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Sample records for acid coumaric acid

  1. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  2. New aliphatic alcohol and (Z)-4-coumaric acid glycosides from Acanthus ilicifolius.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Huang, Jianshe; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Qingxin; Long, Lijuan; Huang, Liangmin

    2003-10-01

    From the aerial parts of Acanthus ilicifolius, a new aliphatic alcohol glycoside (ilicifolioside C) and two new (Z)-4-coumaric acid glycosides, (Z)-4-coumaric acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (Z)-4-coumaric acid 4-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"-->2')-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structural elucidations were based on the analyses of spectroscopic data. Z-Form 4-coumaric acid glycosides were first isolated from plant.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of p-coumaric acid in rat model of embolic cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Sen, Halil Murat; Ozkan, Adile; Salis, Osman; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Deniz, Mustafa; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Stroke poses a crucial risk for mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Material and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely Group I (control rats), Group II (ischemia rats), Group III (6 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats) and Group IV (24 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats). Cerebral ischemia was induced via intraluminal monofilament occlusion model. In all groups, the brain was removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor-1 were measured in the ischemic hemisphere. The histopathological changes were observed in the right hemisphere within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results: Following the treatment, biochemical factors changed significantly. Histopathologically, it was shown that p-coumaric acid decreased the oxidative damage. The neurological deficit scores of p-coumaric acid-treated rats were significantly improved after cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that p-coumaric acid is a neuroprotective agent on account of its strong anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic features. Moreover, p-coumaric acid decreased the focal ischemia. Extra effort should be made to introduce p-coumaric acid as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for treatment of human cerebral ischemia in the future. PMID:26019798

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  5. Properties of a Maize Glutathione S-Transferase That Conjugates Coumaric Acid and Other Phenylpropanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, J. V.; Devarenne, T. P.; Lee, I. S.; Orlofsky, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme from corn (Zea mays L. Pioneer hybrid 3906) that is active with p-coumaric acid and other unsaturated phenylpropanoids was purified approximately 97-fold and characterized. The native enzyme appeared to be a monomer with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kD and an apparent isoelectric point at pH 5.2. The enzyme had a pH optimum between 7.5 and 8.0 and apparent Km values of 4.4 and 1.9 mM for reduced glutathione (GSH) and p-coumaric acid, respectively. In addition to p-coumaric acid, the enzyme was also active with o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, trans-cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferyl alcohol. In addition to GSH, the enzyme could also utilize cysteine as a sulfhydryl source. The enzyme activity measured when GSH and trans-cinnamic acid were used as substrates was enhanced 2.6- and 5.2-fold by the addition of 50 [mu]M p-coumaric acid and 7-hydroxycoumarin, respectively. 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of the conjugate revealed that the enzyme catalyzed the addition of GSH to the olefinic double bond of p-coumaric acid. Based on the high activity and the substrate specificity of this enzyme, it is possible that this enzyme may be involved in the in vivo conjugation of a number of unsaturated phenylpropanoids. PMID:12228522

  6. p-Coumaric acid, a novel and effective biomarker for quantifying hypoxic stress by HILIC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Hanselmann, Rainer G; Peuschel, Henrike; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we report p-coumaric acid as novel and effective response marker for indirectly measuring the levels of hypoxia in normal primary bronchial epithelial cells. We developed a simple and rapid technique based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MS). During 168h of hypoxia without induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an almost linear increase of p-coumaric acid levels was observed. We interpret the increasing p-coumaric acid concentrations during hypoxia as a result of cell damage, triggered by reduced co-enzyme Q10 levels, because the oxidative cascade was not able to supply sufficient energy. The HILIC-ESI-MS assay within p-coumaric acid exhibited a linear dynamic range from 60 to 610 ng/μL with correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The precision of the assay was ≤15% RSD and method accuracies between 97 and 108%.

  7. Comparison of alkali treatments for efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kankan; Li, Lulu; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-05-01

    Two separate temperature and time ranges were respectively conducted for optimizing release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith by NaOH pretreatment using response surface methodology. Two desirable pretreatment conditions were selected as follows: 37°C, 2% NaOH and 12h, and 100°C, 1.75% NaOH and 37min in the low and high temperature ranges, respectively. Under these conditions, the enzymatic glucose yields were 85.6% and 90.4% respectively, whereas p-coumaric acid yields were 95.1% and 98.1% respectively. The final recovery of esterified p-coumaric acid reached 82.8% and 87.4% respectively after further separation with HP-20 resin. Interestingly, strong linear correlations exist between p-coumaric acid release with glucan saccharification yield and lignin dissolution. These results indicate that sorghum pith could be an attractive source for natural p-coumaric acid and efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith can be achieved by mild NaOH pretreatment.

  8. Production of p-hydroxybenzoic acid from p-coumaric acid by Burkholderia glumae BGR1.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-Hye; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Eunok; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2016-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid (pCA) is abundant in biomass with low lignin content, such as straw and stubble from rye, wheat, and barley. pCA can be isolated from biomass and used for the synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report engineering of the natural pathway for conversion of pCA into p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) to increase the amount of pHBA that accumulates more than 100-fold. Burkholderia glumae strain BGR1 (BGR1) grows efficiently on pCA as a sole carbon source via a CoA-dependent non-β-oxidation pathway. This pathway removes two carbons from pCA as acetyl-CoA yielding p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and subsequently oxidizes it to pHBA. To increase the amount of accumulated pHBA in BGR1, we first deleted two genes encoding enzymes that degrade pHBA in the β-ketoadipate pathway. At 10 mM of pCA, the double deletion mutant BGR1_PB4 (Δphb3hΔbcl) accumulated pHBA with 95% conversion, while the control BGR1 accumulated only with 11.2% conversion. When a packed bed reactor containing immobilized BGR1_PB4 cells was operated at a dilution rate 0.2 h(-1) , the productivity of pHBA was achieved at 9.27 mg/L/h for 134 h. However, in a batch reactor at 20 mM pCA, growth of BGR1_PB4 was strongly inhibited, resulting in a low conversion of 19.3%. To further increase the amount of accumulated pCA, we identified the first enzyme in the pathway, p-hydroxcinnmaoyl-CoA synthetase II (phcs II), as the rate-limiting enzyme. Over expression of phcs II using a Palk promoter in a batch reaction at 20 mM of pCA yielded 99.0% conversion to pHBA, which is the highest concentration of pHBA ever reported using a biological process. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1493-1503. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26693833

  9. Detection and characterization of p-coumaric acid hydroxylase in mung bean, Vigna mungo, seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kojima, M; Takeuchi, W

    1989-02-01

    A new p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) hydroxylase was detected in mung bean seedlings treated with tentoxin, a fungal toxin, in which polyphenol oxidase that hydroxylates a wide variety of monophenols in vitro was completely eliminated. The enzyme required molecular oxygen and showed a pH optimum of 5.0. The enzyme acted only on p-coumaric acid (Km, 3.0 X 10(-5) M), while its specificity for the electron donor was rather broad. The Km value for NADPH (1.5 X 10(-4) M) was much lower than that for L-ascorbic acid (1.0 X 10(-2) M), although the Vmax value was almost the same with both electron donors. The enzyme was potently inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol (Ki, 3.5 X 10(-6) M) and diethyldithiocarbamate (Ki, 2.3 X 10(-4) M), but was insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoate. The enzyme was localized in the cell organelles which sedimented between mitochondria and endplasmic reticulum on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme activity in the seedling was changed in response to induction by light in a manner suggesting its involvement in biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in mung bean seedlings.

  10. Clostridium thermocellum releases coumaric acid during degradation of untreated grasses by the action of an unknown enzyme.

    PubMed

    Herring, Christopher D; Thorne, Philip G; Lynd, Lee R

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophile with the ability to digest lignocellulosic biomass that has not been pretreated with high temperatures. Thermophilic anaerobes have previously been shown to more readily degrade grasses than wood. Part of the explanation for this may be the presence of relatively large amounts of coumaric acid in grasses, with linkages to both hemicellulose and lignin. We found that C. thermocellum and cell-free cellulase preparations both release coumaric acid from bagasse and switchgrass. Cellulase preparations from a mutant strain lacking the scaffoldin cipA still showed activity, though diminished. Deletion of all three proteins in C. thermocellum with ferulic acid esterase domains, either singly or in combination, did not eliminate the activity. Further work will be needed to identify the novel enzyme(s) responsible for the release of coumaric acid from grasses and to determine whether these enzymes are important factors of microbial biomass degradation.

  11. Chromatographic estimation of p-coumaric acid and triacontanol in an Ayurvedic root drug patala (Stereospermum suaveolens Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neena; Khatoon, Sayadda; Rawat, A K S; Rai, Vartika; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been established for the identification and standardization of Stereospermum suaveolens extracts using two active biomarkers viz. triacontanol and p-coumaric acid in root samples collected from different geographical locations of India. These marker components have different therapeutic activities: p-coumaric acid is a good antioxidant and also has anti-diabetic properties; triacontanol has anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties. Studies on root as well as stem samples showed characteristic bands of triacontanol and p-coumaric acid at R(f) 0.51 and 0.42, respectively. The amount of triacontanol varied from 0.035-8.472 mg/g in the root samples while the amount of p-coumaric acid was in the range 0.081-0.203 mg/g. The limit of detection for triacontanol was 100 ng/spot whereas that for p-coumaric acid was 10 ng/spot.

  12. Mechanistic and kinetic study on the reactions of coumaric acids with reactive oxygen species: a DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Andrés; Bravo, Iván; Barbero, Antonio J; Albaladejo, José

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of reactions between coumaric acids and a series of reactive oxygen species ((•)OX) was studied through the density functional theory (DFT). H atom abstraction from -OH and -COOH groups and addition to the nonaromatic double bond were the most representative reaction pathways chosen for which free energy barriers and rate constants were calculated within the transition state theory (TST) framework. From these calculations, it was estimated that (•)OH > (•)OCH3 > (•)OOH > (•)OOCH3 is the order of reactivity of (•)OX with any coumaric acid. The highest rate constant was estimated for p-coumaric acid + (•)OH reaction, whereas the rest of the (•)OX species are more reactive with o-coumaric acid. On the basis of the calculated rate constants, H abstraction from a -OH group should be the main mechanism for the reactions involving (•)OCH3, (•)OOH, and (•)OOCH3 radicals. Nevertheless, the addition mechanism, which sometimes is not considered in theoretical studies on reactions of phenolic compounds with electrophilic species, could play a relevant role in the global mechanism of coumaric acid + (•)OH reactions.

  13. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from L. plantarum has been recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. The structure has been solved at 2.04 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism.

  14. 4-Coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids inhibit 4-coumaric acid:coenzyme A ligases and modulate metabolic flux for 3-hydroxylation in monolignol biosynthesis of Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Jack P; Li, Quanzi; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Liu, Jie; Loziuk, Philip; Song, Jina; Williams, Cranos; Muddiman, David C; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of 4-coumaric acid:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) can reduce lignin content in a number of plant species. In lignin precursor (monolignol) biosynthesis during stem wood formation in Populus trichocarpa, two enzymes, Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5, catalyze the coenzyme A (CoA) ligation of 4-coumaric acid to 4-coumaroyl-CoA and caffeic acid to caffeoyl-CoA. CoA ligation of 4-coumaric acid is essential for the 3-hydroxylation of 4-coumaroyl shikimic acid. This hydroxylation results from sequential reactions of 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimic acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (PtrHCT1 and PtrHCT6) and 4-coumaric acid 3-hydroxylase 3 (PtrC3H3). Alternatively, 3-hydroxylation of 4-coumaric acid to caffeic acid may occur through an enzyme complex of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase 1 and 2 (PtrC4H1 and PtrC4H2) and PtrC3H3. We found that 4-coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids are inhibitors of Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5. 4-Coumaroyl shikimic acid strongly inhibits the formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA. Caffeoyl shikimic acid inhibits only the formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA. 4-Coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids both act as competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors. Metabolic flux in wild-type and PtrC3H3 downregulated P. trichocarpa transgenics has been estimated by absolute protein and metabolite quantification based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, mass action kinetics, and inhibition equations. Inhibition by 4-coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids may play significant regulatory roles when these inhibitors accumulate.

  15. 3-Aminoquinoline/p-coumaric acid as a MALDI matrix for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Yuko; Funakoshi, Natsumi; Takeyama, Kohei; Hioki, Yusaku; Nishikaze, Takashi; Kaneshiro, Kaoru; Kawabata, Shin-Ichirou; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-02-18

    Glycosylation and phosphorylation are important post-translational modifications in biological processes and biomarker research. The difficulty in analyzing these modifications is mainly their low abundance and dissociation of labile regions such as sialic acids or phosphate groups. One solution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is to improve matrices for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides by increasing the sensitivity and suppressing dissociation of the labile regions. Recently, a liquid matrix 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA), introduced by Kolli et al. in 1996, has been reported to increase sensitivity for carbohydrates or phosphopeptides, but it has not been systematically evaluated for glycopeptides. In addition, 3-AQ/CHCA enhances the dissociation of labile regions. In contrast, a liquid matrix 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidium (TMG, G) salt of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA) was reported to suppress dissociation of sulfate groups or sialic acids of carbohydrates. Here we introduce a liquid matrix 3-AQ/CA for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides. All of the analytes were detected as [M + H](+) or [M - H](-) with higher or comparable sensitivity using 3-AQ/CA compared with 3-AQ/CHCA or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB). The sensitivity was increased 1- to 1000-fold using 3-AQ/CA. The dissociation of labile regions such as sialic acids or phosphate groups and the fragmentation of neutral carbohydrates were suppressed more using 3-AQ/CA than using 3-AQ/CHCA or 2,5-DHB. 3-AQ/CA was thus determined to be an effective MALDI matrix for high sensitivity and the suppression of dissociation of labile regions in glycosylation and phosphorylation analyses.

  16. Comparative transcriptome assembly and genome-guided profiling for Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480 during p-coumaric acid stress

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Liliana; Vera-Wolf, Patricia; Martinez, Claudio; Ugalde, Juan A.; Ganga, María Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been described as the main contaminant yeast in wine production, due to its ability to convert the hydroxycinnamic acids naturally present in the grape phenolic derivatives, into volatile phenols. Currently, there are no studies in B. bruxellensis which explains the resistance mechanisms to hydroxycinnamic acids, and in particular to p-coumaric acid which is directly involved in alterations to wine. In this work, we performed a transcriptome analysis of B. bruxellensis LAMAP248rown in the presence and absence of p-coumaric acid during lag phase. Because of reported genetic variability among B. bruxellensis strains, to complement de novo assembly of the transcripts, we used the high-quality genome of B. bruxellensis AWRI1499, as well as the draft genomes of strains CBS2499 and0 g LAMAP2480. The results from the transcriptome analysis allowed us to propose a model in which the entrance of p-coumaric acid to the cell generates a generalized stress condition, in which the expression of proton pump and efflux of toxic compounds are induced. In addition, these mechanisms could be involved in the outflux of nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids, decreasing the overall concentration and triggering the expression of nitrogen metabolism genes. PMID:27678167

  17. Genomic study of the absorption mechanism of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun-jie; Zhu, Chun-yan

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac disease has emerged as the leading cause of death worldwide, and food rich in phenolic acids has drawn much attention as sources of active substances of hypolipidemic drug. Ananas comosus L. (pineapple) is one of the most popular tropical and subtropical fruits. Isolated from pineapple leaves, EAL(Extract of Ananas Comosus L. Leaves) is rich in phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and other phenolics, highly relevant to the putative cardiovascular-protective effects, which suggests its potential to be a new plant medicine for treatment of cardiac disease, but little is known about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of EAL in animals or human beings. In this study, we employed cDNA microarray, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat intestinal model to explore the absorption behavior of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in EAL. The permeation of 2 substances was concentration and time dependent. Results also indicated that monocarboxylic acid transporter was involved in the transepithelial transport of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid. PMID:25678210

  18. Genomic study of the absorption mechanism of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun-jie; Zhu, Chun-yan

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac disease has emerged as the leading cause of death worldwide, and food rich in phenolic acids has drawn much attention as sources of active substances of hypolipidemic drug. Ananas comosus L. (pineapple) is one of the most popular tropical and subtropical fruits. Isolated from pineapple leaves, EAL(Extract of Ananas Comosus L. Leaves) is rich in phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and other phenolics, highly relevant to the putative cardiovascular-protective effects, which suggests its potential to be a new plant medicine for treatment of cardiac disease, but little is known about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of EAL in animals or human beings. In this study, we employed cDNA microarray, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat intestinal model to explore the absorption behavior of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in EAL. The permeation of 2 substances was concentration and time dependent. Results also indicated that monocarboxylic acid transporter was involved in the transepithelial transport of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid.

  19. Extraction of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Demanna, Dhanashree; Desai, S A

    2014-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) are high-value products that can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Present work explores the potential of surfactant-based cloud-point extraction (CPE) for FA and pCA extraction from corn cob hydrolysate. More than 90 % (w/w) extraction of both FA and pCA was achieved from model system with L92. The partition coefficient of FA and pCA in L92 aqueous phase system was 35 and 55, respectively. A significant enrichment (8-10-fold) of both FA and pCA was achieved in surfactant-rich phase. Furthermore, the downstream process volume was reduced by 10 to 13 times. Optimized conditions (5 % v/v L92 and pH 3.0) resulted into 85 and 89 % extraction of FA and p-CA, respectively, from alkaline corn cob hydrolysate. Biocompatibility tests were carried out for L92 for ethanol fermentation and found to be biocompatible. Thus, the new surfactant-based CPE system not only concentrated FA and pCA but also reduced the process volume significantly. Further, aqueous phase containing sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation. PMID:25082768

  20. Knockout of the p-Coumarate Decarboxylase Gene from Lactobacillus plantarum Reveals the Existence of Two Other Inducible Enzymatic Activities Involved in Phenolic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmebs, Lise; Divies, Charles; Cavin, Jean-François

    2000-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 contains a pdc gene coding for p-coumaric acid decarboxylase activity (PDC). A food grade mutant, designated LPD1, in which the chromosomal pdc gene was replaced with the deleted pdc gene copy, was obtained by a two-step homologous recombination process using an unstable replicative vector. The LPD1 mutant strain remained able to weakly metabolize p-coumaric and ferulic acids into vinyl derivatives or into substituted phenyl propionic acids. We have shown that L. plantarum has a second acid phenol decarboxylase enzyme, better induced with ferulic acid than with p-coumaric acid, which also displays inducible acid phenol reductase activity that is mostly active when glucose is added. Those two enzymatic activities are in competition for p-coumaric and ferulic acid degradation, and the ratio of the corresponding derivatives depends on induction conditions. Moreover, PDC appeared to decarboxylate ferulic acid in vitro with a specific activity of about 10 nmol · min−1 · mg−1 in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Finally, PDC activity was shown to confer a selective advantage on LPNC8 grown in acidic media supplemented with p-coumaric acid, compared to the LPD1 mutant devoid of PDC activity. PMID:10919793

  1. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  2. Spectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvidin 3-O-glucoside with p-coumaric, vanillic and syringic acids.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Naim; De Simone, Bruna Clara; Quartarolo, Angelo Domenico; Russo, Nino

    2013-12-15

    Anthocyanins are a natural source of pigments in plants and their processed food products have become attractive and excellent candidates to replace the synthetic colourants due to their characteristic intense colours and associated health benefits. The intermolecular copigmentation between anthocyanins and other colourless compounds has been reported to be an important way to enhance and stabilise the colour intensity of aqueous solutions. In the present work we report the equilibrium constant, stoichiometric ratio and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) related to the intermolecular copigmentation reactions of the anthocyanin malvidin 3-O-glucoside with one hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) and two O-methylated hydroxybenzoic acids (vanillic and syringic acid). Different factors which affect their interactions such as copigment concentration, pH and temperature of the medium are examined at two pH levels (pH=2.50 and 3.65) corresponding to those of the major food mediums where these reactions take place (fruit juices, wine, jams etc.).

  3. Detailed atomistic simulation of the nano-sorption and nano-diffusivity of water, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid in single wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Anastassiou, Alexandros; Karahaliou, Elena K; Alexiadis, Orestis; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G

    2013-10-28

    We report results from a detailed computer simulation study for the nano-sorption and mobility of four different small molecules (water, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid) inside smooth single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Most of the results have been obtained with the molecular dynamics (MD) method, but especially for the most narrow of the CNTs considered, the results for one of the molecules addressed here (water) were further confirmed through an additional Grand Canonical (μVT) Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation using a value for the water chemical potential μ pre-computed with the particle deletion method. Issues addressed include molecular packing and ordering inside the nanotube for the four molecules, average number of sorbed molecules per unit length of the tube, and mean residence time and effective axial diffusivities, all as a function of tube diameter and tube length. In all cases, a strong dependence of the results on tube diameter was observed, especially in the way the different molecules are packed and organized inside the CNT. For water for which predictions of properties such as local structure and packing were computed with both methods (MD and GCMC), the two sets of results were found to be fully self-consistent for all types of SWCNTs considered. Water diffusivity inside the CNT (although, strongly dependent on the CNT diameter) was computed with two different methods, both of which gave identical results. For large enough CNT diameters (larger than about 13 Å), this was found to be higher than the corresponding experimental value in the bulk by about 55%. Surprisingly enough, for the rest of the molecules simulated (phenolic), the simulations revealed no signs of mobility inside nanotubes with a diameter smaller than the (20, 20) tube. This is attributed to strong phenyl-phenyl attractive interactions, also to favorable interactions of these molecules with the CNT walls, which cause them to form highly ordered, very stable

  4. Detailed atomistic simulation of the nano-sorption and nano-diffusivity of water, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid in single wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassiou, Alexandros; Karahaliou, Elena K.; Alexiadis, Orestis; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G.

    2013-10-01

    We report results from a detailed computer simulation study for the nano-sorption and mobility of four different small molecules (water, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid) inside smooth single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Most of the results have been obtained with the molecular dynamics (MD) method, but especially for the most narrow of the CNTs considered, the results for one of the molecules addressed here (water) were further confirmed through an additional Grand Canonical (μVT) Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation using a value for the water chemical potential μ pre-computed with the particle deletion method. Issues addressed include molecular packing and ordering inside the nanotube for the four molecules, average number of sorbed molecules per unit length of the tube, and mean residence time and effective axial diffusivities, all as a function of tube diameter and tube length. In all cases, a strong dependence of the results on tube diameter was observed, especially in the way the different molecules are packed and organized inside the CNT. For water for which predictions of properties such as local structure and packing were computed with both methods (MD and GCMC), the two sets of results were found to be fully self-consistent for all types of SWCNTs considered. Water diffusivity inside the CNT (although, strongly dependent on the CNT diameter) was computed with two different methods, both of which gave identical results. For large enough CNT diameters (larger than about 13 Å), this was found to be higher than the corresponding experimental value in the bulk by about 55%. Surprisingly enough, for the rest of the molecules simulated (phenolic), the simulations revealed no signs of mobility inside nanotubes with a diameter smaller than the (20, 20) tube. This is attributed to strong phenyl-phenyl attractive interactions, also to favorable interactions of these molecules with the CNT walls, which cause them to form highly ordered, very stable

  5. Ananas comosus L. Leaf Phenols and p-Coumaric Acid Regulate Liver Fat Metabolism by Upregulating CPT-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weidong; Zhang, Shaobo; Lei, Fan; Ouyang, Xiaoxi; Du, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and action mechanisms of pineapple leaf phenols (PLPs) on liver fat metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice. Results show that PLP significantly reduced abdominal fat and liver lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The effects of PLP were comparable with those of FB. Furthermore, at the protein level, PLP upregulated the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), whereas FB had no effects on CPT-1 compared with the HFD controls. Regarding mRNA expression, PLP mainly promoted the expression of CPT-1, PGC1a, UCP-1, and AMPK in the mitochondria, whereas FB mostly enhanced the expression of Ech1, Acox1, Acaa1, and Ehhadh in peroxisomes. PLP seemed to enhance fat metabolism in the mitochondria, whereas FB mainly exerted the effect in peroxisomes. In addition, p-coumaric acid (CA), one of the main components from PLP, significantly inhibited fat accumulation in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. CA also significantly upregulated CPT-1 mRNA and protein expressions in HepG2 cells. We, firstly, found that PLP enhanced liver fat metabolism by upregulating CPT-1 expression in the mitochondria and might be promising in treatment of fatty liver diseases as alternative natural products. CA may be one of the active components of PLP.

  6. Improved Photobactericidal Activity of Ultraviolet-A Light in Combination with Isomerizable p-Coumaric Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Akihiro, Shirai; Kajiura, Masato; Matsumura, Kyohei; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the photobactericidal activity of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the present study focused on trans-coumaric acid (trans-CA), which is isomerized by UV-A. Generation of ROS was expected during the isomerization of trans-CA. Trans-CA derivatives, in which the carboxyl group was modified with a methyl, n-butyl or phenyl group, thereby changing the interaction with the cellular membrane by quenching the anionic properties of the carboxyl group and changing the UV adsorption properties, were used. The photobactericidal activities of trans-CA derivatives were evaluated by using UV-A light (wavelength 350 to 385 nm). The number of surviving Escherichia coli NBRC12713 was determined by colony-forming assay. Derivative 4c, which was esterified with a phenyl group, reduced survival by more than 5.0-log at a dose of 7.4 J/cm(2) and by 3.2-log at a dose of 4.9 J/cm(2). This synergistic activity may have been caused by the absorption of photon energy from UV-A, which is attributable to the UV spectrum of 4c. The photobactericidal activity was comparable to that of riboflavin, a known photo-activated agent. Isomerized molecules serve as a promising lead for improving the photobactericidal activity of UV-A by activating molecule-mediated ROS generation.

  7. Controlling the Photoreactivity of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Chromophore by Substituting at the p-Coumaric Acid Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We have performed ab initio CASSCF, CASPT2, and EOM-CCSD calculations on doubly deprotonated p-coumaric acid (pCA2−), the chromophore precursor of the photoactive yellow protein. The results of the calculations demonstrate that pCA2− can undergo only photoisomerization of the double bond. In contrast, the chromophore derivative with the acid replaced by a ketone (p-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, pCK−) undergoes both single- and double-bond photoisomerization, with the single-bond relaxation channel more favorable than the double-bond channel. The substitution alters the nature of the first excited states and the associated potential energy landscape. The calculations show that the electronic nature of the first two (π,π*) excited states are interchanged in vacuo due to the substitution. In pCK−, the first excited state is a charge-transfer (CT π,π*) state, in which the negative charge has migrated from the phenolate ring onto the alkene tail of the chromophore, whereas the locally excited (LE π,π*) state, in which the excitation involves the orbitals on the phenol ring, lies higher in energy and is the fourth excited state. In pCA2−, the CT state is higher in energy due the presence of a negative charge on the tail of the chromophore, and the first excited state is the LE state. In isolated pCA2−, there is a 68 kJ/mol barrier for double-bond photoisomerization on the potential energy surface of this LE state. In water, however, hydrogen bonding with water molecules reduces this barrier to 9 kJ/mol. The barrier separates the local trans minimum near the Franck−Condon region from the global minimum on the excited-state potential energy surface. The lowest energy conical intersection was located near this minimum. In contrast to pCK−, single-bond isomerization is highly unfavorable both in the LE and CT states of pCA2−. These results demonstrate that pCA2− can only decay efficiently in water and exclusively by double-bond photoisomerization

  8. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin comprises 15.25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP.binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute.binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. PMID:23606130

  9. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins.

  10. Orally administered rosmarinic acid is present as the conjugated and/or methylated forms in plasma, and is degraded and metabolized to conjugated forms of caffeic acid, ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Baba, Seigo; Osakabe, Naomi; Natsume, Midori; Terao, Junji

    2004-05-28

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is contained in various Lamiaceae herbs used commonly as culinary herbs. Although RA has various potent physiological actions, little is known on its bioavailability. We therefore investigated the absorption and metabolism of orally administered RA in rats. After being deprived of food for 12 h, RA (50 mg/kg body weight) or deionized water was administered orally to rats. Blood samples were collected from a cannula inserted in the femoral artery before and at designated time intervals after administration of RA. Urine excreted within 0 to 8 h and 8 to 18 h post-administration was also collected. RA and its related metabolites in plasma and urine were measured by LC-MS after treatment with sulfatase and/or beta-glucuronidase. RA, mono-methylated RA (methyl-RA) and m-coumaric acid (COA) were detected in plasma, with peak concentrations being reached at 0.5, 1 and 8 h after RA administration, respectively. RA, methyl-RA, caffeic acid (CAA), ferulic acid (FA) and COA were detected in urine after RA administration. These components in plasma and urine were present predominantly as conjugated forms such as glucuronide or sulfate. The percentage of the original oral dose of RA excreted in the urine within 18 h of administration as free and conjugated forms was 0.44 +/- 0.21% for RA, 1.60 +/- 0.74% for methyl-RA, 1.06 +/- 0.35% for CAA, 1.70 +/- 0.45% for FA and 0.67 +/- 0.29% for COA. Approximately 83% of the total amount of these metabolites was excreted in the period 8 to 18 h after RA administration. These results suggest that RA was absorbed and metabolized as conjugated and/or methylated forms, and that the majority of RA absorbed was degraded into conjugated and/or methylated forms of CAA, FA and COA before being excreted gradually in the urine. PMID:15120569

  11. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H- and 13C-NMR), theoretical and microbiological study of trans o-coumaric acid and alkali metal o-coumarates.

    PubMed

    Kowczyk-Sadowy, Małgorzata; Świsłocka, Renata; Lewandowska, Hanna; Piekut, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-02-13

    This work is a continuation of research on a correlation between the molecular structure and electronic charge distribution of phenolic compounds and their biological activity. The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium cations on the electronic system of trans o-coumaric (2-hydroxy-cinnamic) acid was studied. We investigated the relationship between the molecular structure of the tested compounds and their antimicrobial activity. Complementary molecular spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR) were applied. Structures of the molecules were optimized and their structural characteristics were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP method with 6-311++G** as a basis set. Geometric and magnetic aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. Theoretical parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Correlations between certain vibrational bands and some metal parameters, such as electronegativity, ionization energy, atomic and ionic radius, were found. The microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans.

  12. Development and validation of two methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 1,2-benzopyrone, dihydrocoumarin, o-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde and kaurenoic acid in guaco extracts and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, João C; de Francisco, Thais M Guimarães; Campos, Francinete R; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    In this study, two HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the determination of 1,2-benzopyrone (COU), o-coumaric acid (OCA), kaurenoic acid (KAU), syringaldehyde (SYR), and dihydrocoumarin (DIH) in guaco extracts and pharmaceutical preparations (syrup and oral solution). The chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 XBridge 150×2.1-mm (5-μm particle size) column maintained at 25°C. The mobile phases consisted of a gradient of water and acetonitrile containing 0.05% formic acid or 5  mM ammonium formate for the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. All of the calibration curves showed excellent coefficients of correlation (r≥0.9970) over the ranges of 1.25-400  ng/mL for coumarin, 10-600  ng/mL for dihydrocoumarin, 5-250  ng/mL for KAU, and 25-500  ng/mL for o-coumaric acid and syringaldehyde. The range of recovery was 96.3-103% with an RSD% of <4.85% for intraday and interday precision. The results indicate that the developed methods are fast, efficient, and sensitive for the quantification of the guaco metabolites in extracts and pharmaceutical forms while avoiding purification and derivatization steps.

  13. Systems biology of lignin biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpa: heteromeric 4-coumaric acid:coenzyme A ligase protein complex formation, regulation, and numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Song, Jina; Wang, Jack P; Lin, Ying-Chung; Ducoste, Joel; Shuford, Christopher M; Liu, Jie; Li, Quanzi; Shi, Rui; Nepomuceno, Angelito; Isik, Fikret; Muddiman, David C; Williams, Cranos; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-03-01

    As a step toward predictive modeling of flux through the pathway of monolignol biosynthesis in stem differentiating xylem of Populus trichocarpa, we discovered that the two 4-coumaric acid:CoA ligase (4CL) isoforms, 4CL3 and 4CL5, interact in vivo and in vitro to form a heterotetrameric protein complex. This conclusion is based on laser microdissection, coimmunoprecipitation, chemical cross-linking, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and mass spectrometry. The tetramer is composed of three subunits of 4CL3 and one of 4CL5. 4CL5 appears to have a regulatory role. This protein-protein interaction affects the direction and rate of metabolic flux for monolignol biosynthesis in P. trichocarpa. A mathematical model was developed for the behavior of 4CL3 and 4CL5 individually and in mixtures that form the enzyme complex. The model incorporates effects of mixtures of multiple hydroxycinnamic acid substrates, competitive inhibition, uncompetitive inhibition, and self-inhibition, along with characteristic of the substrates, the enzyme isoforms, and the tetrameric complex. Kinetic analysis of different ratios of the enzyme isoforms shows both inhibition and activation components, which are explained by the mathematical model and provide insight into the regulation of metabolic flux for monolignol biosynthesis by protein complex formation.

  14. Cytotoxic factor induced in murine serum after intravenous administration of a dehydrogenation polymer of p-coumaric acid (a synthetic lignin).

    PubMed

    Kohara, A; Shimizu, N; Kawazoe, Y

    1998-10-01

    A cytotoxic factor (CF) toward cultured murine leukemia L1210 cells was induced in mouse serum by intravenous injection of a dehydrogenation polymer of p-coumaric acid (DHP-pCA). When the serum from the treated mice was diluted with ethanol, CF was preserved in its supernatant (EtOH-sup). An EtOH-sup prepared from untreated control mice also showed cytotoxicity, although at much higher concentrations. The CF activity of EtOH-sups from both treated and untreated mice was completely eliminated by acid treatment at pH 2 at 90 degrees C for 30 min but kept intact by alkali treatment. In addition, the CF activity of both EtOH-sups was not affected by digestion with chymotrypsin. CF was recovered in a neutral MeOH-eluate from a DEAE-cellulofine column but not in HCI-MeOH eluate, in which lignified materials including DHP-pCA should have been recovered. These findings strongly suggest that CF is not a metabolite of DHP-pCA but an endogenous component of the normal serum which is augmented by DHP-pCA administration. PMID:9821818

  15. Cytotoxic effect of p-Coumaric acid on neuroblastoma, N2a cell via generation of reactive oxygen species leading to dysfunction of mitochondria inducing apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shailasree, S; Venkataramana, M; Niranjana, S R; Prakash, H S

    2015-02-01

    p-Coumaric acid (p-CA), an ubiquitous plant phenolic acid, has been proven to render protection against pathological conditions. In the present study, p-CA was evaluated for its capacity to induce cytotoxic effect to neuroblastoma N2a cells and we report here the possible mechanism of its action. p-CA at a concentration of 150 μmol/L, upon exposure for 72 h, stimulated 81.23 % of cells to apoptosis, as evidenced by flow cytometer studies mediated through elevated levels of ROS (7.5-fold over control). Excess ROS production activated structural injury to mitochondrial membrane, observed as dissipation of its membrane potential and followed by the release of cytochrome c (8.73-fold). Enhanced generation of intracellular ROS correlated well with the decreased levels (~60 %) of intracellular GSH. Sensitizing neuroblastoma cells for induction of apoptosis by p-CA identified p53-mediated upregulated accumulation of caspase-8 messenger RNA (2.8-fold). Our data report on autophagy, representing an additional mechanism of p-CA to induce growth arrest, detected by immunoblotting and fluorescence, correlated with accumulation of elevated levels (1.2-fold) of the LC3-II protein and acridine orange-stained autophagosomes, both autophagy markers. The present study indicates p-CA was effective in production of ROS-dependent mitochondrial damage-induced cytotoxicity in N2a cells.

  16. Acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with omega-3 oils and antioxidant activity of phenolipid products in in vitro and biological model systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2014-01-15

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with seal blubber oil (SBO) and menhaden oil (MHO) was carried out, followed by identification of major phenolipids in the resultant acidolysis mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Separation of phenolipid components from the resultant acidolysis mixture was achieved using flash column chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the phenolipids were examined in in vitro assays and biological model systems. The major phenolipids identified from acidolysis mixtures with both SBO and MHO included eight phenolic monoacylglycerols and eight phenolic diacylglycerols. Phenolipids derived from SBO and MHO generally showed good antioxidant potential in the systems tested. The prepared phenolipids exhibited high scavenging capacity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals and displayed reducing power, strong inhibitory effect on bleaching of β-carotene, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, as well as radical-induced DNA cleavage, thus suggesting that phenolipids derived from omega-3 oils may be used as potential stable products for health promotion and disease risk reduction. PMID:24295081

  17. Acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with omega-3 oils and antioxidant activity of phenolipid products in in vitro and biological model systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2014-01-15

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with seal blubber oil (SBO) and menhaden oil (MHO) was carried out, followed by identification of major phenolipids in the resultant acidolysis mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Separation of phenolipid components from the resultant acidolysis mixture was achieved using flash column chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the phenolipids were examined in in vitro assays and biological model systems. The major phenolipids identified from acidolysis mixtures with both SBO and MHO included eight phenolic monoacylglycerols and eight phenolic diacylglycerols. Phenolipids derived from SBO and MHO generally showed good antioxidant potential in the systems tested. The prepared phenolipids exhibited high scavenging capacity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals and displayed reducing power, strong inhibitory effect on bleaching of β-carotene, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, as well as radical-induced DNA cleavage, thus suggesting that phenolipids derived from omega-3 oils may be used as potential stable products for health promotion and disease risk reduction.

  18. Potential Application of p-Coumaric Acid on Differentiation of C2C12 Skeletal Muscle and 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes-An in Vitro and in Silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Lee, Kyung Dong; Lee, Jeong Chae; Lee, Jong Suk; Renganathan, Senthil; Choi, Ki Choon

    2016-01-01

    Coumaric acid (CA) is a phenolic acid of the hydroxycinnamic acid family, and it has many biological functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, anti-platelet, anti-cancer activities, etc. In the present study, we planned to analyse the potential molecular function of CA on skeletal muscle and preadipocytes differentiation using PCR and Western blot techniques. First, we analysed the impact of CA on C2C12 skeletal muscle differentiation. It revealed that CA treatment inhibited horse serum-induced skeletal muscle differentiation as evidenced by the decreased expression of early myogenic differentiation markers such as Myogenin and myoD via the AMP activated protein kinase- alpha AMPK-α mediated pathway. Furthermore, the level of lipid accumulation and changes in genes and protein expressions that are associated with lipogenesis and lipolysis were analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. The Oil Red O staining evidenced that CA treatment inhibited lipid accumulation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.2 mM. Furthermore, coumaric acid treatment decreased the expression of main transcriptional factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPAR-γ2). Subsequently, CA treatment decreased the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and adiponectin. Finally, we identified conformational changes induced by CA in PPAR-γ2 using computational biology tools. It revealed that CA might downregulate the PPAR-γ2 expression by directly binding with amino acids of PPAR-γ2 by hydrogen at 3.26 distance and hydrophobic interactions at 3.90 contact distances. These data indicated that CA suppressed skeletal muscle and preadipocytes differentiation through downregulation of the main transcriptional factors and their downstream targets. PMID:27490527

  19. Bioconversion of cinnamic acid derivatives by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Yoshifumi; Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Ueno, Masayoshi

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the production of useful phenols from plant resources, we examined the metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives by a wood-rotting fungus, Schizophyllum commune. Four cinnamic acid derivatives (cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) were tested as substrates. Two main reactions, reduction and cleavage of the side chain, were observed. Reduction of the side chain was confirmed in cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid metabolism. The side chain cleavage occurred in p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid metabolism but the initial reactions of these acids differed. Sinapic acid was not metabolized by S. commune. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde accumulation was observed in the culture to which p-coumaric acid was added. This suggests that S. commune is a useful agent for transforming p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  20. Red Clover Coumarate 3'-Hydroxylase (CYP98A44) is Capable of Hydroxylating P-Coumaroyl-Shikimate but not P-Coumaroyl-Malate: Implications for the Biosynthesis of Phaselic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several µmol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medicag...

  1. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  2. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  3. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U.

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  4. [On the phenolic acids of vegetables. IV. Hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of vegetables and potatoes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidtlein, H; Herrmann, K

    1975-12-16

    Lettuce, endive and chicory exclusively, cornsalad and sweet fennel almost exclusively contain caffeic acid derivatives beside traces of ferulic acid. Parsley exclusively and spinach almost exclusively show p-coumaric acid derivatives. Compared to root, fruit and seed vegetables the contents of phenolic acids in green leaves are considerably high. Rhubarb is the only vegetable, which contains gallic acid (chief phenolic acid) beside hydroxycinnamic, protocatechuic and vanillic acid derivatives. Furthermore hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (salicylic, gentisic and vanillic acid) occur in cornsalad, sweet fennel, parsley and spinach in small concentrations; cornsalad shows p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ca. 20 mg/kg). Onions (Allium cepa) contain almost only protocatechuic acid beside small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acid. In the outer dry coloured skins protocatechuic acid reaches concentrations up to 2% of plant material; the internal pulpy tissues show lower concentrations (ca. 20 mg/kg). On the contrary to the bulbs the green leaves of onions like chive and leek contain almost exclusively compounds of ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Garlic even shows a different phenolic acid pattern of skins and internal tissues. The caffeic acid derivatives of potatoes are mainly localized to a 1--2 mm thick outer layer. The different localization of phenolic acids in the different parts of vegetable plants is discussed.

  5. Decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated during malt whisky fermentation.

    PubMed

    van Beek, S; Priest, F G

    2000-12-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation.

  6. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  7. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  8. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  9. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  10. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  11. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  13. Biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Sugiura, Kenji; Negishi, Yukiko

    2009-11-11

    (14)C-Labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ferulic acid, and methionine were applied to disks of green vanilla pods 3 and 6 months after pollination (immature and mature pods), and the conversion of these compounds to vanillin or glucovanillin was investigated. In mature green vanilla pods, radioactivities of 11, 15, 29, and 24% from (14)C-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and methionine, respectively, were incorporated into glucovanillin within 24 h. In the incorporation processes of methionine and phenylalanine into glucovanillin, some of the (14)C labels were also trapped by the unlabeled ferulic acid. However, (14)C-labeled 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were not converted to glucovanillin. On the other hand, in immature green vanilla pods radioactivities of the above six compounds were not incorporated into glucovanillin. Although 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were converted to the respective glucose esters or glucosides and vanillin was converted to glucovanillin, their conversions were believed to be from the detoxication of the aglycones. These results suggest that the biosynthetic pathway for vanillin is 4-coumaric acid --> --> ferulic acid --> --> vanillin --> glucovanillin in mature vanilla pods.

  14. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  15. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  16. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  17. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  18. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  19. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  20. Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...

  1. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  2. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  3. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  4. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  7. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  8. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  9. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  11. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  12. Antioxidant and Antimelanogenic activities of polyamine conjugates from corn bran and related hydroxycinnamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant activity of three major polyamine conjugates, N,N'-dicoumaroyl- putrescine (DCP), N-p-coumaroyl-N'-feruloylputrescine (CFP) and N,N'-diferuloyl- putrescine (DFP) isolated from corn bran, and their related hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), were evaluat...

  13. Catalytic activity of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-02-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylases (HPAHs) of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase family are attractive enzymes that possess the catalytic potential to synthesize valuable ortho-diphenol compounds from simple monophenol compounds. In this study, we investigated the catalytic activity of HPAH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 toward cinnamic acid derivatives. We prepared Escherichia coli cells expressing the hpaB gene encoding the monooxygenase component and the hpaC gene encoding the oxidoreductase component. E. coli cells expressing HpaBC exhibited no or very low oxidation activity toward cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid, whereas they rapidly oxidized p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. Interestingly, after p-coumaric acid was almost completely consumed, the resulting caffeic acid was further oxidized to 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. In addition, HpaBC exhibited oxidation activity toward 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferaldehyde to produce the corresponding ortho-diphenols. We also investigated a flask-scale production of caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid as the model reaction for HpaBC-catalyzed syntheses of hydroxycinnamic acids. Since the initial concentrations of the substrate p-coumaric acid higher than 40 mM markedly inhibited its HpaBC-catalyzed oxidation, the reaction was carried out by repeatedly adding 20 mM of this substrate to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, by using the HpaBC whole-cell catalyst in the presence of glycerol, our experimental setup achieved the high-yield production of caffeic acid, i.e., 56.6 mM (10.2 g/L) within 24 h. These catalytic activities of HpaBC will provide an easy and environment-friendly synthetic approach to hydroxycinnamic acids.

  14. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  15. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  16. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  17. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  18. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  19. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  20. Synthesis and antifungal activity of cinnamic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Tawata, S; Taira, S; Kobamoto, N; Zhu, J; Ishihara, M; Toyama, S

    1996-05-01

    Cinnamic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were isolated from pineapple stems (Ananas comosus var. Cayenne). Twenty-four kinds of esters were prepared from these acids, alcohols and the components of Alpinia. Isopropyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (11) and butyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (12) were found to have almost the same effectiveness in antifungal activity against Pythium sp. at 10 ppm as that of the commercial fungicide iprobenfos (kitazin P).

  1. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  2. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  3. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  5. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  6. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  9. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  10. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  11. Vibrational analysis of α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Vedad, Jayson; Desamero, Ruel Z. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a comparative Raman vibrational analysis of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CHCA) and its derivative, alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamic acid (3CHCA), was performed. The Raman spectra of the 4CHCA and 3CHCA in solid form were obtained and analyzed to determine differences between the two structurally similar derivatives. For comparison, the CHCA derivatives cyanocinnamic acid (CCA) and coumaric acid (CA) were also studied. The plausible vibrational assignments were made and matched with those obtained theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) based method employing a 6-31 g basis set. The computational wavenumbers obtained were in good agreement with the observed experimental results. This was the first reported Raman study of CCA, 3CHCA and 4CHCA.

  12. Isolation of fatty acids and aromatics from cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Gülaçti; Herrmann, Gabriele; Kolak, Ufuk; Gören, C; Porzel, Andrea; Kutchan, Toni M

    2007-02-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia (syn.: L. officinalis Chaix.) afforded a fatty acid composition, cis and trans p-coumaric acids (=p-hydroxy cinnamic acids), and beta-sitosterol. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and the structures of the isolated three compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic techniques.

  13. In vitro and in vivo studies on adlay-derived seed extracts: phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, serum uric acid suppression, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mouming; Zhu, Dashuai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential of polished adlay, brown adlay, adlay bran, and adlay hull to prevent and treat hyperuricemia. Brown adlay extract effectively decreased the serum uric acid levels of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Free and bound phenolic extracts from these materials contained significant amounts of phenolics, with free phenolics dominated by chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid while bound phenolics dominated by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Free and bound phenolics of adlay bran exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activities, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Adlay bran phenolics could be effective xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers. p-Coumaric acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. However, ferulic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with weak superoxide radical scavenging activity. Chlorogenic acid is a superoxide radical scavenger with weak xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

  14. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  15. Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

    2009-04-01

    The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

  16. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  17. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  18. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  19. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  20. An inelastic neutron scattering study of dietary phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Marques, M Paula M; Batista de Carvalho, Luís A E; Valero, Rosendo; Machado, Nelson F L; Parker, Stewart F

    2014-04-28

    The conformational preferences and hydrogen-bonding motifs of several potential chemopreventive hydroxycinnamic derivatives were determined by inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The aim is to understand their recognized beneficial activity and establish reliable structure-activity relationships for these types of dietary phytochemicals. A series of phenolic acids with different hydroxyl/methoxyl ring substitution patterns were studied: trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, trans-caffeic and ferulic acids. Their INS spectra were completely assigned by theoretical calculations performed at the Density Functional Theory level, for the isolated molecule, dimeric centrosymmetric species and the solid (using plane-wave expansion approaches). Access to the low energy vibrational region of the spectra enabled the identification of particular modes associated with intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, which are the determinants of the main conformational preferences and antioxidant capacity of these systems.

  1. Flavonoids and free phenolic acids from Phytolacca americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Matławska, I

    2001-01-01

    In the leaves of Phytolacca americana L. flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods and using co-chromatography, phenolic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, synapic, p-coumaric ferulic and caffeic were also confirmed.

  2. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  3. An organic solvent-tolerant phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus licheniformis for the efficient bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongfei; Li, Lulu; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    A new phenolic acid decarboxylase gene (blpad) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length blpad encodes a 166-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 19,521 Da and 5.02, respectively. The recombinant BLPAD displayed maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0. This enzyme possesses a broad substrate specificity and is able to decarboxylate p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids at the relative ratios of specific activities 100:74.59:34.41:0.29. Kinetic constant K m values toward p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids were 1.64, 1.55, 1.93, and 2.45 mM, and V max values were 268.43, 216.80, 119.07, and 0.78 U mg(-1), respectively. In comparison with other phenolic acid decarboxylases, BLPAD exhibited remarkable organic solvent tolerance and good thermal stability. BLPAD showed excellent catalytic performance in biphasic organic/aqueous systems and efficiently converted p-coumaric and ferulic acids into 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol. At 500 mM of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, the recombinant BLPAD produced a total 60.63 g l(-1) 4-vinylphenol and 58.30 g l(-1) 4-vinylguaiacol with the conversion yields 97.02 and 70.96 %, respectively. The low yield and product concentration are the crucial drawbacks to the practical bioproduction of vinyl phenol derivatives using phenolic acid decarboxylases. These unusual properties make BLPAD a desirable biocatalyst for commercial use in the bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives via enzymatic decarboxylation in a biphasic organic/aqueous reaction system. PMID:25547838

  4. Characterization and Functional Analysis of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase Genes in Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian; Cai, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Liu, Chang-Ying; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Lü, Rui-Hua; Li, Meng-Jiao; Xu, Feng-Xiang; Yu, Mao-De

    2016-01-01

    A small, multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) that catalyze the ligation of CoA to hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point directing metabolites to flavonoid or monolignol pathways. In this study, we characterized four 4CL genes from M. notabilis Genome Database, and cloned four Ma4CL genes from M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. A tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Ma4CL3 was expressed at higher levels than the other genes, and that Ma4CL3 was strongly expressed in root bark, stem bark, and old leaves. Additionally, the expression pattern of Ma4CL3 was similar to the trend of the total flavonoid content throughout fruit development. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that Mn4CL1, Mn4CL2, and Mn4CL4 belong to class I 4CLs, and Mn4CL3 belongs to class II 4CLs. Ma4CL genes responded differently to a series of stresses. Ma4CL3 expression was higher than that of the other Ma4CL genes following wounding, salicylic acid, and ultraviolet treatments. An in vitro enzyme assay indicated that 4-coumarate acid was the best substrate among cinnamic acid, 4-coumarate acid, and caffeate acid, but no catalytic activity to sinapate acid and ferulate acid. The results of subcellular localization experiments showed that Ma4CL3 localized to the cytomembrane, where it activated transcription. We used different vectors and strategies to fuse Ma4CL3 with stilbene synthase (STS) to construct four Ma4CL-MaSTS co-expression systems to generate resveratrol. The results indicated that only a transcriptional fusion vector, pET-Ma4CL3-T-MaSTS, which utilized a T7 promoter and lac operator for the expression of MaSTS, could synthesize resveratrol. PMID:27213624

  5. Characterization and Functional Analysis of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase Genes in Mul-berry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Hong; Yu, Jian; Cai, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Liu, Chang-Ying; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Lü, Rui-Hua; Li, Meng-Jiao; Xu, Feng-Xiang; Yu, Mao-De

    2016-01-01

    A small, multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) that catalyze the ligation of CoA to hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point directing metabolites to flavonoid or monolignol pathways. In this study, we characterized four 4CL genes from M. notabilis Genome Database, and cloned four Ma4CL genes from M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. A tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Ma4CL3 was expressed at higher levels than the other genes, and that Ma4CL3 was strongly expressed in root bark, stem bark, and old leaves. Additionally, the expression pattern of Ma4CL3 was similar to the trend of the total flavonoid content throughout fruit development. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that Mn4CL1, Mn4CL2, and Mn4CL4 belong to class I 4CLs, and Mn4CL3 belongs to class II 4CLs. Ma4CL genes responded differently to a series of stresses. Ma4CL3 expression was higher than that of the other Ma4CL genes following wounding, salicylic acid, and ultraviolet treatments. An in vitro enzyme assay indicated that 4-coumarate acid was the best substrate among cinnamic acid, 4-coumarate acid, and caffeate acid, but no catalytic activity to sinapate acid and ferulate acid. The results of subcellular localization experiments showed that Ma4CL3 localized to the cytomembrane, where it activated transcription. We used different vectors and strategies to fuse Ma4CL3 with stilbene synthase (STS) to construct four Ma4CL-MaSTS co-expression systems to generate resveratrol. The results indicated that only a transcriptional fusion vector, pET-Ma4CL3-T-MaSTS, which utilized a T7 promoter and lac operator for the expression of MaSTS, could synthesize resveratrol. PMID:27213624

  6. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  7. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  8. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  9. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  10. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  11. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  12. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-07-07

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  13. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  14. RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic acids of selected Central European Carex L. (Cyperaceae) species and its implication for taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Janyszek, Magdalena; Janyszek, Sławomir; Cieśla, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen species belonging to the Carex genus were checked for the presence and the amount of eight phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and ferulic) by means of HPLC. Both the free and bonded phenolic acids were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed acids occurred in the studied species in relatively high amounts. The highest concentrations found were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, for which the detected levels were negatively correlated. A very interesting feature was the occurrence of sinapic acid, a compound very rarely detected in plant tissues. Its distribution across the analyzed set of species can be hypothetically connected with the humidity of plants' habitats. Several attempted tests of aggregative cluster analysis showed no similarity to the real taxonomical structure of the genus Carex. Thus, the phenolic acids' composition cannot be considered as the major taxonomical feature for the genus Carex.

  15. Modulation of hepatic phase II phenol sulfotransferase and antioxidant status by phenolic acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-08-01

    Phenolic acids have significant biological and pharmacological properties and some have demonstrated remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulatory effects of phenolic acids on phenol sulfotransferases (PSTs) in vivo have not been described. The present investigation evaluates the role of phenolic acid on the expression of PSTs in male Sprague-Dawley rat liver. According to the results, gentisic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid in a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight for 14 consecutive days significantly increased P-form PST (PST-P) activity as compared with that of the control rats (P<.05), whereas the activity of M-form PST (PST-M) in rats that received gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were also significantly (P<.05) higher than in the control rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the changes in both PST-P and PST-M mRNA levels by phenolic acids were similar to those noted in the enzyme activity levels. The plasma obtained from phenolic acid-administered rats had significantly (P<.05) increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(ROO*) values than that from control rats. In a bioavailability study, following oral administration of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid, the phenolic acids were detected in the plasma, and the Cmax values after 2.0-h administration were 665+/-23 and 550+/-33 nmol/L, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the activity of both forms of PSTs and the antioxidant capacity of ORAC(ROO*) value by phenolic acids (r=.74, P<.05 and r=.77, P<.05). These data suggest that phenolic acids might alter sulfate conjugation and antioxidant capacity in living systems. PMID:16443358

  16. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Hirose, Kanae; Akiyama, Kayo; Taniguchi, Hisaji

    2002-03-27

    Antioxidant activity of 24 ferulic acid related compounds together with 6 gallic acid related compounds was evaluated using several different physical systems as well as their radical scavenging activity. The radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decreased in the order caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > ferulic acid esters > p-coumaric acid. In bulk methyl linoleate, test hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid esters showed antioxidant activity in parallel with their radical scavenging activity. In an ethanol-buffer solution of linoleic acid, the activity of test compounds was not always associated with their radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was most effective among the tested phenolic acids. Esterification of ferulic acid resulted in increasing activity. The activity of alkyl ferulates was somewhat influenced by the chain length of alcohol moiety. When the inhibitory effects of alkyl ferulates against oxidation of liposome induced by AAPH were tested, hexyl, octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl ferulates were more active than the other alkyl ferulates. Furthermore, lauryl gallate is most effective among the tested alkyl gallates. These results indicated that not only the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants, but also their affinity with lipid substrates, might be important factors in their activity.

  17. Use of central composite design in food microbiology: a case study on the effects of secondary phenols on lactic acid bacteria from olives.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Barbara; Racioppo, Angela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of statistical Design of Experiments (DoE) to investigate the effects of two anti-lactic acid bacteria compounds on growth and metabolism of lactobacilli isolated from Italian table olives. p-Coumaric and vanillic acids (0.0-0.4%) were used as phenolic compounds, which were combined with salt (0.0-6.0%) and glucose (0.0-4.0%) through a Central Composite Design. Three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (5 log cfu/ml) were used as test organisms, samples were stored at 37 °C, and cell counts and pH were evaluated periodically. The growth of lactobacilli was affected in a significant way by salt, p-coumaric and vanillic acids, being the salt the most significant factor after 24 h (short storage time), then replaced by p-coumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid also played a significant role on the acidifying ability, expressed as decrease of pH of the medium: microbial metabolism, in fact, appeared as completely inhibited at 0.2% of p-coumaric acid.

  18. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  19. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  20. Novel enzymatic synthesis of 4-O-cinnamoyl quinic and shikimic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Nuria; Ferrero, Miguel; Fernández, Susana; Gotor, Vicente

    2003-07-11

    The first direct synthesis of 4-O-cinnamoyl derivatives of quinic and shikimic acids were accomplished by regioselective esterification with Candida antarctica lipase A. For hydrocinnamic esters, enzymatic transesterification with vinyl esters gave excellent yields. However, more reactive acylating agents such as anhydrides were used to synthesize cinnamic derivatives of both acids. An inhibitory effect was observed with this lipase for p-methoxy, p-hydroxy, and p-acetoxy vinyl ester and anhydride derivatives (coumarate and ferulate derivatives).

  1. Water extract of propolis and its main constituents, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, exert neuroprotective effects via antioxidant actions.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshimi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether water extract of Brazilian green propolis (WEP) and its main constituents [caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid) and cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric acid, artepillin C, drupanin, baccharin)] exert neuroprotective effects against the retinal damage induced by oxidative stress. Additionally, their neuroprotective effects were compared with their antioxidant effects. WEP, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid (but not artepillin C, baccharin, or drupanin) concentration-dependently inhibited oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity [achieved using L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete glutathione in combination with glutamate to inhibit cystine uptake] in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell line transformed using E1A virus). At their effective concentrations against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, WEP, 3,4-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid (but not cinnamic acid derivatives) inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mouse forebrain homogenates. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of WEP and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives paralleled those against LPO. These findings indicate that WEP and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives have neuroprotective effects against retinal damage in vitro, and that these effects may be partly mediated via antioxidant effects.

  2. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples.

  3. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples. PMID:26749805

  4. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  5. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  6. 4-coumarate: CoA ligase partitions metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kumar, Ritesh; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan M; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Shasany, Ajit K

    2013-08-01

    Biosynthesis of eugenol shares its initial steps with that of lignin, involving conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to their corresponding coenzyme A (CoA) esters by 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs). In this investigation, a 4CL (OS4CL) was identified from glandular trichome-rich tissue of Ocimum sanctum with high sequence similarity to an isoform (OB4CL_ctg4) from Ocimum basilicum. The levels of OS4CL and OB4CL_ctg4-like transcripts were highest in O. sanctum trichome, followed by leaf, stem and root. The eugenol content in leaf essential oil was positively correlated with the expression of OS4CL in the leaf at different developmental stages. Recombinant OS4CL showed the highest activity with p-coumaric acid, followed by ferulic, caffeic and trans-cinnamic acids. Transient RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of OS4CL in O. sanctum leaves caused a reduction in leaf eugenol content and trichome transcript level, with a considerable increase in endogenous p-coumaric, ferulic, trans-cinnamic and caffeic acids. A significant reduction in the expression levels was observed for OB4CL_ctg4-related transcripts in suppressed trichome compared with transcripts similar to the other four isoforms (OB4CL_ctg1, 2, 3 and 5). Sinapic acid and lignin content were also unaffected in RNAi suppressed leaf samples. Transient expression of OS4CL-green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts was associated with the cytosol. These results indicate metabolite channeling of intermediates towards eugenol by a specific 4CL and is the first report demonstrating the involvement of 4CL in creation of virtual compartments through substrate utilization and committing metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis at an early stage of the pathway.

  7. Phenolic metabolism in petunia tissues. IV. - Properties of p-coumarate : coenzyme A ligase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Ranjeva, R; Boudet, A M; Faggion, R

    1976-01-01

    Three p-coumarate: CoA ligases were separated from Petunia leaves. There was no interconversion from one form to another. The isoenzymes had a number of common properties: optimum pH, instability in the absence of polyols, action on p-coumaric acid as the common substrate. These enzymes differed significantly with respect to: --their substrate specificity towards the other C6-C3 units of Petunia. Form Ia (caffeate: CoA ligase) acted on caffeic acid, form Ib (sinapate: CoA ligase) on sinapic acid form II (ferulate: CoA ligase) on ferulic acid. --their thermal stability. --their sensitivity to phenolics: (a) caffeate: CoA ligase was inhibited by p-coumaroyl and caffeoyl quinic esters. It was insensitive to p-coumaroyl-glucose, on one hand and to a number of flavonoids on the other. (b) ferulate: CoA ligase was specifically inhibited by naringenin. (c) sinapate: CoA ligase was not inhibited by the selected compounds. In all cases, the inhibition was of the non competitive type and the enzymes were desensized to the modifier action by thermal treatment independently from the enzyme activity. These results suggest the occurrence of distinct sites of reception for the substrate and the inhibitor on the enzyme molecule. All these data are consistent with the hypothesis of the possible participation of each individual form in a limited number of pathways. This would be of physiological interest since the metabolic fate of the different cinnamic acids could be independently controlled at the p-coumarate: CoA ligase level.

  8. 4-coumarate: CoA ligase partitions metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kumar, Ritesh; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan M; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Shasany, Ajit K

    2013-08-01

    Biosynthesis of eugenol shares its initial steps with that of lignin, involving conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to their corresponding coenzyme A (CoA) esters by 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs). In this investigation, a 4CL (OS4CL) was identified from glandular trichome-rich tissue of Ocimum sanctum with high sequence similarity to an isoform (OB4CL_ctg4) from Ocimum basilicum. The levels of OS4CL and OB4CL_ctg4-like transcripts were highest in O. sanctum trichome, followed by leaf, stem and root. The eugenol content in leaf essential oil was positively correlated with the expression of OS4CL in the leaf at different developmental stages. Recombinant OS4CL showed the highest activity with p-coumaric acid, followed by ferulic, caffeic and trans-cinnamic acids. Transient RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of OS4CL in O. sanctum leaves caused a reduction in leaf eugenol content and trichome transcript level, with a considerable increase in endogenous p-coumaric, ferulic, trans-cinnamic and caffeic acids. A significant reduction in the expression levels was observed for OB4CL_ctg4-related transcripts in suppressed trichome compared with transcripts similar to the other four isoforms (OB4CL_ctg1, 2, 3 and 5). Sinapic acid and lignin content were also unaffected in RNAi suppressed leaf samples. Transient expression of OS4CL-green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts was associated with the cytosol. These results indicate metabolite channeling of intermediates towards eugenol by a specific 4CL and is the first report demonstrating the involvement of 4CL in creation of virtual compartments through substrate utilization and committing metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis at an early stage of the pathway. PMID:23677922

  9. Effects of structural differences on the NMR chemical shifts in cinnamic acid derivatives: Comparison of GIAO and GIPAW calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    In this article we report the results of combined theoretical and experimental structural studies on cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs), one of the main groups of secondary metabolites present in various medicinal plant species and food products of plant origin. The effects of structural differences in CADs on their spectroscopic properties were studied in detail by both: solid-state NMR and GIAO/GIPAW calculations. Theoretical computations were used in order to perform signal assignment in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the cinnamic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acids, and to evaluate the accuracy of GIPAW and GIAO methodology.

  10. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Antioxidants: An Electrochemical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, José; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E. Manuela; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating capacity and to the ability to delocalize/stabilize the resulting phenoxyl radical within their structure. The free radical scavenger ability of antioxidants can be predicted from standard one-electron potentials. Thus, voltammetric methods have often been applied to characterize a diversity of natural and synthetic antioxidants essentially to get an insight into their mechanism and also as an important tool for the rational design of new and potent antioxidants. The structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) correlations already established for this type of compounds suggest that redox potentials could be considered a good measure of antioxidant activity and an accurate guideline on the drug discovery and development process. Due to its magnitude in the antioxidant field, the electrochemistry of hydroxycinnamic acid-based antioxidants is reviewed highlighting the structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) obtained so far. PMID:23956973

  11. Free phenolic acids in Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A; Kuś, A

    2009-10-01

    Eight phenolic acids were determined using HPLC method in methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) shoots cultured in vitro on four variants of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium differing in contents of growth regulators, NAA and BAP (ranging between 0.1-3.0 mg/l). Four compounds: protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and p-coumaric acid were detected and quantified. The total content of metabolites was dependent on LS medium variants. The contents of protocatechuic acid, quantitatively dominating on all tested LS medium variants, were considerable (from 67.15 to 93.24 mg/100 g d.w.) in comparison with its contents in the plant material under analysis (46.36 to 218.27 mg/ 100 g d.w.). This is the first report of the isolation of protocatechuic acid from an in vitro plant culture.

  12. Preparation and biological assessment of hydroxycinnamic acid amides of polyamines.

    PubMed

    Fixon-Owoo, Solomon; Levasseur, Frédéric; Williams, Keith; Sabado, Thomas N; Lowe, Mike; Klose, Markus; Joffre Mercier, A; Fields, Paul; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2003-06-01

    Many plants contain hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates of polyamines that are remarkably similar in general structure to the acylated polyamines found in spider and wasp toxins. In an effort to determine whether these compounds might play a role in the chemical defense of plants against arthropod pests we synthesized a variety of analogues of the coumaric (4-hydroxycinnamic) acid conjugates of di-, tri-, and tetraamines using common protection and acylation strategies. N(1)- and N(8)-coumaroyl spermidine were tested in feeding trials with insect larvae including the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the tobacco budworm (Heliothis verescens) and the oblique banded leaf roller (Choristoneura rosaceana). Antifeedant assays with the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae were also performed. Neither the naturally occurring coumaric acid conjugates of polyamines nor their analogues showed notable toxicity towards insects, despite precautions to maintain these easily oxidized materials in the wet diet. However, more direct bioassays of these compounds on glutamate dependent neuroreceptors including the deep abdominal extensor muscles of crayfish, or mammalian NMDA, delta2, and AMPA receptors, clearly showed that these compounds were inhibitory. N(1)-Coumaoryl spermine, a dodecyl and a cyclohexyl analogue were especially active at NMDA NR1/NR2B receptors. The latter had an IC(50) of 300 microM in the crayfish. N(1)-Coumaroyl spermine had an IC(50) in the crayfish preparation of 70-300 microM and against the mammalian NR1/NR2B receptor of 38 nM. Structure-activity variations show similar trends of length and hydrophobicity as has been seen previously with analogues of spider toxins. We conclude from this work that while the coumaric acid polyamine conjugates are active when directly applied to neuroreceptors, they show no overt toxicity when ingested by insect larvae.

  13. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  14. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  15. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  16. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  18. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  19. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  20. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  3. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  4. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  5. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  6. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  7. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  8. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  9. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  10. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  11. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  17. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  18. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  19. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  20. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  1. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  2. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  3. Predicting the function of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (LJ4CL1) in Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Shulin; Yu, Jun; Zhan, Zhilai; Li, Minhui; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-02-10

    4-Coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) are a group of essential enzymes involved in the pathway of phenylpropanoid-derived compound metabolisms; however it is still difficult to identify orthologs and paralogs of these important enzymes just based on sequence similarity of the conserved domains. Using sequence data of 20 plant species from the public databases and sequences from Lonicera japonica, we define 1252 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent synthetase/ligase sequences and classify them into three phylogenetic clades. 4CLs are in one of the four subgroups, according to their partitioning, with known proteins characterized in A. thaliana and Oryza sativa. We also defined 184 non-redundant sequences that encode proteins containing the GEICIRG motif and the taxonomic distribution of these GEICIRG-containing proteins suggests unique catalytic activities in plants. We further analyzed their transcription levels in L. japonica and L. japonica. var. chinensis flowers and chose the highest expressed genes representing the subgroups for structure and binding site predictions. Coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the L. japonica flowers, the structural study on putative substrate binding amino acid residues, ferulate, and 4-coumaric acid of the conserved binding-site of LJ4CL1 leads to a conclusion that this highly expressed protein group in the flowers may process 4-coumarate that represents 90% of the known phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. The activity of purified crude LJ4CL1 protein was analyzed using 4-coumarate as template and high activity indicating that 4-coumarate is one of the substrates of LJ4CL1.

  4. Predicting the Function of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase (LJ4CL1) in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Shulin; Yu, Jun; Zhan, Zhilai; Li, Minhui; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    4-Coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) are a group of essential enzymes involved in the pathway of phenylpropanoid-derived compound metabolisms; however it is still difficult to identify orthologs and paralogs of these important enzymes just based on sequence similarity of the conserved domains. Using sequence data of 20 plant species from the public databases and sequences from Lonicera japonica, we define 1252 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent synthetase/ligase sequences and classify them into three phylogenetic clades. 4CLs are in one of the four subgroups, according to their partitioning, with known proteins characterized in A. thaliana and Oryza sativa. We also defined 184 non-redundant sequences that encode proteins containing the GEICIRG motif and the taxonomic distribution of these GEICIRG-containing proteins suggests unique catalytic activities in plants. We further analyzed their transcription levels in L. japonica and L. japonica. var. chinensis flowers and chose the highest expressed genes representing the subgroups for structure and binding site predictions. Coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the L. japonica flowers, the structural study on putative substrate binding amino acid residues, ferulate, and 4-coumaric acid of the conserved binding-site of LJ4CL1 leads to a conclusion that this highly expressed protein group in the flowers may process 4-coumarate that represents 90% of the known phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. The activity of purified crude LJ4CL1 protein was analyzed using 4-coumarate as template and high activity indicating that 4-coumarate is one of the substrates of LJ4CL1. PMID:24518682

  5. Cloning and functional characterization of a 4-coumarate CoA ligase from liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Cheng, Ai-Xia; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Plant phenylpropanoids represent a large group of secondary metabolites which have played an important role in terrestrial plant life, beginning with the evolution of land plants from primitive green algae. 4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a provider of activated thioester substrates within the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Although 4CLs have been extensively characterized in angiosperm, gymnosperm and moss species, little is known of their functions in liverworts. Here, a 4CL homolog (designated as Pa4CL1) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pa4CL1 contains 1644bp and is predicted to encode a protein with 547amino acids. The gene products were 40-50% identical with 4CL sequences reported in public databases. The recombinant protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited a high level of 4CL activity, catalyzing formation of hydroxycinnamate-CoA thioesters by a two-step reaction mechanism from corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids. Kinetic analysis indicated that the most favorable substrate for Pa4CL1 is p-coumaric acid. The transcription of Pa4CL1 was induced when P. appendiculatum thallus was treated with either salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate.

  6. Cloning and functional characterization of a 4-coumarate CoA ligase from liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Cheng, Ai-Xia; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Plant phenylpropanoids represent a large group of secondary metabolites which have played an important role in terrestrial plant life, beginning with the evolution of land plants from primitive green algae. 4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a provider of activated thioester substrates within the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Although 4CLs have been extensively characterized in angiosperm, gymnosperm and moss species, little is known of their functions in liverworts. Here, a 4CL homolog (designated as Pa4CL1) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pa4CL1 contains 1644bp and is predicted to encode a protein with 547amino acids. The gene products were 40-50% identical with 4CL sequences reported in public databases. The recombinant protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited a high level of 4CL activity, catalyzing formation of hydroxycinnamate-CoA thioesters by a two-step reaction mechanism from corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids. Kinetic analysis indicated that the most favorable substrate for Pa4CL1 is p-coumaric acid. The transcription of Pa4CL1 was induced when P. appendiculatum thallus was treated with either salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate. PMID:25593011

  7. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  8. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  9. Free and bound cinnamic acid derivatives in corsica sweet blond oranges.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Eric; El Kebir, Mohamed Vall Ould; Jacquemond, Camille; Luro, François; Lozano, Yves; Gaydou, Emile M

    2010-03-01

    Total determination of cinnamic acids (CA), including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives is generally not accurate since, during hydrolysis, a possible degradation of dihydroxy CA such as caffeic acid could occur. Evaluations of CA (ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, cinnamic and caffeic acids) before and after hydrolysis have been undertaken using standards and either with or without addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA. The method was then applied to the determination of free and bound CA in five blond cultivars (Navelina, Washington navel, Pera, Salustiana and Valencia late) of sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Four parts of the fruits (peel juice, flavedo, albedo and juice) have been investigated. Results show that CA are mainly bound (86% up to 92%) in the four fruit parts. The mean of total CA contents was found to be higher in peel juice (1.5 g kg(-1)) in comparison with flavedo (0.7 g kg(-1)), albedo (0.1 g kg(-1)) and juice (0.6 g kg(-1)). Free and bound ferulic acid represented 55-70% of CA in juices, followed by p-coumaric acid (20%), sinapic acid (10%) and caffeic acid (9%). Total contents of each CA in the four fruit parts are discussed and show the potential interest in orange peel wastes. PMID:20420324

  10. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  11. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  12. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  13. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  14. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  15. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  16. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. HPLC Quantification of Phenolic Acids from Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash and Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971

  20. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  1. [Cloning and tissue expression of 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene in Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Wen, Sui-chao; Wang, Yin-quan; Luo, Jun; Xia, Qi; Fan, Qin; Li, Shu-nan; Wang, Zhen-heng

    2015-12-01

    4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in higher plant and may regulate the biosynthesis of ferulic acid in Angelica sinensis. In this study, the homology-based cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique were used to clone a full length cDNA encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL), and then qRT-PCR was taken for analyzing 4CL gene expression levels in the root, stem and root tissue at different growth stages of seedlings of A. sinensis. The results showed that a full-length 4CL cDNA (1,815 bp) was obtained (GenBank accession number: KT880508) which shares an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 632 bp, encodes 544 amino acid polypeptides. We found 4CL gene was expressed in all tissues including leaf, stem and root of seedlings of A. sinensis. The expressions in the leave and stem were increased significantly with the growth of seedlings of A. sinensis (P < 0.05), while it in the root showed little change. It indicates a time-space pattern of 4CL gene expression in seedlings of A. sinensis. These findings will be useful for establishing an experiment basis for studying the structure and function of 4CL gene and elucidating mechanism of ferulic acid biosynthesis and space-time regulation in A. sinensis. PMID:27245029

  2. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  3. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  4. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  5. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  6. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  7. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  9. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  10. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  11. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  12. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  13. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  14. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons.

  15. Hydroxycinnamic Acids Used as External Acceptors of Electrons: an Energetic Advantage for Strictly Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD+/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD+/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. PMID:25261518

  16. Pathway of salicylic acid biosynthesis in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M.A.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied Sa biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of Sa accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. [sup 14]C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock- or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [[sup 14]C] benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogenesis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid but no in 0-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Interaction of cinnamic acid derivatives with β-cyclodextrin in water: experimental and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benguo; Zeng, Jie; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yonglan; Ma, Hanjun; Mo, Haizhen; Liang, Guizhao

    2016-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can be used to improve the solubility and stability of cinnamic acid derivatives (CAs). However, there was no detailed report about understanding the effects of the substituent groups in the benzene ring on the inclusion behavior between CAs and CDs in aqueous solution. Here, the interaction of β-CD with CAs, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, in water was investigated by phase-solubility method, UV, fluorescence, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, together with ONIOM (our Own N-layer Integrated Orbital molecular Mechanics)-based QM/MM (Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics) calculations. Experimental results demonstrated that CAs could form 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD by non-covalent bonds, and that the maximum apparent stability constants were found in caffeic acid (176M(-1)) followed by p-coumaric acid (160M(-1)) and ferulic acid (133M(-1)). Moreover, our calculations reasonably illustrated the binding orientations of β-CD with CAs determined by experimental observations.

  18. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.

  19. Effects of natural phenolic acids on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Zych, Maria; Burczyk, Jan; Trzeciak, Hanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-12-01

    Recent reports indicate the possibility of antiresorptive and/or bone formation increasing activity of natural phenolic acids, commonly present in plants which are normally consumed in the diet. The effects of 4 natural phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic, P-coumaric or chlorogenic, 10 mg/kg P. O. daily for 4 weeks) on the skeletal system of ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) rats were investigated. Bone mass, mineral and calcium content, macrometric and histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Phenolic acids differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with osteoporotic changes induced by the ovariectomy. Caffeic acid decreased bone mass, whereas P-coumaric acid increased the bone mass/body mass ratio and bone mineral mass/body mass ratio in the long bones, in comparison with the ovariectomized control rats. The phenolic acids improved some bone histomorphometric parameters, impaired by estrogen deficiency. However, they did not increase the ratio of bone mineral mass to bone mass, decreased by estrogen deficiency, and did not significantly affect bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, different natural phenolic acids exert differential effects on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, both favourable and deleterious.

  20. Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye

    2013-01-01

    Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

  1. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  2. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  3. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  4. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  5. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  6. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance.

  7. Acid rain and soil.

    PubMed

    vanLoon, G W

    1984-08-01

    A summary of important chemical properties of soil is given and the way in which acid rain may affect these properties is discussed. Acid rain may suppress microbiological decomposition and nitrification processes, thus influencing the nutrient status of soils. It has also been found that soil organic matter is less soluble in more acid solutions. Changed nutrient availability patterns are predicted in a low pH environment and enhanced leaching of essential elements from the soil exchange complex has been observed. Increased solubility of potentially toxic elements such as aluminium may also occur from soils which have been exposed to acidified rainfall.

  8. Cinnamic-derived acids significantly affect Fusarium graminearum growth and in vitro synthesis of type B trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Ponts, Nadia; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The impact of five phenolic acids (ferulic, coumaric, caffeic, syringic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) on fungal growth and type B trichothecene production by four strains of Fusarium graminearum was investigated. All five phenolic acids inhibited growth but the degree of inhibition varied between strains. Our results suggested that the more lipophilic phenolic acids are, the higher is the effect they have on growth. Toxin accumulation in phenolic acid-supplemented liquid glucose, yeast extract, and peptone cultures was enhanced in the presence of ferulic and coumaric acids but was reduced in the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. This modulation was shown to correlate with a regulation of TRI5 transcription. In this study, addition of phenolic acids with greater antioxidant properties resulted in a higher toxin accumulation, indicating that the modulation of toxin accumulation may be linked to the antioxidant properties of the phenolic acids. These data suggest that, in planta, different compositions in phenolic acids of kernels from various cultivars may reflect different degrees of sensitivity to "mycotoxinogenesis."

  9. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  10. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board ... level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid: Age 0 to 6 months: ...

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  12. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  13. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  14. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns to skin or mouth Drooling Fever Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty ...

  15. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  16. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  17. Hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Coleman, Kyle M

    2006-01-01

    Although hyaluronic acids are a relatively new treatment for facial lines and wrinkles, they have provided numerous advances in the area of cosmetic surgery. This article discusses the inherent properties of hyaluronic acid fillers that make them ideal for treatment of facial lines. It encompasses a review of the current literature on U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved hyaluronic acid fillers and the role that each of these fillers currently has in facial cosmetics. This article also discusses the potential pitfalls and adverse effects that can be associated with using hyaluronic acids for filling facial lines. Finally, it serves as an overview of current techniques for clinical assessment of patients as well as administration and treatment of facial lines and wrinkles.

  18. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  19. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  20. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  1. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  2. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  3. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  4. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  5. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  6. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  7. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  8. Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  9. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  10. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  11. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  12. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  13. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  14. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  15. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  16. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  17. Boric acid catalyzed chemoselective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Houston, Todd A; Wilkinson, Brendan L; Blanchfield, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Boric acid catalyzes the selective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids without causing significant esterification to occur with other carboxylic acids. The procedure is simple, high-yielding, and applicable to the esterification of alpha-hydroxy carboxylates in the presence of other carboxylic acids including beta-hydroxyacids within the same molecule. [reaction: see text

  18. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  19. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  20. Analysis of Bile Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

    Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

  1. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  2. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  3. Acid sludge utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, M.

    1980-09-01

    The Peak Oil Company of Tampa, Florida, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, has completed an initial study for the incorporation of acid-sludge derived from the rerefining of used lubricating oil into a useful and salable building material. Both bricks and paving materials have been produced using a formulation developed by Peak. Equipment has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of preparing emulsions containing the acid-sludge, which is a vital ingredient in the final formulation. Testing of products obtained from these initial efforts shows that the acid in the sludge has been effectively neutralized and that heavy metals are not leached from the bricks or paving material in normal testing. While some properties of the building materials that incorporate the acid-sludge by-product are below standards for clay and shale brick, uses are defined for the product as is, and there is some promise of eventual production of building materials that meet all specifications for competitive materials. Initial cost estimations are encouraging, indicating that a profit can be derived by converting a hazardous and noxious by-product of rerefining to a construction material. Acid-sludge has presented a complex and costly disposal problem to the industry resulting in a serious depletion in the capacity for rerefining used lubricating oil.

  4. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  5. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  6. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  7. Accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in hairy roots of Daucus carota 2: confirming biosynthetic steps through feeding of inhibitors and precursors.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Debabrata; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2009-09-01

    Biosynthesis of hydroxybenzoates even at enzymatic level is poorly understood. In this report, effect of feeding of putative biosynthetic precursors and pathway-specific enzyme inhibitors of early phenylpropanoid pathway on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation in chitosan-elicited hairy roots of Daucus carota was studied. Three selective metabolic inhibitors of plant phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), piperonylic acid (PIP) and 3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA), which are known to inhibit phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) respectively, the three early enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism, were chosen with the anticipation that selective inhibition of these enzymes in vivo may provide information on the metabolic route to p-hydroxybenzoic acid formation. Supplementation of AOAA (0.2-1.0 mM) and PIP (0.2-1.0 mM) resulted in the reduced accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the wall-bound fraction. However, addition of MDCA (0.2-1.25 mM), did not suppress p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation but suppressed lignin and total flavonoid accumulation, suggesting that 4CL enzyme activity is not required for p-hydroxybenzoic acid formation. Feeding of elicited hairy roots with phenylalanine, coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde had a stimulatory effect on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation; however, maximum stimulatory effect was shown by p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This suggests that p-hydroxybenzaldehyde might be the immediate precursor in p-hydroxybenzoic acid biosynthesis. Finally, in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to p-hydroxybenzoic acid with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde as intermediate using cell-free extract provided an unequivocal support for CoA-independent and non-beta-oxidative route of p-hydroxybenzoic acid biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

  8. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  9. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

  10. Joint action of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chunhong; Jia, Chunghong; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2006-02-22

    The joint action of binary and ternary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids was studied using the additive dose model (ADM) as reference model. The activity of fixed-ratio mixtures of phenolic acids [ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (CA), vanillic acid (VA), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA)] and benzoxazinone derivatives [2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), 2-aminophenol (AP), and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (HPAA)] on Lolium perenne and Myosotis arvensis root growth was assessed in Petri dishes. Root length was recorded 6 days after seeding, and EC(50) and EC(90) values were estimated using nonlinear regression analyses. The benzoxazinone derivatives were found to be more phytotoxic than the phenolic acids, particularly on M. arvensis. Binary mixtures of phenolic acids responded predominantly additively on both plant species. Deviations from additivity were species-specific with antagonistic responses on L. perenne and synergistic responses on M. arvensis. Similarly, binary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives also followed the ADM, although synergistic responses were observed for BOA + AP and BOA + HPAA. Binary and ternary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids responded primarily antagonistically; however, a significant synergistic performance was observed with DIMBOA + FA and DIMBOA + VA on L. perenne. These results do not support the assumption that allelopathic effects of wheat can be attributed to synergistic effects of otherwise weakly active allelopathic compounds, and it is suggested that future research be directed toward identifying and studying the effects of other potential allelochemicals including the degradation products of the most abundant wheat allelochemicals.

  11. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  12. Exposures to acidic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

    1989-02-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

  13. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  14. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  15. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  16. Interaction of cinnamic acid derivatives with commercial hypoglycemic drugs on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Pranav Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-09-28

    Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. The effect of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, alone and in combination with two commercial oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), namely, thiazolidinedione (THZ) and metformin, on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) by 3T3-L1 adipocytes is studied. All of the phytochemicals other than cinnamic acid show synergistic interaction in 2DG uptake with both of the OHDs. THZ (20 μM) in combination with ferulic acid (25 μM) or p-coumaric acid (25 μM) increases 2DG uptake by 7- or 6.34-fold, respectively, with respect to control, whereas metformin (20 μM), along with ferulic acid (25 μM) or cinnamic acid (25 μM), increases 2DG uptake by 6.45- or 5.87-fold, respectively, when compared to control. Chlorogenic and cinnamic acids increased the expression of PPARγ, whereas other hydroxycinnamic acids enhanced the expression of PI3K, indicating different mechanisms of action between these compounds. These phytochemicals were able to reduce the expressions of the fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase genes, indicating that they may be able to reduce the secondary complications caused by the accumulation of lipids. These studies suggest that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. They may act as a supplement with commercial drugs and may reduce the secondary complications caused by OHDs.

  17. Acid Precipitation; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rushing, J.W.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This publication, Acid Precipitation (APC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on acid precipitation and closely related subjects, including wet and dry deposition, long-range transport, environmental effects, modeling, and socioeconomic factors. Information on the following subjects is included within the scope of this publication, but all subjects may not appear in each issue: Pollution sources and pollution control technology; atmospheric transport and chemistry; terrestrial transport and chemistry; aquatic transport and chemistry; biological effects; corrosive effects; and socioeconomics, policy, and legislation.

  18. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  19. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  20. Simultaneous GC-MS Determination of Free and Bound Phenolic Acids in Slovenian Red Wines and Chemometric Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Milena; Islamčević Razboršek, Maša; Kolar, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Several phenolic acids (PAs), caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and ferulic acid, found in Slovenian red wines were studied using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. For isolation of the PAs from wine samples, solid phase extraction using hydrophilic modified styrene - HLB cartridges was used. The bound PAs were extracted after basic hydrolysis and o-coumaric acid was used as the internal standard. The developed method was validated and the linear concentration range for all analytes was from 1 to 100 mg L-1 with correlation coefficients above 0.999. We show that the method is repeatable (RSD<2%), recoveries were above 96%, and LOD and LOQ values were acceptable. In all of the wine samples tested, caffeic and p-coumaric acid were determined to be the predominant PAs (17-72 mg L-1), while other compounds were found in lower concentrations. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used to study differences between wines related towards varieties and Slovenian wine regions. The results demonstrate that variety has more influence on PAs content than wine regions in Slovenian red wines. PMID:27640394

  1. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  2. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  3. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  4. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  5. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  6. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  8. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B. P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl­phen­yl)phenyl­meth­oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C18H24NO+·C6H2N3O7 −·C6H3N3O7, contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol­ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol­ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol­ecules are connected by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter­actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580426

  9. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  10. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  11. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  12. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  13. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  14. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  15. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  16. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  17. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  18. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  19. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  20. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  1. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  2. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  3. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  4. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  5. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  6. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  7. Treatment of Bile Acid Amidation Defects with Glycocholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heubi, James E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Jha, Pinky; Buckley, Donna; Zhang, Wujuan; Rosenthal, Philip; Potter, Carol; Horslen, Simon; Suskind, David

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid amidation defects were predicted to present with fat/fat soluble vitamin malabsorption with minimal cholestasis. We identified and treated 5 patients (1 male/4 females) from 4 families with defective bile acid amidation due to a genetically confirmed deficiency in bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyl transferase (BAAT) with the conjugated bile acid, glycocholic acid (GCA). Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and bile at baseline revealed predominantly unconjugated cholic acid and absence of the usual glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids. Treatment with 15 mg/kg GCA resulted in total duodenal bile acid concentrations of 23.3 ± 19.1 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 63.5 ± 4.0% of the bile acids were secreted in bile in the conjugated form of which GCA represented 59.6 ± 9.3% of the total biliary bile acids. Unconjugated cholic acid continued to be present in high concentrations in bile because of partial intestinal deconjugation of orally administered GCA. Serum total bile acid concentrations did not significantly differ between pretreatment and post-treatment samples and serum contained predominantly unconjugated cholic acid. These findings confirmed efficient intestinal absorption, hepatic extraction and biliary secretion of the administered GCA. Oral tolerance tests for vitamin D2 (1000 IU vitamin D2/kg) and tocopherol (100 IU/kg tocopherol acetate) demonstrated improvement in fat-soluble vitamin absorption after GCA treatment. Growth improved in 3/3 growth-delayed prepubertal patients. Conclusions: Oral glycocholic acid therapy is safe and effective in improving growth and fat-soluble vitamin absorption in children and adolescents with inborn errors of bile acid metabolism due to amidation defects. PMID:25163551

  8. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  9. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  10. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  11. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  12. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  13. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  14. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  15. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  16. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  17. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  18. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  20. Ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.

  1. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M

    2015-03-31

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies.

  2. Acid rain in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. ); Foell, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  4. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  5. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallow large pills. How can I take a vitamin with folic acid? A : These days, multivitamins with folic acid come in chewable chocolate or fruit flavors, liquids, and large oval or smaller round ...

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  7. Determination of phenolic acids in plant extracts using CZE with on-line transient isotachophoretic preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Honegr, Jan; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2013-02-01

    A novel transient ITP-CZE for preconcentration and determination of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanilic acid) was developed and validated. Effects of several factors such as control of EOF, pH and buffer concentration, addition of organic solvents and CDs, and conditions for sample injection were investigated. Sample self-stacking was applied by means of induction of transient ITP, which was realized by adding sodium chloride into the sample. The CZE was realized in 200 mM borate buffer ((w)(s)pH 9.2) containing 37.5% methanol, 0.001% hexadimethrine bromide, and 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Under the optimal conditions for analysis, analytes were separated within 20 min. Linearity was tested for each compound in the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL (R = 0.9906-0.9968) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 11 ng/mL (protocatechuic acid) to 31 μg/mL (syringic acid). The validated method was applied to the ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum, Onagraceae. The method of SPE was used for the precleaning of the sample. PMID:23401390

  8. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  9. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  10. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  11. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  12. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  13. Decarboxylation of Sorbic Acid by Spoilage Yeasts Is Associated with the PAD1 Gene▿

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The spoilage yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae degraded the food preservative sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) to a volatile hydrocarbon, identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as 1,3-pentadiene. The gene responsible was identified as PAD1, previously associated with the decarboxylation of the aromatic carboxylic acids cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid to styrene, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol, respectively. The loss of PAD1 resulted in the simultaneous loss of decarboxylation activity against both sorbic and cinnamic acids. Pad1p is therefore an unusual decarboxylase capable of accepting both aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids as substrates. All members of the Saccharomyces genus (sensu stricto) were found to decarboxylate both sorbic and cinnamic acids. PAD1 homologues and decarboxylation activity were found also in Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Pichia anomala. The decarboxylation of sorbic acid was assessed as a possible mechanism of resistance in spoilage yeasts. The decarboxylation of either sorbic or cinnamic acid was not detected for Zygosaccharomyces, Kazachstania (Saccharomyces sensu lato), Zygotorulaspora, or Torulaspora, the genera containing the most notorious spoilage yeasts. Scatter plots showed no correlation between the extent of sorbic acid decarboxylation and resistance to sorbic acid in spoilage yeasts. Inhibitory concentrations of sorbic acid were almost identical for S. cerevisiae wild-type and Δpad1 strains. We concluded that Pad1p-mediated sorbic acid decarboxylation did not constitute a significant mechanism of resistance to weak-acid preservatives by spoilage yeasts, even if the decarboxylation contributed to spoilage through the generation of unpleasant odors. PMID:17766451

  14. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel'tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  15. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  16. Nervonic acid and demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R; Coupland, K; Wilson, R

    1994-04-01

    Demyelination in adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is associated with an accumulation of very long chain saturated fatty acids such as 26:0 stemming from a genetic defect in the peroxisomal beta oxidation system responsible for the chain shortening of these fatty acids. Long chain monoenoic acids such as erucic acid, 22:1(n-9), can normalise elevated serum levels of 26:0 in ALD by depressing their biosynthesis from shorter chain saturated fatty acids. Sphingolipids from post mortem ALD brain have decreased levels of nervonic acid, 24:1(n-9), and increased levels of stearic acid, 18:0. Increased levels of 26:0 are accompanied by decreased nervonic acid biosynthesis in skin fibroblasts from ALD patients. Sphingolipids from post mortem MS brain have the same decreased 24:1(n-9) and increased 18:0 seen in post mortem ALD brain. The 24:1(n-9) content of sphingomyelin is depressed in erythrocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Defects in the microsomal biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids including 24:1(n-9) in 'jumpy' and 'quaking' mice are accompanied by impaired myelination. An impairment in the provision of nervonic acid in demyelinating diseases is indicated, suggesting that dietary therapy with oils rich in very long chain monenoic acid fatty acids may be beneficial in such conditions.

  17. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  18. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  19. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  20. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  1. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  2. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  3. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  4. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  5. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  6. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  9. [A catalogue of fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Canalejo, E; Martín Peña, G; Gómez Molero, L; Ruiz Galiana, J

    1996-01-01

    Fatty acids structure and function is an area of renewed interest because of its effects on plasma lipids, biosynthesis of prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes, and the obligatory demands of some fatty acids, especially for the newborn. Fatty acids are identified in three different ways: by the classical nomenclature, by its trivial name, and by the new methods also known as the omega system. These three different methods have created some confusion. The aim of this article is to revise fatty acids chemical structure and to compile a list of nutritional important fatty acids with the three different terminologies.

  10. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  11. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  12. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    PubMed Central

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  13. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  14. Beyond acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Streit, G.E.; Spall, W.D.; Hall, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper discussed the effects of the interactions of soluble oxidants and organic toxins with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It suggested that these chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced a more potent acid rain which was harmful not only because it had a low pH but because it contained oxidants and organic toxins which were harmful to surface vegetation and the organisms found in surface waters. It was stressed that air pollution is a global problem and that is is necessary to develop a better fundamental understanding of how air pollution is causing damage to the streams and forests of the world. 50 references.

  15. Interstellar isothiocyanic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frerking, M. A.; Linke, R. A.; Thaddeus, P.

    1979-01-01

    Isothiocyanic acid (HNCS) has been identified in Sgr B2 from millimeter-wave spectral line observations. We have definitely detected three rotational lines, and have probably detected two others. The rotational temperature of HNCS in Sgr B2 is 14 plus or minus 5 K, its column density is 2.5 plus or minus 1.0 x 10 to the 13th per sq cm, and its abundance relative to HNCO is consistent with the cosmic S/O ratio, 1/42.

  16. 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    McGiff, J C; Quilley, J

    2001-03-01

    The properties of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, vasoactivity and modulation of ion transport and mediation/modulation of the effects of vasoactive hormones, such as angiotensin II and endothelin, underscore their importance to renal vascular mechanisms and electrolyte excretion. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an integral component of renal autoregulation and tubuloglomerular feedback as well as cerebral autoregulation, eliciting vasoconstriction by the inhibition of potassium channels. Nitric oxide inhibits 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation, the removal of which contributes to the vasodilator effect of nitric oxide. In contrast, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are generally vasodilatory by activating potassium channels and have been proposed as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid modulates ion transport in key nephron segments by influencing the activities of sodium--potassium-ATPase and the sodium--potassium--chloride co-transporter; however, the primacy of the various arachidonate oxygenases that generate products affecting these activities changes with age. The range and diversity of activity of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is influenced by its metabolism by cyclooxygenase to products affecting vasomotion and salt/water excretion. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is the principal renal eicosanoid that interacts with several hormonal systems that are central to blood pressure regulation. This article reviews the most recent studies that address 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in vascular and renal tubular function and hypertension.

  17. The ferulic acid esterases of Chrysosporium lucknowense C1: purification, characterization and their potential application in biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, S; Pouvreau, L; Appeldoorn, M M; Hinz, S W A; Schols, H A; Gruppen, H

    2012-01-01

    Three ferulic acid esterases from the filamentous fungus Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 were purified and characterized. The enzymes were most active at neutral pH and temperatures up to 45 °C. All enzymes released ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from a soluble corn fibre fraction. Ferulic acid esterases FaeA1 and FaeA2 could also release complex dehydrodiferulic acids and dehydrotriferulic acids from corn fibre oligomers, but released only 20% of all ferulic acid present in sugar beet pectin oligomers. Ferulic acid esterase FaeB2 released almost no complex ferulic acid oligomers from corn fibre oligomers, but 60% of all ferulic acid from sugar beet pectin oligomers. The ferulic acid esterases were classified based on both, sequence similarity and their activities toward synthetic substrates. The type A ferulic acid esterases FaeA1 and FaeA2 are the first members of the phylogenetic subfamily 5 to be biochemically characterized. Type B ferulic acid esterase FaeB2 is a member of subfamily 6.

  18. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  19. Release of propolis phenolic acids from semisolid formulations and their penetration into the human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zilius, Modestas; Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated the ability of propolis phenolic acids (vanillic, coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids) and vanillin to penetrate into skin epidermis and dermis. The rate of penetration and distribution is affected both by physicochemical characteristics of active substances and physical structure and chemical composition of semisolid vehicle. Vanillin and vanillic acid demonstrated relatively high penetration through epidermis into dermis where these compounds were concentrated, coumaric and ferulic acids were uniformly distributed between epidermis and dermis, and caffeic acid slowly penetrated into epidermis and was not determined in dermis. Further studies are deemed relevant for the development of semisolid topically applied systems designed for efficient delivery of propolis antioxidants into the skin.

  20. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  1. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  2. A Chlorogenic Acid Esterase with a Unique Substrate Specificity from Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Krings, Ulrich; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G.

    2014-01-01

    An extracellular chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis (UmChlE) was purified to homogeneity by using three separation steps, including anion-exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column, preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), and, finally, a combination of affinity chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on polyamide. SDS-PAGE analysis suggested a monomeric protein of ∼71 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and at 37°C and was active over a wide pH range (3.5 to 9.5). Previously described chlorogenic acid esterases exhibited a comparable affinity for chlorogenic acid, but the enzyme from Ustilago was also active on typical feruloyl esterase substrates. Kinetic constants for chlorogenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl ferulate were as follows: Km values of 19.6 μM, 64.1 μM, 72.5 μM, and 101.8 μM, respectively, and kcat/Km values of 25.83 mM−1 s−1, 7.63 mM−1 s−1, 3.83 mM−1 s−1 and 3.75 mM−1 s−1, respectively. UmChlE released ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids from natural substrates such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB) and coffee pulp (CP), confirming activity on complex plant biomass. The full-length gene encoding UmChlE consisted of 1,758 bp, corresponding to a protein of 585 amino acids, and was functionally produced in Pichia pastoris GS115. Sequence alignments with annotated chlorogenic acid and feruloyl esterases underlined the uniqueness of this enzyme. PMID:25548041

  3. A chlorogenic acid esterase with a unique substrate specificity from Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Krings, Ulrich; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-03-01

    An extracellular chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis (UmChlE) was purified to homogeneity by using three separation steps, including anion-exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column, preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), and, finally, a combination of affinity chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on polyamide. SDS-PAGE analysis suggested a monomeric protein of ∼71 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and at 37°C and was active over a wide pH range (3.5 to 9.5). Previously described chlorogenic acid esterases exhibited a comparable affinity for chlorogenic acid, but the enzyme from Ustilago was also active on typical feruloyl esterase substrates. Kinetic constants for chlorogenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl ferulate were as follows: Km values of 19.6 μM, 64.1 μM, 72.5 μM, and 101.8 μM, respectively, and kcat/Km values of 25.83 mM(-1) s(-1), 7.63 mM(-1) s(-1), 3.83 mM(-1) s(-1) and 3.75 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. UmChlE released ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids from natural substrates such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB) and coffee pulp (CP), confirming activity on complex plant biomass. The full-length gene encoding UmChlE consisted of 1,758 bp, corresponding to a protein of 585 amino acids, and was functionally produced in Pichia pastoris GS115. Sequence alignments with annotated chlorogenic acid and feruloyl esterases underlined the uniqueness of this enzyme.

  4. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  5. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  6. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  7. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  8. Bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Weckert, Edgar; Frahm, August Wilhelm

    2006-05-15

    For the second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, the cyanide addition as the key stereodifferentiating step produces mixtures of diastereomeric alpha-amino nitrile esters the composition of which is independent of the reaction temperature and the type of the solvent, respectively. The subsequent hydrolysis is exclusively achieved with concentrated H(2)SO(4) yielding diastereomeric mixtures of three secondary alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters and two diastereomeric cis-fused angular alpha-carbamoyl gamma-lactams as bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives, gained from in situ stereomer differentiating cyclisation of the secondary cis-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters. Separation was achieved by CC. The pure secondary trans-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters cyclise on heating and treatment with concentrated H(2)SO(4), respectively, to diastereomeric cis-fused angular secondary alpha-amino imides. Their hydrogenolysis led to the enantiomeric cis-fused angular primary alpha-amino imides. The configuration of all compounds was completely established by NMR methods, CD-spectra, and by X-ray analyses of the (alphaR,1R,5R)-1-carbamoyl-2-(1-phenylethyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one and of the trans-alphaS,1S,2R-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1-(1-phenylethylamino)cyclopentanecarboxamide. PMID:16596563

  9. Ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2014-08-15

    Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and improvement of therapeutic technologies. From basic to applied research, many procedures employ pure and intact RNA molecules; however their isolation and purification are critical steps because of the easy degradability of RNA, which can impair chemical stability and biological functionality. The current techniques to isolate and purify RNA molecules still have several limitations and the requirement for new methods able to improve RNA quality to meet regulatory demands is growing. In fact, as basic research improves the understanding of biological roles of RNAs, the biopharmaceutical industry starts to focus on them as a biotherapeutic tools. Chromatographic bioseparation is a high selective unit operation and is the major option in the purification of biological compounds, requiring high purity degree. In addition, its application in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is well established. This paper discusses the importance and the progress of RNA isolation and purification, considering RNA applicability both in research and clinical fields. In particular and in view of the high specificity, affinity chromatography has been recently applied to RNA purification processes. Accordingly, recent chromatographic investigations based on biorecognition phenomena occurring between RNA and amino acids are focused. Histidine and arginine have been used as amino acid ligands, and their ability to isolate different RNA species demonstrated a multipurpose applicability in molecular biology analysis and RNA therapeutics preparation, highlighting the potential contribution of these methods to overcome the challenges of RNA purification. PMID:24951289

  10. Titration of phosphonic acid derivatives in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Z

    1980-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described for the determination of the weak acids phosphonomethyliminodiacetic acid and phosphonomethyliminoacetic acid in their mixtures, and the dissociation constants of phosphonomethyliminoacetic acid are reported.

  11. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  12. Determination of benzoic acid, chlorobenzoic acids and chlorendic acid in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, E.A.; Cortellucci, N.J.; Singley, K.F. )

    1993-01-01

    To characterize and conduct treatment studies of a landfill leachate an analysis procedure was required to determine concentrations of benzoic acid, the three isomers of chlorobenzoic acid and chlorendic acid. The title compounds were isolated from acidified (pH 1) water by extraction with methyl t-butyl ether. Analytes were concentrated by back-extracting the ether with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide which was separated and acidified. This solution was analyzed by C[sub 18] reversed-phase HPLC with water/acetonitrile/acetic acid eluent and UV detection at 222 nm. The method has detection limits of 200 [mu]g/L for chlorendic acid and 100 [mu]g/L for benzoic acid and each isomer of chlorobenzoic acid. Validation studies with water which was fortified with the analytes at concentrations ranging from one to ten times detection limits resulted in average recoveries of >95%.

  13. Unusually divergent 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases from Ruta graveolens L.

    PubMed

    Endler, Alexander; Martens, Stefan; Wellmann, Frank; Matern, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Most angiosperms encode a small family of 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases (4CLs) activating hydroxycinnamic acids for lignin and flavonoid pathways. The common rue, Ruta graveolens L., additionally produces coumarins by cyclization of the 4-coumaroyl moiety, possibly involving the CoA-ester, as well as acridone and furoquinoline alkaloids relying on (N-methyl)anthraniloyl-CoA as the starter substrate for polyketide synthase condensation. The accumulation of alkaloids and coumarins, but not flavonoids, was enhanced in Ruta graveolens suspension cultures upon the addition of fungal elicitor. Total RNA of elicitor-treated Ruta cells was used as template for RT-PCR amplification with degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from conserved motifs in AMP-binding proteins, and two full-size cDNAs were generated through RACE and identified as 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases, Rg4CL1 and Rg4CL2, by functional expression in yeast cells. The recombinant enzymes differed considerably in their preferential affinities to cinnamate (Rg4CL1) or ferulate (RgCL2) besides 4-coumarate, but did not activate hydroxybenzoic or (N-methyl)anthranilic acid. Most notably, the Rg4CL1 polypeptide included an N-terminal extension suggesting a chloroplast transit peptide. The genes were cloned and revealed four exons, separated by 1056, 94 and 54 bp introns for RgCL1, while Rg4CL2 was composed of five exons interupted by four introns from 113 to 350 bp, and the divergent heritage of these genes was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Both genes were expressed in shoot, leaf and flower tissues of adult Ruta plants with preference in shoot and flower, whereas negligible expression occurred in the root. However, Rg4CL1 was expressed much stronger in the flower, while Rg4CL2 was expressed mostly in the shoot. Furthermore, considerable transient induction of only Rg4CL1 was observed upon elicitation of Ruta cells, which seems to support a role of Rg4CL1 in coumarin biosynthesis.

  14. Acid rain: Rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Acid rain is now one of the most serious environmental problems in developed countries. Emissions and fallout were previously extremely localized, but since the introduction of tall stacks policies in both Britain and the US - pardoxically to disperse particulate pollutants and hence reduce local damage - emissions are now lifted into the upper air currents and carried long distances downwind. The acid rain debate now embraces many western countries - including Canada, the US, England, Scotland, Wales, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland - and a growing number of eastern countries - including the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. The problem of acid rain arises, strictly speaking, not so much from the rainfall itself as from its effects on the environment. Runoff affects surface water and groundwater, as well as soils and vegetation. Consequently changes in rainfall acidity can trigger off a range of impacts on the chemistry and ecology of lakes and rivers, soil chemistry and processes, the health and productivity of plants, and building materials, and metallic structures. The most suitable solutions to the problems of acid rain require prevention rather than cure, and there is broad agreement in both the political scientific communities on the need to reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere. Book divisions discuss: the problem of acid rain, the science of acid rain, the technology of acid rain, and the politics of acid rain, in an effort to evaluate this growing global problem of acid rain.

  15. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  16. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  17. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuefeng; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; LeSage, Gene

    2006-06-14

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2) is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3, an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, Ostalpha-Ostbeta. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliary plexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile. This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines. Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals. Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion, proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals, and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte

  18. Citric acid production patent review.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V

    2008-01-01

    Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today

  19. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuefeng; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; LeSage, Gene

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2) is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3, an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, Ostα-Ostβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliary plexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile. This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5’-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines. Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals. Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion, proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals, and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte

  20. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.

  1. Acidity of Strong Acids in Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Trummal, Aleksander; Lipping, Lauri; Kaljurand, Ivari; Koppel, Ilmar A; Leito, Ivo

    2016-05-26

    Careful analysis and comparison of the available acidity data of HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, and CF3SO3H in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and gas-phase has been carried out. The data include experimental and computational pKa and gas-phase acidity data from the literature, as well as high-level computations using different approaches (including the W1 theory) carried out in this work. As a result of the analysis, for every acid in every medium, a recommended acidity value is presented. In some cases, the currently accepted pKa values were revised by more than 10 orders of magnitude. PMID:27115918

  2. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  3. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid...

  4. Acid rain degradation of nylon

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid of pH 2.0, 3.0, and 4.4 were exposed to light in an Atlas Xenon-arc fadeometer at 63/sup 0/C and 65% R.H. for up to 640 AATCC Fading Units. The untreated and acid treated nylon fabrics were also exposed to similar temperature and humidity condition without light. Nylon degradation was determined by changes in breaking strength, elongation, molecular weight, color, amino end group concentration (NH/sub 2/) and /sup 13/C NMR spectra. Physical damage was assessed using SEM.

  5. Overexpression of PAD1 and FDC1 results in significant cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Richard, Peter; Viljanen, Kaarina; Penttilä, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The S. cerevisiae PAD1 gene had been suggested to code for a cinnamic acid decarboxylase, converting trans-cinnamic acid to styrene. This was suggested for the reason that the over-expression of PAD1 resulted in increased tolerance toward cinnamic acid, up to 0.6 mM. We show that by over-expression of the PAD1 together with the FDC1 the cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity can be increased significantly. The strain over-expressing PAD1 and FDC1 tolerated cinnamic acid concentrations up to 10 mM. The cooperation of Pad1p and Fdc1p is surprising since the PAD1 has a mitochondrial targeting sequence and the FDC1 codes for a cytosolic protein. The cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity was also seen in the cell free extract. The activity was 0.019 μmol per minute and mg of extracted protein. The overexpression of PAD1 and FDC1 resulted also in increased activity with the hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeinic acid. This activity was not seen when FDC1 was overexpressed alone. An efficient cinnamic acid decarboxylase is valuable for the genetic engineering of yeast strains producing styrene. Styrene can be produced from endogenously produced L-phenylalanine which is converted by a phenylalanine ammonia lyase to cinnamic acid and then by a decarboxylase to styrene.

  6. A Simpler Nucleic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

  7. Isofunctional enzymes PAD1 and UbiX catalyze formation of a novel cofactor required by ferulic acid decarboxylase and 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengming; Ferguson, Kyle L; Boyer, David R; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina; Marsh, E Neil G

    2015-04-17

    The decarboxylation of antimicrobial aromatic acids such as phenylacrylic acid (cinnamic acid) and ferulic acid by yeast requires two enzymes described as phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (PAD1) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC). These enzymes are of interest for various biotechnological applications, such as the production of chemical feedstocks from lignin under mild conditions. However, the specific role of each protein in catalyzing the decarboxylation reaction remains unknown. To examine this, we have overexpressed and purified both PAD1 and FDC from E. coli. We demonstrate that PAD1 is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-containing protein. However, it does not function as a decarboxylase. Rather, PAD1 catalyzes the formation of a novel, diffusible cofactor required by FDC for decarboxylase activity. Coexpression of FDC and PAD1 results in the production of FDC with high levels cofactor bound. Holo-FDC catalyzes the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acid, coumaric acid and ferulic acid with apparent kcat ranging from 1.4-4.6 s(-1). The UV-visible and mass spectra of the cofactor indicate that it appears to be a novel, modified form of reduced FMN; however, its instability precluded determination of its structure. The E. coli enzymes UbiX and UbiD are related by sequence to PAD1 and FDC respectively and are involved in the decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid, an intermediate in ubiquinone biosynthesis. We found that endogenous UbiX can also activate FDC. This implies that the same cofactor is required for decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoic acid by UbiD and suggests a wider role for this cofactor in metabolism.

  8. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cell suspension cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehnl, T.K.; Koch, U.; Heller, W.; Wellmann, E.

    1987-10-01

    Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway.

  9. Caffeic acid production enhancement by engineering a phenylalanine over-producing Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qin; Lin, Yuheng; Yan, Yajun

    2013-12-01

    Caffeic acid is a plant-specific phenylpropanoic acid with multiple health-improving effects reported, and its therapeutic derivatives have also been studied throughout the last decade. To meet its market need and achieve high-level production, microbial production of caffeic acid approaches have been developed in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. In our previous work, we have established the first artificial pathway that realized de novo production of caffeic acid using E. coli endogenous 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HP3H). In this work, we exploited the catalytic potential of 4HPA3H in the whole-cell bioconversion study and produced 3.82 g/L (461.12 mg/L/OD) caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid, a direct precursor. We further engineered a phenylalanine over-producer into a tyrosine over-producer and then introduced the artificial pathway. After adjusting the expression strategy and optimizing the inoculants timing, de novo production of caffeic acid reached 766.68 mg/L. Both results from the direct precursor and simple carbon sources represent the highest titers of caffeic acid from microbial production so far.

  10. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    PubMed

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  11. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  12. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  13. Molecular structural studies of lichen substances II: atranorin, gyrophoric acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, rhizocarpic acid, calycin, pulvinic dilactone and usnic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Newton, Emma M.; Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2003-06-01

    The FT-Raman and infrared vibrational spectra of some important lichen compounds from two metabolic pathways are characterised. Key biomolecular marker bands have been suggested for the spectroscopic identification of atranorin, gyrophoric acid, fumarprotocetraric acid rhizocarpic acid, calycin, pulvinic dilactone and usnic acid. A spectroscopic protocol has been defined for the detection of these molecules in organisms subjected to environmental stresses such as UV-radiation exposure, desiccation and low temperatures. Use of the protocol will be made for the assessment of survival strategies used by stress-tolerant lichens in Antarctic cold deserts.

  14. Cryoprotection from bacterial teichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Harrison, William; Kirkpatrick, Karl; Brown, Eric D.

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies from our lab demonstrated that teichoic acid is surrounded by liquid water at -40 °C. The size and shape of the liquid water pockets has been visualized with fluorescence microscopy images of aqueous Rhodamine- B solutions. The long, thin channels surround ice crystals with a size of 5-20 microns. Subsequent studies show that B. subtilis Gram-positive bacteria are sequestered into large pockets without added teichoic acid. Here, the ice crystals are orders of manitude larger. When bacteria are mixed with teichoic acid solutions, the distribution of bacteria changes dramatically. The smaller ice crystals allow the bacteria to align in the thin channels of liquid water seen with teichoic acid only. The role of teichoic acid in the freeze tolerance was examined with live/dead fluorescence assays of bacteria mixed with teichoic acid. These quantitative assays were used to determine if teichoic acid acts in a synergetic fashion to enhance the survivability of E. coli, a gram-negative species which lacks teichoic acid. Additionally, we have obtained B. subtilis mutants lacking wall-associated teichoic acids to evaluate cryoprotection compared to the wild-type strain.

  15. Sulfuric acid as autocatalyst in the formation of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Francisco, Joseph S; Anglada, Josep M

    2012-12-26

    Sulfuric acid can act as a catalyst of its own formation. We have carried out a computational investigation on the gas-phase formation of H(2)SO(4) by hydrolysis of SO(3) involving one and two water molecules, and also in the presence of sulfuric acid and its complexes with one and two water molecules. The hydrolysis of SO(3) requires the concurrence of two water molecules, one of them acting as a catalyzer, and our results predict an important catalytic effect, ranging between 3 and 11 kcal·mol(-1) when the catalytic water molecule is substituted by a sulfuric acid molecule or one of its hydrates. In these cases, the reaction products are either bare sulfuric acid dimer or sulfuric acid dimer complexed with a water molecule. There are broad implications from these new findings. The results of the present investigation show that the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid in the SO(3) hydrolysis can be important in the Earth's stratosphere, in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid and in the formation of aerosols, in H(2)SO(4) formation by aircraft engines, and also in understanding the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus.

  16. Hydrazides of carboxylic acids as inhibitors of steel acidic corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Aitov, R.G.; Shein, A.B.; Lesnov, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrazides of carboxylic acids (HCA) inhibit the corrosion of ferrous materials in acids and netral solutions such as stratum and waste waters of oil deposits. In this work, the authors try to explain the above-mentioned difference and to consider HCA as inhibitors of steel hydrogenation.

  17. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  18. In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Nur Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2012-09-12

    An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 μL (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. PMID:22884208

  19. Correlated accumulation of anthocyanins and rosmarinic acid in mechanically stressed red cell suspensions of basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Strazzer, Pamela; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

    2011-02-15

    A red basil cell line (T2b) rich in rosmarinic acid (RA) was selected for the stable production of anthocyanins (ACs) in the dark. Cell suspension cultures were subjected to mechanical stress through increased agitation (switch from 90 to 150 rpm) to determine the relationship between AC and RA accumulation. Cell extracts were analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS, and the resulting data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis. MS and MS/MS spectra facilitated the putative annotation of several complex cyanidin-based ACs, which were esterified with coumaric acid and, in some cases, also with malonic acid. It was also possible to identify various RA-related molecules, some caffeic and coumaric acid derivatives and some flavanones. Mechanical stress increased the total AC and RA contents, but reduced biomass accumulation. Many metabolites were induced by mechanical stress, including RA and some of its derivatives, most ACs, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, whereas the abundance of some RA dimers was reduced. Although AC and RA share a common early biosynthetic pathway (from phenylalanine to 4-coumaroyl-CoA) and could have similar or overlapping functions providing antioxidant activity against stress-generated reactive oxygen species, there appeared to be no competition between their individual pathways.

  20. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  1. Acid rain on Acid soil: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Krug, E C; Frink, C R

    1983-08-01

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  2. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  3. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  4. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  5. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  6. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: a potential class of natural compounds for the management of lipid metabolism and obesity.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Hossain, Murad; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Ullah, M Obayed

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are important class of polyphenolic compounds originated from the Mavolanate-Shikimate biosynthesis pathways in plants. Several simple phenolic compounds such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorgenic acid, and rosmarinic acid belong to this class. These phenolic compounds possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These compounds were also showed potential therapeutic benefit in experimental diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Recent evidences also suggest that they may serve as valuable molecule for the treatment of obesity related health complications. In adipose tissues, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives inhibit macrophage infiltration and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation in obese animals. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives also reduce the expression of the potent proinflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and they increase the secretion of an anti-inflammatory agent adiponectin from adipocytes. Furthermore, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives also prevent adipocyte differentiation and lower lipid profile in experimental animals. Through these diverse mechanisms hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives reduce obesity and curtail associated adverse health complications.

  7. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  8. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  9. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  10. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  11. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  12. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  13. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  14. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  15. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  16. Acid rain and environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    Various seemingly paradoxical scientific questions are posed which relate to the problem of acid rain and its effect on the environment and environmental policy. The first paradox discussed concerns the supposed increase in fossil fuel usage over the last several decades, with the resultant increases in emissions of pollutants from the combustion of fuels which cause acid rain. Despite these increases, experts do not agree on whether acidity of rain has increased in eastern North America. The second paradox concerns the effect of acid rain on vegetation. If the rain is supposedly harmful, why have some reports shown increases and others, decreases in the growth of crops and trees with the application of simulated acid rain. The third paradox concerns the effect of acid rains on fish life in lakes. If acid rain falls throughout eastern North America, why have some lakes become acid and lost fish populations while others have not. Since unequivocal answers to these scientific questions are not available, a systematic approach is needed for developing policy which can be useful for solving the problem. It appears that traditional cost-benefit analysis can not be the sole basis for decision-making, but that it will be helpful. Research needs must be identified, and the upper and lower limits for alternative strategies must be determined. 14 references, 1 table.

  17. Impacts of acid rain legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Addison, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The author warns against hasty acid rain legislation that would involve billions of dollars and affect thousands of jobs. He recommends further study into the causes of high acidity in lakes and streams. He states that there are too many uncertainties of whether the problem would be solved by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. (DMC)

  18. Acid rain: effects on fish and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.S.; Multer, E.P.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The following questions concerning acid rain are discussed: what is acid rain; what causes acid rain; where do sulfur and nitrogen oxides originate; what areas in the U.S. are susceptible to acid rain; are there early warning signals of acidification to aquatic resources; how does acid rain affect fishery resources; does acid rain affect wildlife; and how can effects of acid rain be reduced.

  19. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  20. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  1. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  2. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  3. Amino acid management in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsun, Zhi-Yang; Possemato, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids have a dual role in cellular metabolism, as they are both the building blocks for protein synthesis and intermediate metabolites which fuel other biosynthetic reactions. Recent work has demonstrated that deregulation of both arms of amino acid management are common alterations seen in cancer. Among the most highly consumed nutrients by cancer cells are the amino acids glutamine and serine, and the biosynthetic pathways that metabolize them are required in various cancer subtypes and the object of current efforts to target cancer metabolism. Also altered in cancer are components of the machinery which sense amino acid sufficiency, nucleated by the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of cell growth via modulation of key processes including protein synthesis and autophagy. The precise ways in which altered amino acid management supports cellular transformation remain mostly elusive, and a fuller mechanistic understanding of these processes will be important for efforts to exploit such alterations for cancer therapy. PMID:26277542

  4. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  5. Formation of acrylic acid from lactic acid in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. ); Jones, M. Jr. )

    1989-09-15

    Supercritical (SC) water is an unusual medium in which fast and specific heterolytic reactions can be conducted at temperatures as high as 400{degree}C. In supercritical water, lactic acid decomposes into gaseous and liquid products via three primary reaction pathways. Products of the acid-catalyzed heterolytic decarbonylation pathway are carbon monoxide, water, and acetaldehyde. Products of the homolytic, decarboxylation pathway are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and acetaldehyde. Products of the heterolytic, dehydration pathway are acrylic acid and water. The intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the {alpha}-hydroxyl by the carbonyl group of lactic acid, producing {alpha}-propiolactone as an unstable intermediate which subsequently rearranges to become the unsaturated acid, is a likely mechanism for acrylic acid formation, although an intramolecular E2 elimination initiated by attack of the carbonyl oxygen on a methyl hydrogen cannot be ruled out. Support for the former mechanism comes in part from the observed 100% relative yield of acrylic acid from {beta}-propiolactone in SC water.

  6. Synthesis of l-(+)-Tartaric Acid from l-Ascorbic Acid via 5-Keto-d-Gluconic Acid in Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazumi; Kasai, Zenzaburo

    1984-01-01

    5-Keto-l-idionic acid (≡5-keto-d-gluconic acid, d-xylo-5-hexulosonic acid) was found as a metabolic product of l-ascorbic acid in slices of immature grapes, Vitis labrusca L. cv `Delaware'. Specifically labeled compounds, recognized as metabolic products of l-ascorbic acid in grapes, were fed to young grape tissues to investigate the metabolic pathway from l-ascorbic acid to l-(+)-tartaric acid. Label from dehydro-l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid, 2-keto-l-[1-14C]idonic acid (l-xylo-2-hexulosonic acid), l-[1-14C]idonic acid, or 5-keto-l-[1-14C] idonic acid was incorporated into l-(+)-tartaric acid in high yields as it was in the l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid experiment. In a double label experiment involving a mixture of l-[1-14C]idonic acid and l-[2-3H]idonic acid, the 3H/14C ratios of 5-keto-l-idonic acid and l-(+)-tartaric acid synthesized in young grape leaves were almost the same as the value of the l-idonic acid fed. Label from 5-keto-l-[6-14C]idonic acid was incorporated into sugars and insoluble residue in the same way as l-[6-14C]ascorbic acid was metabolized in grapes. These results provide strong evidence that in grapes l-(+)-tartaric acid is synthesized from the C4 fragment that corresponds to the C1 to C4 group of the 5-keto-l-idonic acid derived from l-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-l-idonic acid and l-idonic acid. PMID:16663792

  7. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  8. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid. PMID:27422507

  9. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  10. Enzymatic modification of chitosan by cinnamic acids: Antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yu; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify chitosan polymers that have antibacterial activity against the bacterial wilt pathogen. The chitosan polymers were enzymatically synthesized using chitosan and five cinnamic acids (CADs): caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), cinnamic acid (CIA), p-coumaric acid (COA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA), using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The reaction was performed in a phosphate buffered solution under heterogenous reaction conditions. The chitosan derivatives (CTS-g-CADs) were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM. FT-IR demonstrated that the reaction products bound covalently to the free amino groups or hydroxyl groups of chitosan via band of amide I or ester band. XRD showed a reduced packing density for grafted chitosan comparing to original chitosan. TGA demonstrated that CTS-g-CADs have a higher thermostability than chitosan. Additionally, chitosan and its derivatives showed similar antibacterial activity. However, the IC50 value of the chitosan-caffeic acid derivative (CTS-g-CA) against the mulberry bacterial wilt pathogen RS-5 was 0.23mg/mL, which was two-fifths of the IC50 value of chitosan. Therefore, the enzymatically synthesized chitosan polymers can be used to control plant diseases in biotechnological domains. PMID:26993531

  11. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  12. Enzymatic modification of chitosan by cinnamic acids: Antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yu; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify chitosan polymers that have antibacterial activity against the bacterial wilt pathogen. The chitosan polymers were enzymatically synthesized using chitosan and five cinnamic acids (CADs): caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), cinnamic acid (CIA), p-coumaric acid (COA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA), using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The reaction was performed in a phosphate buffered solution under heterogenous reaction conditions. The chitosan derivatives (CTS-g-CADs) were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM. FT-IR demonstrated that the reaction products bound covalently to the free amino groups or hydroxyl groups of chitosan via band of amide I or ester band. XRD showed a reduced packing density for grafted chitosan comparing to original chitosan. TGA demonstrated that CTS-g-CADs have a higher thermostability than chitosan. Additionally, chitosan and its derivatives showed similar antibacterial activity. However, the IC50 value of the chitosan-caffeic acid derivative (CTS-g-CA) against the mulberry bacterial wilt pathogen RS-5 was 0.23mg/mL, which was two-fifths of the IC50 value of chitosan. Therefore, the enzymatically synthesized chitosan polymers can be used to control plant diseases in biotechnological domains.

  13. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  14. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation. PMID:26724548

  15. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  16. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  17. Sulfation mediates activity of zosteric acid against biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Cavas, Levent; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Zosteric acid (ZA), a metabolite from the marine sea grass Zostera marina, has attracted much attention due to its attributed antifouling (AF) activity. However, recent results on dynamic transformations of aromatic sulfates in marine phototrophic organisms suggest potential enzymatic desulfation of metabolites like ZA. The activity of ZA was thus re-investigated using biofilm assays and simultaneous analytical monitoring by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Comparison of ZA and its non-sulfated form para-coumaric acid (CA) revealed that the active substance was in all cases the non-sulfated CA while ZA was virtually inactive. CA exhibited a strong biofilm inhibiting activity against Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens. The LC/MS data revealed that the apparent biofilm inhibiting effects of ZA on V. natriegens can be entirely attributed to CA released from ZA by sulfatase activity. In the light of various potential applications, the (a)biotic transformation of ZA to CA has thus to be considered in future AF formulations.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and....1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs naturally are...

  2. 21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155... Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid... in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Monochloroacetic acid is permitted in food package...

  3. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  4. Cycloadditions for Studying Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Cycloaddition reactions for site-specific or global modification of nucleic acids have enabled the preparation of a plethora of previously inaccessible DNA and RNA constructs for structural and functional studies on naturally occurring nucleic acids, the assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures, therapeutic applications, and recently, the development of novel aptamers. In this chapter, recent progress in nucleic acid functionalization via a range of different cycloaddition (click) chemistries is presented. At first, cycloaddition/click chemistries already used for modifying nucleic acids are summarized, ranging from the well-established copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction to copper free methods, such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, tetrazole-based photoclick chemistry and the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between strained alkenes and tetrazine derivatives. The subsequent sections contain selected applications of nucleic acid functionalization via click chemistry; in particular, site-specific enzymatic labeling in vitro, either via DNA and RNA recognizing enzymes or by introducing unnatural base pairs modified for click reactions. Further sections report recent progress in metabolic labeling and fluorescent detection of DNA and RNA synthesis in vivo, click nucleic acid ligation, click chemistry in nanostructure assembly and click-SELEX as a novel method for the selection of aptamers. PMID:27572987

  5. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  6. Cycloadditions for Studying Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Cycloaddition reactions for site-specific or global modification of nucleic acids have enabled the preparation of a plethora of previously inaccessible DNA and RNA constructs for structural and functional studies on naturally occurring nucleic acids, the assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures, therapeutic applications, and recently, the development of novel aptamers. In this chapter, recent progress in nucleic acid functionalization via a range of different cycloaddition (click) chemistries is presented. At first, cycloaddition/click chemistries already used for modifying nucleic acids are summarized, ranging from the well-established copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction to copper free methods, such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, tetrazole-based photoclick chemistry and the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between strained alkenes and tetrazine derivatives. The subsequent sections contain selected applications of nucleic acid functionalization via click chemistry; in particular, site-specific enzymatic labeling in vitro, either via DNA and RNA recognizing enzymes or by introducing unnatural base pairs modified for click reactions. Further sections report recent progress in metabolic labeling and fluorescent detection of DNA and RNA synthesis in vivo, click nucleic acid ligation, click chemistry in nanostructure assembly and click-SELEX as a novel method for the selection of aptamers.

  7. Terahertz spectrum of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Zhao, Guozhong; Wang, Haiyan; Liang, Chengshen

    2009-11-01

    Gallic acid is natural polyphenol compound found in many green plants. More and more experiments have demonstrated that the gallic acid has comprehensive applications. In the field of medicine, the gallic acid plays an important role in antianaphylaxis, antineoplastic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, antivirotic, antiasthmatic and inhibiting the degradation of insulin. It also has a lot of applications in chemical industry, food industry and light industry. So it is important to study the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of gallic acid. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new coherent spectral technology based on the femtosecond laser. In this work, the spectral characteristics of gallic acid in the range of 0.4 THz to 2.6 THz have been measured by THz-TDS. We obtained its absorption and refraction spectra at room temperature. The vibration absorption spectrum of the single molecule between 0.4 THz and 2.6 THz is simulated based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is found that the gallic acid has the spectral response to THz wave in this frequency range. The results show the abnormal dispersion at 1.51 THz and 2.05 THz. These results can be used in the qualitative analysis of gallic acid and the medicine and food inspection.

  8. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  9. Tropospheric cycle of nitrous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Peak, John D.; Collins, Gareth M.

    1996-06-01

    Measurements of the land surface exchange of nitrous acid over grass and sugar beet surfaces reveal both upward and downward fluxes with flux reversal occurring at an ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide of about 10 ppb. This confirms earlier preliminary findings and strengthens the hypothesis that substantial production of nitrous acid can occur on land surfaces from reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapor. Detailed measurements of nitrous acid have been made in central urban, suburban, and rural environments. These measurements, in conjunction with a simple box model, indicate that the atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid are explicable in terms of a small number of basic processes in which the most important are the surface production of nitrous acid from nitrogen dioxide, atmospheric production from the NO-OH reaction and loss of nitrous acid by photolysis and dry deposition. In the suburban atmosphere, concentrations of nitrous acid are strongly correlated with nitrogen dioxide. In the rural atmosphere a different behavior is seen, with much higher nitrous acid to nitrogen dioxide ratios occurring in more polluted air with nitrogen dioxide concentrations in excess of 10 ppb. At lower nitrogen dioxide concentrations, net deposition of nitrous acid at the ground leads to very low concentrations in advected air. The model study indicates that during daytime in the suburban atmosphere, production of HONO from the NO-OH reaction can compete with photolysis giving a HONO concentration of a few tenths of a part per billion. At the highest observed daytime concentrations of HONO, production of OH radical from its photolysis can proceed at a rate more than 10 times faster than from photolysis of ozone.

  10. Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Huang, Yung-Sheng

    2006-12-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in health and disease. Most of the chronic diseases of modern society, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, etc. have inflammatory component. At the same time, the link between diet and disease is also being recognized. Amongst dietary constituents, fat has gained most recognition in affecting health. Saturated and trans fatty acids have been implicated in obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generally have a positive effect on health. The PUFAs of omega-3 and omega-6 series play a significant role in health and disease by generating potent modulatory molecules for inflammatory responses, including eicosanoids (prostaglandins, and leukotrienes), and cytokines (interleukins) and affecting the gene expression of various bioactive molecules. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA, all cis 6, 9, 12-Octadecatrienoic acid, C18:3, n-6), is produced in the body from linoleic acid (all cis 6,9-octadecadienoic acid), an essential fatty acid of omega-6 series by the enzyme delta-6-desaturase. Preformed GLA is present in trace amounts in green leafy vegetables and in nuts. The most significant source of GLA for infants is breast milk. GLA is further metabolized to dihomogamma linlenic acid (DGLA) which undergoes oxidative metabolism by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases to produce anti-inflammatory eicosanoids (prostaglandins of series 1 and leukotrienes of series 3). GLA and its metabolites also affect expression of various genes where by regulating the levels of gene products including matrix proteins. These gene products play a significant role in immune functions and also in cell death (apoptosis). The present review will emphasize the role of GLA in modulating inflammatory response, and hence its potential applications as an anti-inflammatory nutrient or adjuvant.

  11. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  12. Solid acids for green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H

    2002-09-01

    Solid acids and especially those based on micelle-templated silicas and other mesoporous high surface area support materials are beginning to play a significant role in the greening of fine and specialty chemicals manufacturing processes. A wide range of important organic reactions can be efficiently catalyzed by these materials, which can be designed to provide different types of acidity as well as high degrees of reaction selectivity. The solid acids generally have high turnover numbers and can be easily separated from the organic components. The combination of this chemistry with innovative reaction engineering offers exciting opportunities for innovative green chemical manufacturing in the future. PMID:12234209

  13. Arsanilic acid toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Confer, A W; Ward, B C; Hines, F A

    1980-04-01

    Rations from several rabbitries experiencing increased mortality, weight loss and diminished reproduction were analyzed for arsanilic acid. Levels of less than 56 ppm of arsanilic acid were found. A 30 day trial was conducted where arsanilic acid was given in doses of 1.6-16.2 mg/day in water to weanling and adult rabbits. The higher doses induced diarrhea, terminal convulsions and death. Weight loss or reduced weight gains occurred in six of seven treated groups. No significant gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Chemical analysis demonstrated the presence of increased total hepatic arsenic levels in treated compared to control rabbits.

  14. Chemiluminescent measurement of atmospheric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, D. H.; Kok, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of a gas phase acid sensitive analyzer are reported. These studies showed that the chemical system was a practical analytical method. A complete instrument was developed and prepared for field testing. A Titan 3-C rocket was scheduled for launching on February 11, 1974. Through preparations made by NASA Langley the instrument was set up to monitor the acid concentration in the rocket exhaust. Due to adverse wind conditions no acid was detected. This entire trip is described in detail.

  15. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  16. Decarboxylative functionalization of cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Borah, Arun Jyoti; Yan, Guobing

    2015-08-14

    Decarboxylative functionalization of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids is an emerging area that has been developed significantly in recent years. This critical review focuses on the different decarboxylative functionalization reactions of cinnamic acids leading to the formation of various C-C and C-heteroatom bonds. Apart from metal carboxylates, decarboxylation in cinnamic acids has been achieved efficiently under metal-free conditions, particularly via the use of hypervalent iodine reagents. We believe this review will encourage organic chemists to develop vinylic decarboxylation in a more appealing way with an understanding of new mechanistic insight.

  17. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  18. Acid rain: chemistry and transport.

    PubMed

    Irwin, J G; Williams, M L

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the more important features of the emission, chemistry, transport and deposition of pollutants involved in acid deposition. Global emissions, both natural and man-made, of sulphur and nitrogen oxides are discussed and examples of spatial distributions and trends over the last century presented. The more significant chemical and physical processes involved in the transformation of the primary emissions into their acidic end products are described, including a summary of the approximate timescales of the processes involved. Measurements and modelled calculations of spatial and temporal patterns in the deposition of acidic pollutants by both wet and dry pathways are presented.

  19. Free acidity measurement - a review.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, T G; Vasudeva Rao, P R

    2014-01-01

    Free acidity is an important parameter especially in the presence of hydrolysable ions. Several methods have been developed for the determination of free acidity, attributing due importance to the accuracy and the precision of the measurement with the aim of the easiness of the methodology as well as post-measurement recovery in mind. This review covers important methods for the determination of free acidity with emphasis on actinide containing solutions, reported in the literature over the past several decades classifying them into different categories.

  20. Amino Acids from a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  1. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  3. Effects of Common Forage Phenolic Acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Viability in Bovine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. E.; Berry, E. D.; Varel, V. H.

    2005-01-01

    Ruminant animals are carriers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle to the environment and to humans is a concern. It is unclear if diet can influence the survivability of E. coli O157:H7 in the gastrointestinal system or in feces in the environment. Feces from cattle fed bromegrass hay or corn silage diets were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, and the survival of this pathogen was analyzed. When animals consumed bromegrass hay for <1 month, viable E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered after 28 days postinoculation, but when animals consumed the diet for >1 month, E. coli O157:H7 cells were recovered for >120 days. Viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in feces from animals fed corn silage were detected until day 45 and differed little with the time on the diet. To determine if forage phenolic acids affected the viability of E. coli O157:H7, feces from animals fed corn silage or cracked corn were amended with common forage phenolic acids. When 0.5% trans-cinnamic acid or 0.5% para-coumaric acid was added to feces from silage-fed animals, the E. coli O157:H7 death rate was increased significantly (17-fold and 23-fold, respectively) compared to that with no addition. In feces from animals fed cracked corn, E. coli O157:H7 death rates were increased significantly with the addition of 0.1% and 0.5% trans-cinnamic acid (7- and 13-fold), 0.1% and 0.5% p-coumaric acid (3- and 8-fold), and 0.5% ferulic acid (3-fold). These data suggest that phenolic acids common to forage plants can decrease viable counts of E. coli O157:H7 shed in feces. PMID:16332775

  4. Electron-transfer reaction of cinnamic acids and their methyl esters with the DPPH(*) radical in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Foti, Mario C; Daquino, Carmelo; Geraci, Corrada

    2004-04-01

    The kinetic behavior of cinnamic acids, their methyl esters, and two catechols 1-10 (ArOH) in the reaction with DPPH(*) in methanol and ethanol is not compatible with a reaction mechanism that involves hydrogen atom abstraction from the hydroxyl group of 1-10 by DPPH(*). The rate of this reaction at 25 degrees C is, in fact, comparatively fast despite that the phenolic OH group of ArOH is hydrogen bonded to solvent molecules. The observed rate constants (k(1)) relative to DPPH(*) + ArOH are 3-5 times larger for the methyl esters than for the corresponding free acids and, for the latter, decrease as their concentration is increased according to the relation k(1) = B/[ArOH](0)(m), where k(1) is given in units of M(-1) s(-1), m is ca. 0.5, and B ranges from 0.02 (p-coumaric acid) to ca. 3.48 (caffeic acid) in methanol and from 0.04 (p-coumaric acid) to ca. 13 (sinapic acid) in ethanol. Apparently, the reaction mechanism of DPPH(*) + ArOH involves a fast electron-transfer process from the phenoxide anion of 1-10 to DPPH(*). Kinetic analysis of the reaction sequence for the free acids leads to an expression for the observed rate constant, k(1), proportional to [ArOH](0)(-1/2) in excellent agreement with the experimental behavior of these phenols. The experimental results are also interpreted in terms of the influence that adventitious acids or bases present in the solvent may have. These impurities dramatically influence the ionization equilibrium of phenols and cause a reduction or an enhancement, respectively, of the measured rate constants. PMID:15049623

  5. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  6. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  8. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  9. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  10. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  11. Simulated acid rain on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

  12. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  13. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  14. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods. PMID:8879414

  15. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  16. Lead/acid battery myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, P. T.

    The lead/acid battery deserves a more positive image than has been traditional heretofore—particularly with respect to a number of aspects that relate to its utility as a power source for electric vehicles. Recent results from a large internationally coordinated research programme indicate that: (i) with proper attention to construction, valve-regulated lead/acid batteries can be deep-discharged many times without capacity loss; (ii) lead/acid batteries can be recharged extremely rapidly so that long journeys of electric vehicles become a realistic possibility; (iii) ranges of over 150 km between charges are achievable, and (iv) the introduction of significant numbers of lead/acid-powered electric vehicles does offer a beneficial environmental impact.

  17. Making cents of acid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrey, G.; Shanley, A.

    1993-04-01

    Acid recovery may be expensive, but rising transportation and landfill costs may soon make it the only alternative. Traditionally, acids used in processes from titanium dioxide production to gasoline alkylation and metal pickling were neutralized and discharged into waterways or injected into deep wells. Today, however, discharge permits are being phased out in many countries, and deep well injection is coming under closer scrutiny. An even cheaper option was selling spent acid to fertilizer producers, who used it to dissolve phosphate ores. Health concerns, a depressed fertilizer market and tightening disposal regulations for gypsum byproduct have dried up this option. The paper discusses the processes and costs involved in spent acid regeneration, gypsum-free gas treatments, and problems with explosive contaminants.

  18. Glucaric acids from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianshuang; Li, Yixiu; Feng, Ziming; Yang, Yanan; Zhang, Peicheng

    2015-12-01

    Three new glucaric acids, namely 2-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 5-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (1), 2-syringoyl-4-feruloyl or 5-syringoyl-3-feruloyl glucaric acid (2), and 3-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 4-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (3), were isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic means including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data spectra. The bioactive assays of compounds 1-3 against hepatoprotection activity were determined. The result suggested that compound 2 exhibited a moderate hepatoprotection activity and the cell survival rate was 74% (10(-5)mol/L), using bicyclol (survival rate: 66%, 10(-5)mol/L) as a positive control. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 were evaluated cytotoxic activities in vitro using HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A-549, and A2780 model and the results exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity activity.

  19. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods.

  20. Microbial production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Eiteman, Mark A; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important commodity chemical having a wide range of applications. Microbial production effectively competes with chemical synthesis methods because biochemical synthesis permits the generation of either one of the two enantiomers with high optical purity at high yield and titer, a result which is particularly beneficial for the production of poly(lactic acid) polymers having specific properties. The commercial viability of microbial lactic acid production relies on utilization of inexpensive carbon substrates derived from agricultural or waste resources. Therefore, optimal lactic acid formation requires an understanding and engineering of both the competing pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as pathways leading to potential by-products which both affect product yield. Recent research leverages those biochemical pathways, while researchers also continue to seek strains with improved tolerance and ability to perform under desirable industrial conditions, for example, of pH and temperature.

  1. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid oxidation of cyclohexanol...

  12. Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Sano, Takeshi; Misasi, John; Hatch, Anson; Cantor, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

  13. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  14. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  18. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous... prescribed conditions: (a) The additives meet the following specifications: (1) Fumaric acid contains...

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  20. Bile acids as metabolic regulators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Small molecule ligands that target to TGR5 and FXR have shown promise in treating various metabolic and inflammation-related human diseases. New insights into the mechanisms underlying the bariatric surgery and bile acid sequestrant treatment suggest that targeting the enterohepatic circulation to modulate gut-liver bile acid signaling, incretin production and microbiota represents a new strategy to treat obesity and type-2 diabetes. PMID:25584736

  1. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  2. [Bile acids in coronary arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Malaia, L T; Shelest, A N; Volkov, V I; Cherevatov, B G

    1984-10-01

    Seventy-six patients with chronic coronary heart disease of the atherosclerotic genesis were examined using clinical laboratory and instrumental research methods. The blood serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins and bile acids were measured throughout the course of treatment. When hyperlipoproteinemias were divided according to phenotypes, type II hyperlipoproteinemia proved to be most commonly occurring (65.8%). The patients exhibited lower blood serum levels of bile acids as compared to control.

  3. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  4. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haiyan; Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua; Guo, Kai; Fan, Chunfen; Si, Shengli; and others

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid.

  5. Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping

    2011-01-21

    Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

  6. Lactic acid utilization by the cutaneous Micrococcaceae.

    PubMed

    Smith, R F

    1971-04-01

    Human cutaneous staphylococci and micrococci utilized lactic acid as an energy source on a minimal medium. Propionic acid was not utilized, but l(+)-lactic acid and pyruvic acid could replace ld-lactic acid as a substrate. Selected strains of cocci were inhibited more by the l(+) and d(-) forms of lactic acid than the balanced ld form, particularly at pH 5.6. With proper dilution of substrate, lactic acid was utilized by selected strains in the presence of 10 mug of oleic and palmitic acids per ml.

  7. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  8. Fluorotelomer acids are more toxic than perfluorinated acids.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michelle M MacDonald; Dinglasan-Panlilio, Mary Joyce A; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2007-10-15

    Saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids have been identified as intermediates in the degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Although surface waters are the likely environmental sink for telomer acids, no fate or toxicity data exist for this matrix. We assessed the acute toxicity of the 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 saturated (FTCA) and unsaturated (FTUCA) fluorotelomer carboxylic acids to Daphnia magna, Chironomus tentans, and Lemna gibba. In general, toxicity increased with increasing fluorocarbon (FC) chain length, particularly for telomer acids of > or =8 FCs. In addition, the FTCAs were generally more toxic than the corresponding FTUCAs. Acute EC50s ranged from 0.025 mg/L (0.04 micromol/L) for D. magna (10:2 FTCA, immobility) to 63 mg/L (167 micromol/L) for C. tentans (6:2 FTCA, growth). While chain-length trends observed in the current study agree with those previously reported for PFCAs, the toxicity thresholds generated here are up to 10,000 times smaller. Our data provide the first evidence that PFCA precursors are more toxic than the PFCAs themselves. PMID:17993163

  9. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera. PMID:26387115

  10. Cloning and characterization of the ferulic acid catabolic genes of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6.

    PubMed

    Masai, Eiji; Harada, Kyo; Peng, Xue; Kitayama, Hirotaka; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

    2002-09-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 degrades ferulic acid to vanillin, and it is further metabolized through the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. We obtained a Tn5 mutant of SYK-6, FA2, which was able to grow on vanillic acid but not on ferulic acid. A cosmid which complemented the growth deficiency of FA2 on ferulic acid was isolated. The 5.2-kb BamHI-EcoRI fragment in this cosmid conferred the transformation activity of ferulic acid to vanillin on Escherichia coli host cells. A sequencing analysis revealed the genes ferB and ferA in this fragment; these genes consist of 852- and 2,127-bp open reading frames, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of ferB showed 40 to 48% identity with that of the feruloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase/lyase genes of Pseudomonas and Amycolatopsis ferulic acid degraders. On the other hand, the deduced amino acid sequence of ferA showed no significant similarity to the feruloyl-CoA synthetase genes of other ferulic acid degraders. However, the deduced amino acid sequence of ferA did show 31% identity with pimeloyl-CoA synthetase of Pseudomonas mendocina 35, which has been classified as a new superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetase (ADP forming) with succinyl-CoA synthetase (L. B. Sánchez, M. Y. Galperin, and M. Müller, J. Biol. Chem. 275:5794-5803, 2000). On the basis of the enzyme activity of E. coli carrying each of these genes, ferA and ferB were shown to encode a feruloyl-CoA synthetase and feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase, respectively. p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and sinapinic acid were converted to their corresponding benzaldehyde derivatives by the cell extract containing FerA and FerB, thereby indicating their broad substrate specificities. We found a ferB homolog, ferB2, upstream of a 5-carboxyvanillic acid decarboxylase gene (ligW) involved in the degradation of 5,5'-dehydrodivanillic acid. The deduced amino acid sequence of ferB2 showed 49% identity with ferB, and its gene product showed feruloyl-CoA hydratase

  11. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  12. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  13. A ¹H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic.

  14. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  15. A ¹H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  16. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-06-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  17. Gibberellic acid stimulates acid invertase secretion in pea ovary protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Beltrán, J P

    1991-02-25

    Protoplasts purified from mesocarp of nonpollinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries released acid invertase to the incubation medium. The association of the acid invertase with microsomal fractions, and the sensitivity to energy-metabolism inhibitors and to tunicamycin, indicated the secretory nature of the release process. In the presence of GA3 (10 microM), the protoplasts increased their invertase secretion at about 60 min, this effect being counteracted by tunicamycin but not by cycloheximide. Subcellular fractionation of GA3-treated protoplasts showed that higher invertase secretion was the result of a promotion of invertase transfer from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus. PMID:2001743

  18. Lipoic acid functionalized amino acids cationic lipids as gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong-Chuan; Liu, Qiang; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zheng, Li-Ting; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2016-10-01

    A series of reducible cationic lipids 4a-4f with different amino acid polar-head groups were prepared. The novel lipid contains a hydrophobic lipoic acid (LA) moiety, which can be reduced under reductive conditions to release of the encapsulated plasmid DNA. The particle size, zeta potential and cellular uptake of lipoplexes formed with DNA, as well as the transfection efficacy (TE) were characterized. The TE of the cationic lipid based on arginine was especially high, and was 2.5times higher than that of a branched polyethylenimine in the presence of 10% serum.

  19. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Study Design: Over 5 years, lactate was measured on all blood gases taken from neonatal admissions, as well as organic acid whenever electrolytes were required. Results: Arterial blood gases from 63 infants given high calcium TPN were analyzed. Twenty two needed continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) only and 31 intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and surfactant followed by CPAP to treat respiratory distress syndrome in 51 and meconium aspiration syndrome in 2. All survived and were free of infection. Excluded gases were those with high and falling lactate soon after delivery representing perinatal asphyxia, and those on dexamethasone. Strong inverse relations between carbonic and lactic acids were found at all gestational ages and, independent of glomerular filtration, between carbonic and organic acids. Lactate (mmol/L) = 62.53 X PCO2 -0.96(mmHg) r2 0.315, n 1232, p <0.001. Sixty divided by PCO2 is a convenient measure of physiological lactate at any given PCO2. In the first week, 9.13 ± 2.57% of arterial gases from infants on IPPV had lactates above 120/PCO2, significantly more than 4.74 ± 2.73% on CPAP (p<0.05) and 2.47 ± 2.39% on no support. Conclusion: Changes in arterial blood carbonic acid cause immediate inverse changes in lactic acid, because their anions interchange across cell membranes according to the Gibbs –Donnan equilibrium. Increasing PCO2 from 40 to 120 mmHg decreased lactate from 1.5 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, so that the sum of carbonic and lactic acids increased from 2.72 mmol/L to only 4.17 mmol/L. This helps explain the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnoea and highlights the importance of avoiding any degree of hypocapnoea in infants on IPPV. PMID:24392387

  20. Folic acid: a biopharmaceutical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellavinha, Karime Resende; Silva-Barcellos, Neila Márcia; Souza, Janine Braga; Leite, Jaqueline Costa; Souza, Jacqueline de

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous solubility and drug product dissolution are important factors that determine the rate and extent of drug absorption from immediate release solid oral dosage forms. The aim of this article was to perform a folic acid biopharmaceutical study to evaluate the biowaiver of new products containing folic acid. We studied the solubility of its raw material and the dissolution profile of two commercially available products. Three different buffers (pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8) were used as the media of the solubility and dissolution tests (apparatus II, at 50 rpm and 900 mL of medium volume). We found that folic acid solubility and its release from tablets are pH dependent. The dissolution profiles of both tablets were compared by dissolution efficiency (%), using t-test or variance analysis (ANOVA). The dissolution profiles obtained for the two products at pH 1.2 medium were similar (p > 0.05), but they were dissimilar at pH 4.5 and 6.8 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we could observe differences between all the dissolution profiles of folic acid for each product at three different dissolution media used. The results showed that physicochemical characteristics of folic acid affect its dissolution and absorption making it difficult to take a decision on their biowaiver based on BCS.