the effect ranged between 119 and 149%), free arginine (771%), other free amino acids (glutamic acid, threonine, serine, lysine--depending on amino acid, the effect ranged between 162 and 234%), also the longest needles, widest diameter, largest surface area, and heaviest dry weight (respectively, 133, 110, 136, and 169%). The gradient of nitrogen concentration in the needles was assessed on the selected plots over the period of 1995-2000, with the highest concentration (depending on year, 119 to 153%) documented in the site located 0.5 km from the factory. Significant correlations were determined between the total amino acid contents (r = 0.448 -0.939, p < 0.05), some free amino acid (arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, threonine, and serine) contents (r = 0.418 - 0.975, p < 0.05), and air pollutant concentration at the sites, the distance between the sites and the factory, and characteristics of the needles. No correlation was found between free or total arginine content and defoliation or retention of the needles. In conclusion, it was revealed that elevated mean monthly concentration of ammonia (26 microg m(-3)) near the nitrogen fertilizer factory caused changes in nitrogen metabolism, especially increasing (nearly eight times

  18. Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

  19. Standard addition method for free acid determination in solutions with hydrolyzable ions

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in a 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy is verifiable by reasonable agreement of the Nerst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5 percent.

  20. RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOLOGY OF CHLORINATED ETHENE CONTAMINATED SOILS: EFFECTS ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R. L.; Stanhopc, A.; Franck, M. M.; McKinsey, P. C.; Berry, C. J.

    2005-05-26

    Microbial degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CE) in rhizosphere soils was investigated at seepline areas impacted by CE plumes. Successful bioremediation of CE in rhizosphere soils is dependent on microbial activity, soil types, plant species, and groundwater CE concentrations. Seepline soils were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the 10-50 ppb range. Greenhouse soils were exposed to 2-10 ppm TCE. Plants at the seepline were poplar and pine while the greenhouse contained sweet gum, willow, pine, and poplar. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were performed to assess the microbial activity in rhizosphere soils. Biomass content was lowest in the nonvegetated control soil and highest in the Sweet Gum soil. Bacterial rhizhosphere densities, as measured by PLFA, were similar in different vegetated soils while fungi biomass was highly variable. The PLFA soil profiles showed diverse microbial communities primarily composed of Gram-negative bacteria. Adaptation of the microbial community to CE was determined by the ratio of {omega}7t/{omega}7c fatty acids. Ratios (16:1{omega}7v16:1{omega}7c and 18:l{omega}7t/18:1{omega}7c) greater than 0.1 were demonstrated in soils exposed to higher CE concentrations (10-50 ppm), indicating an adaptation to CE resulting in decreased membrane permeability. Ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids showed that the vegetated control soil sample contained the fastest microbial turnover rate and least amount of environmental stress. PLFA results provide evidence that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are active in these soils. Microcosm studies with these soils showed CE dechlorinating activity was occurring. This study demonstrates microbial adaptation to environmental contamination and supports the application of natural soil rhizosphere activity as a remedial strategy.

  1. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid base titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Bhowmik, P.; Zhao, B.; Hamon, M. A.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C.

    2001-09-01

    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) - by simple acid-base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO 3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The total percentage of acidic sites in full length purified SWNTs from TAR, CLI and CSI are about 1-3%.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... connection with grade analysis or as a separate determination. (b) Nuts shall be obtained from a randomly drawn composite sample. Official certification shall be based on the air-oven method or other...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... connection with grade analysis or as a separate determination. (b) Nuts shall be obtained from a randomly drawn composite sample. Official certification shall be based on the air-oven method or other...

  4. Determination of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in food commodities by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Frenich, A Garrido; Torres, M E Hernández; Vega, A Belmonte; Vidal, J L Martínez; Bolaños, P Plaza

    2005-09-21

    Two methods, one to determine ascorbic acid and one to determine lycopene and beta-carotene, in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) have been established. The chromatographic separation of the studied compounds and their MS parameters were optimized to improve selectivity and sensitivity. In both methods, separation was carried out with two coupled columns, first a C(18) and then a dC(18), using as mobile phase 70% methanol (0.005% acetic acid) and 30% acetic acid 0.05% for ascorbic acid determination and a mixture of methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile (60:30:10 v/v/v) for carotenoid analysis in isocratic mode. The molecular ion was selected for the quantification in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Ascorbic acid was detected with electrospray ionization probe (ESI) in negative mode, while chemical ionization atmospheric pressure (APCI) in positive mode was used for the target carotenoids. The methodology for ascorbic acid analysis is based on an extraction with polytron using methanol and a mixture of methaphosphoric acid and acetic acid. Extraction of the carotenoids was carried out with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (1:1) (v/v). The proposed methods were applied, after their corresponding validations, to the analysis of four varieties of tomatoes, tomato in tin enriched and dried tomato, and to the analysis of mango and kiwi fruits, to compare the content in these compounds. Moreover, the influence of the process of freezing and the effect that the manipulation/preservation has in the content of ascorbic acid in tomato have also been studied. PMID:16159160

  5. Determination of Free Fatty Acids and Triglycerides by Gas Chromatography Using Selective Esterification Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kail, Brian W; Link, Dirk D; Morreale, Bryan D

    2012-11-01

    A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.

  6. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-01-01

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

  7. A study on lipid content and fatty acid of breast milk and its association with mother’s diet composition

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hadi, Bagher; Iranpour, Ramin; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Farajian, Sanam; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk, and its association with the mother’s diet. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany) at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. Results: The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3) made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Conclusion: Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:23826007

  8. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  9. Selection of direct transesterification as the preferred method for assay of fatty acid content of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M J; van Hille, R P; Harrison, S T L

    2010-11-01

    Assays for total lipid content in microalgae are usually based on the Folch or the Bligh and Dyer methods of solvent extraction followed by quantification either gravimetrically or by chromatography. Direct transesterification (DT) is a method of converting saponifiable lipids in situ directly to fatty acid methyl esters which can be quantified by gas chromatography (GC). This eliminates the extraction step and results in a rapid, one-step procedure applicable to small samples. This study compared the effectiveness of DT in quantifying the total fatty acid content in three species of microalgae to extraction using the Folch, the Bligh and Dyer and the Smedes and Askland methods, followed by transesterification and GC. The use of two catalysts in sequence, as well as the effect of reaction water content on the efficiency of DT were investigated. The Folch method was the most effective of the extraction methods tested, but comparison with DT illustrated that all extraction methods were incomplete. Higher levels of fatty acid in the cells were obtained with DT in comparison with the extraction-transesterification methods. A combination of acidic and basic transesterification catalysts was more effective than each individually when the sample contained water. The two-catalyst reaction was insensitive to water up to 10% of total reaction volume. DT proved a convenient and more accurate method than the extraction techniques for quantifying total fatty acid content in microalgae. PMID:20820931

  10. Interference by process, not content, determines semantic auditory distraction.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category-exemplars more than meaningless irrelevant sound (Experiment 1). This effect was exacerbated when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the to-be-remembered material (Experiment 2). Importantly, however, these effects of meaningfulness and semantic relatedness were shown to arise only when instructions emphasized recall by category rather than by serial order (Experiments 3 and 4). The results favor a process-oriented, rather than a structural, approach to the breakdown of attentional selectivity and forgetting: performance is impaired by the similarity of process brought to bear on the relevant and irrelevant material, not the similarity in item content. PMID:19081558

  11. Determining essential content for applied behavior analyst practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Gerald L.; Johnston, James M.; Mellichamp, Fae H.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the procedures and findings of a job-analysis study recently conducted by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. (BACB) and considers some implications of the survey data collected during this process. The job analysis focused on the applied sector of the field of behavior analysis and limited its inquiry into matters of professional competencies and training. The results represent a unique sample of demographic information and valuable collection of opinions regarding the competencies and training required of applied behavior analyst practitioners. Because these opinions have a direct effect on certification task standards and content of the BACB credentialing examinations, which in turn drive the curricula of undergraduate and graduate programs in applied behavior analysis, it is important to consider what these views might mean for the continuing evolution of the field of behavior analysis. PMID:22478418

  12. [Spectrophotometric determination of aromatic amino compounds with J-acid].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-hang; Shi, Wen-jian; Shen, Xin; Ma, Jun-tao; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The problems such as chromogenic reaction selectivity, reaction rate, sensitivity and water-solubility of azo compounds were considered. The molecular structures of coupling components were theoretically designed and screened in the present research The reaction conditions and methods of chromogenic reaction were investigated. J-Acid (2-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid) as a coupling reagent to determine aromatic amino compounds was established. In the presence of potassium bromide, at room temperature, nitrite reacted with aromatic amino compounds in the medium of thin hydrochloric acid. Then diazonium salt reacted with J-Acid in the aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, forming coloured azo dye, which had a maximum adsorption at 480 nm. The molar adsorption coeffcients of aniline, 4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid and 1-naphthylamine were 3. 95 X 10(4), 3. 24 X 10(4) and 3. 91 X 10(4) L . mol-1 . cm-1 , respectively. Experimental results showed that common coexisting ions on the surface water did not affect the results of determination. J-Acid of spectrophotometry was used to determine the samples of Shanghai Fu Xing Dao canal. Meanwhile, recovery experiments by standard addition method were done. Experiment results showed that the recoveries of aniline were in the range of 98. 5%-102. 1%, and RSD was 2. 08%. J-Acid is a common organic reagent. It is soluble in water and low volatile, and its toxicity is much lower than N-ethylenediamine. spectrophotometric determination of aromatic amino compounds by J-Acid has the advantage of high sensitivity, good selectivity, simple rapid operation and accurate results, and thus it can be used for the determination of trace aromatic amino compounds in the environmental water. PMID:25993847

  13. Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Rezaei, B.; Movahedinia, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juice and pharmaceuticals. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolourisation of Methyl Orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The linearity range of the calibration graph depends on bromate concentration. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.6×10 -6 M and calibration rang is 8×10 -6-1.2×10 -3 M ascorbic acid. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determinations of 8×10 -6 and 2×10 -5 M ascorbic acid was 2.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  14. Individual and simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Almuaibed, A M; Townshend, A

    1992-11-01

    Flow injection methods for the individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid are proposed. A spectrophotometer and a miniamperometric detector are connected in sequence. The calibration graphs for uric acid obtained by measuring its absorbance at 293 nm and its current at +0.6 V are linear up to at least 80 and 70 mug/ml, respectively, with an rsd (n = 10) of 1 % for both methods at mid-range concentrations. The calibration graph for ascorbic acid with amperometric detection is linear up to 80 mg/l. with an rsd (n = 10) of 0.8% at 30 mg/l. The simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid is based on measurement of the absorbance of uric acid at 393 nm and amperometric determination of both analytes at +0.6 V. The average relative errors of the analysis of binary mixtures of uric acid and ascorbic acid are 2.2 and 4.2%, respectively. PMID:18965554

  15. The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary

    2003-06-01

    Moisture content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. The objective of our three-year research project is to determine the optimal way to use radar methods as a non-invasive means of determining in situ moisture content.

  16. The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary

    2002-06-01

    Moisture content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. The objective of our three-year research project is to determine the optimal way to use radar methods as a non-invasive means of determining in situ moisture content.

  17. Computerized tomographic determination of spinal bone mineral content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, C. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1980-01-01

    The aims of the study were three-fold: to determine the magnitude of vertebral cancellous mineral loss in normal subjects during bedrest, to compare this loss with calcium balance and mineral loss in peripheral bones, and to use the vertebral measurements as an evaluative criterion for the C12MDP treatment and compare it with other methods. The methods used are described and the results from 14 subjects are presented.

  18. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  19. Quantitative determination of sulfur content in concrete with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weritz, F.; Ryahi, S.; Schaurich, D.; Taffe, A.; Wilsch, G.

    2005-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been employed for the investigation of the sulfur content of concrete. Sulfur compounds are a natural but minor component in building materials. The ingress of sulfates or sulfuric acid constitutes a major risk of chemical aggression for concrete. There is a need for a fast method, which can be used on-site and is able to investigate a wide range of different measuring points, so that damages can be characterized. For quantitative determination the sulfur spectral line at 921.3 nm is used. The optimum ambient atmosphere has been determined by comparison of measurements accomplished under air, argon and helium atmosphere. Reference samples have been produced and calibration curves have been determined, the results of LIBS measurements are compared with results from chemical analysis. Defining a limit for the intensity ratio of a calcium and a oxygen spectral line can reduce the influence of the heterogeneity of the material, so that only spectra with a high amount of cementitious material are evaluated. Depth profiles and spatial resolved sulfur distributions are presented measured on concrete cores originating from a highly sulfate contaminated clarifier.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of 4 phenolic acids in cangerzi by ultra-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Su, Zhi-jun; Xu, Shun-jun; Wu, Jin-xiong; Chen, Lu-lu; Zhou, Ruo-long; Li, Xiong; Zeng, Xing

    2010-12-01

    In this study, an analytical method was developed and used to quantify simultaneously protocatechuic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid--four bioactive compounds contained in Fructus Xanthii using UPLC. The contents of four phenolic components of 28 batches of samples collected from different product areas and markets were determined and compared by means of this established method. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and water containing 0.1% phosphoric acid. Chromatography was monitored at dual-wavelengths--220 and 327 nm. Flow rate was 0.4 mL x min(-1) and column temperature was 35 degrees C. The correlation coefficient between concentration and chromatographic peak area of protocatechuic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid was over 0.9999 in the range of 0.3570-35.70, 2.500-250.0, 1.060-106.1, 1.010-101.0 microg x mL(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the four compounds were 97.68%, 99.55%, 97.92% and 100.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the established method can rapidly attain an accurate and reproducible result used to control the quality of Fructus Xanthii. PMID:21351493

  1. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  2. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  3. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural content in foodstuffs determined by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Teixidó, Erika; Núñez, Oscar; Santos, F Javier; Galceran, M Teresa

    2011-06-15

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been applied for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in several foodstuffs. A 75mM phosphate buffer solution at pH 8.0 containing 100mM sodium dodecylsulphate was used as background electrolyte (BGE), and the separation was performed by applying +25kV in a 50μm I.D. uncoated fused-silica capillary. Good linearity over the range 2.5-250mgkg(-1) (r(2)⩾0.999) and run-to-run and day-to-day precisions at low and medium concentration levels were obtained. Sample limit of detection (0.7mgkg(-1)) and limit of quantification (2.5mgkg(-1)) were established by preparing the standards in blank matrix. The procedure was validated by comparing the results with those obtained with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Levels of HMF in 45 different foodstuffs such as breakfast cereals, toasts, honey, orange juice, apple juice, jam, coffee, chocolate and biscuits were determined. PMID:25213975

  4. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  5. Bovine serum sialic acid: age-related changes in type and content.

    PubMed

    Sherblom, A P; Bharathan, S; Hall, P J; Smagula, R M; Moody, C E; Anderson, G W

    1988-01-01

    1. The sialic acid content of newborn calf serum (4.8 mumol/ml) is approx. 3-fold higher than that of mature animals (1.4 mumol/ml) and decreases to 2.4 mumol/ml at 20 days of age. Colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived calves have similar levels of sialic acid from birth to 14 days of age. 2. The high level of sialic acid in newborn calf serum is due predominantly to N-acetylneuraminic acid, since this sialic acid accounts for 93% of the total and since less than 5% of the sialic acid is O-acetylated. 3. Comparison of day 0 and day 20 serum by gel filtration and by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates that the increase in sialic acid is associated with increased production and/or sialylation of components with MW of 45-60 kDa. 4. A high percentage (64%) of the sialic acid in newborn calf serum is detected with the lipid-linked sialic acid assay, relative to 20 day old (25%) or mature (18%) animals. 5. This indicates that the glycoproteins of newborn calf serum are more efficiently extracted under the conditions of this assay than glycoproteins of mature serum. PMID:3248673

  6. Erythrocyte Sialic Acid Content during Aging in Humans: Correlation with Markers of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Mohammad Murtaza; Singh, Prabhakar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids are substituted neuraminic acid derivatives which are typically found at the outermost end of glycan chains on the membrane in all cell types. The role of erythrocyte membrane sialic acids during aging has been established however the relationship between sialic acid and oxidative stress is not fully understood. The present work was undertaken to analyze the relationship between erythrocyte membrane sialic acid with its plasma level, membrane and plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels and plasma total antioxidant capacity. Results show that sialic acid content decreases significantly (P < 0.001) in RBC membrane (r = −0.901) and increases in plasma (r = 0.860) as a function of age in humans. Lipid peroxidation measured in the form of hydroperoxides increases significantly (P < 0.001) in plasma (r = 0.830) and RBC membranes (r = 0.875) with age in humans. The Trolox Equivalent Total Antioxidant Capacity (TETAC) of plasma was found to be significantly decreased (P < 0.001, r = −0.844). We observe significant correlations between decrease of erythrocyte membrane sialic acid and plasma lipid hydroperoxide and TETAC. Based on the observed correlations, we hypothesize that increase in oxidative stress during aging may influence the sialic acid decomposition from membrane thereby altering the membrane configuration affecting many enzymatic and transporter activities. Considering the importance of plasma sialic acid as a diagnostic parameter, it is important to establish age-dependent reference. PMID:22377734

  7. Antioxidant assay-guided purification and LC determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate peel.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakarananta, Pharkphoom; Issuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak; Wang, Wei

    2010-07-01

    On the basis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay-guided purification, ellagic acid was isolated from the methanol extract of pomegranate fruit peel by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic techniques. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was described for determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate fruit peel extract. The method involved the use of a TSK-gel ODS-80Tm column with a mixture of 2% aqueous acetic acid and methanol (gradient elution mode: 0-15 min, 40-60% v/v methanol and 15-20 min, 60% v/v methanol) as the mobile phase and detection at 254 nm. The parameters of linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, and specificity of the method were evaluated. The recovery of the method was 98.5% and linearity (r(2) > 0.9995) was obtained for ellagic acid. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 5%) were also achieved. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.00 and 2.50 microg/mL, respectively. The solvent for extraction of ellagic acid from pomegranate fruit peel was examined in order to maximize the ellagic acid content of the extract. A solution of 10% v/v water in methanol was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content in the extract up to 7.66% w/w. The ellagic acid content and antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction separated from the crude extract using water and ethyl acetate partition was higher than that of the crude extract. PMID:20822660

  8. Using isotope dilution mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, D.L.; Christman, R.F.; Johnson, J.D.; Hass, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development, verification, and application of a method based on isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) at the micrograms per litre level are described. The simultaneous determination of aqueous chloroform is also demonstrated. Trichloroacetic acid is shown to be a significant by-product of the chlorination of raw waters in the laboratory and to constitute a large fraction of the total organic halide (TOX) formed. Analysis of finished-water samples indicated that TCAA, like trihalomethanes is ubiquitous. Positive correlations exist between the levels of TCAA in laboratory-chlorinated raw waters and in finished waters and measured TOX.

  9. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition and fucoxanthin content in six Phaeodactylum tricornutum strains from diff erent origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hualian; Li, Tao; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-03-01

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a potential livestock for the combined production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and fucoxanthin. In this study, six marine diatom strains identified as P. tricornutum were cultured and their total lipid, fatty acid composition and major photosynthetic pigments determined. It was found that the cell dry weight concentration and mean growth rate ranged between 0.24-0.36 g/L and 0.31-0.33/d, respectively. Among the strains, SCSIO771 presented the highest total lipid content, followed by SCSIO828, and the prominent fatty acids in all strains were C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:5 (EPA). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C16:2, C18:2, and EPA, comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids. EPA was markedly high in all strains, with the highest in SCSIO828 at 25.65% of total fatty acids. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant pigment in all strains, with the highest in SCSIO828 as well, at 5.50 mg/g. The collective results suggested that strain SCSIO828 could be considered a good candidate for the concurrent production of EPA and fucoxanthin.

  10. Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

  11. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population. PMID:16711652

  12. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  13. Liver iron content determination by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Perifanis, Vassilios

    2010-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of iron overload is necessary to establish the diagnosis of hemochromatosis and guide chelation treatment in transfusion-dependent anemia. The liver is the primary site for iron storage in patients with hemochromatosis or transfusion-dependent anemia, therefore, liver iron concentration (LIC) accurately reflects total body iron stores. In the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising method for measuring LIC in a variety of diseases. We review the potential role of MRI in LIC determination in the most important disorders that are characterized by iron overload, that is, thalassemia major, other hemoglobinopathies, acquired anemia, and hemochromatosis. Most studies have been performed in thalassemia major and MRI is currently a widely accepted method for guiding chelation treatment in these patients. However, the lack of correlation between liver and cardiac iron stores suggests that both organs should be evaluated with MRI, since cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in this population. It is also unclear which MRI method is the most accurate since there are no large studies that have directly compared the different available techniques. The role of MRI in the era of genetic diagnosis of hemochromatosis is also debated, whereas data on the accuracy of the method in other hematological and liver diseases are rather limited. However, MRI is a fast, non-invasive and relatively accurate diagnostic tool for assessing LIC, and its use is expected to increase as the role of iron in the pathogenesis of liver disease becomes clearer. PMID:20355237

  14. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

    1998-04-21

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

  15. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Jr., Fred; Schatzel, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas- a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers, a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container, and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use.

  16. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of three microfluidic chemiluminescence methods for the determination of the total phenolic contents in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-01-01

    Three recently reported microfluidic chemiluminescence (MF-CL) methods (based on reactions with acidic permanganate enhanced by formaldehyde (KMnO4-COH), acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine B (Ce-RB), and acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine 6G (Ce-R6G) enhanced by SDS) for the determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) in juices were critically evaluated in terms of their selectivity. The evaluation was carried out using 86 analytes, including 22 phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and polyphenols), 6 known non-phenolic antioxidants, 9 amino acids and a number of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotide bases, inorganic salts and other compounds. Each method was sensitive toward phenolic compounds (PCs). However, the KMnO4-COH CL system showed a higher sensitivity toward phenolic acids and also responded to non-phenolic antioxidants. The other two systems showed higher sensitivity toward polyphenolic compounds than to phenolic acids and did not responded to all other compounds including non-phenolic antioxidants. PMID:27507524

  18. Determination of purity degree and counter-ion content in lecirelin by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sázelová, Petra; Kasicka, Václav; Solínová, Veronika; Koval, Dusan

    2006-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) were applied for the determination of peptide purity degree and counter-ion content in lecirelin, the synthetic analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). CZE analyses were carried out in acidic background electrolyte (100 mM H3PO4, 50 mM Tris, pH 2.25) in bare fused silica capillary using UV-absorption detection at 206 nm. CITP analyses were performed in the electrophoretic analyzer with column coupling, equipped with contactless conductivity detectors both in preseparation capillary and in analytical capillary, and with UV-absorption detector (220 and 254 nm) in analytical capillary. Determinations of peptide purity were carried out in cationic mode with leading electrolyte (LE), 10 mM KOH/AcOH, pH 4.5, and terminating electrolyte (TE), 10 mM beta-alanine (BALA)/AcOH, pH 4.4. Degree of peptide purity determined by both CZE and CITP was in the range 60.1-80.9% for crude preparations of lecirelin and in the range 96.4-99.9% for HPLC purified batches. Concentrations of contaminating counter-ions, the anions of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and acetic acid (AcOH), were determined by CITP analyses in anionic mode with LE 10 mM HCl/His, pH 6.0, and TE 10 mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonic acid (MES), pH 4.0, by the calibration curve method. Mass percentages of the counterion contents in the analyzed lecirelin batches varied from zero to ca. 9% (TFMSA), 3% (TFA) and 11% (AcOH), respectively. PMID:16687256

  19. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils. PMID:26239443

  20. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet. PMID:9161466

  1. Designing amino acids to determine the local conformations of peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, A W

    1994-01-01

    The local conformations of proteins and peptides are determined by the amino acid sequence. However, the 20 amino acids encoded by the genome allow the peptide backbone to fold into many conformations, so that even for a small peptide it becomes very difficult to predict the three-dimensional structure. By using empirical conformational energy calculations, a set of amino acids has been designed that would be expected to constrain the conformation of a peptide or a protein to one or two local minima. Most of these amino acids are based on asymmetric substitutions at the C alpha atom of each residue. The H alpha atom of alanine was replaced by various groups: -OCH3, -NCH3, -SCH3, -CONH2, -CONHCH3, -CON(CH3)2, -NH.CO.CH3, -phenyl, or -o-(OCH3)phenyl. Several of these new amino acids are predicted to fold into unique peptide conformations such as right-handed alpha-helical, left-handed alpha-helical, or extended. In an attempt to produce an amino acid that favored the C(eq)7 conformation (torsion angles: phi = -70 degrees and psi = +70 degrees), an extra amide group was added to the C beta atom of the asparagine side chain. Conformationally restricted amino acids of this type could prove useful for developing new peptide pharmaceuticals, catalysts, or polymers. Images PMID:8146170

  2. Determination of ursolic and oleanolic acid in Sambuci fructus.

    PubMed

    Gleńsk, Michał; Gliński, Jan A; Włodarczyk, Maciej; Stefanowicz, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Elderberries are used in the preparation of pie, jelly, punch, wine, or liqueur, as well as in many herbal remedies and food supplements. Elderberry products may provide diaphoretic, diuretic, antioxidant, and immunostimulant activities that offer protection against cold and flu. Herein, we report for the first time the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of two isomeric triterpenoids isolated from Sambuci fructus. The analysis revealed that ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are present in Sambuci fructus. The average concentration of ursolic acid was ca. three times higher than the concentration of oleanolic acid. The triterpenoids were detected and quantified using chromatographic methods such as TLC and HPLC. Spectroscopic techniques, including HR-MS and 2D-NMR, allowed unequivocal structure determination. PMID:25491337

  3. Homogentisic acid interference in routine urine creatinine determination.

    PubMed

    Loken, Perry R; Magera, Mark J; Introne, Wendy; Tortorelli, Silvia; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Oglesbee, Devin; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Raymond, Kimiyo

    2010-05-01

    We report the artifactual elevation of homogentisic acid (HGA) in urine from alkaptonuric patients after replacing the creatinine method (Jaffe reaction) in our laboratory with an automated enzymatic method. Samples with elevated HGA by GC-MS had lower creatinine values as determined by the enzymatic method than by the Jaffe reaction. The low creatinine values were due to interference by HGA in the enzymatic method. The enzymatic method is unsuitable for creatinine determination in urine of patients with alkaptonuria. PMID:20138792

  4. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    PubMed

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive. PMID:25867371

  5. Effects of selenite on chlorophyll fluorescence, starch content and fatty acid in the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Yang; Cheng, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    Developing a Se-enriched feed for animal has become a considerable effort. In this study, Landoltia punctata 7449 was grown over a 12 day period under concentrations of selenite (Na2SeO3) from 0 to 80 μmol L(-1). The growth rate, the chlorophyll fluorescence, the starch content and fatty acid were measured. Se at low concentrations of ≤20 μmol L(-1) had positive effects also on growth rate, fatty acid content and yield of the L. punctata. The appropriate Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. However, negative impact to the L. punctata was observed when the duckweed was exposed to high Se concentrations (≥40 μmol L(-1)). Significant increases in starch content in the duckweed were observed after Se application. The present study suggests that the changes in growth rate, the photosynthetic system, the starch content and the fatty acid were closely associated with the application of Se. An increased Se concentration (0-20 μmol L(-1)) in duckweed could positively induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the yield of L. punctata and could be a resource for high nutritive quality Se-enrich feed. PMID:27400684

  6. Procyanidin, anthocyanin, and chlorogenic acid contents of highbush and lowbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Tabatabaee, Setareh; Lecras, Caroline; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2012-06-13

    The health benefits of blueberry consumption on the vascular system and brain are mediated in part by their flavonoid content. In light of this, six cultivated highbush blueberry varieties ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and one lowbush or wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium L.) were analyzed for their anthocyanin, flavanol oligomer, and chlorogenic acid contents. The highbush varieties Bluecrop, O'Neal, Bluejay, and Brigitta had significantly greater levels of anthocyanidins compared to the other varieties, whereas Bluejay and Brigitta organic had the highest amount of flavanol oligomers. The organically grown highbush blueberry had the highest flavanol oligomer and chlorogenic acid contents but a lower anthocyanidin content than its conventionally grown counterpart. The lowbush variety contained the highest chlorogenic acid concentration. Delphinidin and malvidin were the predominant anthocyanidins in the varieties tested, with concentrations ranging between 45.0 and 74.9 mg/100 g FW for delphinidin and between 37.1 and 62.2 mg/100 g FW for malvidin. Flavanol dimers were the most abundant flavanols, with a mean percentage of 24 ± 1.5% of the total, with flavanol monomers representing 11 ± 0.7%. PMID:22175691

  7. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Robson B; Santos, Mauricio C; Poppi, Ronei J

    2016-03-15

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies. PMID:26771246

  8. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, Robson B.; Santos, Mauricio C.; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2016-03-01

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies.

  9. The Effects of Thermal Metamorphism on the Amino Acid Content of the CI-Like Chondrite Y-86029

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Grunsfeld, S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites con-tain a diverse suite of amino acids that varies in abundance and structural diversity depending on the degree of aqueous alteration and thermal histo-ry that the parent body experienced [1 - 3]. We recently determined the amino acid contents of several fragments of the Sutter's Mill CM2 chon-drite [4]. In contrast with most other CM2 chon-drites, the Sutter's Mill meteorites showed minimal evidence for the presence of indigenous amino acids. A notable difference between the Sutter's Mill meteorites and other CM2 chondrites are that the Sutter's Mill stones were heated to tempera-tures of 150 - 400 C [4], whereas most other CM2 chondrites do not show evidence for thermal met-amorphism [5]. Because empirical studies have shown that amino acids rapidly degrade in aqueous solutions above 150 C and the presence of miner-als accelerates this degradation [6], a plausible explanation for the lack of amino acids observed in the Sutter's Mill meteorites is that they were destroyed during metamorphic alteration. Fewer CI chondrites have been analyzed for amino acids because only a small number of these meteorites have been recovered. Nevertheless, indigenous amino acids have been reported in the CI chondrites Ivuna and Orgueil [7]. Here we report on the amino acid analysis of the CI-like chondrite, Yamato 86029 (Y-86029; sample size of 110 mg). Just as the Sutter's Mill meteorites were thermally metamporphosed CM2 chondrites, Y-86029 has experienced thermal metamorphism at higher temperatures than Orgueil and Ivuna (normal CI chondrites) experienced, possibly up to 600 C [8].

  10. The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary

    2001-06-01

    Moisture content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. The objective of our three-year research project is to determine the optimal way to use of radar methods--both surface and borehole--as a noninvasive means of determining in situ moisture content. In our research we focus on two specific aspects of the link between radar images and moisture content. The first question we address is: Can we use a measure of the dielectric constant of a volume of the subsurface to determine the moisture content of that volume? The second question we address is: Can we use the radar data to characterize the spatial variability in moisture content?

  11. Determination of betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Achyranthes aspera L. using RP-UFLC-DAD analysis and evaluation of various parameters for their optimum yield.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Joshi, Rajesh K; Kholkute, Sanjiva D

    2016-03-01

    Achyranthes aspera L. is a well known herb commonly used in traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders, such as cough, dysentery, gonorrhea, piles, kidney stone, pneumonia, renal dropsy, skin eruptions, snake bite, etc. Here, we used RP-UFLC-DAD method for determining triterpenoids betulinic acid (BA), oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) from A. aspera. Optimum yield of these compounds were studied and evaluated using parameters viz., method of extraction, time of extraction, age of plant and plant parts (leaves, stem and roots). Linear relationships in RP-UFLC-DAD analysis were obtained in the range 0.05-100 µg/mL with 0.035, 0.042 and 0.033 µg/mL LOD for BA, OA and UA, respectively. Of the variables tested, extraction method and parts used significantly affected content yield. Continuous shaking extraction (CSE) at ambient temperature gave better extraction efficiency than exposure to ultra sonic extraction (USE) or microwave assisted extraction (MAE) methods. The highest content of BA, OA and UA were determined individually in leaf, stem and root extracts with CSE. Collective yield of these triterpenoids were higher in leaf part exposed to 15 min USE method. To best of our knowledge, the study newly reports UA from A. aspera and the same was confirmed using ATR-FT-IR studies. This study explains the distribution pattern of these major triterpenoids and optimum extraction parameters in detail. PMID:27145633

  12. Effect of a Routine Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography Scan on the Amino Acid Content of the Murchison CM Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J. M.; Glavin, D. P.; Rivers, M. L.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted experiments to examine if exposure to synchrotron radiation during a typical µCT scan causes detectable changes in the amino acid content of a carbonaceous chondrite. We found a µCT scan caused no change in the amino acid content.

  13. Variability in seed oil content and farry acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  14. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  15. Progress on screening the USDA cultivated peanut germplasm collection for variability in seed weight, seed-coat color, oil content and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition by nuc...

  16. A Study to Determine Through Content Analysis Selected Criteria for Open-End Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Elaine F.

    Content analysis was used to determine the evaluation criteria of high school and college teachers and college seniors in grading essay tests. Content analysis is defined as a way of asking a fixed set of questions unfalteringly of all of a predetermined body of writings, in such a way as to produce quantitative results. Four reponses to a…

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy to determine dry matter content in ‘Hass' avocado fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado fruit maturity is usually assessed by measuring its pulp dry matter (DM) content, a destructive and time-consuming process that could only be performed on harvested fruit. An alternate non-destructive method that could be used in situ to determine avocado DM content would therefore be benefi...

  18. 16 CFR 1115.29 - Final determination regarding form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Recall Notices § 1115.29 Final determination regarding form and content. (a) Commission or court discretion. The recall notice content required by this subpart must be included in a recall notice whether or... the firm concedes the accuracy or applicability of all of the information contained in the...

  19. 16 CFR 1115.29 - Final determination regarding form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Recall Notices § 1115.29 Final determination regarding form and content. (a) Commission or court discretion. The recall notice content required by this subpart must be included in a recall notice whether or... the firm concedes the accuracy or applicability of all of the information contained in the...

  20. 16 CFR 1115.29 - Final determination regarding form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Recall Notices § 1115.29 Final determination regarding form and content. (a) Commission or court discretion. The recall notice content required by this subpart must be included in a recall notice whether or... the firm concedes the accuracy or applicability of all of the information contained in the...

  1. 16 CFR 1115.29 - Final determination regarding form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Recall Notices § 1115.29 Final determination regarding form and content. (a) Commission or court discretion. The recall notice content required by this subpart must be included in a recall notice whether or... the firm concedes the accuracy or applicability of all of the information contained in the...

  2. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. PMID:27452871

  3. Various instrumental approaches for determination of organic acids in wines.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, Jiri; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Milovanovic, Miodrag; Kubesa, Ondrej; Zeisbergerova, Marta; Lacina, Karel; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Glatz, Zdenek; Skladal, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Biosensors based on lactate oxidase, sarcosine oxidase and mixture of fumarase and sarcosine oxidase were used for monitoring of organic acids in wine samples. Additionally, tartaric acid was determined by modified colorimetric method based on formation of the vanadate-tartrate complex. The above mentioned methods were used for the analysis of 31 wine samples and obtained data were compared with the results from capillary electrophoresis as a basic standard method. This comparison showed a certain degree of correlation between biosensors and capillary electrophoresis. The provided information pointed to the potential uses of biosensors in the field of winemaking. PMID:26471576

  4. Determination of sugars, organic acids, aroma components, and carotenoids in grapefruit pulps.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Quan, Junping; Zheng, Qiao; Xi, Wanpeng

    2016-08-15

    The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), β-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although β-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit. PMID:27006221

  5. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet. PMID:12079050

  6. Determination of amino acids in two Polysiphonia species and study of enzymatic hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Xin; Fan, Xiao; Wei, Yu-Xi

    2002-09-01

    The total content of the rich amino acids in two common red algae, Polysiphonia urceolata and Polysiphonia japonica growing in the Qingdao seashore were determined. The algae powder was hydrolyzed by 6 mol/L HCl at 110°C for 48 h and determined by amino acid analyzer. The content was 25.35% and 24.16%, respectively, much higher than that of some other species. In addition, a nutritive liquid with abundant amino acids was prepared (by the enzymatic hydrolysis method using Polysiphonia urceolata) as raw material for a kind of health beverage. The dried seaweed was decolored by 0.25% KMnO4 and 0.5% active carbon, then enzymalized. In the selection of enzymalizing condition, the orthogonal experimental design was used. Four factors including kinds of enzyme, quantity of enzyme, temperature and time were studied at 3 levels. According to the orthogonal design results, we can choose an optimal condition: hydrolyzing at 45°C by neutral proteinase (0.25%, w/w) for 2h, adjusting pH to 8.5, then adding trypsin (0.25%, w/w) and hydrolyzing for 2 h. Finally the above solution was alkalized by NaOH and neutralized by casein. After the hydrolyzed liquid was filtered and concentrated, suitable additives were added. The final products contain rich amino acids.

  7. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  8. Determination of total sulfur content via sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kubala, S.W.; Campbell, D.N.; DiSanzo, F.P.

    1995-12-31

    A specially designed system, based upon sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection (SSCD), was developed to permit the determination of total sulfur content in a variety of samples. This type of detection system possesses several advantages such as excellent linearity and selectivity, low minimum detectable levels, and an equimolar response to various sulfur compounds. This paper will focus on the design and application of a sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection system for use in determining total sulfur content in gasoline.

  9. Determination of threshold dose with delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins for effective photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Clemens; Abels, Christoph; Bolsen, Klaus; Ruzicka, Thomas; Goetz, Alwin E.; Goerz, Guenter

    1995-03-01

    In this study the metabolism in tumors and various tissues of intravenously administered (delta) -aminolevulinic acid was investigated. Amelanotic melanoma (A-Mel-3) were implanted in the dorsal skin of Syrian golden hamsters. Distribution and metabolism of i.v. injected (delta) -aminolevulinic acid in blood was studied by determination of (delta) - aminolevulinic acid and protoporphyrin concentration in red blood cells. In addition extraction of various tissues, e.g. tumor, liver, kidney, and normal skin was performed, to verify fluorescence kinetic studies by determination of total porphyrin concentration by photometry and of distribution of the porphyrin metabolites by HPLC. In untreated animals the total porphyrin concentration in all tissues examined were comparably low. In red blood cells the maximal concentration of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid as well as protoporphyrin was detected 45 min after i.v. injection of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid. Porphyrins accumulated in melanoma reaching a maximum tumor:skin tissue ratio of 6.9:1 at 45 min after i.v. injection of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid. A second high tumor:skin tissue ratio of 5.7:1 could be measured at 24 h after injection, but at this point in time the protoporphyrin content in normal skin was higher than 45 min after injection. The kidney may not be strongly affected by i.v. administration of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid, whereas the liver reveals an accumulation of porphyrins, e.g. protoporphyrin. Concluding from these results in this experimental tumor model, i.v. administration of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid seems to be a promising modality to perform photodynamic therapy more effectively and more selectively by irradiation 45 - 180 min after injection of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid.

  10. Effect of a synchrotron X-ray microtomography imaging experiment on the amino acid content of a CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Rivers, Mark L.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray microcomputed tomography and synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) are becoming popular tools for the reconnaissance imaging of chondrites. However, there are occasional concerns that the use of μCT may be detrimental to organic components of a chondrite. Soluble organic compounds represent ~2-10% of the total solvent extractable carbon in CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites and amino acids are among the most abundant compounds in the soluble organic fraction. We irradiated two samples of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite under conditions slightly harsher (increased beam exposure time) than those typically used for x-ray μCT imaging experiments to determine if detectable changes in the amino acid abundance and distribution relative to a nonexposed control sample occurred. After subjecting two meteorite portions to ionizing radiation dosages of 1.1 kiloGray (kGy) and 1.2 kGy with 48.6 and 46.6 keV monochromatic X-rays, respectively, we analyzed the amino acid content of each sample. Within analytical errors, we found no differences in the amino acid abundances or enantiomeric ratios when comparing the control samples (nonexposed Murchison) and the irradiated samples. We show with calculations that any sample heating due to x-ray exposure is negligible. We conclude that a monochromatic synchrotron X-ray μCT experiment at beamline 13-BM-D of the Advanced Photon Source, which imparts ~1 kGy doses, has no detectable effect on the amino acid content of a carbonaceous chondrite. These results are important for the initial reconnaissance of returned samples from the OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample return missions.

  11. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  12. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation. PMID:27107771

  13. The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary

    2000-06-01

    The objective of our three-year research project is to determine the optimal way to use radar methods to obtain information about moisture content in the vadose zone. In our research we will focus on two specific aspects of the link between radar images and moisture content. The first aspect or question we address is: Can we use a measure of the dielectric constant of a volume of the subsurface to determine the moisture content of that volume? The second question we address is involved specifically with the issue of spatial heterogeneity. Rather than using radar data to get estimates of moisture content at specific locations, can we use the radar data to directly obtain information about the way in which the level of moisture content varies spatially?

  14. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  15. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for determining transition metal content in proteins.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Anelia; Lam, Robert; Zamble, Deborah B

    2004-12-01

    Transition metals are common components of cellular proteins and the detailed study of metalloproteins necessitates the identification and quantification of bound metal ions. Screening for metals is also an informative step in the initial characterization of the numerous unknown and unclassified proteins now coming through the proteomic pipeline. We have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of the most prevalent biological transition metals: manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc. The method is accurate and simple and can be adapted for automated high-throughput studies. The metal analysis involves acid hydrolysis to release the metal ions into solution, followed by ion separation on a mixed-bead ion-exchange column and absorbance detection after postcolumn derivatization with the metallochromic indicator 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The potential interferences by common components of protein solutions were investigated. The metal content of a variety of metalloproteins was analyzed and the data were compared to data obtained from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the assay allows for the detection of 0.1-0.8 nmol, depending on the metal. The amount of protein required is governed by the size of the protein and the fraction of protein with metal bound. For routine analysis 50 microg was used but for many proteins 10 microg would be sufficient. The advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications of this method are discussed. PMID:15519577

  16. [Determination of constituents of polysaccharide and the content of saccharide in Mongolian medicine Garidi-15].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Bai, Hai-Quan; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Wulangerile; Song, Juan-Juan; Xu, Xiu-Ting

    2007-11-01

    The present paper introuduces the method, with which the water-soluble polysaccharide was extracted with hot water from Garidi-15, the products were further purified with column chromatography on SephadexC-25, and the contents of water soluble polysaccharide were determined by phenyl hydrate-sulfuric acid method. The average recovery was 100.50%, and RSD was 0.82%. The components of water soluble polysaccharide were identified by gas chromatography as xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the molar ratio of 1.03 : 1.26 : 0.77 : 2.30. The water soluble polysaccharide was identified by IR spectrum and UV(200-400 nm) scanning spectrum. The IR spectrum indicates that there are characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides at 3 417.46, 2 928.65, 1 742.86, 1 643.69, 1 149.78, 1 078.19, 1 022.56 and 834.57 cm(-1), of which there are absorption peaks of pyranose at 1 078.19 and 1 022.56 cm(-1), and contain one characteristic absorption peak of alpha-pyranose indican band at 834.57 cm(-1). The UV scanning spectrum shows the obvious polysaccharide absorption peak at 280 nm, and indicates the existence of C=O bond. PMID:18260405

  17. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-base Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Michal; van Driel, Jan

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students’ difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1) students’ difficulties in understanding acid-base chemistry and (2) models of acids and bases in their teaching practice. In the interviews, the teachers were asked to comment on authentic student responses collected in a previous study that included student interviews about their understanding of acids and bases. Further, the teachers drew story-lines representing their level of satisfaction with their acid-base teaching. The results show that, although all teachers recognised some of the students’ difficulties as confusion between models, only a few chose to emphasise the different models of acids and bases. Most of the teachers thought it was sufficient to distinguish clearly between the phenomenological level and the particle level. The ways the teachers reflected on their teaching, in order to improve it, also differed. Some teachers reflected more on students’ difficulties; others were more concerned about their own performance. Implications for chemistry (teacher) education are discussed.

  18. [Determination of the carboxyl content of oxidized starch by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ding, Long-Long; Zhang, Yan-Hua; Gu, Ji-You; Tan, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Li-Bin

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, the carboxyl content of oxidized starch was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. Standard curve was drawn in which the ordinate was carboxyl content determined by national standard method with the ratio of carbonyl absorbance to the key of C-H absorbance in FTIR spectroscopy as the abscissa. The ratio of absorbance of unknown oxidized starch tested by FTIR spectroscopy was obtained, The carboxyl content was calculated by standard curve, and then compared with the carboxyl content determined by national standard method, and the deviation is between 2% and 4%. In order to improve the accuracy of the experiment, standard sample was selected to draw standard curve to better ensure that the carboxyl content of the unknown oxidized starch is in the range of standard curve calculation limit, and deviates from the limit of standard curve. Compared with the carboxyl content determined by national standard method, testing with FTIR spectroscopy is simple, easy to operate, and of high efficiency and better accuracy. So, it is significant to forecast the carboxyl content of oxidized starch by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:24822409

  19. Determination of ethanol content in ayurvedic formulations kumaryasava and mustakarista by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Selvan, P S; Priya, E Sanmuga

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two brands of Kumaryasava and Mustakarista medicinally important ayurvedic preparations were studied for quality control parameters like physiochemical properties, ethanol content by specific gravity and gas chromatographic methods and the total phenolic content. Evaluation of physiochemical properties and total phenolic contents resulted in establishing ranges for routine analysis. In both the formulations, ethanol content observed by specific gravity method varied from 0.9 to 1.9% on day 0 and reduced on storage for 30 days ranging from 0.1-0.6% v/v. Similarly, ethanol content determined by GC on day 0 varied from 0.1-1.6% v/v and on 30th day from 0.011-0.025% v/v. This reduction in ethanol content on storage might be due to loss caused by frequent opening of the container. PMID:25767329

  20. Determination of Ethanol Content in Ayurvedic Formulations Kumaryasava and Mustakarista by Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, P. S.; Priya, E. Sanmuga

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two brands of Kumaryasava and Mustakarista medicinally important ayurvedic preparations were studied for quality control parameters like physiochemical properties, ethanol content by specific gravity and gas chromatographic methods and the total phenolic content. Evaluation of physiochemical properties and total phenolic contents resulted in establishing ranges for routine analysis. In both the formulations, ethanol content observed by specific gravity method varied from 0.9 to 1.9% on day 0 and reduced on storage for 30 days ranging from 0.1-0.6% v/v. Similarly, ethanol content determined by GC on day 0 varied from 0.1-1.6% v/v and on 30th day from 0.011-0.025% v/v. This reduction in ethanol content on storage might be due to loss caused by frequent opening of the container. PMID:25767329

  1. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  2. Measurement of sialic acid content is insufficient to assess bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Taniguchi, Yuya; Hosono, Mareto; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ishikawa, Rika; Shimada, Yoshihiro; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kutsukake, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biological potency and its comparison with clinical effects are important in the quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins. Animal models are usually used for evaluating bioactivity of these compounds. However, alternative methods are required to simplify the bioassay and avoid ethical issues associated with animal studies. Negatively charged sialic acid residues are known to be critical for in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). In this study, we used capillary zone electrophoresis, a charge-based separation method, to estimate the sialic acid content for predicting in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. In vivo bioactivities of rhEPO subfractions were measured and compared with sialylation levels. The results obtained indicated that in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO is not simply correlated with the sialylation level, which suggests that it is difficult to predict biological potency from the sialic acid content alone. N-Glycan moieties as well as sialic acid residues may have a significant impact on in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. PMID:20823580

  3. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. PMID:23993490

  4. Effect of proteolysis on the sialic acid content and bifidogenic activity of ovomucin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Gänzle, Michael; Field, Catherine J; Wu, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    Ovomucin, accounting for ∼3.5% of egg white proteins, contains 2.6-7.4% of sialic acid; sialic acid is suggested to play important roles in host-recognition, cognition and memory development. However, ovomucin's limited water solubility might restrict its future applications. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of proteolysis of ovomucin on the sialic acid content and bifidogenic activity of ovomucin hydrolysates. Ovomucin extract was hydrolyzed by 14 proteases with yields and DHs ranging from 42.6% (flavourzyme) to 97.4% (protease N), and 2.4% (flavourzyme) to 46.3% (pronase), respectively. Ovomucin hydrolyzed by pronase and protex 26L showed molecular weight (Mw) distributions less than 40kDa while others larger than 200kDa. Allergenicity of ovomucin hydrolysates was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison to ovomucin extract. The content of sialic acid in hydrolysates ranged from 0.1% (protex 26L) to 3.7% (pronase). Ovomucin hydrolysates did not generally support growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in vitro. PMID:27374509

  5. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  6. Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: The critical water content and the effects of ionic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulvirenti, April L.; Needham, Karen M.; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A.; Marks, Charles R.; Gorman, Jeffrey A.; Shettel, Donald L.; Barkatt, Aaron

    2009-10-01

    Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are

  7. Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: the critical water content and the effects of ionic composition.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, April L; Needham, Karen M; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A; Marks, Charles R; Gorman, Jeffrey A; Shettel, Donald L; Barkatt, Aaron

    2009-10-13

    Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are

  8. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of chlorinated isocyanuric acids.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2003-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method is described for the determination of dichloro- and trichloroisocyanuric acids based on the chemiluminescence produced during their reaction with luminol in alkaline medium. The effects of analytical and flow-injection variables on these chemiluminescence systems and determination of both oxidants are discussed. The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 8x10(-8) and 5x10(-8) mol L(-1) for the sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid, respectively. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: NaOH, 1x10(-1) mol L(-1); luminol, 5x10(-3) mol L(-1); KI, 2x10(-3) mol L(-1) and flow rate, 3.5 mL min(-1). PMID:12589508

  9. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  10. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  11. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property. PMID:26050895

  12. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD. PMID:25726582

  13. NMR techniques for determination of lipid content in microalgal biomass and their use in monitoring the cultivation with biodiesel potential.

    PubMed

    Sarpal, Amarjit S; Teixeira, Cláudia M L L; Silva, Paulo Roque Martins; da Costa Monteiro, Thays Vieira; da Silva, Júlia Itacolomy; da Cunha, Valnei Smarcaro; Daroda, Romeu José

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, the application of NMR spectroscopic techniques was extensively used with an objective to explore the biodiesel potential of biomass cultivated on a lab scale using strains of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus ecornis. The effect of variation in the composition of culturing medium on the neutral and polar lipids productivity, and fatty acid profile of solvent extracts of microalgae biomass was studied. Determination of unsaturated fatty acid composition (C18:N = 1-3, ω3 C20:5, ω3 C22:6), polyunsaturated fatty esters (PUFEs), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and iodine value were achieved from a single (1)H NMR spectral analysis. The results were validated by (13)C NMR and GC-MS analyses. It was demonstrated that newly developed methods based on (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques are direct, rapid, and convenient for monitoring the microalgae cultivation process for enhancement of lipid productivity and their quality aspects in the solvent extracts of microalgal biomasses without any sample treatment and prior separation compared to other methods. The fatty acid composition of algae extracts was found to be similar to vegetable and fish oils, mostly rich in C16:0, C18:N (N = 0 to 3), and n-3 omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The lipid content, particularly neutral lipids, as well as most of the quality parameters were found to be medium specific by both the strains. The newly developed methods based on NMR and ultrasonic procedure developed for efficient extraction of neutral lipids are cost economic and can be an effective aid for rapid screening of algae strains for modulation of lipid productivity with desired biodiesel quality and value-added products including fatty acid profile. PMID:26615401

  14. Easy modification of glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Soundappan; Tsai, Tsung-Hsuan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2009-04-15

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been modified by electrochemical oxidation in mild acidic media (0.1 mol l(-1) H(2)SO(4)) and could be applied for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Oxidized GCE shows a single redox couple (E(0)'=-2.5 mV) which is based on the formation functional groups during the electrochemical pretreatment process. Proposed GCE successfully decreases the over potentials for the oxidation process of these species (AA, DA and UA) comparing with bare GCE. The oxidized GCE has its own simplicity, stability, high sensitivity and possesses the potential for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA. PMID:19162467

  15. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  16. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  17. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L−1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as μA and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L−1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L−1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L−1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L−1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L−1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:19343183

  18. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  19. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  20. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  1. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  2. Determining the in situ water content of the Geysers Graywacke of Northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, A.

    1994-12-01

    The water content, porosity and permeability measurements of the Northern California Geysers rocks are used to predict the lifetime of the geothermal resource, which provides 10% of Northern California`s electricity. The Geysers rock was drilled from defunct well SB-15-D, and some cores wee sealed in aluminum tubes to preserve the in situ water content. These cores were sent to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to measure the water content. Humidity measurements were taken of the air around a one and a half foot encased core, recovered from a depth of 918.9 feet. Over a seven day period, the humidity reached almost 100% indicating that the air around the core was saturated in water vapor. We believe the sealing method is effective, preserving the in-situ water content. To measure water content, I will use Archimede`s principle to determine the density of the core before and after drying in an oven. Ultrasonic measurements will be taken of the core upon removal from aluminum tube to determine the change of p-wave velocity with change in water content. Water in the pores increases the effective compressibility of the rock therefore increasing the p-velocity. The measured p-wave velocities can then be used in the field to determine in-situ water content. Three dimensional x-ray images will be used to determine the deviations from average density within individual cores. Since the density depends on water content as well as mineralogy, images can show the location of pore fluid and drilling mud. Archimede`s principle, humidity detection, ultrasonics and x-ray scanning are viable methods to measure the in-situ water content and pore water distribution in the graywacke.

  3. Rapid simultaneous determination of amines and organic acids in citrus using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Nelson, Shad D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-15

    Rapid analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of amines and organic acids is a vital interest for quality control of citrus and their products. In the present study, a simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid separation of three amines and two organic acids was developed. Chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved using Xbridge C(18) column at ambient temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of 3mM phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). A photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to monitor the eluent at 223 nm and 254 nm with a total analysis time of 10 min. Extraction of amines and organic acids from citrus juice was optimized. The method was validated by tests of linearity, recovery, precision and ruggedness. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for amines and ascorbic acid were determined to be 5 ng and 9.8 ng, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9999) within the test ranges. The recoveries of the amines and organic acids ranged between 84% and 117%. The identity of each peak was confirmed by mass spectral (MS) analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the content of amines and organic acids in six different species and two varieties of citrus. Results indicate that mandarin and Marrs sweet orange contain high level of amines, while pummelo and Rio Red grapefruit had high content of ascorbic acid (137-251 μg mL(-1)) and citric acid (5-22 mg mL(-1)). Synephrine was the major amine present in Clementine (114 μg mL(-1)) and Marrs sweet orange (85 μg mL(-1)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous separation and quantification of amines and organic acids in Marrs sweet orange, Meyer lemon, Nova tangerine, Clementine, Ugli tangelo and Wekiwa tangelo. PMID:21147342

  4. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OIL PIPELINE APPLICATIONS FOR MARKET POWER DETERMINATIONS § 348.1 Content of application for a market power determination. (a) If, under § 342.4(b) of this chapter, a carrier seeks to establish that it... position and the information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The carrier's statement...

  5. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OIL PIPELINE APPLICATIONS FOR MARKET POWER DETERMINATIONS § 348.1 Content of application for a market power determination. (a) If, under § 342.4(b) of this chapter, a carrier seeks to establish that it... position and the information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The carrier's statement...

  6. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OIL PIPELINE APPLICATIONS FOR MARKET POWER DETERMINATIONS § 348.1 Content of application for a market power determination. (a) If, under § 342.4(b) of this chapter, a carrier seeks to establish that it... position and the information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The carrier's statement...

  7. Determining Faculty Perception of Ownership Rights of Online Course Content in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carrie J.

    2013-01-01

    With the ever increasing growth in the number of online courses offered by institutions of higher education, determining ownership of the content of these courses is becoming an important consideration. Many institutions have intellectual property policies in place that are either vague, outdated or non-existent when determining copyright…

  8. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  9. Direct determination of fatty acids in fish tissues: quantifying top predator trophic connections.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Christopher C; Nichols, Peter D; Pethybridge, Heidi; Young, Jock W

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are a valuable tool in ecological studies because of the large number of unique structures synthesized. They provide versatile signatures that are being increasingly employed to delineate the transfer of dietary material through marine and terrestrial food webs. The standard procedure for determining fatty acids generally involves lipid extraction followed by methanolysis to produce methyl esters for analysis by gas chromatography. By directly transmethylating ~50 mg wet samples and adding an internal standard it was possible to greatly simplify the analytical methodology to enable rapid throughput of 20-40 fish tissue fatty acid analyses a day including instrumental analysis. This method was verified against the more traditional lipid methods using albacore tuna and great white shark muscle and liver samples, and it was shown to provide an estimate of sample dry mass, total lipid content, and a condition index. When large fatty acid data sets are generated in this way, multidimensional scaling, analysis of similarities, and similarity of percentages analysis can be used to define trophic connections among samples and to quantify them. These routines were used on albacore and skipjack tuna fatty acid data obtained by direct methylation coupled with literature values for krill. There were clear differences in fatty acid profiles among the species as well as spatial differences among albacore tuna sampled from different locations. PMID:25376156

  10. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27001403

  11. Comparison of Karl Fischer titrimetric and gravimetric methods for determination of moisture content in BCG vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shi, M; Klegerman, M E; Groves, M J

    1989-01-01

    A model 447 Coulomatic K-F titrimeter was used to determine the water content of seventeen lots of freeze-dried Tice-substrain BCG vaccine. The results were compared with corresponding moisture contents determined by a standard gravimetric method at the time of manufacture. The advantages of the titrimetric method include simplicity, rapidity, convenience, sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity, whereas the gravimetric method is tedious and time-consuming. Although moisture content determined by the K-F titrimeter tended to be higher than that determined by the gravimetric method, the results correlated significantly (r = 0.882, P less than 10(-5]. Alteration of national and international regulations to permit use of the K-F titrimeter is recommended. PMID:2770557

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Anand, G R; Satter, L D; Pariza, M W

    1999-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid in milk was determined from cows fed different diets. In Experiment 1, cows were fed either normal or high oil corn and corn silage. Conjugated linoleic acid was 3.8 and 3.9 mg/g of milk fatty acids in normal and high oil treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2, cows consumed one-third, two-thirds, or their entire feed from a permanent pasture. Alfalfa hay and concentrates supplied the balance of feed for the one-third and two-third pasture treatments. Conjugated linoleic acid was 8.9, 14.3, and 22.1 mg/g of milk fatty acids in the one-third, two-third, and all pasture treatments, respectively. Cows grazing pasture and receiving no supplemental feed had 500% more conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat than cows fed typical dairy diets (Experiment 1). In Experiment 3, cows were fed either a control diet containing 55% alfalfa silage and 45% grain, or similar diets supplemented with 3% fish meal, or 250 g of monensin/cow/per day, or fish meal and monensin together. Conjugated linoleic acid was 5.3, 8.6, 6.8, and 8.9 mg/g of milk fatty acids in the control, fish meal, monensin, and fish meal plus monensin treatments, respectively. In Experiment 4, cows were fed either finely chopped alfalfa hay (Treatment 1), or coarsely chopped alfalfa hay (Treatment 2) in a 50% forage and 50% grain diet, or 66.6% grass hay and 33.4% grain (Treatment 3), or 98.2% grass hay (Treatment 4). Conjugated linoleic acid was 7.3, 8.3, 9.0, and 7.9 mg/g of milk fatty acids in treatments 1 through 4, respectively. PMID:10531600

  13. Virulent Hessian Fly Larvae Manipulate the Free Amino Acid Content Of Host Wheat Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Hessian fly larvae induce their host wheat plants to provide a favorable environment for larval development by altering plant gene expression and promoting the formation of nutritive tissue at larval feeding sites. To determine whether Hessian fly larvae manipulate the nutrient content of t...

  14. A new method for the determination of sulphide in gastrointestinal contents and whole blood by microdistillation and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C J; Magee, E A; Cummings, J H

    2000-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide is produced in the human large intestine by the bacterial reduction of dietary inorganic sulphate and sulphite and by fermentation of sulphur amino acids. Sulphide may damage the colonic epithelium and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. The accurate measurement of sulphide in biological samples, particularly in gut contents is difficult due to the volatile nature of the compound, and the viscosity and turbidity of the samples. Here we describe a method for the determination of sulphide in gut contents and whole blood which overcomes these problems. Initially, samples are treated with zinc acetate to trap sulphide. A microdistillation pretreatment is then used, which releases sulphide from its stable, stored state, coupled to ion chromatography with electrochemical detection. The limit of detection of the method was determined as 2.5 micromol/l, which enabled sulphide levels in gut contents and whole blood samples obtained from humans to be accurately determined. A preliminary investigation in healthy human subjects showed blood sulphide ranged from 10 to 100 micromol/l. Whole blood sulphide did not change significantly when increasing amounts of protein from meat were fed. However, faecal sulphide did show a significant increase from 164 to 754 nmol/g in four subjects fed diets which contained 60 and 420 g meat. PMID:10699427

  15. Fluorometric Determination of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Bacteria with Ethidium Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Donkersloot, J. A.; Robrish, S. A.; Krichevsky, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and rapid method is presented for the determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is based upon the fluorometric determination of DNA with ethidium bromide after alkaline digestion of the bacteria to hydrolyze the interfering ribonucleic acid. The assay takes less than 2 hr. Its sensitivity is at least 0.2 μg of DNA in a final solution of 4 ml and it uses commonly available filter or double monochromator fluorometers. Judicious choice of light source and filters allows an additional 10-fold increase in sensitivity with a filter fluorometer. Turbidity caused by bacteria or insoluble polysaccharides does not interfere with the fluorescence measurements. There was no significant difference between the results obtained with this method and those obtained with the indole and diphenylamine methods when these assays were applied to Escherichia coli and sucrose- or glucose-grown Streptococcus mutans. The method was also tested by determining the specific growth rate of E. coli. This new procedure should be especially useful for the determination of bacterial DNA in dilute suspensions and for the estimation of bacterial growth or DNA replication where more conventional methods are not applicable or sensitive enough. PMID:4561101

  16. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  17. Phenolic composition, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-06-15

    The interest in Ziziphus jujube is growing because it is an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals, and can contribute to a healthy diet. Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds and L-ascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity of 4 Spanish jujube cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 25 polyphenolic compounds were identified and classified as 10 flavan-3-ols, 13 flavonols, 1 flavanone, and 1 dihydrochalcone. The content of total polyphenols (TP) ranged from 1442 to 3432 mg/100 g dry matter (dm) in fruits of the cultivars 'DAT' and 'PSI', respectively. Flavan-3-ols, the major group of polyphenols in jujube represented ∼92% of the TP content, whereas flavonols only amounted for about ∼8% each. The content of L-ascorbic acid was very high and took values in the range of 387-555 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw). Some Spanish jujube cultivars, especially 'PSI' and 'MSI', may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with valuable nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26868581

  18. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:468476

  19. Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, I.

    2011-09-01

    A new methodology for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids is proposed. The strong overlapping of the fluorescence spectra of both analytes makes impossible the conventional fluorimetric determination. For that reason, the use of fluorescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of analytes is proposed; this is a novel technique that provides the benefits in selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence decay curves. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples were analyzed obtaining recuperation percentages between 98.2 and 104.6%. Finally, a study of the detection limits was done using a new criterion resulting in values for the detection limits of 8.2 and 11.6 μg L -1 for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. The validity of the method was tested in human serum and human urine spiked with aliquots of the analytes. Recoveries obtained were 96.2 and 94.5% for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively.

  20. New Mg2+-Dependent Oxytetracycline Resistance Determinant Tet 34 in Vibrio Isolates from Marine Fish Intestinal Contents

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Lisa; Suzuki, Satoru

    2002-01-01

    A new oxytetracycline (OTC) resistance (Otcr) determinant, Tet 34, was cloned from chromosomal DNA of Vibrio sp. no. 6 isolated from intestinal contents of cultured yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). The transformant, containing cloned Tet 34, could grow in broth containing 25 μg of drug per ml with 10 mM MgCl2. Tet 34 encoded an open reading frame (ORF) 154 amino acids long. The amino acid sequence of the ORF was homologous to sequences of several bacterial xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferases (XPRTs), which act in purine nucleotide salvage synthesis. Mg2+ binding site residues and the active site were highly conserved in XPRT and the ORF of Tet 34. The results suggest that Tet 34 encodes a new Mg2+-dependent Otcr mechanism. PMID:11959596

  1. Comparison of nucleic acid content in populations of free-living and symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti by flow microfluorometry.

    PubMed Central

    Paau, A S; Lee, D; Cowles, J R

    1977-01-01

    Populations of symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti extracted from alfalfa nodules were shown by flow microfluorometry to contain a significant number of bacteroids with higher nucleic acid content than the free-living rhizobia. Bacteroids with lower nucleic acid content than the free-living bacteria were not detected in significant quantities in these populations. These results indicate that the incapability of bacteroids to reestablish growth in nutrient media may not be caused by a decrease in nucleic acid content of the symbiotic rhizobia. PMID:838682

  2. Electrometric method for the determination of the nitrogen content in metals and ferroalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, P.F.; Zueva, V.L.

    1985-11-01

    To determine cationic and nonionogenic surfactants in a mixture, the authors used potentiometric titration of aqueous solutions of the surfactants with 0.01M solution of tetraphenylborate. The indicator electrodes were polyvinyl chloride membrane electrodes with electroactive substances -- the cetylpyridinium salt of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, recommended for the determination of ionic surfactants and barium (II), respectively.

  3. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. PMID:23548399

  4. [Determination of dimethylbenzoic acid isomers in urine by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, P; Wiaderna-Brycht, A; Czerski, B

    1994-01-01

    Trimethylobenzene (TMB) is a main ingredient of many organic solvents used in industry. In Farbasol (Polish trade name of the solvent) TMB occurs as a mixture of three isomers: pseudocumene (1, 2, 4-TMB) 30%; mesitylene (1, 3, 5-TMB) 15%; hemimellitene (1,2,3-TMB) 5%. As it is known in human organism, TMB is metabolized mainly to dimethylbenzoic (DMBA) and dimethylhippuric (DMHA) acids, and some authors suggest, that the acids excreted in urine can be biological indicators of exposure to TMB. This study was aimed at developing the method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine. Biological material was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and next extracted with diethyl ether. DMBA concentration in urine was determined by gas chromatography using a variant of quantitative analysis with internal standard (5-methyl-2-isopropylphenol, thymol). Analytical parameters of the developed method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine such as linearity, precision, reproducibility, stability (192 days, when urine samples stored at-18 degrees C), detectability limit (400 micrograms/dm3) have been fully compatible with the requirements of biological monitoring. In order to confirm the presence of DMBA isomers in urine, four volunteers were exposed (8 hours) to Farbasol in toxicological chamber. The TMB concentration in the air, determined by means of gas chromatograph (HP 5890), amounted to 100 mg/m3 (MAC value in Poland). In urine samples collected 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acids were identified by means of GC/MSD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8170375

  5. Trans- and cis-urocanic acid, biogenic amine and amino acid contents in ikan pekasam (fermented fish) produced from Javanese carp (Puntius gonionotus) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, M A; Zare, D; Karim, R; Ghazali, H M

    2015-04-01

    Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent. PMID:25442635

  6. A Method for Content Uniformity Determination of Atenolol and Losartan Potassium in Combined Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shah, S. A.; Vyas, R. B.; Vyas, B. A.; Maniyar, N. R.; Chauhan, R. S.; Shah, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, accurate, rapid, specific and reproducible UV spectrophotometric method was developed for estimation of content uniformity of atenolol and losartan potassium in its combined tablet dosage form. The method involves formation and solving the simultaneous equation using 226.4 and 254 nm as two wavelengths for atenolol and losartan, respectively. Developed method was employed to determine the atenolol and losartan content in ten individual tablet units of five market formulations. Methanol was used as solvent. The method was validated. From the results, it was concluded that all brands are within the content uniformity limit, 85-115%. PMID:21969756

  7. Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing natural-gas resources. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs. Organic-matter contents estimated using these logs are compared with determinations from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs for the Devonian shale forms a large and geographically broad data base. The approach may also be applicable to other formations.-from Author

  8. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    PubMed Central

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  9. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  10. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  11. Determination of free amino acids in burley tobacco by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baolin; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Lu, Ping; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determining free amino acids in burley tobacco. The test was done by OPA/3-mercaptopropionic acid as the pre-column derivatizing reagent. Chromatographic column was Elitte C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d., 5 μm). Mobile phase A was 18 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2) including 0.002%(v/v) triethylamine and 0.3%(v/v) furanidine. Mobile phase B was 100 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2)–acetonitrile–methanol (v/v = 1:2:2). The column temperature was 40 °C and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The fluorescence detector was used with 350 nm excitation wave length and 450 nm emission wave length. The average recoveries of the method ranged from 95.3–100.7% with the relative standard deviation of 2.32–9.24%. The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability. The results of the determination of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in burley leaves were produced by the way of different ratios of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The results show that Aspartic acid has the highest content however ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The contents of most of the free amino acids are increased and then gradually decreased with the increase in organic manure. The contents of most of the free amino acids are very close at 15:85% ratio and 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The total amount of free amino acids is the highest at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. Considering comprehensively, the quality of burley leaves is the best at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. PMID:26858568

  12. Determination of free amino acids in burley tobacco by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baolin; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Lu, Ping; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Min

    2016-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determining free amino acids in burley tobacco. The test was done by OPA/3-mercaptopropionic acid as the pre-column derivatizing reagent. Chromatographic column was Elitte C(18) column (4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d., 5 μm). Mobile phase A was 18 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2) including 0.002%(v/v) triethylamine and 0.3%(v/v) furanidine. Mobile phase B was 100 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2)-acetonitrile-methanol (v/v = 1:2:2). The column temperature was 40 °C and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The fluorescence detector was used with 350 nm excitation wave length and 450 nm emission wave length. The average recoveries of the method ranged from 95.3-100.7% with the relative standard deviation of 2.32-9.24%. The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability. The results of the determination of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in burley leaves were produced by the way of different ratios of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The results show that Aspartic acid has the highest content however ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The contents of most of the free amino acids are increased and then gradually decreased with the increase in organic manure. The contents of most of the free amino acids are very close at 15:85% ratio and 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The total amount of free amino acids is the highest at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. Considering comprehensively, the quality of burley leaves is the best at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. PMID:26858568

  13. Active content determination of pharmaceutical tablets using near infrared spectroscopy as Process Analytical Technology tool.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Pierre-François; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; De Bleye, Charlotte; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Mantanus, Jérôme; Motte, Henri; Schubert, Martin; Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop Near infrared (NIR) methods to determine the active content of non-coated pharmaceutical tablets manufactured from a proportional tablet formulation. These NIR methods intend to be used for the monitoring of the active content of tablets during the tableting process. Firstly, methods were developed in transmission and reflection modes to quantify the API content of the lowest dosage strength. Secondly, these methods were fully validated for a concentration range of 70-130% of the target active content using the accuracy profile approach based on β-expectation tolerance intervals. The model using the transmission mode showed a better ability to predict the right active content compared to the reflection one. However, the ability of the reflection mode to quantify the API content in the highest dosage strength was assessed. Furthermore, the NIR method based on the transmission mode was successfully used to monitor at-line the tablet active content during the tableting process, providing better insight of the API content during the process. This improvement of control of the product quality provided by this PAT method is thoroughly compliant with the Quality by Design (QbD) concept. Finally, the transfer of the transmission model from the off-line to an on-line spectrometer was efficiently investigated. PMID:26452969

  14. [The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed amaranth grain].

    PubMed

    Rodas, Brenda; Bressani, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed grain amaranth. Six amaranth grain varieties were processed to yield a nixtamalized flour, one cooked in water, one expanded, a malted one and a laminate samples after a thermic treatment. The chemical values of the raw samples contained from 14.5% to 15.1% protein, 5.9 to 6.7% ether extract and from 2.3% to 3.2% ash on a dry weight basis. The flours from the different processes yield products with a fat content which varied from 6.4% to 7.0% for the 6 varieties. The flours coming from dry heat processing contained higher oil levels than those flours coming from wet processes. The oil from only 3 varieties and from 4 processes were analyzed from its fatty acid composition. The oil contained on the average 17.85% of C16:0, 68.1% of stearic, olic and linoleic acids, 3.86% of C18:3, 5.1% of C20:0 and small amounts of C20:1 and C22:0. The squalene content in the oil of the processed flours varied from 7.0 to 9.6 g/100 g for the raw flour, 8.1 -12.6 g/100 g for the flour from wet cooking in water, 9.0 -12.7g/ 100 g for the flour from the nixtamalization process, 10.1-12.8g/ 100 g for the expanded grain flour, 9.0 to 11.2 g/100 g for the malted flour and 6.0-9.5 g/100 g for the laminated grain flour. The squalene averages per process showed statistical significant differences. PMID:19480349

  15. Normes linguistiques: Determination, description, contenu, utilite (Linguistic Norms: Determination, Description, Content, Usefulness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Discusses different approaches for determining second language proficiency norms to be set by employers for personnel, all involving varying degrees of emphasis on linguistic proficiency on the one hand, and communicative competence on the other. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  16. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2ω6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2ω6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2ω6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2ω6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle. PMID:25727371

  17. Folic acid content in thermostabilized and freeze-dried space shuttle foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Kloeris, V. L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether freeze-dried and thermostabilized foods on a space shuttle contain adequate folate and to investigate any effects of freeze-drying on folacin. Frozen vegetables were analyzed after three states of processing: thawed; cooked; and rehydrated. Thermostabilized items were analyzed as supplied with no further processing. Measurable folate decreased in some freeze-dried vegetables and increased in others. Folacin content of thermostabilized food items was comparable with published values. We concluded that although the folacin content of some freeze-dried foods was low, adequate folate is available from the shuttle menu to meet RDA guidelines.

  18. Validation and Determination of the Contents of Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye-Seung; Chung, Hyun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Joon-Goo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient quantitative method for the determination of acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) contents in solid and liquid food matrices. The determination of those compounds was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, precision, and recovery. Then their contents were analyzed in various food samples including 15 fruits, 22 milk products, 31 alcohol-free beverages, and 13 alcoholic beverages. The highest contents of AA and FA were determined in a white wine (40,607.02 ng/g) and an instant coffee (1,522.46 ng/g), respectively. PMID:26483886

  19. Stability studies of expired tablets of metoprolol tartrate and propranolol hydrochloride. Part 1. Content determination.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Magdalena; Karwowski, Bolesław; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria; Kurczewska, Urszula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the growing interest in drug stability problem has been observed. The stability of pharmaceutical products seems to play an important role from the economical point of view. However, there are not many studies that reported about the stability of drugs past their expiration dates. The objective of the current study was to determine tablet content of expired tablets and tablets with expiry date has not been exceeded. The analyzed tablets contained metoprolol tartrate (50 mg) and propranolol hydrochloride (10 mg), respectively. Content determination was performed using HPLC method with UV detection. The proposed method was validated with regard to linearity, sensitivity, intermediate accuracy and precision. No discrepancies between the results of determination and the declared values range for all the analyzed tablets were observed. The results of performed study might suggest that storage of analyzed batches of tablets over time period exceeding the expiry date given by the manufacturer did not influence their contents. PMID:20050534

  20. ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USED TO SUPPORT THE MICROBIALLY MEDIATED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in environmental microcosm samples using ion-exclusion chromatography. The chromatographic behavior of various eluents was studied to determine the ...

  1. Rainfall element content and acidity from April 30, 1976 to February 17, 1978, Athens, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, B L; Nabholz, J V; DuBois, S

    1980-08-01

    Precipitation from 99 storm events between April 30, 1976 and February 17, 1978 had pH values ranging from 3.2 to 4.8 with median pH of 4.1. A subset of samples spanning one year from October 1976 through September 1977 had a volume weighted average pH of 4.19 as determined at time of collection and a volume weighted average of 4.44 after being stored frozen, thawed, and purged with N/sub 2/ gas. SO/sub 4/ appeared to be the greatest determinant of rainfall acidity. Rainfall with a pH lower than 5.6 resulting from equilibration of pure water with atmospheric CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C can be termed acid rain. According to this definition, the volume weighted average rainfall in north Georgia is acid rain, confirming inferences made by Likens (1976), using data from bordering states, that acid rain occurs in Georgia. Comparison of volume weighted pH values from Athens with values from Coweeta, North Carolina and Gatlinburg, Tennessee, suggest that acid rain is a regional problem in the Southeast.

  2. Quantification of total content of non-esterified fatty acids bound to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Pavićević, Ivan D; Jovanović, Vesna B; Takić, Marija M; Aćimović, Jelena M; Penezić, Ana Z; Mandić, Ljuba M

    2016-09-10

    Non-esterified fatty acids bound to the human serum albumin (HSA) contribute to several HSAs properties of special concern in pathologies, for instance to the reactivity of the free HSA-Cys34 thiol group (important antioxidative thiol pool in plasma), and to the affinity for binding of molecules and ions (for example cobalt as a prominent biomarker in heart ischemia). Therefore, the method for determination of FAs bound to HSA was developed. FAs were released from HSA (previously isolated from serum by ammonium sulfate precipitation) using acidic copper(II) sulfate in phosphoric acid, extracted by n-heptane-chloroform (4:1, v/v) mixture, spotted on TL silica-gel and then developed with n-heptane-chloroform-acetic acid (5:3:0.3, v/v/v). Common office flatbed scanner and software solution for densitometric image analysis, developed in R, were used. The linearity of calibration curve in concentration range from 0.1 to 5.0mmol/L stearic acid was achieved. The method was proved to be precise (with RSD of 1.4-4.7%) and accurate. Accuracy was examined by standard addition method (recoveries 97.2-102.5%) and by comparison to results of GC. The method is sample saving, technically less demanding, and cheap, and therefore suitable for determination of FAs/HSA ratio when elevated concentrations of free FAs are reliable diagnostic/risk parameter of pathological states. PMID:27394177

  3. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    PubMed

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock. PMID:22789074

  4. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  5. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  6. Hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content in acid catalysed esterification of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Wang, Quan-Yi; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-11-15

    A simple synthesis pathway has been developed for the design of hierarchically structured spongy or spherical voids assembled meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content on the basis of the aqueous polymerisation of new stabilized alkoxy-bridged single molecular precursors. The intimate mixing of an aluminosilicate ester (sec-BuO)(2)-Al-O-Si(OEt)(3) and a silica co-reactant (tetramethoxysilane, TMOS) with variable ratios and the use of alkaline solutions (pH 13.0 and 13.5) improve significantly the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminium alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica co-reactant, leading to aluminosilicate materials with high intra-framework aluminium content and low Si/Al ratios. The spherically-shaped meso-macroporosity was spontaneously generated by the release of high amount of liquid by-products (water/alcohol molecules) produced during the rapid hydrolysis and condensation processes of this double alkoxide and the TMOS co-reactant. It has been observed that both pH value and Al-Si/TMOS molar ratio can strongly affect the macroporous structure formation. Increasing pH value, even slightly from 13 to 13.5, can significantly favour the incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position of the framework. After the total ionic exchange of Na(+) compensating cations, catalytic tests of obtained materials were realised in the esterification reaction of high free fatty acid (FFA) oils, showing their higher catalytic activity compared to commercial Bentonite clay, and their potential applications as catalyst supports in acid catalysed reactions. PMID:21875708

  7. A Study on Amino Acids: Synthesis of Alpha-Aminophenylacetic Acid (Phenylglycine) and Determination of its Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrelle, M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for an experimental study on aminophenylacetic acid (phenylglycine). These include physical chemistry (determination of isoelectric point by pH measurement) and organic chemistry (synthesis of an amino acid in racemic form) experiments. (JN)

  8. Direct determination of amino acids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Socia, Adam; Foley, Joe P

    2016-05-13

    A chromatographic analytical method for the direct determination of amino acids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. A dual gradient simultaneously varying the pH 3.2 ammonium formate buffer concentration and level of acetonitrile (ACN) in the mobile phase was employed. Using a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and a 2(nd) order regression analysis, the fit of the calibration curve showed R(2) values between 0.9997 and 0.9985 from 1.5mg/mL to 50μg/mL (600ng to 20ng on column). Analyte chromatographic parameters such as the sensitivity of retention to the water fraction in the mobile phase values (mHILIC) were determined as part of method development. A degradation product of glutamine (5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid; pGlu) was observed and resolved chromatographically with no method modifications. The separation was used to quantitate amino acid content in acid hydrolysates of various protein samples. PMID:27059400

  9. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E W

    1982-06-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure.

  10. Studies on the acidity of mordenite and ZSM-5. 1. Determination of Broensted acid site concentrations in mordenite and ZSM-5 by conductometric titration

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, M.; Herold, R.H.M.; Sonnemans, M.H.W.; Emeis, C.A.; Wilson, A.E.; Moolen, J.N. van der )

    1993-01-14

    The Broensted acidity of H-mordenite and H-ZSM-5 samples of varying proton concentration has been studied using aqueous conductometric titration, IR spectroscopy, and aqueous potentiometric titration. Good agreement is observed between Broensted acid site concentrations determined by conductometric titration and IR measurements, while indirect potentiometric titration affords acid site concentrations consistently lower than those measured using the conductometric technique. This finding is rationalized on the basis that, in a conductometric titration, all the accessible Broensted acid sites are direct;y titrated, whereas in the potentiometric procedure utilized, only those protons which can be ion-exchanged out of the zeolite are titrated. After allowing for the presence of extraframework aluminum in the zeolites (determined by [sup 27]Al NMR), the measured acidity for H-mordenite is found to increase linearly with increasing Al content within the range 0-1.5 mmol Al/g but appears to reach a limiting value at higher Al concentrations. For H-ZSM-5, the experimentally determined number of Broensted acid sites is also found to be linearly dependent on the Al molar fraction within the range measured (0-1.20 mmol Al/g). For both series of zeolite samples, the measured acidity is generally found to be less than the theoretical maximum calculated on the basis of an H[sup +]/Al ratio of 1. 43 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  12. [Determination of the nucleic acids in pig embryonic kidney cells by magnetic cytaphoresis].

    PubMed

    Chikov, V M; Maksimova, E V

    1989-01-01

    Gallocyanine-chrome alum-stained pig embryonic kidney cells have paramagnetic properties. They move under the influence of gradient magnetic field (magnetophoresis). The velocity of magnetophoresis is proportional to the content of nucleic acids in cells. This allows to estimate the content of nucleic acids per cell dry weight by magnetophoresis and analytical centrifugation. PMID:2473104

  13. Advances in the Determination of Nucleic Acid Conformational Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Loïc; Yang, Shan; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2014-04-01

    Conformational changes in nucleic acids play a key role in the way genetic information is stored, transferred, and processed in living cells. Here, we describe new approaches that employ a broad range of experimental data, including NMR-derived chemical shifts and residual dipolar couplings, small-angle X-ray scattering, and computational approaches such as molecular dynamics simulations to determine ensembles of DNA and RNA at atomic resolution. We review the complementary information that can be obtained from diverse sets of data and the various methods that have been developed to combine these data with computational methods to construct ensembles and assess their uncertainty. We conclude by surveying RNA and DNA ensembles determined using these methods, highlighting the unique physical and functional insights obtained so far.

  14. Cytoplasmic Delivery of Liposomal Contents Mediated by an Acid-Labile Cholesterol-Vinyl Ether-PEG Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Boomer, Jeremy A.; Qualls, Marquita M.; Inerowicz, H. Dorota; Haynes, Robert H.; Patri, G.V. Srilaksmi; Kim, Jong-Mok; Thompson, David H.

    2009-01-01

    An acid-cleavable PEG lipid, 1′-(4′-cholesteryloxy-3′-butenyl)-ω-methoxy-polyethylene[112] glycolate (CVEP), has been developed that produces stable liposomes when dispersed as a minor component (0.5–5 mol%) in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Cleavage of CVEP at mildly acidic pH’s results in dePEGylation of the latently fusogenic DOPE liposomes, thereby triggering the onset of contents release. This paper describes the synthesis of CVEP via a six step sequence starting from the readily available precursors 1,4-butanediol, cholesterol, and mPEG acid. The hydrolysis rates and release kinetics from CVEP:DOPE liposome dispersions as a function of CVEP loading, as well as the cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and pH-dependent monolayer properties of 9:91 CVEP:DOPE mixtures, also are reported. When folate-receptor positive KB cells were exposed to calcein-loaded 5:95 CVEP:DOPE liposomes containing 0.1 mol% folate-modified 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-polyethylene[76] glycolamide (folate-PEG-DSPE), efficient delivery of the calcein cargo to the cytoplasm of the cells was observed as determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of lipid mixing in these cells was consistent with membrane-membrane fusion between the liposome and endosomal membranes. PMID:19072698

  15. Determination of cloud ice water content and geometrical thickness using microwave and infrared radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man-Li C.

    1987-01-01

    Cloud ice water content and cloud geometrical thickness have been determined using a combination of near-infrared, thermal infrared and thermal microwave radiometric measurements. The radiometric measurements are from a Multispectral Cloud Radiometer, which has seven channels ranging from visible to thermal infrared, and an Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder, which has four channels ranging from 90 to 183 GHz. Studies indicate that the microwave brightness temperatures depend not only on the amount of ice water content but also on the vertical distribution of ice water content. Studies also show that the low brightness temperature at 92 GHz for large ice water content is due to cloud reflection which reflects most of the irradiance incident at the cloud base downward. Therefore the 92 GHz channel detects a low brightness temperature at the cloud top.

  16. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition. PMID:22886626

  17. Phylogenetic characterisation of picoplanktonic populations with high and low nucleic acid content in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Schattenhofer, Martha; Wulf, Jörg; Kostadinov, Ivalyo; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Fuchs, Bernhard M

    2011-09-01

    In flow cytometric analyses of marine prokaryotic picoplankton often two populations with distinct differences in their apparent nucleic acid content are discernable, one with a high and one with a low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA, respectively). In this study we determined the phylogenetic composition of flow cytometrically sorted HNA and LNA populations, collected at six stations along a transect across three oceanic provinces from Iceland to the Azores. Catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridisation (CARD-FISH) analysis of sorted cells revealed distinct differences in phylogenetic composition between the LNA and HNA populations with only little overlap. At all stations the LNA population was dominated by the alphaproteobacterial clade SAR11 (45-74%). Also, Betaproteobacteria were always present at 2-4%. While the LNA composition was rather stable, the HNA populations were composed of distinct phylogenetic clades in the different oceanic provinces of Arctic and Tropics. For example Cyanobacteria dominated the North Atlantic Gyre HNA population (29-44%) with Prochlorococcus as the major clade (34-44%), but were low in Arctic and Polar waters (1% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, Bacteroidetes accounted for the majority of HNA cells in the Polar and Arctic province (26% and 32%, respectively), but were low in the Gyre region (3-10%). The DNA content of the HNA population was about 3.5 times higher than that of the LNA populations. This reflects differences in the genome sizes of closely related cultured representatives of HNA clades (3-6Mbp) and LNA clades (1.3-1.5Mbp). PMID:21596506

  18. General Analytical Procedure for Determination of Acidity Parameters of Weak Acids and Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pilarski, Bogusław; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Młodzianowski, Janusz; Balińska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pKa values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pKa values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pKa values and the reference literature data for compounds studied. PMID:25692072

  19. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing. PMID:7508281

  20. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Terés, S.; Barceló-Coblijn, G.; Benet, M.; Álvarez, R.; Bressani, R.; Halver, J. E.; Escribá, P. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as α-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (≈70–80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (HII phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA. PMID:18772370

  1. Intramuscular fat content and genetic variants at fatty acid-binding protein loci in Austrian pigs.

    PubMed

    Nechtelberger, D; Pires, V; Söolknet, J; Stur; Brem, G; Mueller, M; Mueller, S

    2001-11-01

    Intramuscular fat is an important meat quality trait in pig production. Previously, genetic variants of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) gene were suggested to be associated with intramuscular fat content. The objective of this investigation was to study these associations in the three most important Austrian breeding populations (Piétrain, Large White, and Landrace). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the H-FABP gene revealed a new MspI polymorphic site and genetic variation in all three breeds. Microsatellite analysis of the A-FABP locus showed up to nine different microsatellite alleles segregating. In Austrian breeds, no significant influence of the A-FABP and H-FABP gene polymorphisms on intramuscular fat could be detected. We also evaluated possible associations between the genetic variations at the H-FABP and A-FABP loci and other growth and carcass traits (average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat content, pH values, meat color, and drip loss). With regard to the extent of the effects, these genetic markers cannot be recommended for selection on growth and carcass traits in Austrian breeding populations. PMID:11768107

  2. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω − 3/ω − 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω − 3/ω − 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω − 3/ω − 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

  3. Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

  4. Comparison of lipid content and fatty acid composition and their distribution within seeds of 5 small grain species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat, each with two genotypes, were sequentially abraded by an electric seed scarifier. The pearling fines (PF) and pearled kernels (PK) at each cycle were analyzed for lipid (mostly nonpolar) content and fatty acid (FA)composition. The oil content in whole or deh...

  5. Inheritance of sugar and acid contents in the ripe berries of a tetraploid x diploid grape cross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance patterns of sugar and organic acid contents of ripe berries in a tetraploid x diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. Sugar content in tetraploid pro...

  6. [Content determination of dencichine in Panax Notoginseng by a reversed phase ion-pair chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Qu, Yuan; Cui, Xiu-ming

    2015-10-01

    To build a reversed phase ion-pair chromatography to determination content of Dencichine from Panax notoginseng. Using Tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide ions by the combination of reagent and HPLC method without derivatization to test the content of dencichine directly. The optimum conditions of supersonic extraction were solid-to-liquid ratio 1: 20, Continuous ultrasonic extraction: twice, each time 15 minutes; 3,500 r · min⁻¹, then centrifuging 15 minutes. Dencichine in different age, place, part and the different Processing mode were examined. The method is simple with sound separation degree and stability, which can facilitate the determination of dencichine content directly and provide the basis in quality standard of raw material. PMID:27062822

  7. Comparison of bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution versus fecal acidic sterol output in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Duane, W.C.; Holloway, D.E.; Hutton, S.W.; Corcoran, P.J.; Haas, N.A.

    1982-05-01

    Fecal acidic sterol output has been found to be much lower than bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution. Because of this confusing discrepancy, we compared these 2 measurements done simultaneously on 13 occasions in 5 normal volunteers. In contrast to previous findings, bile acid synthesis by the Lindstedt isotope dilution method averaged 16.3% lower than synthesis simultaneously determined by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limit for the difference - 22.2 to -10.4%). When one-sample determinations of bile acid pools were substituted for Lindstedt pools, bile acid synthesis by isotope dilution averaged 5.6% higher than synthesis by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limits -4.9 to 16.1%). These data indicate that the 2 methods yield values in reasonably close agreement with one another. If anything, fecal acidic sterol outputs are slightly higher than synthesis by isotope dilution.

  8. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and major fatty acid groups of lamb M. longissimus lumborum using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Schmidt, Heinar; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-12-01

    A hand held Raman spectroscopic device was used to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) levels and the major fatty acid (FA) groups of fresh intact ovine M. longissimus lumborum (LL). IMF levels were determined using the Soxhlet method, while FA analysis was conducted using a rapid (KOH in water, methanol and sulphuric acid in water) extraction procedure. IMF levels and FA values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against each other using linear regression. The results indicate that there is potential to predict PUFA (R(2)=0.93) and MUFA (R(2)=0.54) as well as SFA values that had been adjusted for IMF content (R(2)=0.54). However, this potential was significantly reduced when correlations between predicted and observed values were determined by cross validation (R(2)cv=0.21-0.00). Overall, the prediction of major FA groups using Raman spectra was more precise (relative reductions in error of 0.3-40.8%) compared to the null models. PMID:26188359

  9. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    PubMed

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology. PMID:24170342

  10. Dielectric-based method for determining moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dielectric-based method was used to determine nondestructively and instantaneously moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. Results of measurement along with standard errors of calibration are show...

  11. NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy for nondestructive moisture content determination of peanut kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content (MC) of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with thes...

  12. 15 CFR 930.156 - Content of a consistency determination or certification and State agency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Content of a consistency determination or certification and State agency response. 930.156 Section 930.156 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  13. 49 CFR 583.6 - Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content. 583.6 Section 583.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  14. 49 CFR 583.6 - Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content. 583.6 Section 583.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  15. 49 CFR 583.6 - Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content. 583.6 Section 583.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  16. 49 CFR 583.6 - Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content. 583.6 Section 583.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  17. 49 CFR 583.6 - Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for determining U.S./Canadian parts content. 583.6 Section 583.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  18. 40 CFR 63.53 - Application content for case-by-case MACT determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.53 Application content for case-by-case...

  19. 40 CFR 63.53 - Application content for case-by-case MACT determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.53 Application content for case-by-case...

  20. 40 CFR 63.53 - Application content for case-by-case MACT determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.53 Application content for case-by-case...

  1. 40 CFR 63.53 - Application content for case-by-case MACT determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.53 Application content for case-by-case...

  2. Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory experiment for determining blood alcohol content using a combination of instrumental analysis and forensic science. Teaches the importance of careful laboratory technique and that experiments are conducted for a reason. Includes the procedure of the experiment. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  3. CORRESPONDENCE OF STABLE ISOTOPE AND GUT CONTENTS ANALYSES IN DETERMINING TROPHIC POSITION OF STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that both stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut contents analysis (GCA) be used in food web studies; however, few researchers have analyzed these data in concert. We utilized SIA and GCA to determine if longitudinal and seasonal variation in diet affects...

  4. Melamine and Cyanuric Acid do not interfere with Bradford and Ninhydrin assays for protein determination

    PubMed Central

    Field, Anjalie; Field, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2007 pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid caused kidney stones in thousands of animals. In the summer of 2008, a more serious outbreak of adulterated dairy food caused the deaths of six infants and sickened about 290,000 children in China. In all cases, melamine was likely added to inflate the apparent protein content of the foods. To determine if we could measure protein without interference from melamine and cyanuric acid we tested these compounds in the Bradford and Ninhydrin assays, two common dye-based assays for protein, as well as by ammonia release, the most common assay used in the food industry. Neither compound was detected in the Ninhydrin and Bradford assays at concentrations of >100 μg/ml. The ammonia assay detected melamine but was inconclusive with respect to cyanuric acid. To develop an accurate test for food that would not detect either chemical as a protein, assays were run on cat food and reconstituted milk powder. The Bradford assay readily measured the protein content of each food, and importantly, the addition of melamine or cyanuric acid to reconstituted milk did not affect the readings. The protein concentrations obtained for reconstituted milk powder were as expected, but those for the cat food were 10 to 30-fold lower, due to its low solubility. We conclude that dye-binding assays can be employed to detect protein in food without interference from melamine and cyanuric acid, thus reducing the incentive to use them as additives. PMID:20228949

  5. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p < 0.05), and slightly increased serum HDL. B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation. PMID:19515264

  6. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each diet; (b) 3 d of fasting; or (c) a combination of 3% beta-alanine added for 8 d and 3 d of fasting. Each maneuver lowered the cortex taurine concentration, but did not significantly lower plasma taurine values compared with controls. Increased BBMV taurine uptake occurred after each manipulation. Feeding 3% glycine did not alter the plasma, renal cortex, or urinary taurine concentrations, or BBMV uptake of taurine. Feeding 3% methionine raised plasma and urinary taurine excretion but renal tissue taurine was unchanged, as was initial BBMV uptake. Hence, nonsulfur-containing alpha-amino acids did not change beta-amino acid transport. The increase in BBMV uptake correlates with the decline in renal cortex and plasma taurine content. However, since 3% methionine changed plasma taurine without altering BBMV uptake, it is more likely that the change in BBMV uptake and the adaptive response expressed at the brush border surface relate to changes in renal cortex taurine concentrations. Finally, despite changes in urine and renal cortex taurine content, brain taurine values were unchanged, which suggests that this renal adaptive response maintains stable taurine concentrations where taurine serves as a neuromodulator. PMID:3935668

  7. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  8. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. PMID:25041215

  9. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  10. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  11. Expression analysis identifies FAD2-2 as the olive oleate desaturase gene mainly responsible for the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Padilla, María N; Mancha, Manuel; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2009-07-22

    The effect of ripening stage and water regimen on oleate desaturase gene expression levels in the fruit of different olive ( Olea europaea L.) varieties was investigated to elucidate the contribution of each to the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil. To this end, fatty acid analysis and quantitative real time PCR were performed using distinct olive tissues and different developmental stages from the Picual and Arbequina cultivars. The results showed that the olive FAD2-1, FAD2-2, and FAD6 genes were spatial and temporally regulated. In addition, the data indicated that FAD2-2 seems to be the main gene responsible for the linoleic acid content in the olive fruit mesocarp tissue. This conclusion was also confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo, and Manzanilla varieties. With regard to the water regimen, unlike the Picual cultivar, a small increase of linoleic acid was observed in the Arbequina variety cultivated with irrigation, which correlated well with the increase detected for the FAD2-2 gene expression level. All of these data strongly suggest that FAD2-2 is the main gene that determines the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil. PMID:19601663

  12. Determination of soil content in chlordecone (organochlorine pesticide) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    PubMed

    Brunet, Didier; Woignier, Thierry; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Rangon, Luc; Barthès, Bernard G

    2009-11-01

    Chlordecone is a toxic organochlorine insecticide that was used in banana plantations until 1993 in the French West Indies. This study aimed at assessing the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining chlordecone content in Andosols, Nitisols and Ferralsols from Martinique. Using partial least square regression, chlordecone content conventionally determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be correctly predicted by NIRS (Q(2) = 0.75, R(2) = 0.82 for the total set), especially for samples with chlordecone content <12 mg kg(-1) or when the sample set was rather homogeneous (Q(2) = 0.91, R(2) = 0.82 for the Andosols). Conventional measures and NIRS predictions were poorly correlated for chlordecone content >12 mg kg(-1), nevertheless ca. 80% samples were correctly predicted when the set was divided into three or four classes of chlordecone content. Thus NIRS could be considered a time- and cost-effective method for characterising soil contamination by chlordecone. PMID:19493598

  13. Habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol contents in copepods

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, R. Patrick; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Effects of habitat and acclimation temperature on cholesterol contents were examined in oceanic and inshore species of copepods. The cholesterol content of five species of thermally acclimated copepods was determined, and nine species (representing six families) were sampled to assess the role of habitat temperature. The species selected have maximum habitat temperatures (and temperature tolerances) that vary at least twofold. Levels of dietary cholesterol required to achieve maximum growth were also studied at different acclimation temperatures in a eurythermal copepod. Both eggs and copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus had higher cholesterol levels at the warm acclimation temperature (16°C) than at the cooler temperature (6°C). Neither Acartia tonsa, Acartia hudsonica, Temora longicornis nor Eurytemora affinis altered cholesterol contents with acclimation temperature. Maximum growth rates were achieved at fourfold higher concentrations of dietary cholesterol in warm-acclimated Eurytemora affinis than in cold-acclimated animals. The most consistent trend is the positive relationship between cholesterol content and habitat temperature. Species residing in warmer habitats (e.g. Centropages typicus, Eurytemora affinis) had approximately twice the cholesterol of species living in colder waters (e.g. Calanus glacialis, Euchaeta norvegica). A similar pattern was observed for comparisons of species within genera (Calanus, Acartia and Centropages), with the species abundant at lower latitudes having more cholesterol than the northern congener. These data indicate that habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol content, and cholesterol endows membranes with the stability required for a range of body temperatures. PMID:19088212

  14. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). PMID:27283641

  15. [Determination of docosahexaenoic acid in milk powder by gas chromatography using acid hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Shao, Shiping; Xiang, Dapeng; Li, Shuang; Xi, Xinglin; Chen, Wenrui

    2015-11-01

    A method to determine docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in milk powder by gas chromatography was established. The milk powder samples were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, extracted to get total fatty acids by Soxhlet extractor, then esterified with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to form methyl esters, and treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate. The optimal experiment conditions were obtained from orthogonal experiment L9(3(3)) which performed with three factors and three levels, and it requires the reaction performed with 1 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution at 25 degrees C for 5 min. The derivative treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate was separated on a column of SP-2560 (100 m x 0.25 mm x 0.20 μm), and determined in 55 min by temperature programming-gas chromatography. Good linearity was obtained in the range 5.0-300 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.4%, 1.2% and 1.1% for the seven repeated experiments of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L of DHA, respectively. The limit of detection was 2 mg/kg, and the recoveries of DHA were in the range of 90.4%-93.5%. The results are satisfactory through the tests of practical samples. PMID:26939370

  16. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns.

    PubMed

    Jawla, Sudheer K; Nanni, Emilio A; Shapiro, Michael A; Woskov, Paul P; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique. PMID:25264391

  17. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jawla, Sudheer K.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Woskov, Paul P.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique. PMID:25264391

  18. Revised Methodology for Determining Cesium-137 Content of HN-200 Grout Containers

    SciTech Connect

    SHELOR, J.L.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this technical paper is to examine the accuracy of the existing method of determining the Cs-137 content of HN-200 grout containers and compare that accuracy to the accuracy attainable by other methods of measurement. The methods of measurement to be compared include: Contact measurements on a grouted container (existing method); Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of a grouted container; Measurements at 10 feet from a grouted container; Measurements on contact with the surface of an ungrouted container; Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container; and Measurements at 10 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container. Once the most accurate and useable method is determined, the precepts for an operating procedure will be provided for determining the Cs-137 content of newly generated and future HN-200 grout containers as well as the grouted legacy containers currently stored in B Cell.

  19. Triploidy does not decrease contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in filets of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Artamonova, Valentina S; Makhrov, Alexander A; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kalachova, Galina S; Dgebuadze, Yury Y

    2017-02-01

    Triploid fish has become an important item of commercial aquaculture, but data on its fatty acid (FA) composition are still controversial, especially regarding essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). We studied FA composition and content of diploid and triploid pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, reared in aquaculture in a bay of the White Sea (Russia). FA composition, measured as percentages of total FA of triploids and immature diploid females significantly differed from that of mature diploid fish. Specifically, mature diploids had higher percentage of EPA and DHA in their muscle tissue (filets) compared to that of triploids and immature diploid females. Nevertheless, the contents of EPA and DHA per mass of the filets in diploid and triploid specimens were similar. Thus, no special efforts are needed to improve EPA and DHA contents in filets of triploids. PMID:27596393

  20. X-ray diffractometric determination of crystalline phase content in bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    De Maeyer, E A; Verbeeck, R M

    2001-12-01

    A rapid routine determination of the content of crystalline CaF(2) and Al(2)O(3) inclusions in bioactive glass ceramics is performed using X-ray diffractometry with a standard addition technique. Multiple ratio analysis, even using peaks with different broadenings, indicates that differences in crystallite properties (e.g., crystal imperfection, particle size and morphology, preferred orientation) between the unknown sample and standard do not bias the result. In this respect, an exact match between their crystallographic integrities does not seem to be required for a reliable estimation of the crystalline content with a relative standard deviation of 7%. PMID:11523042

  1. [The quantitative determination of bone mineral content--a system comparison of similarly built computed tomographs].

    PubMed

    Andresen, R; Radmer, S; Banzer, D; Felsenberg, D; Wolf, K J

    1994-03-01

    An intercomparison of 4 CT scanners of the same manufacturer was performed. The bone mineral content of 11 lumbar vertebral columns removed directly post mortem was determined in a specially constructed lucite-water phantom. Even devices of the same construction were shown to yield a variation in the quantitative evaluation markedly exceeding the annual physiological mineral loss. As long as scanner adjustment by physical calibration phantoms has not yet been established, a course assessment and therapy control of bone mineral content should always be carried out on the same QCT scanner. PMID:8136480

  2. The use of low-coherence interferometer for sugar content determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the implementation of low-coherence interferometer with signal processing in time domain for sugar content determination in aqueous solution is presented. The elaborated measurement set-up was tested with the use of synthesized source made of two low-coherence sources. The use of two sources with dedicated parameters enabled to obtain a proper metrological parameters of the measurement system. The elaborated low-coherence system enables to measure sugar content in aqueous solution with correlation coefficient R2 equal to 1, and the relative error of measurement in the range of ± 5,8%.

  3. Seasonal variation of fatty acid content in natural microplankton from the Tumpat coastal waters of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, L

    1998-07-01

    In the search for better understanding on the nutritional quality of natural tropical plankton, samples were collected from shallow coastal waters facing the South China Sea during the dry monsoon (May-September) and the wet monsoon (November-April) seasons from March 1993 to July 1994. The total fatty acid content of the predominantly phytoplankton communities (25-200 microns sieve nets) varied four to fivefold with the lowest value occurring during the dry monsoon when blue-green became predominant. Saturated fatty acid content (SAFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and total omega 3 (sigma omega 3) showed the same seasonal pattern as the total fatty acid with high values in October to December 1993. When species of the dinoflagellate Peridinium and Ceratium were present in considerable amount, the docosahexaenoic acid DHA content was high, especially from March to May 1993. The maximum content of eicosapentaenoic acid EPA, total omega-3 fatty acid, PUFA and sigma omega 3 in phytoplankton occurred during the pre-monsoon period (October and November 1993) when the diatoms were present in large amounts. The larger fraction sample (> 200 microns sieve nets) which consisted predominantly of zooplankton had high amounts of PUFA from September to November 1993. PMID:10099722

  4. Quantitative metallographic method for determining delta ferrite content in austenitic stainless steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pressly, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Delta ferrite is a magnetic form of iron and has a body centered cubic crystal structure. It is often present as a nonequilibrium phase in austenitic stainless steel welds, castings, and wrought materials. The ferrite content of austenitic stainless steel can directly affect its properties, especially weldability and formability. Therefore, it is highly desirable to be able to predict and/or measure the ferrite content accurately. Current magnetic ferrite measuring methods are not applicable when test materials are geometrically small (less than 2.54 mm thick and 6.35 mm wide). Therefore, a standard metallographic test method STM 00107-A was established to determine delta ferrite content in small weldments and base metals of austenitic stainless steel. This standard test method (STM 00107-A) was then performed on several exemplary metallographic specimens to illustrate its capabilities and applications. The results from the exemplary tests were compared and contrasted to metallographic manual point count measurements, Ferritescope measurements, and predicted values calculated from chemical analyses. By utilizing the manual metallographic point count data, an accuracy of +-16% and a precision of +-0.77% were determined for the standard test method. The comparison of Ferritescope data to standard test method revealed that the results obtained by the two methods are close at low (0 to 3%) ferrite contents and Ferritscope results are substantially greater at higher (6 to 10%) ferrite contents. The standard test method data compiled from the exemplary weld specimens was noted to be very similar to the predicted values calculated from chemical analyses. It was also shown that because the standard test method utilizes optics the morphology of the delta ferrite particles can be determined. This type of determination is possible only with metallographic methods.

  5. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, Ricardo; Coates, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 deaths yearly. Early data showing the benefits n-3 fatty acids provide in preventing CHD disease were obtained using 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids derived from fish. Recently, however, it has been shown that reduced risks of CHD and other cardiovascular diseases are found with 18:3n-3 fatty acid as well. To determine if 18:3n-3 fatty acids positively influence plasma composition, 32 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum four isocaloric diets with the energy derived from corn oil (T(1)), whole chia seed (T(2)), ground chia seed (T(3)), or chia oil (T(4)) for 30 days. At the end of the feeding period the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were analyzed to determine serum CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG content, hemogram, and fatty acid composition. Chia decreased serum TG content and increased HDL content. Only with the T(2) diet was TG significantly (p < 0.05) lower, and only with the T(3) diet was HDL significantly (p < 0.05) higher, than the control diet. Chia significantly (p < 0.05) increased the 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 plasma contents compared to the control diet, with no significant (p < 0.05) difference among chia diets detected. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was observed for all chia diets when compared to the control. PMID:17356263

  6. Evolution of the phase content of zirconia powders prepared by sol-gel acid hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, P.C.; Martinez, J.A.; Caracoche, M.C.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Lopez Garcia, A.R.; Pavlik, R.S. Jr.; Klein, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of the phase content in zirconia powders that have been prepared by sol-gel acid hydrolysis has been investigated using the perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) technique and X-ray diffractometry. As a consequence of performing annealing treatments at increasing temperatures between room temperature and 1,000 C, the amorphous starting material transforms to the tetragonal form and then to the monoclinic form. The metastable tetragonal phase exhibits two hyperfine components, one of which describes very defective zirconium surroundings. The evolution of PAC relative fractions is in agreement with the diffraction results. The durability of the samples in sodium hydroxide seems to increase as the relative amount of the most-defective zirconium surroundings of the tetragonal form increases.

  7. [Determination of the content of sulfur of coal by the infrared absorption method with high acccuracy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Lu, Hai; Li, Jia; Sun, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jun; Dai, Xin-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reported the differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry curves and the infrared (IR) absorption spectrometry under the temperature program analyzed by the combined simultaneous thermal analysis-IR spectrometer. The gas products of coal were identified by the IR spectrometry. This paper emphasized on the combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, a convenient and accurate method, which measures the content of sulfur in coal indirectly through the determination of the content of sulfur dioxide in the mixed gas products by IR absorption. It was demonstrated, when the instrument was calibrated by varied pure compounds containing sulfur and certified reference materials (CRMs) for coal, that there was a large deviation in the measured sulfur contents. It indicates that the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between CRMs and the analyte results in a systematic error. The time-IR absorption curve was utilized to analyze the composition of sulfur at low temperatures and high temperatures and then the sulfur content of coal sample was determined by using a CRM for coal with a close composition of sulfur. Therefore, the systematic error due to the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between the CRM and analyte was eliminated. On the other hand, in this combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, the mass of CRM and analyte were adjusted to assure the sulfur mass equal and then the CRM and the analyte were measured alternately. This single-point calibration method reduced the effect of the drift of the IR detector and improved the repeatability of results, compared with the conventional multi-point calibration method using the calibration curves of signal intensity vs sulfur mass. The sulfur content results and their standard deviations of an anthracite coal and a bituminous coal with a low sulfur content determined by this modified method were 0.345% (0.004%) and 0.372% (0.008%), respectively. The uncertainty (U

  8. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  9. Application of neural networks to determine moisture content on humidity-attenuated NIR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, T.; Philipp, B.L.; Thompson-Bachmeier, S.

    1995-12-31

    Moisture has been identified as one of the critical tank waste parameters that impacts the safety status of the wastes, particularly tanks containing ferro/ferricyanide materials. Since water content is affected by a number of factors, including gravity, one hypothesis, currently being tested by Westinghouse Hanford`s Waste Tank Safety organization, is that the surface of the waste contains a minimum of water compared to the material deeper in the tank. Assuming this hypothesis is correct, a minimum internal waste water content will be obtained by measuring the surface water content. Near infrared analysis is a nondestructive technique that takes advantage of the tendency of water molecules to absorb specific wavelengths of NIR energy. When a sample containing water is exposed to those wavelengths, a certain portion of the energy will be absorbed by the water, and the remainder will be reflected. By measuring the reflected energy, the concentration of water in the sample can be determined. An initial investigation into the feasibility of remote sensing for hot cell and waste tank applications was performed at the University of Washington`s Center for Process Analytical Chemistry (CPAC) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The BY-104 waste tank simulant test data showed that for these samples, ten percent of the incident radiation is scattered. When collected, this signal is available for determining moisture content because the moisture content of the waste affects the scattering. However, atmospheric relative humidity causes a signal attenuation that will impact any in situ measurements being obtained. For simulation, this spectra was used along with software generated atmospheric transmission data from 0-60 meters to produce a modified sample set. These data are analyzed using a backpropagation neural network algorithm to construct a model that would predict surface moisture content.

  10. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  11. [Effect of municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers on phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contents in Ipomoea aquatica grown on paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Cai, Quanying; Mo, Cehui; Zhu, Xizhen; Wu, Qitang; Wang, Boguang; Jiang, Chengai; Li, Haiqin

    2003-11-01

    GC/MS determinations on six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in Ipomoea aquatic grown on potted paddy soil fertilized with municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers showed that the total contents of PAEs (sigma PAEs) in Ipomoea aquatic aboveground parts ranged from 2.129 mg.kg-1 to 7.111 mg.kg-1, decreasing in order of Guangzhou sludge + fertilizers (7.111 mg.kg-1) > Guangzhou sludge (4.767 mg.kg-1) > Foshan sludge (3.569 mg.kg-1) > Foshan sludge + fertilizers (3.305 mg.kg-1) > fertilizers (2.638 mg.kg-1) > control (2.129 mg.kg-1), indicating that compared with control, fertilization increased sigma PAEs in Ipomoea aquatica to a different extent. Only certain compounds of PAEs in different treatments of Ipomoea aquatica were dominant, e.g., butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) in control, chemical fertilizers, Foshan sludge, and Guangzhou sludge accounted for 40% to 80% of sigma PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate(DnBP) in foshan sludge + chemical fertilizers accounted for 56%, while di-n-octyl phthalate(DnOP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP) and BBP in Guangzhou sludge + chemical fertilizers accounted for approximately 30%. sigma PAEs and the contents of its most compounds were higher in the plants of Ipomoea aquatica than in its roots to a different extent. PMID:14997666

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Determination of Volatile Matter Content of Methacrylate Multicomponent Coatings Used as Traffic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... modification to Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 applies to the determination of volatile matter... be determined by section 3.5 of Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60. 2.2Immediately after... content, and density. To determine water content, follow section 3.4 of Method 24 of appendix A of 40...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Determination of Volatile Matter Content of Methacrylate Multicomponent Coatings Used as Traffic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... modification to Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 applies to the determination of volatile matter... be determined by section 3.5 of Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60. 2.2Immediately after... content, and density. To determine water content, follow section 3.4 of Method 24 of appendix A of 40...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Determination of Volatile Matter Content of Methacrylate Multicomponent Coatings Used as Traffic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... content, and density. To determine water content, follow section 3.4 of Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR... modification to Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 applies to the determination of volatile matter... be determined by section 3.5 of Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60. 2.2Immediately...

  15. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  16. Plasmid-Controlled Variation in the Content of Methylated Bases in Bacteriophage Lambda Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hattman, Stanley

    1972-01-01

    The N6-methyladenine (MeAde) and 5-methylcytosine (MeC) contents in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of bacteriophage lambda has been analyzed as a function of host specificity. The following facts have emerged: (i) lambda grown on strains harboring the P1 prophage contain ca. 70 more MeAde residues/DNA molecule than lambda grown either in the P1-sensitive parent, or in a P1 immune-defective lysogen which does not confer P1 modification; (ii) lambda grown on strains harboring the N-3 drug-resistance factor contain ca. 60 more MeC residues/DNA molecule than lambda grown on the parental strain lacking the factor; (iii) lambda grown in Escherichia coli B strains is devoid of MeC, whereas lambda grown in a B (N-3) host contains a high level of MeC; (iv) the MeAde content in lambda DNA is not affected by the N-3 factor. These results suggest that P1 controls an adenine-specific DNA methylase, and that the N-3 plasmid controls a cytosine-specific DNA methylase. The N-3 factor has been observed previously to direct cytosine-specific methylation of phage P22 DNA and E. coli B DNA in vivo; in vitro studies presented here demonstrate this activity. PMID:4561202

  17. Effect of clay content on morphology and processability of electrospun keratin/poly(lactic acid) nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Isarankura Na Ayutthaya, Siriorn; Tanpichai, Supachok; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2016-04-01

    This research work has concerned the development of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal filters from biomaterials, based on keratin extracted from chicken feather waste and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (50/50%w/w) blend. Clay (Na-montmorillonite) was also added to the blend solution prior to carrying out an electro-spinning process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clay content on viscosity, conductivity, and morphology of the electrospun fibers. Scanning electron micrographs showed that smooth and bead-free fibers were obtained when clay content used was below 2 pph. XRD patterns of the electrospun fibers indicated that the clay was intercalated and exfoliated within the polymers matrix. Percentage crystallinity of keratin in the blend increased after adding the clay, as evidenced from FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a kind of core-shell structure with clay being predominately resided within the keratin rich shell and at the interfacial region. Filtration performance of the electrospun keratin/PLA fibers, described in terms of pressure drop and its capability of removing methylene blue, were also explored. Overall, our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve process-ability, morphology and filtration efficiency of the electrospun keratin fibers by adding a suitable amount of clay. PMID:26776870

  18. RF impedance method for nondestructive moisture content determination for in-shell peanuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Nelson, S. O.

    2007-04-01

    A method was developed earlier for estimating the moisture content (mc) in samples of wheat, corn and peanut kernels, nondestructively, by measuring their complex impedance values. In this method, capacitance (C), phase angle (θ) and dissipation factor (D) were measured with an impedance analyser at 1 and 5 MHz on a parallel-plate capacitor holding a few kernels of a particular commodity between the plates. These values were then used in an empirical equation based on the parameters C, θ and D, and the moisture content was calculated. The calculated mc values were within 1% of the air-oven values for about 85% of the kernel samples tested in the moisture range from 6% to 20% for wheat, corn and peanuts. However, it would be useful during drying and processing of peanuts, if the mc could be determined without shelling them. In this work, the feasibility of determining the moisture content of in-shell peanuts (pods) by similar impedance measurements was investigated. Values of capacitance, phase angle and dissipation factor measured at 24 °C and at three frequencies were used in a modified prediction equation and the moisture content was estimated within 1% of the air-oven values for over 90% of the pod samples tested in the moisture range from 6% to 25%. The method is rapid and nondestructive and may be used in the development of a commercial instrument.

  19. Determination of purine contents of alcoholic beverages using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Yamanobe, Tomoyo; Fujimori, Shin

    2009-08-01

    The purine contents of alcoholic beverages were determined in order to utilize them in the dietary care of gout and hyperuricemia. In the management of these diseases, restriction of both alcohol and purine intake are important. The method employed in this study is a quantitative determination of purine contents by HPLC. Alcoholic beverages were hydrolyzed to corresponding purine bases, which were then separated by HPLC, and base peaks were identified using an enzymatic peak-shift technique. This method is sufficiently accurate and reproducible to examine the purine contents of various alcoholic beverages that patients consume. Purine contents were as follows: spirits, 0.7-26.4 micromol/L; regular beer, 225.0-580.2 micromol/L; low-malt beer, 193.4-267.9 micromol/L; low-malt and low-purine beer, 13.3 micromol/L; other liquors, 13.1-818.3 micromol/L. Some local and low-alcohol beers were found to contain about 2.5 times more purines than regular beer. As some alcoholic beverages contain considerable amounts of purines, we recommend that excess consumption of these beverages be avoided. These data should be useful in the management of hyperuricemia and gout, not only for patients but also for physicians. PMID:19353717

  20. Determining leaf dry matter content using the normalized dry matter index and its possible application for estimating fuel moisture content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Normalized Dry Matter Index (NDMI) was developed for the remote sensing of dry matter content using high-spectral resolution data. This narrow-band index is based on absorption at a C-H bond stretch overtone (1722 nm wavelength) and is correlated with dry matter content in fresh green leaves. ...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during...

  3. Capillary electrophoresis determination of glucosamine in nutraceutical formulations after labeling with anthranilic acid and UV detection.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola

    2009-04-01

    A new robust CE method for the determination of the glucosamine (GlcN) content in nutraceutical formulations is described after its derivatization with anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, AA). The CE separation of derivatized GlcN with AA was performed on an uncoated fused-silica capillary tube (50 microm I.D.) using an operating pH 7.0 buffer of 150 mM boric acid/50 mM NaH2PO4 and UV detection at 214 nm. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The detector response for GlcN was linear over the selected concentration range from 240 to 2400 pg (40-400 microg/mL) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.980. The intra- and inter-day variations (CV%) were between 0.5 and 0.9 for migration time, and between 2.8 and 4.3 for peak area, respectively. The LOD and the LOQ of the method were approximately 200 and 500 pg, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracy was estimated to range from 2.8% to 5.1%, while the percent recoveries of GlcN in formulations were calculated to be about 100% after simple centrifugation for 10 min, lyophilization and derivatization with AA. The CE method was applied to the determination of GlcN content, in the form of GlcN-hydrochloride or GlcN-sulfate, of several nutraceutical preparations in the presence of other ingredients, i.e. chondroitin sulfate, vitamin C and/or methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) as well as salts and other agents. The quantitative results obtained were in total conformity with the label claims. PMID:19200685

  4. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-03-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using /sup 14/C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among tested cultivars for pH, total soluble solid, hardness, color parameters, antioxidant activities and pomological measurements (P < 0.05). The color parameters were important tools for the determination of fruit maturity and anthocyanin contents. Belge cultivar showed the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while Starks Gold contained the lowest level of anthocyanins. The darker cultivars, measured by ABTS(+•) , DPPH(•) and FRAP, exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the lighter ones. Bing (42.78 g/kg) and Sweetheart (40.53 g/kg) cultivars contained higher levels of malic acid, which was the most intense organic acid in sweet cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. PMID:25631389

  6. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA), eicosapentanoic (EPA), and arachidonic (AA) acids were present in very small amounts (<1%). In addition, the AA/EPA ratio was low (0.18). The fat and energetic values decreased (P < 0.01) during lactation. The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acids content and an increase (P < 0.01) in the unsaturated fatty acids content. The n-6 to n-3 ratio and the LA/ALA ratio were approximately 2:1, with values <1 during the last period of lactation, suggesting the more optimal use of milk during this period. Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio

  7. Fatty acid content and profile of the aerial microalga Coccomyxa sp. isolated from dry environments.

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsuya; Ishiwatari, Takehiro; Wakamatsu, Michihiro; Aburai, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Aerial algae are considered to be highly tolerant of and adaptable to severe conditions including radiation, desiccation, high temperatures, and nutrient deficiency, compared with those from aquatic habitats. There are considerable variations in the fatty acid (FA) composition of aerial microalgae from dry environments. A new species with a high lipid level was found on concrete surfaces and was identified as Coccomyxa sp. KGU-D001 (Trebouxiophyceae). This study characterized its FA content and profile in a bath culture. The alga showed a constant specific growth rate (0.26 day(-1)) ranging in light intensity from 20 to 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). The algal cells started to form oil bodies in the early stationary phase of growth, and oil bodies occupied most of the cells during the late stationary phase when the cells accumulated 27 % total fatty acids (TFA). The process of lipid body formation accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) appeared to be very unusual in response to stress conditions persisting for a relatively long culture time (50 days). This study could indicate that aerial microalgae will be a candidate for biodiesel production when a new cultivation method is developed using extreme stresses such as nutritional deficiency and/or desiccation. PMID:25146196

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variations of High and Low Nucleic Acid Content Bacteria in an Exorheic River

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lili; Ji, Yurui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) content are commonly observed in aquatic environments. To date, limited knowledge is available on their temporal and spatial variations in freshwater environments. Here an investigation of HNA and LNA bacterial abundance and their flow cytometric characteristics was conducted in an exorheic river (Haihe River, Northern China) over a one year period covering September (autumn) 2011, December (winter) 2011, April (spring) 2012, and July (summer) 2012. The results showed that LNA and HNA bacteria contributed similarly to the total bacterial abundance on both the spatial and temporal scale. The variability of HNA on abundance, fluorescence intensity (FL1) and side scatter (SSC) were more sensitive to environmental factors than that of LNA bacteria. Meanwhile, the relative distance of SSC between HNA and LNA was more variable than that of FL1. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that the influence of geographical distance (reflected by the salinity gradient along river to ocean) and temporal changes (as temperature variation due to seasonal succession) on the patterns of LNA and HNA were stronger than the effects of nutrient conditions. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the distribution of LNA and HNA bacteria, including the abundance, FL1 and SSC, was controlled by different variables. The results suggested that LNA and HNA bacteria might play different ecological roles in the exorheic river. PMID:27082986

  9. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  10. Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A.; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J.; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of 13C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762

  11. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  12. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications. PMID:27033986

  13. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  14. Fast determination of total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan; Lu, Yong-jun; Cao, Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast determination method for total ginsenosides in Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) powder. The spectra were analyzed with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) correlation method. The best correlative spectra region with the total ginsenosides content was 1660 nm~1880 nm and 2230nm~2380 nm. The NIR calibration models of ginsenosides were built with multiple linear regression (MLR), principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression respectively. The results showed that the calibration model built with PLS combined with MSC and the optimal spectrum region was the best one. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of correction validation (RMSEC) of the best calibration model were 0.98 and 0.15% respectively. The optimal spectrum region for calibration was 1204nm~2014nm. The result suggested that using NIR to rapidly determinate the total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder were feasible.

  15. Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of (13)C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762

  16. Slow bainite: an opportunity to determine the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite during growth

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, Francesca G.; Miller, Michael K; Garcia-Mateo, C.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of carbon in solid solution in bainitic ferrite at the early stage of transformation has been directly determined by atom probe tomography at 200 C, taking advantage of the extremely slow transformation kinetics of a novel nanocrystalline steel. Results demonstrated that the original bainitic ferrite retains much of the carbon content of the parent austenite providing strong evidence that bainite transformation is essentially displacive in nature. In this work, the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite away from any carbon-enriched regions has been determined by atom probe tomography as the bainite transformation progresses at 200 C in this nanocrystalline steel. Results provide experimental evidence for the mechanism controlling bainitic ferrite growth in steels.

  17. Gas-phase photoacoustic determination of the total carbon content of aerosol deposits.

    PubMed

    Pleil, J D; Russwurm, G M; McClenny, W A

    1982-01-01

    A prototype system was constructed to determine the total carbon content of ambient aerosols trapped on quartz fiber filters. The measurement technique is based on carbon combustion to CO(2), cryogenic precon-centration, and subsequent photoacoustic monitoring of produced CO(2). A common sample set was independently analyzed by two established combustion method instruments and the photoacoustic system. Statistical comparison of data showed good agreement with accepted carbon values indicating feasibility for photoacoustic application to routine carbon analysis. PMID:20372416

  18. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application. PMID:24611412

  19. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  20. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have large implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  1. Novel graphene flowers modified carbon fibers for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiao; Yue, Ruirui; Ren, Fangfang; Yao, Zhangquan; Jiang, Fengxing; Yang, Ping; Du, Yukou

    2014-03-15

    A novel and sensitive carbon fiber electrode (CFE) modified by graphene flowers was prepared and used to simultaneously determine ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). SEM images showed that beautiful and layer-petal graphene flowers homogeneously bloomed on the surface of CFE. Moreover, sharp and obvious oxidation peaks were found at the obtained electrode when compared with CFE and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the oxidation of AA, DA and UA. Also, the linear calibration plots for AA, DA and UA were observed, respectively, in the ranges of 45.4-1489.23 μM, 0.7-45.21 μM and 3.78-183.87 μM in the individual detection of each component. By simultaneously changing the concentrations of AA, DA and UA, their oxidation peaks appeared at -0.05 V, 0.16 V and 2.6 V, and the good linear responses ranges were 73.52-2305.53 μM, 1.36-125.69 μM and 3.98-371.49 μM, respectively. In addition, the obtained electrode showed satisfactory results when applied to the determination of AA, DA and UA in urine and serum samples. PMID:24140872

  2. [Quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin contents using in-situ canopy spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; Li, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Xue-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The present study is the first to attempt to apply the in situ hyperspectral data of G. uralensis canopy in visible-shortwave infrared region (Vis-SWIR) to estimate quantification of GA and LQ contents of glycyrrhiza uralensis. After first derivative preprocessing and feature bands selection by Wilks' lambda stepwise method, partial least squares (PLS) regression with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as reference was constructed to predict the value of GA and LQ contents, respectively. With the nine selected bands and PLS regression model, GA regression accuracy of R2 is 0.953, root mean square errors of calibration set (RMSEC) is 0.31, prediction accuracy R2 is 0.875 and root mean square errors of validation set (RMSEP) is 0.39; LQ regression accuracy of R2 is 0.932, RMSEC is 0.22, prediction accuracy R2 is 0.883 and RMSEP is 0.27; The results showed that our methods provided acceptable results and implied the ability of determining GA and LQ contents from remotely sensed data. It is recommended that an advanced study be conducted in field condition using airborne and/or spaceborne hyperspectral sensors. PMID:25269311

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents.

    PubMed

    Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007

  4. Determination of Apparent Amylose Content in Rice by Using Paper-Based Microfluidic Chips.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianqiao; Lu, Lin; Fang, Changyun; Duan, Binwu; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-11-11

    Determination of apparent amylose content in rice is a key function for rice research and the rice industry. In this paper, a novel approach with paper-based microfluidic chip is reported to determine apparent amylose content in rice. The conventional color reaction between amylose and iodine was employed. Blue color of amylose-iodine complex generated on-chip was converted to gray and measured with Photoshop after the colored chip was scanned. The method for preparation of the paper chip is described. In situ generation of iodine for on-chip color reaction was designed, and factors influencing color reaction were investigated in detail. Elimination of yellow color interference of excess iodine by exploiting color removal function of Photoshop was presented. Under the optimized conditions, apparent amylose content in rice ranging from 1.5 to 26.4% can be determined, and precision was 6.3%. The analytical results obtained with the developed approach were in good agreement with those with the continuous flow analyzer method. PMID:26495809

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents

    PubMed Central

    Boukhary, Rima; Ghoneim, Asser I.; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007

  6. Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Calić-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravković-Korać, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulović, Katarina; Radojević, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

    2010-05-01

    Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium. PMID:20645800

  7. Chemical Constituents from Daphne giraldii Nitsche and Their Contents Simultaneous Determination by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Huyiligeqi; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yang, Chunjing; Xu, Guanling; Cao, Sali; Fu, Jing; Lin, Longfei; Ni, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai, which has been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat ache and rheumatism. Pharmacologic tests have revealed that the plant has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities. However, there is still not enough systemic investigation on the chemical constituents and the method for the contents simultaneous determination in D. giraldii. Therefore, the isolation and characterization of the compounds from the stem barks of this plant were reported. Moreover, a facile, accurate, and reliable method has been developed and validated for their simultaneous determination using HPLC-DAD. PMID:27190543

  8. Determination of water content by capillary gas chromatography coupled with thermal conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Lodi, A; Bellini, M S; Clavel, A; Pijnenburg, N

    2011-11-01

    This article presents some experience obtained by applying capillary gas chromatography coupled with thermal conductivity detection (GC/TCD) to the determination of water in substances for pharmaceutical use. This technique represents a useful, orthogonal tool complementary to water determination methods based on volumetric or coulometric titration. It can also represent an alternative technique when such titrations are not applicable. This article presents the preliminary results obtained in a number of case studies where a GC/TCD procedure was applied in comparison with pharmacopoeial methods to substances with different water contents. PMID:22225767

  9. [Study of Determination of Oil Mixture Components Content Based on Quasi-Monte Carlo Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-tian; Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-fei; Chen, Meng-han; Wang, Shi-tao

    2015-05-01

    Gasoline, kerosene, diesel is processed by crude oil with different distillation range. The boiling range of gasoline is 35 ~205 °C. The boiling range of kerosene is 140~250 °C. And the boiling range of diesel is 180~370 °C. At the same time, the carbon chain length of differentmineral oil is different. The carbon chain-length of gasoline is within the scope of C7 to C11. The carbon chain length of kerosene is within the scope of C12 to C15. And the carbon chain length of diesel is within the scope of C15 to C18. The recognition and quantitative measurement of three kinds of mineral oil is based on different fluorescence spectrum formed in their different carbon number distribution characteristics. Mineral oil pollution occurs frequently, so monitoring mineral oil content in the ocean is very important. A new method of components content determination of spectra overlapping mineral oil mixture is proposed, with calculation of characteristic peak power integrationof three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum by using Quasi-Monte Carlo Method, combined with optimal algorithm solving optimum number of characteristic peak and range of integral region, solving nonlinear equations by using BFGS(a rank to two update method named after its inventor surname first letter, Boyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb and Shanno) method. Peak power accumulation of determined points in selected area is sensitive to small changes of fluorescence spectral line, so the measurement of small changes of component content is sensitive. At the same time, compared with the single point measurement, measurement sensitivity is improved by the decrease influence of random error due to the selection of points. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and fluorescence contour spectra of single mineral oil and the mixture are measured by taking kerosene, diesel and gasoline as research objects, with a single mineral oil regarded whole, not considered each mineral oil components. Six characteristic peaks are

  10. Rapid acid digestion and simple microplate method for milk iodine determination.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Ordookhani, Arash; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-01-01

    Iodine deficiency leads to deficiency of thyroid hormones, which causes mental retardation in infant. Laboratory confirmation is important in its diagnosis. The major problems associated with the existing methods for iodine determination in milk samples are: 1) nonsafe alkaline solution; 2) harsh thermal condition; and 3) extra time required to complete various steps. In this study, a simple and rapid colorimetric method was investigated, which used acid digestion in combination with a rapid microplate reading format method to determine the total iodine content in milk. Sample digestion was done on 50 microL milk in metavanadate/perchloric, at 230 degrees C for 10 min. After digestion, iodine determination was based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The reaction results were read in 96-well microplates by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reader. The determination range of the assay was between 2 and 40 microg/dL. The within-run coefficient of variation percent in three levels (3, 12, and 36 microg/dL) ranged from 6.7 to 9.3 and between-run coefficients of variation ranged from 8.6 to 12.3%. The results obtained (n=70) by the optimized method have good correlation with the results of alkaline incineration as a reference method (n=70; r2=0.907; y=0.952x+1.77). Recovery tests for accuracy assessment in six levels from 6.2 to 34.2 microg/dL) were between 91.3 and 113%. This method has enabled us to achieve 0.12 microg/dL sensitivity. The results of this study show that a quick acid digestion combined with mild thermal and low sample volume with a quick reading of assay results were the main advantages of the acid digestion and microplate reading format. PMID:17847102

  11. Efficiency of fatty acid synthesis by oleaginous yeasts: Prediction of yield and fatty acid cell content from consumed C/N ratio by a simple method.

    PubMed

    Granger, L M; Perlot, P; Goma, G; Pareilleux, A

    1993-11-20

    In nitrogen-limited media, growth and fatty acid formation by the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis, i.e., yield and fatty acid cell content, have been characterized regarding carbon and nitrogen availabilities. It was shown that the formation of fatty acid free biomass was limited by nitrogen availability, whereas the fatty acid production was directly dependent on the consumed C/N ratio. According to these observations, the fraction of substrate consumed for fatty acid synthesis was estimated by using a simple method based on the actual yields, i.e., the mass of carbon source strictly converted into fatty acids and fatty acid free biomass. From these results, relationships were established allowing to predict in a simple and performing manner the maximal attainable fatty acid cell content and yield from the available carbon and nitrogen. These relationships were validated by using experimental data obtained by various authors with different yeast strains, and the proposed method was compared to the energetic and mass balance method previously described. PMID:18609663

  12. Determining the sulfuric acid fog concentration in coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zin'kovskaya, S.I.; Okhrimenko, E.L.; Sobko, L.V.

    1982-11-06

    A volumetric method for the analysis of sulfuric acid aerosols at levels of acid greater (25-40 g/m/sup 3/) than those (1 g/m/sup 3/) analyzable by current methods is described. Coke oven gas after acid scrubbing and electrofiltration is passed through a Schott filter (pressure drop 100 mm Hg), the sulfuric acid aerosol being condensed on the filter which is washed with water and the washings filtered with NaOH (0.01 N after electrofilter, 1.0 N after the acid towers) to methyl orange end point. The error is +/- 2%.

  13. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  14. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty

  15. Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A M; Nyman, E M; Björck, I M

    2001-09-01

    Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) processed to differ in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates were used to study hindgut fermentability and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Bean flours with low or high content of resistant starch (RS), mainly raw and physically-inaccessible starch, were obtained by milling the beans before or after boiling. Flours containing retrograded starch and with a high or low content of oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving followed by freeze-drying with or without the boiling water. Six diets were prepared from these flours yielding a total concentration of indigestible carbohydrates of 90 or 120 g/kg (dry weight basis). The total fermentability of the indigestible carbohydrates was high with all diets (80-87 %). Raw and physically-inaccessible starch was more readily fermented than retrograded starch (97-99 % v. 86-95 %; ). Non-starch glucans were fermented to a lesser extent than RS, but the fermentability was higher in the case of autoclaved (50-54 %) than boiled beans (37-41 %). The distribution between acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the caecum was similar for all diets, with a comparatively high percentage of butyric acid (approximately 18). However, with diets containing the high amounts of RS, the butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in the distal colon than in the proximal colon ( and for the high- and low-level diets respectively), whereas it remained constant, or decreased along the colon in the case of the other diets. Furthermore, the two diets richest in RS also promoted the highest percentages of butyric acid in the distal colon (24 and 17 v. 12 and 12-16 for the high- and low-level diets respectively). PMID:11570990

  16. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of...

  1. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  2. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  3. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  4. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  5. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  6. [Development of prediction models for determining N content in citrus leaves based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Meng; Ye, Xu-Jun; Wang, Qiao-Nan; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The present study presents prediction models for determining the N content in citrus leaves by using hyperspectral imaging technology combined with several chemometrics methods. The steps followed in this study are: hyperspectral image scanning, extracting average spectra curves, pretreatment of raw spectra data, extracting characteristic wavelengths with successive projection algorithm and developing prediction models for determining N content in citrus leaves. The authors obtained three optimal pretreatment methods through comparing eleven different pretreatment methods including Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative (1-Der) and so on. These selected pretreatment methods are SG smoothing, detrending and SG smoothing-detrending. Based on these three pretreatment methods, the authros first extracted the characteristic wavelengths respectively with successive projection algorithm, and then used the spectral reflectance of the extracted characteristic wavelengths as input variables of partial least squares regression (PLS), multiple linear regression (MLR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) modeling. Hence, the authors developed three prediction models with each pretreatment method, and obtained nine models in total. Among all the nine prediction models, the two models based on the methods of SG smoothing-detrending-SPA-BPNN (R(p): 0.8513, RMSEP: 0.1881) and detrending-SPABPNN (R(p): 0.8609, RMSEP: 0.1595) were found to have achieved the best prediction results. The final results show that using hyperspectra data to determine N content in citrus leaves is feasible. This would provide a theoretical basis for real-time and accurate monitoring of N content in citrus leaves as well as rational N fertilizer application during the plant's growth. PMID:24783563

  7. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  8. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  9. [Effect of phenibut on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in rat brain structures].

    PubMed

    Borodkina, L E; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M; Narkevich, V B; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut, which is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in brain structures have been studied on Wistar rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) produces a statistically significant increase in the content of dopamine metabolite (3,4-dioxyphenylacetic acid) and the retarding amino acid taurine in striatum. At the same time, phenibut did not significantly influence the levels of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine in various brain structures and produce a moderate decrease in the level of norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:19334514

  10. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  11. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  12. Determination of low levels of amorphous content in inhalation grade lactose by moisture sorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Vollenbroek, Jasper; Hebbink, Gerald A; Ziffels, Susanne; Steckel, Hartwig

    2010-08-16

    Alpha-lactose monohydrate is widely used as an excipient in dry powder inhalers, and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the drug delivery. Due to the processing, low levels of amorphous lactose could be present in the blends. Varying amounts could have a strong effect on the efficiency of drug delivery of the powder blends. Therefore, the accurate measurement of low levels of amorphous lactose content is very important. A new method was developed to measure the amorphous content, based on dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). In contrast to the traditional re-crystallization approach of amorphous lactose, the new method is based on moisture sorption isotherms. Moisture sorption isotherms of blends of crystalline alpha-lactose and freeze-dried or spray-dried amorphous lactose were measured. By fitting the data with a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) isotherm, a linear correlation was found between measured and actual amorphous content for the whole range of 0.1-100%. Differences between freeze-dried and spray-dried lactose, due to different molecular arrangements, could be removed by a preconditioning the samples at 35% RH prior to the isotherm measurement. It was shown that accurate determination of very low concentrations of amorphous lactose content is possible using moisture sorption isotherm analyses. PMID:20493937

  13. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 < δD <2000‰ [7,8]. In order to understand the effect of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the abundance and distribution of meteoritic soluble organic matter, we have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite [9]. Extensive aqueous alteration in the parent body of carbonaceous meteorites may result in the decomposition of α-amino acids and the synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids. When plotted with several CM chondrites, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15) for a CM chondrite, which fits with the relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration [10,11]. In addition, our results show that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L= 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess (%) = 0.35 ± 0.5; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess (%) = -1.4 ± 2.6). Although aqueous alteration does not create by itself an isovaline asymmetry, it may amplify a small enantiomeric excess. Therefore, our data may support the hypothesis that aqueous alteration is responsible for the high L-enantiomer excess of isovaline observed in the most aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites [12,13]. Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be related to the low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body [9,14]. The extra-terrestrial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon content of Paris may have an interstellar origin

  14. Effect of processing conditions on phytic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc contents of lime-cooked maize.

    PubMed

    Bressani, Ricardo; Turcios, Juan Carlos; Colmenares de Ruiz, Ana Silvia; de Palomo, Patricia Palocios

    2004-03-10

    Tortillas are made by cooking maize in a lime solution during variable times and temperatures, steeping the grain for up to 12 h, washing and grinding it to a fine dough, and cooking portions as flat cakes for up to 6 min. The effects of the main processing steps on the chemical composition, nutritive value, and functional and physicochemical characteristics have been areas of research. The present work evaluates the effect of lime concentration (0, 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6%) and cooking times (45, 60, and 75 min) on phytic acid retention of whole maize, its endosperm, and germ, as well as on the content of calcium, iron, and zinc on the same samples. The effects of steeping time and temperature and steeping medium on the phytic acid of lime-cooked maize were also studied. Finally, phytic acid changes from raw maize to tortilla were also measured. The results indicated that lime concentration and cooking time reduce phytic acid content in whole grain (17.4%), in endosperm (45.8%), and in germ (17.0%). Statistical analyses suggested higher phytic acid loss with 1.2% lime and 75 min of cooking. Cooking with the lime solution is more effective in reducing phytic acid than cooking with water. Steeping maize in lime solution at 50 degrees C during 8 h reduced phytic acid an additional 8%. The total loss of phytic acid from maize to tortilla was 22%. Calcium content increased in whole maize, endosperm, and germ with lime concentration and cooking and steeping times. The increase was higher in the germ than in the endosperm. The level, however, can be controlled if steeping of the cooked grain is conducted in water. Iron and zinc contents were not affected by nixtamalization processing variables but were affected in steeping. PMID:14995114

  15. [Determination of oleanic acid and paeoniflorin in Paeonia lactiflora by ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-reversed phase liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Dong-dong; Yang, Hong-shuai; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Wei, Jin-feng; Kang, Wen-yi; Guo, Xiu-chun

    2015-02-01

    Four kinds of ionic liquids [BMIM] Br, [BMIM] BF4, [BMIM] PF6, [HMIM] PF6 were used to analyze the content of oleanic acid and paeoniflorin in Paeonia lactiflora with ultrasonic-assisted extraction coupled with HPLC. The chromatographic column, Purospher star RP-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm), was used. Acetonitrile and water (90:10) as mobile phase was used to determine the content of oleanic acid with a gradient elution and flow rate at 1.00 mL · min(-1), detection wavelength at 210 nm, chromatographic column temperature at room temperature. Paeoniflorin content was determined using acetonitrile and water (18:82) as mobile phase with a gradient elution and flow rate at 1.00 mL · min(-1), detection wavelength at 250 nm, the chromatographic column temperature at room temperature. The result show that oleanic acid has the highest extraction yield when the conditions are solid-liquid ratio of 1:80 (g · mL(-1)), and the [BMIM] Br methanol solution concentration of 0.6 mol · L(-1). Under the optimal extraction conditions, the content of oleanic acid from 0.24 to 3.76 μg showed a good linearity (r = 0.9999), the average recovery was 97.20%. Paeoniflorin has the highest extraction yield when the conditions are solid-liquid ratio of 1:130 (g · mL(-1)), and the [C4 MIM] PF6 methanol solution concentration of 0.6 mol · L(-1). Under the optimal extraction conditions, paeoniflorin content from 0.42 to 4.20 μg showed a good lin- earity (r = 1.000), the average recovery was 98.84%. This method is simple and reliable, its repeatability is also very good. It has important significance in the study P. lactiflora of ionic liquid microextraction. PMID:26084167

  16. Using FT-NIR spectroscopy technique to determine arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis mycelium.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Xu, Ning; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectral technique for determining arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) mycelium. Three different models were carried out to predict the arginine content. Wavenumber selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the most important wavenumbers and reduce the high dimensionality of the raw spectral data. Only a few wavenumbers were selected by CARS and CARS-SPA as the optimal wavenumbers, respectively. Among the prediction models, CARS-least squares-support vector machine (CARS-LS-SVM) model performed best with the highest values of the coefficient of determination of prediction (Rp(2)=0.8370) and residual predictive deviation (RPD=2.4741), the lowest value of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP=0.0841). Moreover, the number of the input variables was forty-five, which only accounts for 2.04% of that of the full wavenumbers. The results showed that FT-NIR spectral technique has the potential to be an objective and non-destructive method to detect arginine content in fermented C. sinensis mycelium. PMID:26010565

  17. Determination of the recovered-fiber content in paperboard samples by applying mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi-Roger; Canals, Trini; Cantero, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Paperboard is widely used in different applications, such as packaging and graphic printing, among others. Consumption of recycled paper is growing, which has led the paper-mill packaging industry to apply strict quality controls. This means that it is very important to develop methods to test the quality of recycled products. In this article, we focus on determining the recovered-fiber content of paperboard samples by applying Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods. To this end, two very fast, nondestructive approaches were applied: classification and quantification. The first approach is based on classifying unknown paperboard samples into two groups: high and low recovered-fiber content. Conversely, under the quantification approach, the content of recovered fiber in the incoming paperboard samples is determined. The experimental results presented in this article show that the classification approach, which classifies unknown incoming paperboard samples, is highly accurate and that the quantification approach has a root mean square error of prediction of about 4.1. PMID:25742130

  18. Sample preparation and determination of biomass content in solid recovered fuels: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Schnöller, Johannes; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Hahn, Manuel; Fellner, Johann

    2014-10-01

    The biomass content of material from pulp and paper production (a mixture of waste and paper and thin layer packaging plastics) is determined by the adapted balance method. This novel approach is a combination of combustion elemental analysis (CHNSO) and a data reconciliation algorithm based on successive linearisation for evaluation of the analysis results. It also involves less effort and expense than conventional procedures. However, the CHNSO technique only handles small mass amounts (few hundred milligrams), so cryogenic impact milling was applied for particle size reduction below 200 µm in order to generate homogeneous, representative analysis samples. The investigation focuses on the parameters biogenic content as a percentage of the total mass xB and xB (TC), which is the biomass stated as a fraction of the total carbon value. The results are within 1%-5% of the data obtained by the reference methods, namely the selective dissolution method and (14)C- method. Additionally, advantages and drawbacks of the adapted balance method in comparison with standard methods are discussed, showing that the adapted balance method is a method to be considered for the determination of biomass content in solid recovered fuels or similar materials. PMID:25245296

  19. Determination of soluble solids content in apple products by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guohui; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

    2011-08-01

    Soluble solids content is an important index for fruit quality. One of the traditional methods in determining soluble solids content of fruits is refractometry which measures the refractive index in visible or near infrared. Here we reported the use of terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy (THz-TDTS) technique for the determination of soluble solids content in apple products. Not only the refractive index, but also the absorption coefficient is used in regression model. In method one, sucrose solutions were for the calibration set , root mean square of validation set (RMSEP) was 0.168% for absorption coefficient model, 0.741% for refractive index model. In method two, apple products were for the calibration set, RMSEP was 0.143% for absorption coefficient model, 0.648% for refractive index model. Less absolute error of 0.2% between predicted and refractometer value has been both obtained from two methods with absorption coefficient model. This result proved the THz-TDS technique is quite potential for nondestructive detection on food quality.

  20. Gallic Acid: Review of the Methods of Determination and Quantification.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Felipe Hugo Alencar; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5 trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a secondary metabolite present in most plants. This metabolite is known to exhibit a range of bioactivities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer. There are various methods to analyze gallic acid including spectrometry, chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis, among others. They have been developed to identify and quantify this active ingredient in most biological matrices. The aim of this article is to review the available information on analytical methods for gallic acid, as well as presenting the advantages and limitations of each technique. PMID:26440222