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Sample records for acid dehydrogenase complex

  1. Purification and characterization of branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex of bovine kidney

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Flora H.; Yeaman, Stephen J.; Reed, Lester J.

    1978-01-01

    A branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase-dihydrolipoyl transacylase complex was purified to apparent homogeneity from bovine kidney mitochondria. As usually isolated, the complex (s20,w = 40 S) contained little, if any, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. When saturated with the latter enzyme the complex had a specific activity of about 12 μmol of α-ketoisovalerate oxidized per min per mg of protein at 30° with NAD+ as electron acceptor. In addition to α-ketoisovalerate, the complex also oxidized α-ketoisocaproate, α-keto-β-methylvalerate, α-ketobutyrate, and pyruvate. The ratios of the specific activities were 2.0:1.5:1.0:1.0:0.4, and the apparent Km values were 40, 50, 37, 56, and 1000 μM. The complex was separated into its component enzymes. The branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (6 S) consists of two different subunits with estimated molecular weights of 46,000 and 35,000. The dihydrolipoyl transacylase (20 S) contains apparently identical subunits of molecular weight about 52,000. In the electron microscope, the transacylase has the appearance of a cube, and the molecules of branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase appear to be distributed on the surface of the cube. In contrast to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of bovine kidney, the branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex apparently is not regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation. Its activity, however, is subject to modulation by end-product inhibition. Images PMID:283398

  2. Directed Regulation of Multienzyme Complexes of 2-Oxo Acid Dehydrogenases Using Phosphonate and Phosphinate Analogs of 2-Oxo Acids.

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, A V; Graf, A V; Bunik, V I

    2016-12-01

    2-Oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are important metabolic checkpoints functioning at the intercept of sugar and amino acid degradation. This review presents a short summary of architectural, catalytic, and regulatory principles of the complexes structure and function, based on recent advances in studies of well-characterized family members. Special attention is given to use of synthetic phosphonate and phosphinate analogs of 2-oxo acids as selective and efficient inhibitors of the cognate complexes in biological systems of bacterial, plant, and animal origin. We summarize our own results concerning the application of synthetic analogs of 2-oxo acids in situ and in vivo to reveal functional interactions between 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes and other components of metabolic networks specific to different cells and tissues. Based on our study of glutamate excitotoxicity in cultured neurons, we show how a modulation of metabolism by specific inhibition of its key reaction may be employed to correct pathologies. This approach is further developed in our study on the action of the phosphonate analog of 2-oxoglutarate in animals. The study revealed that upregulation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is involved in animal stress response and may provide increased resistance to damaging effects, underlying so-called preconditioning. The presented analysis of published data suggests synthetic inhibitors of metabolic checkpoints as promising tools to solve modern challenges of systems biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine.

  3. Autoantibodies to mitochondrial 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, M; Sato, S; Ihn, H; Tamaki, T; Kikuchi, K; Soma, Y; Tamaki, K

    1996-08-01

    Sera from patients with localized scleroderma frequently produce cytoplasmic staining by indirect immunofluorescence, although the antigen remains to be determined. We studied the prevalence, antigen specificity and associated clinical characteristics of anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in localized scleroderma. Serum samples from 60 patients with localized scleroderma were examined by indirect immunofluorescence analysis and immunoblotting. By immunofluorescence analysis on HEp-2 cell substrate, seven of 60 (12%) patients were shown to be positive for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. Among these, six patients with generalized morphea had anti-mitochondrial antibodies as shown by immunoblotting: they showed reactivity with the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), with protein X, and with the E2 component of alpha-oxo-glutarate dehydrogenase complex, while two of them showed reactivity with PDC-E1 alpha. One of these patients who was positive for anti-PDC-E1 alpha antibody showed laboratory abnormalities, suggesting the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis. The age of disease onset was significantly higher in these six patients than in those without anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Furthermore, five of them were classified into generalized morphea with multiple plaque lesions but without linear lesions (multiple plaque type). These observations suggest that major antigens for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with localized scleroderma are mitochondrial enzymes, 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes. Patients with anti-mitochondrial antibodies may comprise a unique subset of localized scleroderma designated multiple plaque type of generalized morphea of older onset.

  4. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ayako; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2005-02-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolism. BDK has been believed to be bound to the BCKDC. However, recent our studies demonstrated that protein-protein interaction between BDK and BCKDC is one of the factors to regulate BDK activity. Furthermore, only the bound form of BDK appears to have its activity. In the present study, we examined effects of BDK inhibitors on the amount of BDK bound to the BCKDC using rat liver extracts. The bound form of BDK in the extracts of liver from low protein diet-fed rats was measured by an immunoprecipitation pull down assay with or without BDK inhibitors. Among the BDK inhibitors. alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-chloroisocaproate, and a-ketoisovalerate released the BDK from the complex. Furthermore, the releasing effect of these inhibitors on the BDK appeared to depend on their inhibition constants. On the other hand, clofibric acid and thiamine pyrophosphate had no effect on the protein-protein interaction between two enzymes. These results suggest that the dissociation of the BDK from the BCKDC is one of the mechanisms responsible for the action of some inhibitors to BDK.

  5. Structure and mechanism of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase in complex with the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid.

    PubMed

    Sintchak, M D; Fleming, M A; Futer, O; Raybuck, S A; Chambers, S P; Caron, P R; Murcko, M A; Wilson, K P

    1996-06-14

    The structure of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in complex with IMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. IMPDH plays a central role in B and T lymphocyte replication. MPA is a potent IMPDH inhibitor and the active metabolite of an immunosuppressive drug recently approved for the treatment of allograft rejection. IMPDH comprises two domains: a core domain, which is an alpha/beta barrel and contains the active site, and a flanking domain. The complex, in combination with mutagenesis and kinetic data, provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism of IMPDH activity and indicates that MPA inhibits IMPDH by acting as a replacement for the nicotinamide portion of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and a catalytic water molecule.

  6. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  7. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  8. Crystal structure of human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 complexed with NAD+ and retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Andrea; Li, Jianfeng; Donini, Stefano; Sobol, Robert W.; Rizzi, Menico; Garavaglia, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to the pleiotropic factor retinoic acid using NAD+. The level of ALDHs enzymatic activity has been used as a cancer stem cell marker and seems to correlate with tumour aggressiveness. Elevated ALDH1A3 expression in mesenchymal glioma stem cells highlights the potential of this isozyme as a prognosis marker and drug target. Here we report the first crystal structure of human ALDH1A3 complexed with NAD+ and the product all-trans retinoic acid (REA). The tetrameric ALDH1A3 folds into a three domain-based architecture highly conserved along the ALDHs family. The structural analysis revealed two different and coupled conformations for NAD+ and REA that we propose to represent two snapshots along the catalytic cycle. Indeed, the isoprenic moiety of REA points either toward the active site cysteine, or moves away adopting the product release conformation. Although ALDH1A3 shares high sequence identity with other members of the ALDH1A family, our structural analysis revealed few peculiar residues in the 1A3 isozyme active site. Our data provide information into the ALDH1As catalytic process and can be used for the structure-based design of selective inhibitors of potential medical interest. PMID:27759097

  9. Palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex formulation enhances activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases and respiratory complexes I-IV in the heart of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sudheesh, N P; Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K; Krishnan, C V

    2009-08-01

    Age-related decline in the capacity to withstand stress, such as ischemia and reperfusion, results in congestive heart failure. Though the mechanisms underlying cardiac decay are not clear, age dependent somatic damages to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), loss of mitochondrial function, and a resultant increase in oxidative stress in heart muscle cells may be responsible for the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The effect of a safe nutritional supplement, POLY-MVA, containing the active ingredient palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex, was evaluated on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV in heart mitochondria of aged male albino rats of Wistar strain. Administration of 0.05 ml/kg of POLY-MVA (which is equivalent to 0.38 mg complexed alpha-lipoic acid/kg, p.o), once daily for 30 days, was significantly (p<0.05) effective to enhance the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. The unique electronic and redox properties of palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex appear to be a key to this physiological effectiveness. The results strongly suggest that this formulation might be effective to protect the aging associated risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Kinetic and spectral investigation of allosteric interaction of coenzymes with 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strumiło, S.; Czygier, M.; Kondracikowska, J.; Dobrzyń, P.; Czerniecki, J.

    2002-09-01

    The possible role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in the regulation of both multienzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) has been investigated by kinetic and spectral methods. The purified PDC and OGDC from animal heart muscle were near saturated with endogenous TPP. The PDC containing the bound coenzyme showed hysteretic behaviour manifested in a lag phase of the catalysed reaction after the contact of PDC with substrates. Exogenous TPP added to the full reaction medium led to a disappearance of the lag phase and to strong reduction of the Michaelis constant ( Km) value for pyruvate, and more moderate decrease of Km for both coenzyme A and NAD. In the case of OGDC exogenous TPP also decreased S 0.5 ( Km) for substrate 2-oxoglutarate. In addition, exogenous TPP changed both the UV and circular dichroism spectra of PDC and last one of OGDC, and lowered the fluorescence emission of the multienzyme complexes containing bound molecules of endogenous coenzyme in their active sites. Thiamine pyrophosphate seems to play, besides its coenzyme function, the role of positive allosteric effector which causes conformational changes of the multienzyme complexes and increases their affinity to substrates.

  11. Which way does the citric acid cycle turn during hypoxia? The critical role of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-08-01

    The citric acid cycle forms a major metabolic hub and as such it is involved in many disease states involving energetic imbalance. In spite of the fact that it is being branded as a "cycle", during hypoxia, when the electron transport chain does not oxidize reducing equivalents, segments of this metabolic pathway remain operational but exhibit opposing directionalities. This serves the purpose of harnessing high-energy phosphates through matrix substrate-level phosphorylation in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation. In this Mini-Review, these segments are appraised, pointing to the critical importance of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex dictating their directionalities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Pyruvate and α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complexes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Catalyze Pyocyanin and Phenazine-1-carboxylic Acid Reduction via the Subunit Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Nathaniel R; Wang, Benjamin X; Hoy, Julie A; Newman, Dianne K

    2017-03-31

    Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. Although prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P. aeruginosa contains multiple enzymes that catalyze the reduction of the endogenous phenazines pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. We used chemical inhibitors to target general enzyme classes and found that an inhibitor of flavoproteins and heme-containing proteins, diphenyleneiodonium, effectively inhibited phenazine reduction in vitro, suggesting that most phenazine reduction derives from these enzymes. Using natively purified proteins, we demonstrate that the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes directly catalyze phenazine reduction with pyruvate or α-ketoglutarate as electron donors. Both complexes transfer electrons to phenazines through the common subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein encoded by the gene lpdG Although we were unable to co-crystallize LpdG with an endogenous phenazine, we report its X-ray crystal structure in the apo-form (refined to 1.35 Å), bound to NAD(+) (1.45 Å), and bound to NADH (1.79 Å). In contrast to the notion that phenazines support intracellular redox homeostasis by oxidizing NADH, our work suggests that phenazines may substitute for NAD(+) in LpdG and other enzymes, achieving the same end by a different mechanism. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Inhibition of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by the myeloperoxidase products, hypochlorous acid and mono-N-chloramine.

    PubMed

    Jeitner, Thomas M; Xu, Hui; Gibson, Gary E

    2005-01-01

    Abstract alpha-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHC) complex activity is diminished in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and its diminution in Alzheimer Disease (AD) is thought to contribute to the major loss of cerebral energy metabolism that accompanies this disease. The loss of KGDHC activity appears to be predominantly due to post-translation modifications. Thiamine deficiency also results in decreased KGDHC activity and a selective neuronal loss. Recently, myeloperoxidase has been identified in the activated microglia of brains from AD patients and thiamine-deficient animals. Myeloperoxidase produces a powerful oxidant, hypochlorous acid that reacts with amines to form chloramines. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of hypochlorous acid and chloramines to inhibit the activity of KGDHC activity as a first step towards investigating the role of myeloperoxidase in AD. Hypochlorous acid and mono-N-chloramine both inhibited purified and cellular KGDHC and the order of inhibition of the purified complex was hypochlorous acid (1x) > mono-N-chloramine (approximately 50x) > hydrogen peroxide (approximately 1,500). The inhibition of cellular KGDHC occurred with no significant loss of cellular viability at all exposure times that were examined. Thus, hypochlorous acid and chloramines have the potential to inactivate a major target in neurodegeneration.

  14. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Nagib; Swatek, Kirby N.; Zhang, Jingfen; Miernyk, Ján A.; Xu, Dong; Thelen, Jay J.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC) is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client (KiC) assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform “scanning mutagenesis” of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from “phylogenetic analysis” of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mtPDC by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution. PMID:22811682

  15. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated...

  16. In situ nucleic acid hybridization of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 messenger RNA is expressed in hepatocytes but not in biliary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Van de Water, J; Leung, P S; Coppel, R L; Nakanuma, Y; Gershwin, M E

    1997-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase-E2, or a cross-reactive molecule, has been shown by a variety of immunohistochemical methods to be present in increased amounts in biliary epithelial cells (BEC) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In this study, to further understand the nature of the immunoreactive molecule in BEC, we examined the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) messenger RNA (mRNA) and PDC-E2 protein in sections of livers from patients and controls to help identify the molecule found in BEC. We performed in situ hybridization using an antisense probe against the major epitope of PDC-E2. The data were very striking and suggested that there was no increased production of PDC-E2 in BEC. For example, in livers from patients with PBC, PDC-E2 mRNA was found in periportal hepatocytes in 16 of 17 cases (94%). In contrast, interlobular bile ducts and septal bile ducts had detectable levels of PDC-E2 mRNA in only 1 of 17 (6%) and 3 of 8 (38%) cases, respectively. Interestingly, proliferating bile ductules contained detectable levels of mRNA in 12 of 15 cases (80%). In control liver, periportal hepatocytes were positive in 15 of 17 cases (88%). Interlobular bile ducts, septal bile ducts, and proliferating bile ductules expressed mRNA signals in 4 of 17 (24%), 2 of 10 (20%), and 14 of 16 (88%), respectively. When formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were examined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-PDC-E2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) C355.1, the interlobular bile ducts showed typical aberrant apical staining in all 10 PBC cases, but 0 of 9 liver controls. Periportal hepatocytes, proliferating bile ductules and infiltrating mononuclear cells stained with C355.1 but in a characteristic mitochondrial staining pattern. The presence of a PDC-E2-like molecule recognized by C355.1 is not reflected by the expression levels of PDC-E2 mRNA in the BEC of patients with PBC.

  17. The Impact of the Branched-Chain Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex on Amino Acid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Uygun, Sahra; Shiu, Shin-Han; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Leu, Ile, and Val are among nine essential amino acids that must be obtained from the diet of humans and other animals, and can be nutritionally limiting in plant foods. Despite genetic evidence of its importance in regulating seed amino acid levels, the full BCAA catabolic network is not completely understood in plants, and limited information is available regarding its regulation. In this study, transcript coexpression analyses revealed positive correlations among BCAA catabolism genes in stress, development, diurnal/circadian, and light data sets. A core subset of BCAA catabolism genes, including those encoding putative branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase subunits, is highly expressed during the night in plants on a diel cycle and in prolonged darkness. Mutants defective in these subunits accumulate higher levels of BCAAs in mature seeds, providing genetic evidence for their function in BCAA catabolism. In addition, prolonged dark treatment caused the mutants to undergo senescence early and overaccumulate leaf BCAAs. These results extend the previous evidence that BCAAs can be catabolized and serve as respiratory substrates at multiple steps. Moreover, comparison of amino acid profiles between mature seeds and dark-treated leaves revealed differences in amino acid accumulation when BCAA catabolism is perturbed. Together, these results demonstrate the consequences of blocking BCAA catabolism during both normal growth conditions and under energy-limited conditions. PMID:25986129

  18. Limited proteolysis and sequence analysis of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes from Escherichia coli. Cleavage sites and domains in the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase components.

    PubMed Central

    Packman, L C; Perham, R N

    1987-01-01

    The structures of the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (E2) components of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes from Escherichia coli were investigated by limited proteolysis. Trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase were used to excise the three lipoyl domains from the E2p component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the single lipoyl domain from the E2o component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. The principal sites of action of these enzymes on each E2 chain were determined by sequence analysis of the isolated lipoyl fragments and of the truncated E2p and E2o chains. Each of the numerous cleavage sites (12 in E2p, six in E2o) fell within similar segments of the E2 chains, namely stretches of polypeptide rich in alanine, proline and/or charged amino acids. These regions are clearly accessible to proteinases of Mr 24,000-28,000 and, on the basis of n.m.r. spectroscopy, some of them have previously been implicated in facilitating domain movements by virtue of their conformational flexibility. The limited proteolysis data suggest that E2p and E2o possess closer architectural similarities than would be predicted from inspection of their amino acid sequences. As a result of this work, an error was detected in the sequence of E2o inferred from the previously published sequence of the encoding gene, sucB. The relevant peptides from E2o were purified and sequenced by direct means; an amended sequence is presented. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3297046

  19. The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complexes: Structure-based Function and Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mulchand S.; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from all known living organisms comprise three principal catalytic components for their mission: E1 and E2 generate acetyl-coenzyme A, whereas the FAD/NAD+-dependent E3 performs redox recycling. Here we compare bacterial (Escherichia coli) and human PDCs, as they represent the two major classes of the superfamily of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes with different assembly of, and interactions among components. The human PDC is subject to inactivation at E1 by serine phosphorylation by four kinases, an inactivation reversed by the action of two phosphatases. Progress in our understanding of these complexes important in metabolism is reviewed. PMID:24798336

  20. Structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus complexed with NAD(+) and lactic acid (or pyruvate).

    PubMed

    Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Strange, Richard W; Ellis, Mark J; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Inoue, Yumiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hasnain, S Samar

    2009-12-01

    The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus (aq_727) was determined to 2.12 A resolution in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 90.94, b = 94.43, c = 188.85 A. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the coenzyme-binding domain of Lactobacillus helveticus D-lactate dehydrogenase and contained two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Each subunit of the homodimer was found to be in a ;closed' conformation with the NADH cofactor bound to the coenzyme-binding domain and with a lactate (or pyruvate) molecule bound at the interdomain active-site cleft.

  1. The α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in cancer metabolic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Vatrinet, Renaud; Leone, Giulia; De Luise, Monica; Girolimetti, Giulia; Vidone, Michele; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Porcelli, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated metabolism is a well-established hallmark of cancer. At the hub of various metabolic pathways deeply integrated within mitochondrial functions, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex represents a major modulator of electron transport chain activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux, and is a pivotal enzyme in the metabolic reprogramming following a cancer cell's change in bioenergetic requirements. By contributing to the control of α-ketoglutarate levels, dynamics, and oxidation state, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is also essential in modulating the epigenetic landscape of cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss the manifold roles that this TCA enzyme and its substrate play in cancer.

  2. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Naoya . E-mail: nakai@hss.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-05-19

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 ({alpha}2{beta}2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1{alpha} subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex.

  3. Correlation between histopathological findings of the liver and IgA class antibodies to 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jun-Ichi; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Ohba, Kazuo; Hazama, Hiroaki; Kadokawa, Yoshiko; Kinoshita, Hideki; Hayashida, Kenji; Hayashida, Kazuhiro; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kohno, Shigeru

    2003-05-01

    Although anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) is the characteristic serological feature of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), its pathogenetic role remains unclear. We tested sera from 72 Japanese patients with histologically confirmed PBC for AMA by indirect immunofluorescence, anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by enzyme inhibition assay, immunoglobulin (Ig) G class anti-PDC by ELISA, and IgG, IgM, and IgA class anti-2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex (2-OADC) by immunoblotting. Of the 72 sera, 60 (83%), 50 (69%), 42 (58%), and 71 (99%) were positive for AMA by immunofluorescence, enzyme inhibition assay, ELISA, and immunoblotting, respectively. There was no significant correlation between histological stages and AMA by immunofluorescence, PDC inhibitory antibodies by enzyme inhibition assay, IgG class anti-PDC antibodies by ELISA, or IgG and IgM class anti-2-OADC by immunoblotting. IgA class anti-2-OADC by immunoblotting was more frequent in stages 2-4 than in stage 1 (P = 0.0083). Of the IgA class anti-2-OADC, anti-PDC-E2 (74 kDa) and anti-E3BP (52 kDa) were more frequent in stages 2-4 than in stage 1 (P = 0.0253 and 0.0042, respectively). Further examination of histopathological findings in 53 of 72 liver biopsy specimens showed that IgA class anti-PDC-E2 and IgA class anti-E3BP were associated with bile duct loss, and IgA class anti-PDC-E2 was also associated with interface hepatitis and atypical ductular proliferation. IgA is known to be secreted into the bile through biliary epithelial cells, implying that IgA class anti-PDC-E2 and E3BP may have a specific pathogenetic role during their transport into the bile by binding to their target antigen(s) in biliary epithelial cells, and this may be followed by dysfunction and finally destruction of biliary epithelial cells. Our present results suggest that these autoantibodies against 2-OADC detected by immunoblotting may be associated with the pathogenesis and pathologic progression of PBC.

  4. IgA class antibodies to 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex are not predictive markers of histopathological progression in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Omagari, Katsuhisa; Kadokawa, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Minoru; Akazawa, Shiho; Ohba, Kazuo; Ohnita, Ken; Mizuta, Yohei; Daikoku, Manabu; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-03-01

    Although antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) is the characteristic serological feature of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), its pathogenic role remains unclear. In our previous study, we reported a positive correlation between immunoglobulin (Ig) A class anti-2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex (2-OADC) and histopathological stage. To determine whether the appearance of IgA class anti-2-OADC by immunoblotting represents an early marker of more aggressive disease or whether it is late finding during the disease course of PBC, we tested not only the entire IgA class but also IgA1, IgA2 and secretory IgA class anti-2-OADC in serial serum samples from 15 patients with PBC. During the median observation period of 51 months, four cases showed histopathological progression (from stage 1 to 2, stage 1 to 3, stage 1 to 4 and stage 2 to 4). There was no statistically significant correlation between the above IgA class anti-2-OADCs and histopathological progression. There was no significant correlation between histopathological stages and IgA2 class anti-2-OADC or secretory IgA class anti-2-OADC by immunoblotting. IgA class anti-2-OADC was more frequent in stages 3-4 than in stages 1-2 (p = 0.0049), but IgA1 class anti-2-OADC was more frequent in stages 1-2 than in stages 3-4 (p = 0.0232). Our present study demonstrated that serum IgA class 2-OADC was not a predictive marker of histopathological progression but was associated with the histopathological stage of PBC. Although the IgA class AMA may have a specific pathogenic role for PBC, the discrepant results between IgA and IgA1 class anti-2-OADC should be further assessed to investigate different functional activities depending on their molecular form.

  5. A mimic of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanyu; Breslow, Ronald

    2010-10-15

    Pyruvic acid undergo decarboxylation catalyzed by a hydrophobic thiazolium salt and reacts with a hydrophobic analog of lipoic acid to form a hydrophobic acylthioester that reacts with aniline to form acetanilide in water, but only in the presence of a hydrophobically modified polyaziridine that acts to gather the reactants just as the enzyme complex does.

  6. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  7. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  8. Rv0132c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Encodes a Coenzyme F420-Dependent Hydroxymycolic Acid Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Purwantini, Endang; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to manipulate and evade human immune system is in part due to its extraordinarily complex cell wall. One of the key components of this cell wall is a family of lipids called mycolic acids. Oxygenation of mycolic acids generating methoxy- and ketomycolic acids enhances the pathogenic attributes of M. tuberculosis. Thus, the respective enzymes are of interest in the research on mycobacteria. The generation of methoxy- and ketomycolic acids proceeds through intermediary formation of hydroxymycolic acids. While the methyl transferase that generates methoxymycolic acids from hydroxymycolic acids is known, hydroxymycolic acids dehydrogenase that oxidizes hydroxymycolic acids to ketomycolic acids has been elusive. We found that hydroxymycolic acid dehydrogenase is encoded by the rv0132c gene and the enzyme utilizes F420, a deazaflavin coenzyme, as electron carrier, and accordingly we called it F420-dependent hydroxymycolic acid dehydrogenase. This is the first report on the involvement of F420 in the synthesis of a mycobacterial cell envelope. Also, F420-dependent hydroxymycolic acid dehydrogenase was inhibited by PA-824, and therefore, it is a previously unknown target for this new tuberculosis drug. PMID:24349169

  9. Double-ternary complex affinity chromatography: preparation of alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Lange, L G; Vallee, B L

    1976-10-19

    A general affinity chromatographic method for alcohol dehydrogenase purification has been developed by employing immobilized 4-substituted pyrazole derivatives that isolate the enzyme through formation of a specific ternary complex. Sepharose 4B is activated with 300 mg of cyanogen bromide/ml of packed gel and coupled to 4-[3-(N-6-aminocaproyl)aminopropyl]pyrazole. From crude liver extracts in 50 mM phosphate-0.37 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pH 7.5, alcohol dehydrogenase is optimally bound at a capacity of 4-5 mg of enzyme/ml of gel. Addition of ethanol, propanol, or butanol, 500 mM, results in the formation of a second ternary complex, which allows the elution of bound enzyme in high yield and purity. This double-ternary complex affinity chromatography has been applied successfully to human, horse, rat, and rabbit liver extracts to isolate the respective homogeneous alcohol dehydrogenases.

  10. Metabolism of glycyrrhetic acid by rat liver microsomes: glycyrrhetinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Akao, T; Akao, T; Kobashi, K

    1990-02-06

    Glycyrrhetic acid, derived from a main component of liquorice, was converted to 3-ketoglycyrrhetic acid reversibly by rat liver homogenates in the presence of NADPH or NADP+. Glycyrrhetic acid-oxidizing and 3-ketoglycyrrhetic acid-reducing activities were localized in microsomes among the subcellular fractions of rat liver. Glycyrrhetic acid-oxidizing activity and 3-ketoglycyrrhetic acid-reducing activities showed pH optima at 6.3 and 8.5, respectively, and required NADP+ or NAD+ and NADPH or NADH, respectively, indicating that these activities were due to glycyrrhetinate dehydrogenase. The dehydrogenase was not solubilized from the membranes by the treatment with 1 M NaCl or sonication, indicating that the enzyme is a membrane component. The dehydrogenase was solubilized with detergents such as Emalgen 913, Triton X-100 and sodium cholate, and then separated from 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (5 beta-androstan-3 beta-ol-17-one-oxidizing activity) by butyl-Toyopearl 650 M column chromatography. Partially purified enzyme catalyzed the reversible reaction between glycyrrhetic acid and 3-ketoglycyrrhetic acid, but was inactive toward 3-epiglycyrrhetic acid and other steroids having the 3 beta-hydroxyl group. The enzyme required NADP+ and NADPH for the highest activities of oxidation and reduction, respectively, and NAD+ and NADH for considerable activities, similar to the results with microsomes. From these results the enzyme is defined as glycyrrhetinate dehydrogenase, being quite different from 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Ruminococcus sp. from human intestine, which is active for both glycyrrhetic acid and steroids having the 3 beta-hydroxyl group.

  11. Often Ignored Facts about the Control of the 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumilo, Slawomir

    2005-01-01

    Information about the control of the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC), a key enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is not well covered in the biochemical education literature, especially as it concerns the allosteric regulation of OGDHC by adenine nucleotide and ortophosphate. From experimental work published during the last…

  12. Often Ignored Facts about the Control of the 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumilo, Slawomir

    2005-01-01

    Information about the control of the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC), a key enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is not well covered in the biochemical education literature, especially as it concerns the allosteric regulation of OGDHC by adenine nucleotide and ortophosphate. From experimental work published during the last…

  13. Amino acid substitutions at glutamate-354 in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli lower the sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase to NADH.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhentao; Do, Phi Minh; Rhee, Mun Su; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2012-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) of Escherichia coli is inhibited by NADH. This inhibition is partially reversed by mutational alteration of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) component of the PDH complex (E354K or H322Y). Such a mutation in lpd led to a PDH complex that was functional in an anaerobic culture as seen by restoration of anaerobic growth of a pflB, ldhA double mutant of E. coli utilizing a PDH- and alcohol dehydrogenase-dependent homoethanol fermentation pathway. The glutamate at position 354 in LPD was systematically changed to all of the other natural amino acids to evaluate the physiological consequences. These amino acid replacements did not affect the PDH-dependent aerobic growth. With the exception of E354M, all changes also restored PDH-dependent anaerobic growth of and fermentation by an ldhA, pflB double mutant. The PDH complex with an LPD alteration E354G, E354P or E354W had an approximately 20-fold increase in the apparent K(i) for NADH compared with the native complex. The apparent K(m) for pyruvate or NAD(+) for the mutated forms of PDH was not significantly different from that of the native enzyme. A structural model of LPD suggests that the amino acid at position 354 could influence movement of NADH from its binding site to the surface. These results indicate that glutamate at position 354 plays a structural role in establishing the NADH sensitivity of LPD and the PDH complex by restricting movement of the product/substrate NADH, although this amino acid is not directly associated with NAD(H) binding.

  14. Structure of aldehyde reductase in ternary complex with coenzyme and the potent 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid: implications for inhibitor binding and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Vincenzo; Chung, Roland; Endo, Satoshi; Hara, Akira; El-Kabbani, Ossama

    2008-11-01

    The structure of aldehyde reductase (ALR1) in ternary complex with the coenzyme NADPH and 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCL), a potent inhibitor of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1), was determined at a resolution of 2.41A. The inhibitor formed a network of hydrogen bonds with the active site residues Trp22, Tyr50, His113, Trp114 and Arg312. Molecular modelling calculations together with inhibitory activity measurements indicated that DCL was a less potent inhibitor of ALR1 (256-fold) when compared to AKR1C1. In AKR1C1, the inhibitor formed a 10-fold stronger binding interaction with the catalytic residue (Tyr55), non-conserved hydrogen bonding interaction with His222, and additional van der Waals contacts with the non-conserved C-terminal residues Leu306, Leu308 and Phe311 that contribute to the inhibitor's selectivity advantage for AKR1C1 over ALR1.

  15. A mutation in the E2 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Arabidopsis reduces plant organ size and enhances the accumulation of amino acids and intermediate products of the TCA cycle.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hailan; Du, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Fengxia; Zhang, Fang; Hu, Yong; Liu, Shichang; Jiang, Xiangning; Wang, Guodong; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC) plays a pivotal role in controlling the entry of carbon into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for energy production. This multi-enzyme complex consists of three components: E1, E2, and E3. In Arabidopsis, there are three genes, mtE2-1, mtE2-2, and mtE2-3, which encode the putative mtPDC E2 subunit but how each of them contributes to the total mtPDC activity remains unknown. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, m132, that has abnormal small organs. Molecular cloning indicated that the phenotype of m132 is caused by a mutation in the mtE2-1 gene, which results in a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminus of the encoded protein. In m132, mtPDC activity is only 30% of the WT and ATP production is severely impaired. The mutation in the mtE2-1 gene also leads to the over-accumulation of most intermediate products of the TCA cycle and of all the amino acids for protein synthesis. Our results suggest that, among the three mtE2 genes, mtE2-1 is a major contributor to the function of Arabidopsis mtPDC and that the functional disruption of mtE2-1 profoundly affects plant growth and development, as well as its metabolism.

  16. Distribution of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Developing Soybean Cotyledons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The somewhat surprising report that storage proteins and oil are non-uniformly distributed in the cotyledons of developing soybeans prompted us to determine the spatial distribution of the mitochondrial and plastidial forms of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). It has been proposed that pla...

  17. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Thissen, J.; Komuniecki, R.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles /sup 32/P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the /sup 32/P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined.

  18. Mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex generates reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Fiskum, Gary; Chinopoulos, Christos; Lorenzo, Beverly J; Browne, Susan E; Patel, Mulchand S; Beal, M Flint

    2004-09-08

    Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production, respiration, and NADPH reduction level in rat brain mitochondria oxidizing a variety of respiratory substrates. Under conditions of maximum respiration induced with either ADP or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone,alpha-ketoglutarate supported the highest rate of H(2)O(2) production. In the absence of ADP or in the presence of rotenone, H(2)O(2) production rates correlated with the reduction level of mitochondrial NADPH with various substrates, with the exception of alpha-ketoglutarate. Isolated mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) complexes produced superoxide and H(2)O(2). NAD(+) inhibited ROS production by the isolated enzymes and by permeabilized mitochondria. We also measured H(2)O(2) production by brain mitochondria isolated from heterozygous knock-out mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld). Although this enzyme is a part of both KGDHC and PDHC, there was greater impairment of KGDHC activity in Dld-deficient mitochondria. These mitochondria also produced significantly less H(2)O(2) than mitochondria isolated from their littermate wild-type mice. The data strongly indicate that KGDHC is a primary site of ROS production in normally functioning mitochondria.

  19. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevented colitis-associated carcinogenesis through blocking dissociation of β-catenin complex, inhibiting COX-2 through repressing NF-κB, and inducing 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Mi-Young; Go, Eun-Jin; Cha, Ji Young; Kim, Kyung Jo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-09-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Through in vitro cell models involving docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration, down-regulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax, accompanied by blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation, the main mechanisms responsible for DHA-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells were determined. Results included significant reduction in azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted CACs, as well as significant preservation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and significant inhibition of Cyclooxyganase-2 (COX-2) and Prostaglandin E2(P < 0.01). Additional mechanisms and significant induction of apoptosis in both tumor and non-tumor tissues were also noted in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice. The lipid profiles of colon tissues measured in all specimens revealed that intake greater than 3 g ω-3 PUFA/60 kg of body weight showed tissue levels similar to those seen in fat-1 TG mice, preventing cancer. Our study concluded that COX-2 inhibition, 15-PGDH preservation, apoptosis induction, and blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation contributed to the anti-tumorigenesis effect of ω-3 PUFAs, and an intake higher than 3g ω-3 PUFAs/60 kg of body weight can assist in CAC prevention.

  20. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevented colitis-associated carcinogenesis through blocking dissociation of β-catenin complex, inhibiting COX-2 through repressing NF-κB, and inducing 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Mi-Young; Go, Eun-Jin; Cha, Ji Young; Kim, Kyung Jo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Through in vitro cell models involving docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration, down-regulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax, accompanied by blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation, the main mechanisms responsible for DHA-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells were determined. Results included significant reduction in azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted CACs, as well as significant preservation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and significant inhibition of Cyclooxyganase-2 (COX-2) and Prostaglandin E2(P < 0.01). Additional mechanisms and significant induction of apoptosis in both tumor and non-tumor tissues were also noted in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice. The lipid profiles of colon tissues measured in all specimens revealed that intake greater than 3 g ω-3 PUFA/60 kg of body weight showed tissue levels similar to those seen in fat-1 TG mice, preventing cancer. Our study concluded that COX-2 inhibition, 15-PGDH preservation, apoptosis induction, and blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation contributed to the anti-tumorigenesis effect of ω-3 PUFAs, and an intake higher than 3g ω-3 PUFAs/60 kg of body weight can assist in CAC prevention. PMID:27566583

  1. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific 'carbonic anhydrase domain' of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe 'life without complex I'. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific ‘carbonic anhydrase domain’ of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe ‘life without complex I’. PMID:27122571

  3. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid catabolism: nutritional and hormonal regulation of activity and expression of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Y; Obayashi, M; Murakami, T; Harris, R A

    2001-09-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase is responsible for the inactivation and phosphorylation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, the enzyme that catalyses the committed step of branched-chain amino acid catabolism. The activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex is inversely correlated with kinase activity, suggesting that the relative activity of the kinase is the primary regulator of the activity of the complex. It has been shown that kinase activity and expression are affected by nutritional states imposed by low-protein diet feeding, starvation, diabetes, and exercise. Evidence has also been presented that certain hormones, particularly insulin, glucocorticoid, thyroid hormone and female sex hormones, affect the activity and expression of the kinase. The findings indicate that nutritional and hormonal control of the activity and expression of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase provides an important means of control of the activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, with inactivation serving to conserve branched-chain amino acids for protein synthesis in some situations and activation serving to provide carbon for gluconeogenesis in others.

  4. Altered kinetic properties of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex due to mutation of the beta-subunit of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1) component in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed Central

    Indo, Y; Kitano, A; Endo, F; Akaboshi, I; Matsuda, I

    1987-01-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complexes of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients with classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) phenotypes were studied in terms of their catalytic functions and analyzed by immunoblotting, using affinity purified anti-bovine BCKDH antibody. Kinetic studies on three cell lines derived from patients with the classical phenotype showed sigmoidal or near sigmoidal kinetics for overall BCKDH activity and a deficiency of the E1 component activity. An immunoblot study revealed a markedly decreased amount of the E1 beta subunit accompanied by weak staining of the E1 alpha subunit. The E2 and E3 component exhibited a cross-reactive peptide. Thus, in at least some patients with MSUD, mutations of the E1 beta subunit might provide an explanation for the altered kinetic properties of the BCKDH complex. Images PMID:3597778

  5. Suicidal dephosphorylation of thiamine pyrophosphate coupled with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Strumilo, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Czerniecki, Jan; Tylicki, Adam

    2004-12-01

    Earlier it was noted that purified pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) produced by "Sigma" usually contains almost saturating amounts of thiamine pyrophosphate (ThPP). In this communication we present the observation that the endogenous ThPP coupled to PDC is dephosphorylated while staying at -10 degrees C, because in the enzyme preparation thiamine monophosphate and un-phosphorylated thiamine appear (HPLC determination). Under the same conditions exogenous ThPP is not dephosphorylated despite contact with the PDC preparation. This may suggest that interactions of some active groups of the enzyme with molecules of endogenous ThPP leads to break-up of the phosphoesters bonds, and destruction of the coenzyme. Decrease of PDC activity during storage is not in proportion with the degree of ThPP dephosphorylation. However the observed instability of PDC activity may be a consequence of the spontaneous process of its coenzyme autodestruction.

  6. Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on lipoamide dehydrogenase, a member of three multienzyme complexes.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Aditya; Bryk, Ruslana; Shi, Shuangping; Rhee, Kyu; Rath, Poonam; Schnappinger, Dirk; Ehrt, Sabine; Nathan, Carl

    2011-01-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adapts to persist in a nutritionally limited macrophage compartment. Lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), the third enzyme (E3) in Mtb's pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), also serves as E1 of peroxynitrite reductase/peroxidase (PNR/P), which helps Mtb resist host-reactive nitrogen intermediates. In contrast to Mtb lacking dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), the E2 of PDH and PNR/P, Lpd-deficient Mtb is severely attenuated in wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This suggests that Lpd has a function that DlaT does not share. When DlaT is absent, Mtb upregulates an Lpd-dependent branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) encoded by pdhA, pdhB, pdhC, and lpdC. Without Lpd, Mtb cannot metabolize branched-chain amino acids and potentially toxic branched-chain intermediates accumulate. Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb.

  7. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis.

  8. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Activity in Normal and Deficient Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Kwan-Fu Rex; Hu, Chii-Whei C.; Utter, Merton F.

    1981-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity in human skin fibroblasts appears to be regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism, as is the case with other animal cells. The enzyme can be activated by pretreating the cells with dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, before they are disrupted for measurement of PDC activity. With such treatment, the activity reaches 5-6 nmol/min per mg of protein at 37°C with fibroblasts from infants. Such values represent an activation of about 5-20-fold over those observed with untreated cells. That this assay, based on [1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation, represents a valid measurement of the overall PDC reaction is shown by the dependence of 14CO2 production on the presence of thiamin-PP, coenzyme A (CoA), Mg++, and NAD+. Also, it has been shown that acetyl-CoA and 14CO2 are formed in a 1:1 ratio. A similar degree of activation of PDC can also be achieved by adding purified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase and high concentrations of Mg++ and Ca++, or in some cases by adding the metal ions alone to the cell homogenate after disruption. These results strongly suggest that activation is due to dephosphorylation. Addition of NaF, which inhibits dephosphorylation, leads to almost complete loss of PDC activity. Assays of completely activated PDC were performed on two cell lines originating from patients reported to be deficient in this enzyme (Blass, J. P., J. Avigan, and B. W. Ublendorf. 1970. J. Clin. Invest. 49: 423-432; Blass, J. P., J. D. Schuman, D. S. Young, and E. Ham. 1972. J. Clin. Invest. 51: 1545-1551). Even after activation with DCA, fibroblasts from the patients showed values of only 0.1 and 0.3 nmol/min per mg of protein. A familial study of one of these patients showed that both parents exhibited activity in fully activated cells about half that of normal values, whereas cells from a sibling appeared normal. These results demonstrate the inheritance nature of PDC deficiency

  9. Metabolic control analysis of eucaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Modak, Jayant; Deckwer, Wolf-Dieter; Zeng, An-Ping

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis (MCA) of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme (PDH) complex of eucaryotic cells has been carried out using both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic models. Flux control coefficients (FCC) for the sensitivity of pyruvate decarboxylation rate to activities of various PDH complex reactions are determined. FCCs are shown to be strong functions of both pyruvate levels and various components of PDH complex. With the in vitro model, FCCs are shown to be sensitive to only the E1 component of the PDH complex at low pyruvate concentrations. At high pyruvate concentrations, the control is shared by all of the components, with E1 having a negative influence while the other three components, E2, X, and K, exert a positive control over the pyruvate decarboxylation rate. An unusual behavior of deactivation of the E1 component leading to higher net PDH activity is shown to be linked to the combined effect of protein X acylation and E1 deactivation. The steady-state analysis of the in vivo model reveals multiple steady state behavior of pyruvate metabolism with two stable and one unstable steady-states branches. FCCs also display multiplicity, showing completely different control distribution exerted by pyruvate and PDH components on three branches. At low pyruvate concentrations, pyruvate supply dominates the decarboxylation rate and PDH components do not exert any significant control. Reverse control distribution is observed at high pyruvate concentration. The effect of dilution due to cell growth on pyruvate metabolism is investigated in detail. While pyruvate dilution effects are shown to be negligible under all conditions, significant PDH complex dilution effects are observed under certain conditions. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo models shows that PDH components exert different degrees of control outside and inside the cells. At high pyruvate levels, PDH components are shown to exert a higher degree of control when reactions are taking place inside

  10. Cloning and cDNA sequence of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component of human. cap alpha. -ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, G.; Raefsky-Estrin, C.; Carothers, D.J.; Pepin, R.A.; Javed, A.A.; Jesse, B.W.; Ganapathi, M.K.; Samols, D.; Patel, M.S.

    1988-03-01

    cDNA clones comprising the entire coding region for human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase have been isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The cDNA sequence of the largest clone consisted of 2082 base pairs and contained a 1527-base open reading frame that encodes a precursor dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of 509 amino acid residues. The first 35-amino acid residues of the open reading frame probably correspond to a typical mitochondrial import leader sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of the mature protein, starting at the residue number 36 of the open reading frame, is almost identical (>98% homology) with the known partial amino acid sequence of the pig heart dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. The cDNA clone also contains a 3' untranslated region of 505 bases with an unusual polyadenylylation signal (TATAAA) and a short poly(A) track. By blot-hybridization analysis with the cDNA as probe, two mRNAs, 2.2 and 2.4 kilobases in size, have been detected in human tissues and fibroblasts, whereas only one mRNA (2.4 kilobases) was detected in rat tissues.

  11. Sirtuin 4 is a lipoamidase regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Rommel A.; Greco, Todd M.; Oberstein, Adam; Budayeva, Hanna G.; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Rowland, Elizabeth A.; Kang, Yibin; Shenk, Thomas; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sirtuins (SIRTs) are critical enzymes that govern genome regulation, metabolism, and aging. Despite conserved deacetylase domains, mitochondrial SIRT4 and SIRT5 have little to no deacetylase activity, and a robust catalytic activity for SIRT4 has been elusive. Here, we establish SIRT4 as a cellular lipoamidase that regulates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). Importantly, SIRT4 catalytic efficiency for lipoyl- and biotinyl-lysine modifications is superior to its deacetylation activity. PDH, which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, has been known to be primarily regulated by phosphorylation of its E1 component. We determine that SIRT4 enzymatically hydrolyzes the lipoamide cofactors from the E2 component dihydrolipoyllysine acetyltransferase (DLAT), diminishing PDH activity. We demonstrate SIRT4-mediated regulation of DLAT lipoyl levels and PDH activity in cells and in vivo, in mouse liver. Furthermore, metabolic flux switching via glutamine stimulation induces SIRT4 lipoamidase activity to inhibit PDH, highlighting SIRT4 as a guardian of cellular metabolism. PMID:25525879

  12. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF) via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. Methodology and Principal Findings Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid). Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT) [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. Conclusions This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In addition, the

  13. Properties of bound trifluoroethanol complexes with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D C; Dahlquist, F W

    1982-07-20

    The substrate analogue 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) has been used as a 19F NMR probe of the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase from horse liver (LADH). We are able to directly observe a single resonance assigned to TFE in its ternary complex with LADH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The chemical shift of this resonance is independent of pH between values of 6.2 and 8.9, suggesting that bound TFE does not change ionization state in this range. Both by 19F NMR self-exchange measurements and by ligand-displacement studies with pyrazole, we also find that displacement of TFE from its ternary complex with NAD is a linear function of proton concentration over a similar pH range, with more rapid desorption occurring at lower pH values. This suggests that the pK of 6.4 for this process seen previously by Kvassman and Pettersson [Kvassman, J., & Pettersson, G. (1980) Eur. J. Biochem. 103, 557] is not due to the ionization of bound TFE. These studies also show that the bound lifetime of TFE in its ternary complex with LADH and NAD is quite long (400s) at pH 8.7, suggesting the use of TFE as a kinetic trapping reagent in single-turnover stopped-flow experiments. Binding isotherms of NAD to LADH saturated with TFE at pH 8.7 or with pyrazole at pH 7.5 reveal essentially no cooperative behavior. The displacement time courses described above are all adequately fit as first-order processes, thus giving no evidence for site heterogeneity or site-site interaction in the binding of these ligands to dimeric LADH. TFE and pyrazole are used as reagents to further explore the question of site-site interaction from a kinetic point of view in the following paper [Anderson, D. C., & Dahlquist, F.W. (1982) Biochemistry (following paper in this issue)].

  14. Analysis of Loss-of-Function Mutants in Aspartate Kinase and Homoserine Dehydrogenase Genes Points to Complexity in the Regulation of Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Contents1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of aspartate (Asp)-derived amino acids lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr), and isoleucine involves monofunctional Asp kinases (AKs) and dual-functional Asp kinase-homoserine dehydrogenases (AK-HSDHs). Four-week-old loss-of-function Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants in the AK-HSDH2 gene had increased amounts of Asp and Asp-derived amino acids, especially Thr, in leaves. To explore mechanisms behind this phenotype, we obtained single mutants for other AK and AK-HSDH genes, generated double mutants from ak-hsdh2 and ak mutants, and performed free and protein-bound amino acid profiling, transcript abundance, and activity assays. The increases of Asp, Lys, and Met in ak-hsdh2 were also observed in ak1-1, ak2-1, ak3-1, and ak-hsdh1-1. However, the Thr increase in ak-hsdh2 was observed in ak-hsdh1-1 but not in ak1-1, ak2-1, or ak3-1. Activity assays showed that AK2 and AK-HSDH1 are the major contributors to overall AK and HSDH activities, respectively. Pairwise correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between the amount of AK transcripts and Lys-sensitive AK activity and between the amount of AK-HSDH transcripts and both Thr-sensitive AK activity and total HSDH activity. In addition, the ratio of total AK activity to total HSDH activity negatively correlates with the ratio of Lys to the total amount of Met, Thr, and isoleucine. These data led to the hypothesis that the balance between Lys-sensitive AKs and Thr-sensitive AK-HSDHs is important for maintaining the amounts and ratios of Asp-derived amino acids. PMID:26063505

  15. Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-dependent succinylation of proteins in neurons and neuronal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Xu, Hui; Chen, Huan-Lian; Chen, Wei; Denton, Travis; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common in all cells and appear to regulate many processes. Nevertheless, the enzyme(s) responsible for the alterations and the significance of the modification are largely unknown. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins; however, the source of the succinyl groups, the targets, and the consequences of these modifications on other proteins are unknown. These studies focused on succinylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results demonstrate that the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) can serve as a trans-succinylase that mediates succinylation in an α-ketoglutarate-dependent manner. Inhibition of KGDHC reduced suc-cinylation of both cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in cultured neurons and in a neuronal cell line. Purified KGDHC can succinylate multiple proteins including other enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle leading to modification of their activity. Inhibition of KGDHC also modifies acetylation by modifying the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The much greater effectiveness of KGDHC than succinyl CoA suggests that the catalysis due to the E2k suc-cinyltransferase is important. Succinylation appears to be a major signaling system and it can be mediated by KGDHC. PMID:25772995

  16. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  17. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  18. Structural insights into the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid by aldehyde dehydrogenase from Azospirillum brasilense

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Park, Sunghoon; Yoo, Tae Hyeon; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical to be converted to acrylic acid and acrylamide. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) to 3-HP, determines 3-HP production rate during the conversion of glycerol to 3-HP. To elucidate molecular mechanism of 3-HP production, we determined the first crystal structure of a 3-HP producing ALDH, α-ketoglutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Azospirillum basilensis (AbKGSADH), in its apo-form and in complex with NAD+. Although showing an overall structure similar to other ALDHs, the AbKGSADH enzyme had an optimal substrate binding site for accepting 3-HPA as a substrate. Molecular docking simulation of 3-HPA into the AbKGSADH structure revealed that the residues Asn159, Gln160 and Arg163 stabilize the aldehyde- and the hydroxyl-groups of 3-HPA through hydrogen bonds, and several hydrophobic residues, such as Phe156, Val286, Ile288, and Phe450, provide the optimal size and shape for 3-HPA binding. We also compared AbKGSADH with other reported 3-HP producing ALDHs for the crucial amino acid residues for enzyme catalysis and substrate binding, which provides structural implications on how these enzymes utilize 3-HPA as a substrate. PMID:28393833

  19. Single amino acid polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini Christy, J; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily comprises of 19 genes and 3 pseudogenes. These superfamily genes play a vital role in the formation of molecules that are involved in life processes, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. ALDH superfamily genes associated mutations are implicated in various diseases, such as pyridoxine-dependent seizures, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, type II Hyperprolinemia, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulation of large DNA variations data especially Single Amino acid Polymorphisms (SAPs) in public databases related to ALDH superfamily genes insisted us to conduct a survey on the disease associated mutations and predict their function impact on protein structure and function. Overall this study provides an update and highlights the importance of pathogenic mutations in associated diseases. Using KD4v and Project HOPE a computational based platform, we summarized all the deleterious properties of SAPs in ALDH superfamily genes by the providing valuable insight into structural alteration rendered due to mutation. We hope this review might provide a way to define the deleteriousness of a SAP and helps to understand the molecular basis of the associated disease and also permits precise diagnosis and treatment in the near future.

  20. A 'random steady-state' model for the pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdi, T. S.; Hatfield, G. W.; Mjolsness, E. D.

    2010-03-01

    The multienzyme complexes, pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, involved in the central metabolism of Escherichia coli consist of multiple copies of three different enzymes, E1, E2 and E3, that cooperate to channel substrate intermediates between their active sites. The E2 components form the core of the complex, while a mixture of E1 and E3 components binds to the core. We present a random steady-state model to describe catalysis by such multienzyme complexes. At a fast time scale, the model describes the enzyme catalytic mechanisms of substrate channeling at a steady state, by polynomially approximating the analytic solution of a biochemical master equation. At a slower time scale, the structural organization of the different enzymes in the complex and their random binding/unbinding to the core is modeled using methods from equilibrium statistical mechanics. Biologically, the model describes the optimization of catalytic activity by substrate sharing over the entire enzyme complex. The resulting enzymatic models illustrate the random steady state (RSS) for modeling multienzyme complexes in metabolic pathways.

  1. Reconstitution of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes: analysis of protein X involvement and interaction of homologous and heterologous dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, S J; Khan, S S; McCartney, R G; Miller, C; Lindsay, J G

    1996-01-01

    Optimal conditions for rapid and efficient reconstitution of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity are demonstrated by using an improved method for the dissociation of the multienzyme complex into its constituent E1 (substrate-specific 2-oxoacid decarboxylase) and E3 (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase) components and isolated E2/X (where E2 is dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase) core assembly. Selective cleavage of the protein X component of the purified E2/X core with the proteinase arg C decreases the activity of the reconstituted complex to residual levels (i.e. 8-12%); however, significant recovery of reconstitution is achieved on addition of a large excess (i.e. 50-fold) of parent E3. N-terminal sequence analysis of the truncated 35,000-M(r) protein X fragment locates the site of cleavage by arg C at the extreme N-terminal boundary of a putative E3-binding domain and corresponds to the release of a 15,000-M(r) N-terminal fragment comprising both the lipoyl and linker sequences. In native PDC this region of protein X is shown to be partly protected from proteolytic attack by the presence of E3. Recovery of complex activity in the presence of excess E3 after arg C treatment is thought to result from low-affinity interactions with the partly disrupted subunit-binding domain on X and/or the intact analogous subunit binding domain on E2. Contrasting recoveries for arg C-modified E2/X/E1 core, and untreated E2/E1 core of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, reconstituted with excess bovine heart E3, pig heart E3 or yeast E3 point to subtle differences in subunit interactions with heterologous E3s and offer an explanation for the inability of previous investigators to achieve restoration of PDC function after selective proteolysis of the protein X component. PMID:8870656

  2. Monitoring of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase by formation of pyrenedecanoic acid from pyrenedecanal

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Markus A.; Watschinger, Katrin; Golderer, Georg; Maglione, Manuel; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert H.; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Werner, Ernst R.

    2010-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.48) converts long-chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Deficiency in this enzyme causes the Sjogren Larsson Syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and mental retardation. Using a fluorescent aldehyde, pyrenedecanal, and HPLC with fluorescence detection, we developed a novel method to monitor fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by quantification of the product pyrenedecanoic acid together with the substrate pyrenedecanal and possible side products, such as aldehyde adducts. As shown with recombinant enzymes, pyrenedecanal showed a high preference for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase compared with other aldehyde dehydrogenases. The method allowed detection of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in nanogram amounts of microsomal or tissue protein and microgram amounts of Sjogren Larsson syndrome patients' skin fibroblast protein. It could successfully be adapted for the analysis of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in gel slices derived from low-temperature SDS-PAGE, showing that fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity from solubilized rat liver microsomes migrates as a dimer. Thus, monitoring of pyrenedecanoic acid formation from pyrenedecanal by HPLC with fluorescence detection provides a robust and sensitive method for determination of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:19965611

  3. Derivatives of cinnamic acid interact with the nucleotide binding site of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. Effects on the dehydrogenase reaction and stimulation of esterase activity by nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Poole, R C; Bowden, N J; Halestrap, A P

    1993-04-22

    A wide variety of cinnamic acid derivatives are inhibitors of the low Km mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. Two of the most potent inhibitors are alpha-cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide (Ki0.6 microM) and alpha-cyano-3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamonitrile (Ki2.6 microM). With propionaldehyde as substrate the inhibition by these compounds was competitive with respect to NAD+. alpha-Fluorocinnamate was a much less effective inhibitor of the enzyme, with mixed behaviour towards NAD+, but with a major competitive component. These cinnamic acid derivatives were ineffective as inhibitors of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-catalysed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate, but inhibited the ability of NAD+ and NADH to activate this activity. Inhibition of the stimulation of esterase activity was competitive with respect to NAD+ and NADH, and the derived Ki values were the same as for inhibition of dehydrogenase activity. NAD+, but not acetaldehyde, could elute the low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase from alpha-cyanocinnamate-Sepharose, to which the enzyme binds specifically (Poole RC and Halestrap AP, Biochem J 259: 105-110, 1989). The cinnamic acid derivatives have little effect on lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or a high Km aldehyde dehydrogenase present in rat liver mitochondria. It is concluded that some cinnamic acid derivatives are potent inhibitors of the low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase, by competing with NAD+/NADH for binding to the enzyme. They are much less effective as inhibitors of other NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases.

  4. Association of ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase with the chloroplastic pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase complex in barley leaves

    PubMed

    Jose Quiles M; Cuello

    1998-05-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves were used to isolate and characterize the chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex. The stroma fraction and the thylakoid fraction solubilized with sodium deoxycholate were analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the enzymes detected with NADH and nitroblue tetrazolium were electroeluted. The enzymes electroeluted from band S from the stroma fraction and from bands T1 (ET1) and T2 from the thylakoid fraction solubilized with sodium deoxycholate had ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase (FNR; EC 1.18.1.2) and NAD(P)H-FeCN oxidoreductase (NAD[P]H-FeCNR) activities. Their NADPH-FeCNR activities were inhibited by 2'-monophosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose and by enzyme incubation with p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid (p-CMPS), NADPH, and p-CMPS plus NADPH. They presented Michaelis constant NADPH values that were similar to those of FNRs from several sources. Their NADH-FeCNR activities, however, were not inhibited by 2'-monophosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose but were weakly inhibited by enzyme incubation with NADH, p-CMPS, and p-CMPS plus NADH. We found that only ET1 contained two polypeptides of 29 and 35 kD, which reacted with the antibodies raised against the mitochondrial complex I TYKY subunit and the chloroplast ndhA gene product, respectively. However, all three enzymes contained two polypeptides of 35 and 53 kD, which reacted with the antibodies raised against barley FNR and the NADH-binding 51-kD polypeptide of the mitochondrial complex I, respectively. The results suggest that ET1 is the FNR-containing thylakoidal NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex.

  5. Human liver class I alcohol dehydrogenase gammagamma isozyme: the sole cytosolic 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of iso bile acids.

    PubMed

    Marschall, H U; Oppermann, U C; Svensson, S; Nordling, E; Persson, B; Höög, J O; Jörnvall, H

    2000-04-01

    3beta-Hydroxy (iso) bile acids are formed during enterohepatic circulation from 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids and constitute normal compounds in plasma but are virtually absent in bile. Isoursodeoxycholic acid (isoUDCA) is a major metabolite of UDCA. In a recent study it was found that after administration of isoUDCA, UDCA became the major acid in bile. Thus, epimerization of the 3beta-hydroxy to a 3alpha-hydroxy group, catalyzed by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) and 3-oxo-reductases must occur. The present study aims to characterize the human liver bile acid 3beta-HSD. Human liver cytosol and recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) betabeta and gammagamma isozymes were subjected to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. Activity staining with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) as cofactors and various iso bile acids as substrates was used to screen for 3beta-HSD activity. Reaction products were identified and quantified by gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Computer-assisted substrate docking of isoUDCA to the active site of a 3-dimensional model of human class I gammagamma ADH was performed. ADH gammagamma isozyme was identified as the iso bile acid 3beta-HSD present in human liver cytosol, with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Values for k(cat)/K(m) were in the rank order isodeoxycholic acid (isoDCA), isochenodeoxycholic acid (isoCDCA), isoUDCA, and isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) (0.10, 0.09, 0.08, and 0. 05 min(-1) x micromol/L(-1), respectively). IsoUDCA fits as substrate to the 3-dimensional model of the active-site of ADH gammagamma. ADH gammagamma isozyme was defined as the only bile acid 3beta-HSD in human liver cytosol. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are candidates for the binding and transport of 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids. We assume that ADH gammagamma isozyme is involved in cytosolic bile acid binding and transport processes as well.

  6. The amino acid sequence of ribitol dehydrogenase-F, a mutant enzyme with improved xylitol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; Toyama, M H; Marangoni, S; Ward, R J; Giglio, J R; Hartley, B S

    1999-05-01

    A mutant ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH-F) was purified from Klebsiella aerogenes strain F which evolved from the wild-type strain A under selective pressure to improve growth on xylitol, a poor substrate used as sole carbon source. The ratio of activities on xylitol (500 mM) and ribitol (50 mM) was 0.154 for RDH-F compared to 0.033 for the wild-type (RDH-A) enzyme. The complete amino acid sequence of RDH-F showed the mutations. Q60 for E60 and V215 for L215 in the single polypeptide chain of 249 amino acid residues. Structural modeling based on homologies with two other microbial dehydrogenases suggests that E60 --> Q60 is a neutral mutation, since it lies in a region far from the catalytic site and should not cause structural perturbations. In contrast, L215 --> V215 lies in variable region II and would shift a loop that interacts with the NADH cofactor. Another improved ribitol dehydrogenase, RDH-D, contains an A196 --> P196 mutation that would disrupt a surface alpha-helix in region II. Hence conformational changes in this region appear to be responsible for the improved xylitol specificity.

  7. A NEW LEVEL OF ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEXITY IN THE HUMAN PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Michaela; Prior, Alison Elizabeth; Brown, Audrey Elaine; Cooper, Alan; Byron, Olwyn; Lindsay, John Gordon

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDC) is a key metabolic assembly comprising a 60- meric pentagonal dodecahedral E2 core attached to which are 30 E1 heterotetramers and 6 E3 homodimers at maximal occupancy. Stable E3 integration is mediated by an accessory E3 binding protein (E3BP) located on each of the 12 E2 icosahedral faces. Here, we present evidence for a novel subunit organisation in which dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) and E3BP form subcomplexes with a 1:2 stoichiometry implying the existence of a network of E3 ‘cross-bridges’ linking pairs of E3BPs across the surface of the E2 core assembly. We have also determined a low resolution structure for a truncated E3BP/E3 subcomplex using small angle xray scattering showing one of the E3BP lipoyl domains docked into the E3 active site. This new level of architectural complexity in mammalian PDC contrasts with the recently published crystal structure of human E3 complexed with its cognate subunit binding domain and provides important new insights into subunit organisation, its catalytic mechanism and regulation by the intrinsic PDC kinase. PMID:16679318

  8. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  9. Levels of Alpha-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase, Triosephosphate Isomerase and Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase in Muscles of the Cockroach, ’Periplaneta americana’ L.,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The level of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase is slightly higher in leg muscle than in thoracic muscle of the American cockroach, Periplaneta ... americana . Triosephosphate isomerase in leg muscle is about twice that of thoracic muscle. There is little lactic acid dehydrogenase in both muscles. (Author)

  10. On the Unique Structural Organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, James K.; Cheng, R. Holland; Yazdi, Mohammed A.; Maeng, Cheol-Young; Schroeter, John P.; Klueppelberg, Uwe; Kolodziej, Steven J.; Baker, Timothy S.; Reed, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (E2), a catalytic and structural component of the three functional classes of multienzyme complexes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of α-keto acids, forms the central core to which the other components attach. We have determined the structures of the truncated 60-mer core dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (tE2) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and complexes of the tE2 core associated with a truncated binding protein (tBP), intact binding protein (BP), and the BP associated with its dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (BP·E3). The tE2 core is a pentagonal dodecahedron consisting of 20 cone-shaped trimers interconnected by 30 bridges. Previous studies have given rise to the generally accepted belief that the other components are bound on the outside of the E2 scaffold. However, this investigation shows that the 12 large openings in the tE2 core permit the entrance of tBP, BP, and BP·E3 into a large central cavity where the BP component apparently binds near the tip of the tE2 trimer. The bone-shaped E3 molecule is anchored inside the central cavity through its interaction with BP. One end of E3 has its catalytic site within the surface of the scaffold for interaction with other external catalytic domains. Though tE2 has 60 potential binding sites, it binds only about 30 copies of tBP, 15 of BP, and 12 of BP·E3. Thus, E2 is unusual in that the stoichiometry and arrangement of the tBP, BP, and E3·BP components are determined by the geometric constraints of the underlying scaffold. PMID:9038189

  11. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The purified mammalian branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain α-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-Å resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. PMID:21543315

  12. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain [alpha]-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T.

    2012-02-27

    The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.

  13. Creation of a thermostable NADP⁺-dependent D-amino acid dehydrogenase from Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain A1 meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hironaga; Doi, Katsumi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-09-01

    A thermostable, NADP(+)-dependent D: -amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was created from the meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase of Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain A1 by introducing five point mutations into amino acid residues located in the active site. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, was purified to homogeneity using a two-step separation procedure and then characterized. In the presence of NADP(+), the protein catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several D: -amino acids, including D: -cyclohexylalanine, D: -isoleucine and D: -2-aminooctanoate, but not meso-diaminopimelate, confirming the creation of a NADP(+)-dependent DAADH. For the reverse reaction, the corresponding 2-oxo acids were aminated in the presence of NADPH and ammonia. In addition, the D: -amino acid dehydrogenase showed no loss of activity at 65 °C, indicating the mutant enzyme was more thermostable than its parental meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase.

  14. Metabolic reprogramming by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-lactic acid axis: Linking metabolism and diverse neuropathophysiologies.

    PubMed

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that there is a complex interplay between metabolism and chronic disorders in the nervous system. In particular, the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase (PDK)-lactic acid axis is a critical link that connects metabolic reprogramming and the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. PDKs, via regulation of PDH complex activity, orchestrate the conversion of pyruvate either aerobically to acetyl-CoA, or anaerobically to lactate. The kinases are also involved in neurometabolic dysregulation under pathological conditions. Lactate, an energy substrate for neurons, is also a recently acknowledged signaling molecule involved in neuronal plasticity, neuron-glia interactions, neuroimmune communication, and nociception. More recently, the PDK-lactic acid axis has been recognized to modulate neuronal and glial phenotypes and activities, contributing to the pathophysiologies of diverse neurological disorders. This review covers the recent advances that implicate the PDK-lactic acid axis as a novel linker of metabolism and diverse neuropathophysiologies. We finally explore the possibilities of employing the PDK-lactic acid axis and its downstream mediators as putative future therapeutic strategies aimed at prevention or treatment of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide by the mitochondrial 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Renata L S; Bunik, Victoria I; Brand, Martin D

    2016-02-01

    In humans, mutations in dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain containing 1 (DHTKD1) are associated with neurological abnormalities and accumulation of 2-oxoadipate, 2-aminoadipate, and reactive oxygen species. The protein encoded by DHTKD1 has sequence and structural similarities to 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex can produce superoxide/H2O2 at high rates. The DHTKD1 enzyme is hypothesized to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoadipate, a shared intermediate of the degradative pathways for tryptophan, lysine and hydroxylysine. Here, we show that rat skeletal muscle mitochondria can produce superoxide/H2O2 at high rates when given 2-oxoadipate. We identify the putative mitochondrial 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex as one of the sources and characterize the conditions that favor its superoxide/H2O2 production. Rates increased at higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios and were higher at each NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio when 2-oxoadipate was present, showing that superoxide/H2O2 was produced during the forward reaction from 2-oxoadipate, but not in the reverse reaction from NADH in the absence of 2-oxoadipate. The maximum capacity of the 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex for production of superoxide/H2O2 is comparable to that of site IF of complex I, and seven, four and almost two-fold lower than the capacities of the 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate and branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes, respectively. Regulation by ADP and ATP of H2O2 production driven by 2-oxoadipate was very different from that driven by 2-oxoglutarate, suggesting that site AF of the 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex is a new source of superoxide/H2O2 associated with the NADH isopotential pool in mitochondria.

  16. Deprotonation of the horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase-NAD+ complex controls formation of the ternary complexes.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Elena G; Plapp, Bryce V

    2005-09-27

    Binding of NAD+ to wild-type horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase is strongly pH-dependent and is limited by a unimolecular step, which may be related to a conformational change of the enzyme-NAD+ complex. Deprotonation during binding of NAD+ and inhibitors that trap the enzyme-NAD+ complex was examined by transient kinetics with pH indicators, and formation of complexes was monitored by absorbance and protein fluorescence. Reactions with pyrazole and trifluoroethanol had biphasic proton release, whereas reaction with caprate showed proton release followed by proton uptake. Proton release (200-550 s(-1)) is a common step that precedes binding of all inhibitors. At all pH values studied, the rate constants for proton release or uptake matched those for formation of ternary complexes, and the most significant quenching of protein fluorescence (or perturbation of adenine absorbance at 280 nm) was observed for enzyme species involved in deprotonation steps. Kinetic simulations of the combined transient data for the multiple signals indicate that all inhibitors bind faster and tighter to the unprotonated enzyme-NAD+ complex, which has a pK of about 7.3. The results suggest that rate-limiting deprotonation of the enzyme-NAD+ complex is coupled to the conformational change and controls the formation of ternary complexes.

  17. Brain regional development of the activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in the rat.

    PubMed

    Buerstatte, C R; Behar, K L; Novotny, E J; Lai, J C

    2000-12-29

    This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the development of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity, like that of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is one of the late developers of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. The postnatal development of KGDHC in rat brain exhibits four distinct region-specific patterns. The age-dependent increases in olfactory bulb (OB) and hypothalamus (HYP) form one pattern: low in postnatal days (P) 2 and 4, KGDHC activity rose linearly to attain adult level at P30. The increases in mid-brain (MB) and striatum (ST) constitute a second pattern: being <40% of adult level at P2 and P4, KGDHC activity rose steeply between P10 and P17 and attained adult level by P30. The increases in cerebellum (CB), cerebral cortex (CC), and hippocampus (HIP) form a third pattern: being 25-30% of adult level at P2 and P4, KGDHC activity doubled between P10 and P17 and rose to adult level by P30. KGDHC activity development is unique in pons and medulla (PM): being >60% of the adult level at P2, it rose rapidly to adult level by P10. Thus, KGDHC activity develops earlier in phylogenetically older regions (PM) than in phylogenetically younger regions (CB, CC, HIP). Being lowest in activity among all TCA cycle enzymes, KGDHC activity in any region at any age will exert a limit on the maximum TCA cycle flux therein. The results may have functional and pathophysiological implications in control of brain glucose oxidative metabolism, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter syntheses.

  18. Metabolic Connection of Inflammatory Pain: Pivotal Role of a Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase-Lactic Acid Axis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Song, Gyun Jee; Lee, Maan Gee; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2015-10-21

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) are mitochondrial metabolic regulators that serve as decision makers via modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity to convert pyruvate either aerobically to acetyl-CoA or anaerobically to lactate. Metabolic dysregulation and inflammatory processes are two sides of the same coin in several pathophysiological conditions. The lactic acid surge associated with the metabolic shift has been implicated in diverse painful states. In this study, we investigated the role of PDK-PDH-lactic acid axis in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory pain. Deficiency of Pdk2 and/or Pdk4 in mice attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced pain hypersensitivities. Likewise, Pdk2/4 deficiency attenuated the localized lactic acid surge along with hallmarks of peripheral and central inflammation following intraplantar administration of CFA. In vitro studies supported the role of PDK2/4 as promoters of classical proinflammatory activation of macrophages. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PDKs or lactic acid production diminished CFA-induced inflammation and pain hypersensitivities. Thus, a PDK-PDH-lactic acid axis seems to mediate inflammation-driven chronic pain, establishing a connection between metabolism and inflammatory pain. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDKs) and their substrate PDH orchestrate the conversion of pyruvate either aerobically to acetyl-CoA or anaerobically to lactate. Lactate, the predominant end product of glycolysis, has recently been identified as a signaling molecule for neuron-glia interactions and neuronal plasticity. Pathological metabolic shift and subsequent lactic acid production are thought to play an important role in diverse painful states; however, their contribution to inflammation-driven pain is still to be comprehended. Here, we report that the PDK-PDH-lactic acid axis constitutes a key component of inflammatory pain pathogenesis. Our findings establish an

  19. Covalent binding of an NAD+ analogue to horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase in a ternary complex with pyrazole.

    PubMed

    Goulas, P

    1987-10-15

    Examination of the model of the fixation site of the adenosine phosphate part of NAD+ on horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase led us to synthesize a NAD+ analogue N6-[N-(8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctyl)carbamoylmethyl]-NAD+ in order to alkylate the carboxylic acid group of Asp-273 and to convert the normally dissociable coenzyme into a permanently bound prosthetic group. This NAD+ analogue is coupled to the horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase in the ternary complex formed with pyrazole. In these conditions the degree of fixation varies between 0.4 and 0.58 coenzyme molecule/enzyme subunit molecule. The N6-[N-(8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctyl)carbamoylmethyl]NAD+ acts as a true prosthetic group which can be reduced and reoxidized by a coupled substrate reaction and the internal activity of this holoenzyme corresponds to the amount of analogue incorporated.

  20. Inactivation of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by modification of cysteine residue 174 with 3-bromopropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Chadha, V K; Plapp, B V

    1984-01-17

    Horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase is inactivated with Michaelis kinetics at pH 7 and 25 degrees C by 3-bromopropionic acid. In the absence of NAD+, the Ki is 2 mM, and the pseudo bimolecular rate constant (k3/Ki) is 0.03 M-1 s-1; in the presence of 1 mM NAD+, Ki is 2.3 mM, and k3/Ki is 0.006 M-1 s-1. 3-Bromopropionic acid is a competitive inhibitor, Ki of 0.4 mM, against ethanol as a substrate. Inactivation was prevented in the ternary complexes with NAD+ X pyrazole and NADH X isobutyramide, was retarded by NAD+, NADH, or bipyridine, and was almost unaffected by imidazole and AMP. Carboxyethylated enzyme did not detectably (as observed spectrophotometrically) bind bipyridine, NAD+, or NADH. Enzyme was inactivated with radioactive 3-bromopropionic acid, aminoethylated, and digested with trypsin and chymotrypsin. Analysis of the labeled peptides showed that Cys-174 was predominantly modified. In the presence of 1 mM NAD+, the reaction was much less specific. The interaction of the carboxyl group of 3-bromopropionic acid with the guanidino group of Arg-369 probably facilitates the selective reaction with Cys-174, which is ligated to the zinc at the active site. Carboxyethylation apparently inactivates by interfering with the proper binding of the pyrophosphate of the coenzyme to the enzyme.

  1. Humic acid protein complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  2. Short-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Associates with a Protein Super-Complex Integrating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Srinivas B.; Master, Stephen R.; Sireci, Anthony N.; Bierl, Charlene; Stanley, Paige E.; Li, Changhong; Stanley, Charles A.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST) and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1) from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein. PMID:22496890

  3. Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase associates with a protein super-complex integrating multiple metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Srinivas B; Master, Stephen R; Sireci, Anthony N; Bierl, Charlene; Stanley, Paige E; Li, Changhong; Stanley, Charles A; Bennett, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST) and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1) from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein.

  4. Localization of the gene (OGDH) coding for the E1k component of the [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex to chromosome 7p13-p11. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, P.; Cai, X.; Ali, G.; Blass, J.P. )

    1994-03-15

    [alpha]-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1k), also designated oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH; EC 1.2.4.2), is a component of the enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of [alpha]-ketogluterate to succinyl coenzyme A, a critical step in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle. Deficiencies in the activity of this enzyme complex have been observed in brain and peripheral cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This finding led the authors to localize the genes for the polypeptides that compose the [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KDGHC). The E1k locus was mapped to chromosome 7p13-p11.2 using a pair of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid panels. A second related sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified and mapped to chromosome 10. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Mechanistic implications from structures of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase complexed with coenzyme and an alcohol.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Charlier, Henry A; Ramaswamy, S

    2016-02-01

    Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I is a homotetramer of subunits with 347 amino acid residues, catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols using NAD(+) as coenzyme. A new X-ray structure was determined at 3.0 Å where both subunits of an asymmetric dimer bind coenzyme and trifluoroethanol. The tetramer is a pair of back-to-back dimers. Subunit A has a closed conformation and can represent a Michaelis complex with an appropriate geometry for hydride transfer between coenzyme and alcohol, with the oxygen of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol ligated at 2.1 Å to the catalytic zinc in the classical tetrahedral coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, and His-66. Subunit B has an open conformation, and the coenzyme interacts with amino acid residues from the coenzyme binding domain, but not with residues from the catalytic domain. Coenzyme appears to bind to and dissociate from the open conformation. The catalytic zinc in subunit B has an alternative, inverted coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, His-66 and the carboxylate of Glu-67, while the oxygen of trifluoroethanol is 3.5 Å from the zinc. Subunit B may represent an intermediate in the mechanism after coenzyme and alcohol bind and before the conformation changes to the closed form and the alcohol oxygen binds to the zinc and displaces Glu-67.

  6. Potential dysregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by bacterial toxins and insulin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory W; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta Sue; Craun, Michael L; Bar-Or, David

    2009-09-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, effectively controlling the entrance of glycolysis products into aerobic metabolism. Because hyperlactatemia is one of the hallmarks of sepsis, we hyphothesized that gram-positive and negative bacterial toxin treatment will interfere with mRNA levels of regulatory enzymes of the PDC and overall enzyme activity in hepatocytes. HEP G2 hepatocarcinoma cells were incubated for 24 hours in the presence of lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid. Total RNA was then isolated and message RNA levels for both pyruvate dehydrogense kinase 4 and phosphatase 2 were determined by RTPCR. Amplified DNA fragments were visualized by ethidium bromide in agarose gels and densitometry of the bands was performed. Data were then normalized to the housekeeping gene, GAPDH. Enzyme activity was then determined by capturing intact PDC on nitrocellulose membranes then determining PDC-dependent production of NADH. LPS treatment led to a time dependent increase in PDK4 message while decreasing PDP2 levels. Enzyme activity, in these cells, also significantly decreased 24 hours after exposure to LPS. Cells cultured in the presence of lipoteichoic acid and insulin exhibited differing message ratios and activity levels when evaluated at 4 hours, but at 24 hours shifted to mimic those observed in LPS treated cells. This data may indicate that exposure to bacterial cell wall components and insulin could create cellular environments that result in a build-up of lactate.

  7. The 2-Oxoacid Dehydrogenase Complexes in Mitochondria Can Produce Superoxide/Hydrogen Peroxide at Much Higher Rates Than Complex I*

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Casey L.; Goncalves, Renata L. S.; Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Yadava, Nagendra; Bunik, Victoria I.; Brand, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Several flavin-dependent enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix utilize NAD+ or NADH at about the same operating redox potential as the NADH/NAD+ pool and comprise the NADH/NAD+ isopotential enzyme group. Complex I (specifically the flavin, site IF) is often regarded as the major source of matrix superoxide/H2O2 production at this redox potential. However, the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH), branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complexes are also capable of considerable superoxide/H2O2 production. To differentiate the superoxide/H2O2-producing capacities of these different mitochondrial sites in situ, we compared the observed rates of H2O2 production over a range of different NAD(P)H reduction levels in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria under conditions that favored superoxide/H2O2 production from complex I, the OGDH complex, the BCKDH complex, or the PDH complex. The rates from all four complexes increased at higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratios, although the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes produced superoxide/H2O2 at high rates only when oxidizing their specific 2-oxoacid substrates and not in the reverse reaction from NADH. At optimal conditions for each system, superoxide/H2O2 was produced by the OGDH complex at about twice the rate from the PDH complex, four times the rate from the BCKDH complex, and eight times the rate from site IF of complex I. Depending on the substrates present, the dominant sites of superoxide/H2O2 production at the level of NADH may be the OGDH and PDH complexes, but these activities may often be misattributed to complex I. PMID:24515115

  8. Branched-chain amino acid metabolon: interaction of glutamate dehydrogenase with the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm).

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R Max; Mobley, James A; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain alpha-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain alpha-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5'-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate.

  9. Energy substrate metabolism in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stenlid, Maria Halldin; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Forslund, Anders; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is an inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction. In order to provide energy for the brain, a ketogenic diet has been tried. Both the disorder and the ketogenic therapy may influence energy production. The aim of the study was to assess hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and resting energy expenditure (REE) in an infant, given a ketogenic diet due to neonatal onset of the disease. Lipolysis and glucose production were determined for two consecutive time periods by constant-rate infusions of [1,1,2,3,3-²H₅]-glycerol and [6,6-²H²]-glucose. The boy had been fasting for 2.5 h at the start of the sampling periods. REE was estimated by indirect calorimetry. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were increased compared with those of term neonates. REE corresponded to 60% of normal values. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was increased, indicating a predominance of glucose oxidation. Blood lactate was within the normal range. Several mechanisms may underlie the increased rates of glucose production and lipolysis. A ketogenic diet will result in a low insulin secretion and reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, leading to increased production of glucose and decreased peripheral glucose uptake. Surprisingly, RQ was high, indicating active glucose oxidation, which may reflect a residual enzyme activity, sufficient during rest. Considering this, a strict ketogenic diet might not be the optimal choice for patients with PDH deficiency. We propose an individualised diet for this group of patients aiming at the highest glucose intake that each patient will tolerate without elevated lactate levels.

  10. Crystallization and Preliminary Structural Analysis of Dihydrolipoyl Transsuccinylase, the Core of the 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Derosier, David J.; Oliver, Robert M.; Reed, Lester J.

    1971-01-01

    Dihydrolipoyl transsuccinylase, one of the three enzymes comprising the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) complex, has been crystallized. Studies by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy establish that the transsuccinylase has octahedral (432) symmetry, i.e., it consists of 24 subunits that are structurally identical. Images PMID:4942179

  11. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  12. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  13. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-02-27

    Potassium tellurite (K{sub 2}TeO{sub 3}) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  14. Papyriferic acid, an antifeedant triterpene from birch trees, inhibits succinate dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    McLean, Stuart; Richards, Stephen M; Cover, Siow-Leng; Brandon, Sue; Davies, Noel W; Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P

    2009-10-01

    Papyriferic acid (PA) is a triterpene that is secreted by glands on twigs of the juvenile ontogenetic phase of resin producing tree birches (e.g., Betula neoalaskana, B. pendula) and that deters browsing by mammals such as the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). We investigated the pharmacology of PA as a first step in understanding its antifeedant effect. After oral administration to rats, PA and several metabolites were found in feces but not urine, indicating that little was absorbed systemically. Metabolism involved various combinations of hydrolysis of its acetyl and malonyl ester groups, and hydroxylation of the terpene moiety. The presence of a malonyl group suggested a possible interaction with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial enzyme known to be competitively inhibited by malonic acid. The effect of PA on the oxidation of succinate by SDH was examined in mitochondrial preparations from livers of ox, rabbit, and rat. In all three species, PA was a potent inhibitor of SDH. Kinetic analysis indicated that, unlike malonate, PA acted by an uncompetitive mechanism, meaning that it binds to the enzyme-substrate complex. The hydrolysis product of PA, betulafolienetriol oxide, was inactive on SDH. Overall, the evidence suggests that PA acts as the intact molecule and interacts at a site other than the succinate binding site, possibly binding to the ubiquinone sites on complex II. Papyriferic acid was potent (K(iEIS) ranged from 25 to 45 microM in the three species) and selective, as malate dehydrogenase was unaffected. Although rigorous proof will require further experiments, we have a plausible mechanism for the antifeedant effect of PA: inhibition of SDH in gastrointestinal cells decreases mitochondrial energy production resulting in a noxious stimulus, 5-HT release, and sensations of nausea and discomfort. There is evidence that the co-evolution of birches and hares over a large and geographically-diverse area in Northern Europe and America has

  15. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and citric acid cycle intermediates during high cardiac power generation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Okere, Isidore C; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; McElfresh, Tracy A; King, Kristen L; Sterk, Joseph P; Huang, Hazel; Chandler, Margaret P; Stanley, William C

    2005-01-15

    A high rate of cardiac work increases citric acid cycle (CAC) turnover and flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH); however, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that an increase in cardiac energy expenditure: (1) activates PDH and reduces the product/substrate ratios ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH]); and (2) increases the content of CAC intermediates. Measurements were made in anaesthetized pigs under control conditions and during 15 min of a high cardiac workload induced by dobutamine (Dob). A third group was made hyperglycaemic (14 mm) to stimulate flux through PDH during the high work state (Dob + Glu). Glucose and fatty acid oxidation were measured with (14)C-glucose and (3)H-oleate. Compared with control, the high workload groups had a similar increase in myocardial oxygen consumption ( and cardiac power. Dob increased PDH activity and glucose oxidation above control, but did not reduce the [NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH] ratios, and there were no differences between the Dob and Dob + Glu groups. An additional group was treated with Dob + Glu and oxfenicine (Oxf) to inhibit fatty acid oxidation: this increased [CoA-SH] and glucose oxidation compared with Dob; however, there was no further activation of PDH or decrease in the [NADH]/[NAD(+)] ratio. Content of the 4-carbon CAC intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate increased 3-fold with Dob, but there was no change in citrate content, and the Dob + Glu and Dob + Glu + Oxf groups were not different from Dob. In conclusion, compared with normal conditions, at high myocardial energy expenditure (1) the increase in flux through PDH is regulated by activation of the enzyme complex and continues to be partially controlled through inhibition by fatty acid oxidation, and (2) there is expansion of the CAC pool size at the level of 4-carbon intermediates that is largely independent of myocardial fatty acid oxidation.

  16. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and citric acid cycle intermediates during high cardiac power generation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Okere, Isidore C; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; McElfresh, Tracy A; King, Kristen L; Sterk, Joseph P; Huang, Hazel; Chandler, Margaret P; Stanley, William C

    2005-01-01

    A high rate of cardiac work increases citric acid cycle (CAC) turnover and flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH); however, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that an increase in cardiac energy expenditure: (1) activates PDH and reduces the product/substrate ratios ([NADH]/[NAD+] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH]); and (2) increases the content of CAC intermediates. Measurements were made in anaesthetized pigs under control conditions and during 15 min of a high cardiac workload induced by dobutamine (Dob). A third group was made hyperglycaemic (14 mm) to stimulate flux through PDH during the high work state (Dob + Glu). Glucose and fatty acid oxidation were measured with 14C-glucose and 3H-oleate. Compared with control, the high workload groups had a similar increase in myocardial oxygen consumption ( and cardiac power. Dob increased PDH activity and glucose oxidation above control, but did not reduce the [NADH]/[NAD+] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH] ratios, and there were no differences between the Dob and Dob + Glu groups. An additional group was treated with Dob + Glu and oxfenicine (Oxf) to inhibit fatty acid oxidation: this increased [CoA-SH] and glucose oxidation compared with Dob; however, there was no further activation of PDH or decrease in the [NADH]/[NAD+] ratio. Content of the 4-carbon CAC intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate increased 3-fold with Dob, but there was no change in citrate content, and the Dob + Glu and Dob + Glu + Oxf groups were not different from Dob. In conclusion, compared with normal conditions, at high myocardial energy expenditure (1) the increase in flux through PDH is regulated by activation of the enzyme complex and continues to be partially controlled through inhibition by fatty acid oxidation, and (2) there is expansion of the CAC pool size at the level of 4-carbon intermediates that is largely independent of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. PMID:15550462

  17. Mechanism of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate and other halogenated carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Sue; Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.

    1974-01-01

    dichloroacetate inhibited incorporation of 14C from [U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]fructose and from [U-14C]lactate into CO2 and glyceride fatty acid. 8. It is concluded that the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by dichloroacetate may account for the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate oxidation which it induces in isolated rat heart and diaphragm muscles, subject to certain assumptions as to the distribution of dichloroacetate across the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. 9. It is suggested that activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate could contribute to its hypoglycaemic effect by interruption of the Cori and alanine cycles. 10. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of dichloroacetate on fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue may involve an additional effect or effects of the compound. PMID:4478069

  18. Age-related compensatory activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Régis; Heath, Shi-Hua D; Doneanu, Catalin E; Harris, Robert A; Hagen, Tory M

    2004-12-03

    Mitochondrial uptake and beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids are markedly impaired in the aging rat heart. While these alterations would be expected to adversely affect overall pyridine nucleotides, NADH levels do not change significantly with age. This conundrum suggests that specific compensatory mechanisms occur in the aging heart. The comparison of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) kinetics in 4- and 24- to 28-month-old F344 rats revealed a 60% significant increase in V(max) with no change in PDC expression, and a 1.6-fold decrease in the Michaelis constant (K(m)) in old compared to young rats. The observed kinetic adjustments were selective to PDC, as neither the V(max) nor K(m) of citrate synthase changed with age. PDC kinase-4 mRNA levels decreased by 57% in old vs young rat hearts and correlated with a 45% decrease in PDC phosphorylation. We conclude that PDC from old rat hearts catabolizes pyruvate more efficiently due to an adaptive change in phosphorylation.

  19. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  20. Design of novel dihydroxynaphthoic acid inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Megnassan, Eugene; Keita, Melalie; Bieri, Cecile; Esmel, Akori; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2012-09-01

    We have studied inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfLDH) by dihydroxynaphthoic acid (DHNA) analogues derivatives of hemigossypol-sesquiterpene found in cottonseed known to exhibit antimalarial activity. Molecular models of pfLDH-DHNA complexes were prepared from high-resolution crystal structures containing DHNA and azole inhibitors and binding affinities of the inhibitors were computed by molecular mechanics - polarizable continuum model of solvation (MM-PCM) approach. The 3D structures of the pfLDH-DHNA complexes were validated by a QSAR model, which confirmed consistency between the computed binding affinities and experimental inhibition constants for a training set and validation set of twelve DHNA inhibitors obtained from literature. Novel more potent DHNA analogs were identified by structure-based molecular design and predicted to inhibit pfLDH in the low nanomolar concentration range. In addition, the designed DHNA analogs displayed favorable predicted ADME-related profiles and an elevated selectivity for the pfLDH over the human isoform.

  1. Interaction of thiamin diphosphate with phosphorylated and dephosphorylated mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Bisswanger, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Kinetic and binding studies were carried out on substrate and cofactor interaction with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from bovine heart. Fluoropyruvate and pyruvamide, previously described as irreversible and allosteric inhibitors, respectively, are strong competitive inhibitors with respect to pyruvate. Binding of thiamin diphosphate was used to study differences between the active dephosphorylated and inactive phosphorylated enzyme states by spectroscopic methods. The change in both the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and the fluorescence of the 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene-labelled enzyme complex produced on addition of the cofactor showed similar binding behaviour for both enzyme forms, with slightly higher affinity for the phosphorylated form. Changes in the CD spectrum, especially the negative Cotton effect at 330 nm as a function of cofactor concentration, both in the absence and presence of pyruvate, also revealed no drastic differences between the two enzyme forms. Thus, inactivation of the enzyme activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is not caused by impeding the binding of substrate or cofactor.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation of binary and ternary coenzyme complexes of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Karlović, D; Amiguet, P; Bonner, F J; Luisi, P L

    1976-07-01

    Corrected fluorescence properties of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and its coenzyme complexes have been investigated as a function of temperature. Dissociation constants have been obtained for binary and ternary complexes of NAD and NADH by following the enhancement of NADH fluorescence or the quenching of the protein fluorescence. It is found that the presence of pyrazole increases the affinity of NAD to the enzyme approximately 100-fold. The formation of the ternary enzyme - NAD - pyrazole complex is accompanied by a large change in the ultraviolet absorption properties, with a new band in the 290-nm region. Significant optical changes also accompany the formation of the ternary enzyme-NADH-acetamide complex. The possible origin for the quenching of the protein fluorescence upon coenzyme binding is discussed, and it is suggested that a coenzyme-induced conformational change can cause it. Thermodynamic parameters associated with NAD and NADH binding have been evaluated on the basis of the change of the dissociation constants with temperature. Optical and thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary complexes of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase are compared with the analogous properties of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

  3. Improved Production of Propionic Acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via Combinational Overexpression of Glycerol Dehydrogenase and Malate Dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA. PMID:25595755

  4. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex precedes HIF-1-mediated effects and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 upregulation during the first hours of hypoxic treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Andreas David; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Kozar, Ines; Behrmann, Iris; Haan, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is an important gatekeeper enzyme connecting glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Thereby, it has a strong impact on the glycolytic flux as well as the metabolic phenotype of a cell. PDC activity is regulated via reversible phosphorylation of three serine residues on the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) E1α subunit. Phosphorylation of any of these residues by the PDH kinases (PDKs) leads to a strong decrease in PDC activity. Under hypoxia, the inactivation of the PDC has been described to be dependent on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-induced PDK1 protein upregulation. In this study, we show in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2 and JHH-4) that, during the adaptation to hypoxia, PDH is already phosphorylated at time points preceding HIF-1-mediated transcriptional events and PDK1 protein upregulation. Using siRNAs and small molecule inhibitor approaches, we show that this inactivation of PDC is independent of HIF-1α expression but that the PDKs need to be expressed and active. Furthermore, we show that reactive oxygen species might be important for the induction of this PDH phosphorylation since it correlates with the appearance of an altered redox state in the mitochondria and is also inducible by H2O2 treatment under normoxic conditions. Overall, these results show that neither HIF-1 expression nor PDK1 upregulation is necessary for the phosphorylation of PDH during the first hours of the adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:27800515

  5. Determinants of substrate specificity in the superfamily of amino acid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Baker, P J; Waugh, M L; Wang, X G; Stillman, T J; Turnbull, A P; Engel, P C; Rice, D W

    1997-12-23

    The subunit of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase comprises two domains separated by a cleft harboring the active site. One domain is responsible for dinucleotide binding and the other carries the majority of residues which bind the substrate. During the catalytic cycle a large movement between the two domains occurs, closing the cleft and bringing the C4 of the nicotinamide ring and the Calpha of the substrate into the correct positioning for hydride transfer. In the active site, two residues, K89 and S380, make interactions with the gamma-carboxyl group of the glutamate substrate. In leucine dehydrogenase, an enzyme belonging to the same superfamily, the equivalent residues are L40 and V294, which create a more hydrophobic specificity pocket and provide an explanation for their differential substrate specificity. In an attempt to change the substrate specificity of glutamate dehydrogenase toward that of leucine dehydrogenase, a double mutant, K89L,S380V, of glutamate dehydrogenase has been constructed. Far from having a high specificity for leucine, this mutant appears to be devoid of any catalytic activity over a wide range of substrates tested. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the mutant enzyme has shown that the loss of function is related to a disordering of residues linking the enzyme's two domains, probably arising from a steric clash between the valine side chain, introduced at position 380 in the mutant, and a conserved threonine residue, T193. In leucine dehydrogenase the steric clash between the equivalent valine and threonine side chains (V294, T134) does not occur owing to shifts of the main chain to which these side chains are attached. Thus, the differential substrate specificity seen in the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily arises from both the introduction of simple point mutations and the fine tuning of the active site pocket defined by small but significant main chain rearrangements.

  6. Communication between Thiamin Cofactors in the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex E1 Component Active Centers

    PubMed Central

    Nemeria, Natalia S.; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Mossad, Madouna; Tittmann, Kai; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and structural analysis tested the hypothesis that a chain of residues connecting the 4′-aminopyrimidine N1′ atoms of thiamin diphosphates (ThDPs) in the two active centers of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component provides a signal transduction pathway. Substitution of the three acidic residues (Glu571, Glu235, and Glu237) and Arg606 resulted in impaired binding of the second ThDP, once the first active center was filled, suggesting a pathway for communication between the two ThDPs. 1) Steady-state kinetic and fluorescence quenching studies revealed that upon E571A, E235A, E237A, and R606A substitutions, ThDP binding in the second active center was affected. 2) Analysis of the kinetics of thiazolium C2 hydrogen/deuterium exchange of enzyme-bound ThDP suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity for the E1 component, with fast (activated site) and slow exchanging sites (dormant site). The E235A and E571A variants gave no evidence for the slow exchanging site, indicating that only one of two active sites is filled with ThDP. 3) Titration of the E235A and E237A variants with methyl acetylphosphonate monitored by circular dichroism suggested that only half of the active sites were filled with a covalent predecarboxylation intermediate analog. 4) Crystal structures of E235A and E571A in complex with ThDP revealed the structural basis for the spectroscopic and kinetic observations and showed that either substitution affects cofactor binding, despite the fact that Glu235 makes no direct contact with the cofactor. The role of the conserved Glu571 residue in both catalysis and cofactor orientation is revealed by the combined results for the first time. PMID:20106967

  7. Pyrazole binding in crystalline binary and ternary complexes with liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Eklund, H; Samama, J P; Wallén, L

    1982-09-28

    Pyrazole is a strong inhibitor of liver alcohol dehydrogenase in combination with oxidized coenzyme NAD+. We have studied three different complexes of the inhibitor with the enzyme by using crystallographic methods: (1) the binary complex with pyrazole to 3.2-A resolution, (2) the ternary ternary complex with NAD+-4-iodopyrazole to 2.9-A resolution. Crystals of the binary complex are isomorphous to the apoenzyme, and pyrazole binds to the active-site zinc atom in a way analogous to imidazole. Crystals of the two ternary complexes are isomorphous with the ternary alcohol dehydrogenase-NADH-dimethyl sulfoxide complex. One of the nitrogen atoms of the pyrazole ring is directly bound to the active-site zinc atom with a Zn-N bond distance of 2.1A. The other nitrogen atom is 2 A from the C4 atom of the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme. The iodine atom in 4-iodopyrazole is located in the hydrophobic substrate cleft. The effect of substitutions on the pyrazole ring are discussed in relation to the structure of the active site and substrate pocket. Pyrazole derivatives with long alkyl chains bound in the 4 position are outstanding inhibitors, and this property is related to the topography of the hydrophobic substrate cleft. The conformation of the oxidized coenzyme in the ternary complexes is essentially the same as that of the reduced coenzyme NADH in the NADH-dimethyl sulfoxide complex.

  8. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase during infusion of fatty acids of varying chain lengths in the perfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Latipää, P M; Peuhkurinen, K J; Hiltunen, J K; Hassinen, I E

    1985-12-01

    The effects of a homologous series of fatty acids with a chain length of two to eight on the rate of pyruvate oxidation and covalent interconversions of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) were studied in isolated perfused rat hearts. In the Langendorff-perfused heart beating at 5 Hz against an aortic pressure of 59 mmHg (7.85 kPa), a positive linear correlation was found between the fraction of PDH existing in the active non-phosphorylated form of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHa) and the pyruvate oxidation rate until the PDHa fraction increased to 48%. This value resulted in a saturation of the citric acid cycle and further activation did not increase the metabolic flux. The PDHa content of the tissue was higher during infusion of odd carbon number fatty acids than during infusion of even carbon number fatty acids. Propionate caused an almost maximal (93%) activation of PDH. A negative correlation was found between the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and the PDHa content. A negative correlation was also found between the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio and the tissue PDHa content. The rate of labelled CO2 production, the specific radioactivity of tissue alanine and the metabolic balance sheet demonstrated that the alanine aminotransferase reaction in the total tissue does not reach equilibrium with the mitochondrial pyruvate pool during propionate oxidation, but the equilibrium is reached during the oxidation of even-number carbon fatty acids. This suggests that pyruvate is formed from propionate-derived metabolites also in the cytosol, although the primary metabolism of propionate occurs in the mitochondria. The results indicate that the rate of pyruvate oxidation in the myocardium is mainly regulated by covalent interconversion of PDH. During propionate oxidation the PDHa content in the tissue can increase beyond the point of saturation of the citric acid cycle and this indicates that feedback inhibition of the enzyme is rate-determining under these conditions.

  9. Physiological Function of Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Long-Chain (C30) Fatty Acids in Alcohol Tolerance of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D. S.; Jung, S.-H.; Shen, G.-J.; Hollingsworth, R. I.; Zeikus, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    A mutant strain (39E H8) of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus that displayed high (8% [vol/vol]) ethanol tolerance for growth was developed and characterized in comparison to the wild-type strain (39E), which lacks alcohol tolerance (<1.5% [vol/vol]). The mutant strain, unlike the wild type, lacked primary alcohol dehydrogenase and was able to increase the percentage of transmembrane fatty acids (i.e., long-chain C30 fatty acids) in response to increasing levels of ethanol. The data support the hypothesis that primary alcohol dehydrogenase functions primarily in ethanol consumption, whereas secondary alcohol dehydrogenase functions in ethanol production. These results suggest that improved thermophilic ethanol fermentations at high alcohol levels can be developed by altering both cell membrane composition (e.g., increasing transmembrane fatty acids) and the metabolic machinery (e.g., altering primary alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities). PMID:11916712

  10. CO2 Photoreduction by Formate Dehydrogenase and a Ru-Complex in a Nanoporous Glass Reactor.

    PubMed

    Noji, Tomoyasu; Jin, Tetsuro; Nango, Mamoru; Kamiya, Nobuo; Amao, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the conversion of CO2 to formic acid under ambient conditions in a photoreduction nanoporous reactor using a photosensitizer, methyl viologen (MV(2+)), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH). The overall efficiency of this reactor was 14 times higher than that of the equivalent solution. The accumulation rate of formic acid in the nanopores of 50 nm is 83 times faster than that in the equivalent solution. Thus, this CO2 photoreduction nanoporous glass reactor will be useful as an artificial photosynthesis system that converts CO2 to fuel.

  11. Crystal structure of an electron transfer complex between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Narayanasami; Chen, Zhi-wei; Ferrari, Davide; Merli, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Bellamy, Henry D; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Davidson, Victor L; Mathews, F Scott

    2006-11-14

    The crystal structure of an electron transfer complex of aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) and azurin is presented. Electrons are transferred from the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor of AADH to the type I copper of the cupredoxin azurin. This structure is compared with the complex of the TTQ-containing methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and the cupredoxin amicyanin. Despite significant similarities between the two quinoproteins and the two cupredoxins, each is specific for its respective partner and the ionic strength dependence and magnitude of the binding constant for each complex are quite different. The AADH-azurin interface is largely hydrophobic, covering approximately 500 A(2) of surface on each molecule, with one direct hydrogen bond linking them. The closest distance from TTQ to copper is 12.6 A compared with a distance of 9.3 A in the MADH-amicyanin complex. When the MADH-amicyanin complex is aligned with the AADH-azurin complex, the amicyanin lies on top of the azurin but is oriented quite differently. Although the copper atoms differ in position by approximately 4.7 A, the amicyanin bound to MADH appears to be rotated approximately 90 degrees from its aligned position with azurin. Comparison of the structures of the two complexes identifies features of the interface that dictate the specificity of the protein-protein interaction and determine the rate of interprotein electron transfer.

  12. Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: novel mutations at the E1 alpha locus that impair E1(alpha 2 beta 2) assembly or decrease steady-state E1 alpha mRNA levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, J. L.; Fisher, C. R.; Cox, R. P.; Chuang, D. T.

    1994-01-01

    We report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1 alpha (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1 alpha gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1 alpha subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertion generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1 alpha mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1 alpha subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1 beta. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits are degraded in the cell. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8037208

  13. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Corynebacterium glutamicum: an attractive target for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2014-12-20

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) catalyzes the oxidative thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2. Since pyruvate is a key metabolite of the central metabolism and also the precursor for several relevant biotechnological products, metabolic engineering of this multienzyme complex is a promising strategy to improve microbial production processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge and achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor the PDHC of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the bio-based production of l-valine, 2-ketosiovalerate, pyruvate, succinate and isobutanol and to improve l-lysine production.

  14. Thiamine pyrophosphate as an effector of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex from European bison heart.

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S; Markiewicz, J

    1995-09-01

    The purified 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) from the European bison heart was near saturated with endogenous bound thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Exogenous TPP added to the full OGDC reaction medium decreased S0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate approximately 2.6-fold without any notable change in the maximum reaction rate. The TPP effect was observed in the presence of 1 mM ADP which alone is a strong positive allosteric effector of OGDC. At an unsaturating 2-oxoglutarate concentration the A50 value for TPP was approximately 0.05 mM. The ADP-like action of exogenous TPP was also found in the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1) reaction, determined in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenoloindophenol as an electron acceptor.

  15. Amino acid residues in the nicotinamide binding site contribute to catalysis by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Jon K; Plapp, Bryce V

    2003-03-18

    Amino acid residues Thr-178, Val-203, and Val-292, which interact with the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme bound to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), may facilitate hydride transfer and hydrogen tunneling by orientation and dynamic effects. The T178S, T178V, V203A, V292A, V292S, and V292T substitutions significantly alter the steady state and transient kinetics of the enzyme. The V292A, V292S, and V292T enzymes have decreased affinity for coenzyme (NAD+ by 30-50-fold and NADH by 35-75-fold) as compared to the wild-type enzyme. The substitutions in the nicotinamide binding site decrease the rate constant of hydride transfer for benzyl alcohol oxidation by 3-fold (for V292T ADH) to 16-fold (for V203A ADH). The modest effects suggest that catalysis does not depend critically on individual residues and that several residues in the nicotinamide binding site contribute to catalysis. The structures of the V292T ADH-NAD+-pyrazole and wild-type ADH-NAD+-4-iodopyrazole ternary complexes are very similar. Only subtle changes in the V292T enzyme cause the large changes in coenzyme binding and the small change in hydride transfer. In these complexes, one pyrazole nitrogen binds to the catalytic zinc, and the other nitrogen forms a partial covalent bond with C4 of the nicotinamide ring, which adopts a boat conformation that is postulated to be relevant for hydride transfer. The results provide an experimental basis for evaluating the contributions of dynamics to hydride transfer.

  16. Random phage mimotopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2).

    PubMed

    Cha, S; Leung, P S; Van de Water, J; Tsuneyama, K; Joplin, R E; Ansari, A A; Nakanuma, Y; Schatz, P J; Cwirla, S; Fabris, L E; Neuberger, J M; Gershwin, M E; Coppel, R L

    1996-10-01

    Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), is the autoantigen most commonly recognized by autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We identified a peptide mimotope(s) of PDC-E2 by screening a phage-epitope library expressing random dodecapeptides in the pIII coat protein of fd phage using C355.1, a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope in the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and uniquely stains the apical region of bile duct epithelium (BDE) only in patients with PBC. Eight different sequences were identified in 36 phage clones. WMSYPDRTLRTS was present in 29 clones; WESYPFRVGTSL, APKTYVSVSGMV, LTYVSLQGRQGH, LDYVPLKHRHRH, AALWGVKVRHVS, KVLNRIMAGVRH and GNVALVSSRVNA were singly represented. Three common amino acid motifs (W-SYP, TYVS, and VRH) were shared among all peptide sequences. Competitive inhibition of the immunohistochemical staining of PBC BDE was performed by incubating the peptides WMSYPDRTLRTS, WESYPDRTLRTS, APKTYVSVSGMV, and AALWGVKVRHVS with either C355.1 or a second PDC-E2-specific mAb, C150.1. Both mAbs were originally generated to PDC-E2 but map to distinct regions of PDC-E2. Two of the peptides, although selected by reaction with C355.1, strongly inhibited the staining of BDE by C150.1, whereas the peptide APKTYVSVSGMV consistently inhibited the staining of C355.1 on biliary duct epithelium more strongly than the typical mitochondrial staining of hepatocytes. Rabbit sera raised against the peptide WMSYPDRTLRTS stained BDE of livers and isolated bile duct epithelial cells of PBC patients more intensively than controls. The rabbit sera stained all size ducts in normals, but only small/medium-sized ductules in PBC livers. These studies provide evidence that the antigen present in BDE is a molecular mimic of PDC-E2, and not PDC-E2 itself.

  17. Protein S-glutathionylation alters superoxide/hydrogen peroxide emission from pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Marisa; Chalker, Julia; Slade, Liam; Gardiner, Danielle; Mailloux, Ryan J

    2017-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) is a vital source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several different tissues. Pdh has also been suggested to serve as a mitochondrial redox sensor. Here, we report that O2(•-)/ H2O2 emission from pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) is altered by S-glutathionylation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) amplified O2(•-)/ H2O2 production by purified Pdh during reverse electron transfer (RET) from NADH. Thiol oxidoreductase glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2) reversed these effects confirming that Pdh is a target for S-glutathionylation. S-glutathionylation had the opposite effect during forward electron transfer (FET) from pyruvate to NAD(+) lowering O2(•-)/ H2O2 production. Immunoblotting for protein glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) following diamide treatment confirmed that purified Pdh can be S-glutathionylated. Similar observations were made with mouse liver mitochondria. S-glutathionylation catalysts diamide and disulfiram significantly reduced pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate driven O2(•-)/ H2O2 production in liver mitochondria, results that were confirmed using various Pdh, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh), and respiratory chain inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation of Pdh and Ogdh confirmed that either protein can be S-glutathionylated by diamide and disulfiram. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the S -glutathionylation of Pdh alters the amount of ROS formed by the enzyme complex. We also confirmed that Ogdh is controlled in a similar manner. Taken together, our results indicate that the redox sensing and ROS forming properties of Pdh and Ogdh are linked to S-glutathionylation.

  18. Production of racemic lactic acid in Pediococcus cerevisiae cultures by two lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Gordon, G L; Doelle, H W

    1975-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent d(minus)-and l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenases have been partially purified 89- and 70-fold simultaneously from cell-free extracts of Pediococcus cerevisiae. Native molecular weights, as estimated from molecular sieve chromatography and electrophoresis in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, are 71,000 to 73,000 for d(minus)-lactate dehydrogenase and 136,000 to 139,000 for l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenase. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing gels reveals subunits with approximate molecular weights of 37,000 to 39,000 for both enzymes. By lowering the pyruvate concentration from 5.0 to 0.5 mM, the pH optimum for pyruvate reduction by d(minus)-lactate dehydrogenase decreases from pH 8.0 to 3.6. However, l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenase displays an optimum for pyruvate reduction between pH 4.5 and 6.0 regardless of the pyruvate concentration. The enzymes obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics for both pyruvate and reduced NAD at pH 5.4 and 7.4, with increased affinity for both substrates at the acid pH. alpha-Ketobutyrate can be used as a reducible substrate, whereas oxamate has no inhibitory effect on lactate oxidation by either enzyme. Adenosine triphosphate causes inhibition of both enzymes by competition with reduced NAD. Adenosine diphosphate is also inhibitory under the same conditions, whereas NAD acts as a product inhibitor. These results are discussed with relation to the lactate isomer production during the growth cycle of P. cerevisiae.

  19. Association of Ferredoxin-NADP Oxidoreductase with the Chloroplastic Pyridine Nucleotide Dehydrogenase Complex in Barley Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    José Quiles, María; Cuello, Juan

    1998-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves were used to isolate and characterize the chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex. The stroma fraction and the thylakoid fraction solubilized with sodium deoxycholate were analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the enzymes detected with NADH and nitroblue tetrazolium were electroeluted. The enzymes electroeluted from band S from the stroma fraction and from bands T1 (ET1) and T2 from the thylakoid fraction solubilized with sodium deoxycholate had ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase (FNR; EC 1.18.1.2) and NAD(P)H-FeCN oxidoreductase (NAD[P]H-FeCNR) activities. Their NADPH-FeCNR activities were inhibited by 2′-monophosphoadenosine-5′-diphosphoribose and by enzyme incubation with p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid (p-CMPS), NADPH, and p-CMPS plus NADPH. They presented Michaelis constant NADPH values that were similar to those of FNRs from several sources. Their NADH-FeCNR activities, however, were not inhibited by 2′-monophosphoadenosine-5′-diphosphoribose but were weakly inhibited by enzyme incubation with NADH, p-CMPS, and p-CMPS plus NADH. We found that only ET1 contained two polypeptides of 29 and 35 kD, which reacted with the antibodies raised against the mitochondrial complex I TYKY subunit and the chloroplast ndhA gene product, respectively. However, all three enzymes contained two polypeptides of 35 and 53 kD, which reacted with the antibodies raised against barley FNR and the NADH-binding 51-kD polypeptide of the mitochondrial complex I, respectively. The results suggest that ET1 is the FNR-containing thylakoidal NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex. PMID:9576793

  20. Comparative genomic analysis reveals 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex lipoylation correlation with aerobiosis in archaea.

    PubMed

    Borziak, Kirill; Posner, Mareike G; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Danson, Michael J; Bagby, Stefan; Dorus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic analyses have advanced our understanding of ecological microbial diversity, but to what extent can metagenomic data be used to predict the metabolic capacity of difficult-to-study organisms and their abiotic environmental interactions? We tackle this question, using a comparative genomic approach, by considering the molecular basis of aerobiosis within archaea. Lipoylation, the covalent attachment of lipoic acid to 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes (OADHCs), is essential for metabolism in aerobic bacteria and eukarya. Lipoylation is catalysed either by lipoate protein ligase (LplA), which in archaea is typically encoded by two genes (LplA-N and LplA-C), or by a lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase (LipB or LipM) plus a lipoic acid synthetase (LipA). Does the genomic presence of lipoylation and OADHC genes across archaea from diverse habitats correlate with aerobiosis? First, analyses of 11,826 biotin protein ligase (BPL)-LplA-LipB transferase family members and 147 archaeal genomes identified 85 species with lipoylation capabilities and provided support for multiple ancestral acquisitions of lipoylation pathways during archaeal evolution. Second, with the exception of the Sulfolobales order, the majority of species possessing lipoylation systems exclusively retain LplA, or either LipB or LipM, consistent with archaeal genome streamlining. Third, obligate anaerobic archaea display widespread loss of lipoylation and OADHC genes. Conversely, a high level of correspondence is observed between aerobiosis and the presence of LplA/LipB/LipM, LipA and OADHC E2, consistent with the role of lipoylation in aerobic metabolism. This correspondence between OADHC lipoylation capacity and aerobiosis indicates that genomic pathway profiling in archaea is informative and that well characterized pathways may be predictive in relation to abiotic conditions in difficult-to-study extremophiles. Given the highly variable retention of gene repertoires across the archaea

  1. New complexes containing the internal alternative NADH dehydrogenase (Ndi1) in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matus-Ortega, M G; Cárdenas-Monroy, C A; Flores-Herrera, O; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Miranda, M; González-Pedrajo, B; Vázquez-Meza, H; Pardo, J P

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lack the respiratory complex I, but contain three rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenases distributed on both the external (Nde1 and Nde2) and internal (Ndi1) surfaces of the inner mitochondrial membrane. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone without the translocation of protons across the membrane. Due to the high resolution of the Blue Native PAGE (BN-PAGE) technique combined with digitonin solubilization, several bands with NADH dehydrogenase activity were observed on the gel. The use of specific S. cerevisiae single and double mutants of the external alternative elements (ΔNDE1, ΔNDE2, ΔNDE1/ΔNDE2) showed that the high and low molecular weight complexes contained the Ndi1. Some of the Ndi1 associations took place with complexes III and IV, suggesting the formation of respirasome-like structures. Complex II interacted with other proteins to form a high molecular weight supercomplex with a molecular mass around 600 kDa. We also found that the majority of the Ndi1 was in a dimeric form, which is in agreement with the recently reported three-dimensional structure of the protein. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Coenzyme Q releases the inhibitory effect of free fatty acids on mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rauchová, Hana; Drahota, Zdenek; Rauch, Pavel; Fato, Romana; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    Data presented in this paper show that the size of the endogenous coenzyme Q (CoQ) pool is not a limiting factor in the activation of mitochondrial glycerophosphate-dependent respiration by exogenous CoQ(3), since successive additions of succinate and NADH to brown adipose tissue mitochondria further increase the rate of oxygen uptake. Because the inhibition of glycerophosphate-dependent respiration by oleate was eliminated by added CoQ(3), our data indicate that the activating effect of CoQ(3) is related to the release of the inhibitory effect of endogenous free fatty acids (FFA). Both the inhibitory effect of FFA and the activating effect of CoQ(3) could be demonstrated only for glycerophosphate-dependent respiration, while succinate- or NADH-dependent respiration was not affected. The presented data suggest differences between mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and succinate or NADH dehydrogenases in the transfer of reducing equivalents to the CoQ pool.

  3. Crystal structure of product-bound complex of UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Pampa, K.J.; Lokanath, N.K.; Girish, T.U.; Kunishima, N.; Rai, V.R.

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Determined the structure of UDP-D-ManNAcADH to a resolution of 1.55 Å. • First complex structure of PhUDP-D-ManNAcADH with UDP-D-ManMAcA. • The monomeric structure consists of three distinct domains. • Cys258 acting as catalytic nucleophilic and Lys204 acts as acid/base catalyst. • Oligomeric state plays an important role for the catalytic function. - Abstract: UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase (UDP-D-ManNAcDH) belongs to UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose dehydrogenase family and catalyzes Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (UDP-D-ManNAc) to Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid (UDP-D-ManNAcA) through twofold oxidation of NAD{sup +}. In order to reveal the structural features of the Pyrococcus horikoshii UDP-D-ManNAcADH, we have determined the crystal structure of the product-bound enzyme by X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.55 Å. The protomer folds into three distinct domains; nucleotide binding domain (NBD), substrate binding domain (SBD) and oligomerization domain (OD, involved in the dimerization). The clear electron density of the UDP-D-ManNAcA is observed and the residues binding are identified for the first time. Crystal structures reveal a tight dimeric polymer chains with product-bound in all the structures. The catalytic residues Cys258 and Lys204 are conserved. The Cys258 acts as catalytic nucleophile and Lys204 as acid/base catalyst. The product is directly interacts with residues Arg211, Thr249, Arg244, Gly255, Arg289, Lys319 and Arg398. In addition, the structural parameters responsible for thermostability and oligomerization of the three dimensional structure are analyzed.

  4. Crystal Structures of Group B Streptococcus Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Apo-Form, Binary and Ternary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Schormann, Norbert; Ayres, Chapelle A.; Fry, Alexandra; Green, Todd J.; Banerjee, Surajit; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or GAPDH is an evolutionarily conserved glycolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the two step oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate using inorganic phosphate and NAD+ as cofactor. GAPDH of Group B Streptococcus is a major virulence factor and a potential vaccine candidate. Moreover, since GAPDH activity is essential for bacterial growth it may serve as a possible drug target. Crystal structures of Group B Streptococcus GAPDH in the apo-form, two different binary complexes and the ternary complex are described here. The two binary complexes contained NAD+ bound to 2 (mixed-holo) or 4 (holo) subunits of the tetrameric protein. The structure of the mixed-holo complex reveals the effects of NAD+ binding on the conformation of the protein. In the ternary complex, the phosphate group of the substrate was bound to the new Pi site in all four subunits. Comparison with the structure of human GAPDH showed several differences near the adenosyl binding pocket in Group B Streptococcus GAPDH. The structures also reveal at least three surface-exposed areas that differ in amino acid sequence compared to the corresponding areas of human GAPDH. PMID:27875551

  5. Crystal Structures of Group B Streptococcus Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Apo-Form, Binary and Ternary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Schormann, Norbert; Ayres, Chapelle A; Fry, Alexandra; Green, Todd J; Banerjee, Surajit; Ulett, Glen C; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or GAPDH is an evolutionarily conserved glycolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the two step oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate using inorganic phosphate and NAD+ as cofactor. GAPDH of Group B Streptococcus is a major virulence factor and a potential vaccine candidate. Moreover, since GAPDH activity is essential for bacterial growth it may serve as a possible drug target. Crystal structures of Group B Streptococcus GAPDH in the apo-form, two different binary complexes and the ternary complex are described here. The two binary complexes contained NAD+ bound to 2 (mixed-holo) or 4 (holo) subunits of the tetrameric protein. The structure of the mixed-holo complex reveals the effects of NAD+ binding on the conformation of the protein. In the ternary complex, the phosphate group of the substrate was bound to the new Pi site in all four subunits. Comparison with the structure of human GAPDH showed several differences near the adenosyl binding pocket in Group B Streptococcus GAPDH. The structures also reveal at least three surface-exposed areas that differ in amino acid sequence compared to the corresponding areas of human GAPDH.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy studies with liver alcohol dehydrogenase and its complexes.

    PubMed

    Eftink, M R; Hagaman, K A

    1986-10-21

    From measurements of the apparent phase and modulation fluorescence lifetime of liver alcohol dehydrogenase at multiple modulation frequencies (6, 18, and 30 MHz), the individual lifetimes and fractional intensities of Trp-314 and Trp-15 are calculated. Values of tau 314 = 3.6, tau 15 = 7.3, and f314 = 0.56, at 20 degrees C, are found. These values are in general agreement with values previously reported by Ross et al. [Ross, J.B.A., Schmidt, C.J., & Brand, L. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 4369] using pulse-decay methodology. In ternary complexes formed between the enzyme, NAD+ and either pyrazole or trifluoroethanol, the fluorescence lifetime of Trp-314 is found to be reduced, indicating that the binding of these ligands causes a dynamic quenching of this residue. The lifetime of Trp-314 is decreased more in the trifluoroethanol ternary complex than that with pyrazole. Also, the alkaline quenching transition of alcohol dehydrogenase is found to result in the selective, dynamic quenching of Trp-314. No change in the lifetimes of the two Trp residues is found upon selective removal of the active-site zinc atoms. From studies of the fluorescence anisotropy, r, of the enzyme as a function of added acrylamide (which selectively quenches the surface Trp-15 residue), the steady-state anisotropy of each residue is determined to be r314 = 0.26 and r15 = 0.21. In the ternary complexes the anisotropy of each residue increases slightly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F.; Gibson, Gary E.; Beal, M. Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20–48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ∼30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/− or DLD+/− littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on “in-house” mitochondrial ATP reserves.—Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID:23475850

  8. The effect of fatty acids on the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Scholz, R; Olson, M S; Schwab, A J; Schwabe, U; Noell, C; Braun, W

    1978-05-16

    The effect of fatty acids on the rate of pyruvate decarboxylation was studied in perfused livers from fed rats. The production of 14CO2 from infused [1-14C]pyruvate was employed as a monitor of the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. A correction for other decarboxylation reactions was made using kinetic analyses. Fatty acid (octanoate or oleate) infusion caused a stimulation of pyruvate decarboxylation at pyruvate concentrations in the perfusate below 1 mM (up to 3-fold at 0.05 mM pyruvate) but decreased the rate to one-third of control rates at pyruvate concentrations near 5 mM. These effects were half-maximal at fatty acid concentrations below 0.1 mM. Infusion of 3-hydroxybutyrate also caused a marked stimulation of pyruvate decarboxylation at low pyruvate concentrations. The data suggest that the mechanism by which fatty acids stimulate the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction in perfused liver at low (limiting) pyruvate concentrations involves an acceleration of pyruvate transport into the mitochondrial compartment due to an exchange with acetoacetate. Furthermore, it is proposed that a relationship exists between ketogenesis and the regulation of pyruvate oxidation at pyruvate concentrations approximating conditions in vivo.

  9. Prospects for robust biocatalysis: engineering of novel specificity in a halophilic amino acid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Nayla; Engel, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Heat- and solvent-tolerant enzymes from halophiles, potentially important industrially, offer a robust framework for protein engineering, but few solved halophilic structures exist to guide this. Homology modelling has guided mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Halobacterium salinarum to emulate conversion of a mesophilic GDH to a methionine dehydrogenase. Replacement of K89, A163 and S367 by leucine, glycine and alanine converted halophilic GDH into a dehydrogenase accepting L-methionine, L-norleucine and L-norvaline as substrates. Over-expression in the halophilic expression host Haloferax volcanii and three-step purification gave ~98 % pure protein exhibiting maximum activity at pH 10. This enzyme also showed enhanced thermostability and organic solvent tolerance even at 70 °C, offering a biocatalyst resistant to harsh industrial environments. To our knowledge, this is the first reported amino acid specificity change engineered in a halophilic enzyme, encouraging use of mesophilic models to guide engineering of novel halophilic biocatalysts for industrial application. Calibrated gel filtration experiments show that both the mutant and the wild-type enzyme are stable hexamers.

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  11. Involvement of Candida albicans pyruvate dehydrogenase complex protein X (Pdx1) in filamentation

    PubMed Central

    F.Vellucci, Vincent; Gygax, Scott; Hostetter, Margaret K.

    2007-01-01

    For 50 years, physiologic studies in Candida albicans have associated fermentation with filamentation and respiration with yeast morphology. Analysis of the mitochondrial proteome of a C. albicans NDH51 mutant, known to be defective in filamentation, identified increased expression of several proteins in the respiratory pathway. Most notable was a 15-fold increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex protein X (Pdx1), an essential component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In basal salts medium with 100 mM glucose as carbon source, two independent pdx1 mutants displayed a filamentation defect identical to ndh51; reintegration of one PDX1 allele restored filamentation. Concentrations of glucose ≤100 mM did not correct the filamentation defect. Expanding on previous work, these studies suggest that increased expression of proteins extraneous to the electron transport chain compensates for defects in the respiratory pathway to maintain yeast morphology. Mitochondrial proteomics can aid in the identification of C. albicans genes not previously implicated in filamentation. PMID:17254815

  12. Amino-Acid Sequence of NADP-Specific Glutamate Dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, John C.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Holder, Anthony A.; Baron, Andrew J.; Taylor, John G.; Fincham, John R. S.; Blumenthal, Kenneth M.; Moon, Kenneth; Smith, Emil L.

    1974-01-01

    A tentative primary structure of the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase [L-glutamate: NADP oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.1.4] from Neurospora crassa has been determined. The proposed sequence contains 452 amino-acid residues in each of the identical subunits of the hexameric enzyme. Comparison of the sequence with that of the bovine liver enzyme reveals considerable homology in the amino-terminal portion of the chain, including the vicinity of the reactive lysine, with only shorter stretches of homology within the carboxyl-terminal regions. The significance of this distribution of homologous regions is discussed. PMID:4155068

  13. [Interaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from the heart muscle with thiamine diphosphate and its derivatives].

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S A; Kiselevskiĭ, Iu V; Taranda, N I; Zabrodskaia, S V; Oparin, D A

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of 23 thiamin derivatives on the bovine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) were studied. Oxythiamin diphosphate and tetrahydroxythiamin diphosphate exhibited the most pronounced effect on the PDC activity, affecting the complex by a competitive type of inhibition for thiamin diphosphate (TDP). The apparent affinity of TDP and the anticoenzyme derivatives for apo PDC depended on presence of phosphate and divalent metal ions. Phosphate considerably increased the Km values for TDP (up to 0.17 microM) and the Ki values for oxythiamin diphosphate (0.40 microM) as well as for tetrahydroxythiamin diphosphate (0.23 microM). In presence of Mn2+, Km value for TDP was 3.5-fold lower as compared with Mg2+ containing medium.

  14. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulator (PdhR) gene deletion boosts glucose metabolism in Escherichia coli under oxygen-limited culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Soya; Shimizu, Kumiko; Kihira, Chie; Iwabu, Yuki; Kato, Ryuichi; Sugimoto, Makoto; Fukiya, Satoru; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulator (PdhR) is a transcriptional regulator that negatively regulates formation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), NADH dehydrogenase (NDH)-2, and cytochrome bo3 oxidase in Escherichia coli. To investigate the effects of a PdhR defect on glucose metabolism, a pdhR deletion mutant was derived from the wild-type E. coli W1485 strain by λ Red-mediated recombination. While no difference in the fermentation profiles was observed between the two strains under oxygen-sufficient conditions, under oxygen-limited conditions, the growth level of the wild-type strain was significantly decreased with retarded glucose consumption accompanied by by-production of substantial amounts of pyruvic acid and acetic acid. In contrast, the mutant grew and consumed glucose more efficiently than did the wild-type strain with enhanced respiration, little by-production of pyruvic acid, less production yield and rates of acetic acid, thus displaying robust metabolic activity. As expected, increased activities of PDHc and NDH-2 were observed in the mutant. The increased activity of PDHc may explain the loss of pyruvic acid by-production, probably leading to decreased acetic acid formation, and the increased activity of NDH-2 may explain the enhanced respiration. Measurement of the intracellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio in the mutant revealed more oxidative or more reductive intracellular environments than those in the wild-type strain under oxygen-sufficient and -limited conditions, respectively, suggesting another role of PdhR: maintaining redox balance in E. coli. The overall results demonstrate the biotechnological advantages of pdhR deletion in boosting glucose metabolism and also improve our understanding of the role of PdhR in bacterial physiology.

  15. Random phage mimotopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2).

    PubMed Central

    Cha, S; Leung, P S; Van de Water, J; Tsuneyama, K; Joplin, R E; Ansari, A A; Nakanuma, Y; Schatz, P J; Cwirla, S; Fabris, L E; Neuberger, J M; Gershwin, M E; Coppel, R L

    1996-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), is the autoantigen most commonly recognized by autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We identified a peptide mimotope(s) of PDC-E2 by screening a phage-epitope library expressing random dodecapeptides in the pIII coat protein of fd phage using C355.1, a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope in the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and uniquely stains the apical region of bile duct epithelium (BDE) only in patients with PBC. Eight different sequences were identified in 36 phage clones. WMSYPDRTLRTS was present in 29 clones; WESYPFRVGTSL, APKTYVSVSGMV, LTYVSLQGRQGH, LDYVPLKHRHRH, AALWGVKVRHVS, KVLNRIMAGVRH and GNVALVSSRVNA were singly represented. Three common amino acid motifs (W-SYP, TYVS, and VRH) were shared among all peptide sequences. Competitive inhibition of the immunohistochemical staining of PBC BDE was performed by incubating the peptides WMSYPDRTLRTS, WESYPDRTLRTS, APKTYVSVSGMV, and AALWGVKVRHVS with either C355.1 or a second PDC-E2-specific mAb, C150.1. Both mAbs were originally generated to PDC-E2 but map to distinct regions of PDC-E2. Two of the peptides, although selected by reaction with C355.1, strongly inhibited the staining of BDE by C150.1, whereas the peptide APKTYVSVSGMV consistently inhibited the staining of C355.1 on biliary duct epithelium more strongly than the typical mitochondrial staining of hepatocytes. Rabbit sera raised against the peptide WMSYPDRTLRTS stained BDE of livers and isolated bile duct epithelial cells of PBC patients more intensively than controls. The rabbit sera stained all size ducts in normals, but only small/medium-sized ductules in PBC livers. These studies provide evidence that the antigen present in BDE is a molecular mimic of PDC-E2, and not PDC-E2 itself. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855289

  16. Production of optically pure L-phenyllactic acid by using engineered Escherichia coli coexpressing L-lactate dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhao, Mingyue; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-08-10

    L-Phenyllactic acid (L-PLA) is a novel antiseptic agent with broad and effective antimicrobial activity. In addition, L-PLA has been used for synthesis of poly(phenyllactic acid)s, which exhibits better mechanical properties than poly(lactic acid)s. However, the concentration and optical purity of L-PLA produced by native microbes was rather low. An NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-nLDH) from Bacillus coagulans NL01 was confirmed to have a good ability to produce L-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). In the present study, l-nLDH gene and formate dehydrogenase gene were heterologously coexpressed in Escherichia coli. Through two coupled reactions, 79.6mM l-PLA was produced from 82.8mM PPA in 40min and the enantiomeric excess value of L-PLA was high (>99%). Therefore, this process suggested a promising alternative for the production of chiral l-PLA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Component co-expression and purification of recombinant human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from baculovirus infected SF9 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Guofeng; Oza, Khyati; Myers, Linda; Holbert, Marc A; Sweitzer, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a multi-component mitochondrial enzyme that plays a key role in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA connecting glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. Recent studies indicate that targeting the regulation of PDC enzymatic activity might offer therapeutic opportunities by inhibiting cancer cell metabolism. To facilitate drug discovery in this area, a well defined PDC sample is needed. Here, we report a new method of producing functional, recombinant, high quality human PDC complex. All five components were co-expressed in the cytoplasm of baculovirus-infected SF9 cells by deletion of the mitochondrial localization signal sequences of all the components and E1a was FLAG-tagged to facilitate purification. The protein FLAG tagged E1a complex was purified using FLAG-M2 affinity resin, followed by Superdex 200 sizing chromatography. The E2 and E3BP components were then Lipoylated using an enzyme based in vitro process. The resulting PDC is over 90% pure and homogenous. This non-phosphorylated, lipoylated human PDC was demonstrated to produce a robust detection window when used to develop an enzyme coupled assay of PDHK.

  18. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F; Gibson, Gary E; Beal, M Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-06-01

    A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20-48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ~30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST(+/-) or DLD(+/-) littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on "in-house" mitochondrial ATP reserves.

  19. Distribution of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Activities between Chloroplasts and Mitochondria from Leaves of Different Species.

    PubMed Central

    Lernmark, U.; Gardestrom, P.

    1994-01-01

    Protoplasts from barley (Hordeum vulgare), pea (Pisum sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves were fractionated into chloroplast- and mitochondrion-enriched fractions. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex capacities in mitochondria (mtPDC) and chloroplasts (cpPDC) were measured in appropriate fractions under conditions optimal for each isozyme. The total cellular capacity of PDC was similar in barley and pea but about 50% lower in wheat and spinach. In pea a distribution of 87% mtPDC and 13% cpPDC was found on a cellular basis. In barley, wheat, and spinach the subcellular distribution was the opposite, with about 15% mtPDC and 85% cpPDC. cpPDC activity was constant at about 0.1 nmol cell-1 h-1 in cells from different regions along the developing barley leaf and showed no correlation with developmental patterns of photosynthetic parameters, such as increasing Chl and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Similarly, the capacity of the mitochondrial isoform did not change during barley leaf development and had a developmental pattern similar to that of citrate synthase and fumarase. Differences in subcellular distribution of PDCs in barley and pea are proposed to be due to differences in regulation, not to changes in isozyme proportions during leaf development or to species-specific differences in phosphorylation state of mtPDC after organelle separation. PMID:12232437

  20. 15-Oxoeicosatetraenoic acid is a 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase-derived electrophilic mediator of inflammatory signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Nathaniel W; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Gao, Yang; Blair, Ian A; Freeman, Bruce A; Wendell, Stacy Gelhaus

    2015-06-05

    Bioactive lipids govern cellular homeostasis and pathogenic inflammatory processes. Current dogma holds that bioactive lipids, such as prostaglandins and lipoxins, are inactivated by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15PGDH). In contrast, the present results reveal that catabolic "inactivation" of hydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) yields electrophilic α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives. These endogenously produced species are chemically reactive signaling mediators that induce tissue protective events. Electrophilic fatty acids diversify the proteome through post-translational alkylation of nucleophilic cysteines in key transcriptional regulatory proteins and enzymes that govern cellular metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. 15PGDH regulates these processes as it is responsible for the formation of numerous electrophilic fatty acids including the arachidonic acid metabolite, 15-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxoETE). Herein, the role of 15-oxoETE in regulating signaling responses is reported. In cell cultures, 15-oxoETE activates Nrf2-regulated antioxidant responses (AR) and inhibits NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory responses via IKKβ inhibition. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases using ethacrynic acid incrementally increased the signaling capacity of 15-oxoETE by decreasing 15-oxoETE-GSH adduct formation. This work demonstrates that 15PGDH plays a role in the regulation of cell and tissue homeostasis via the production of electrophilic fatty acid signaling mediators.

  1. Surface Induced Dissociation Yields Quaternary Substructure of Refractory Noncovalent Phosphorylase B and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Zhou, Mowei; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2014-03-01

    Ion mobility (IM) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with native MS are useful for studying noncovalent protein complexes. Collision induced dissociation (CID) is the most common MS/MS dissociation method. However, some protein complexes, including glycogen phosphorylase B kinase (PHB) and L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) examined in this study, are resistant to dissociation by CID at the maximum collision energy available in the instrument. Surface induced dissociation (SID) was applied to dissociate the two refractory protein complexes. Different charge state precursor ions of the two complexes were examined by CID and SID. The PHB dimer was successfully dissociated to monomers and the GDH hexamer formed trimeric subcomplexes that are informative of its quaternary structure. The unfolding of the precursor and the percentages of the distinct products suggest that the dissociation pathways vary for different charge states. The precursors at lower charge states (+21 for PHB dimer and +27 for GDH hexamer) produce a higher percentage of folded fragments and dissociate more symmetrically than the precusors at higher charge states (+29 for PHB dimer and +39 for GDH hexamer). The precursors at lower charge state may be more native-like than the higher charge state because a higher percentage of folded fragments and a lower percentage of highly charged unfolded fragments are detected. The combination of SID and charge reduction is shown to be a powerful tool for quaternary structure analysis of refractory noncovalent protein complexes, as illustrated by the data for PHB dimer and GDH hexamer.

  2. 113Cd NMR in binary and ternary complexes of cadmium-substituted horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Bobsein, B R; Myers, R J

    1981-06-10

    The 113Cd NMR has been observed for Cd(II)-substituted horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) and its complexes with coenzymes and several substrate analogs. Compared to free enzyme, the catalytic Cd(II) resonance is shielded by 41--41 ppm in both LADH-NADH and LADH-NAD+. In ternary complexes of LADH-NAD+ with either trifluoroethanol or pyrazole, this resonance narrows and is deshielded by 75 ppm. The LADH-NADH-butyramide complex gives only 3 ppm of deshielding relative to the LADH-NADH resonance. At pH = 10.3, the catalytic resonance of unbound LADH is broadened and slightly deshielded. No other resonances are dependent upon pH in the range 8--10. These data are the most consistent with a second sphere coordination of the substrate analogs to the catalytic metal ion. The observed difference between complexes of the alcohol analogs and the aldehyde analog would then be explained as the presence of a hydroxide versus a water molecule, respectively, in the first coordination sphere. The data also show that the pKa of the coordinated water on the Zn(II) in the native LADH is close to 9.2 as previously assumed, whereas the pKa of the Zn(II)-bound water in the LADH-NAD+ complex is most likely greater than 9 and not 7.6 as previously assumed.

  3. Studies of the pH dependence of the formation of binary and ternary complexes with liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Eftink, M R; Byström, K

    1986-10-21

    The association of the coenzyme NAD+ to liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) is known to be pH dependent, with the binding being linked to the shift in the pK of some group on the protein from a value of 9-10, in the free enzyme, to 7.5-8 in the LADH-NAD+ binary complex. We have further characterized the nature of this linkage between NAD+ binding and proton dissociation by studying the pH dependence (pH range 6-10) of the proton release, delta n, and enthalpy change, delta Ho(app), for formation of both binary (LADH-NAD+) and ternary (LADH-NAD+-I, where I is pyrazole or trifluoroethanol) complexes. The pH dependence of both delta n and delta Ho(app) is found to be consistent with linkage to a single acid dissociating group, whose pK is perturbed from 9.5 to 8.0 upon NAD+ binding and is further perturbed to approximately 6.0 upon ternary complex formation. The apparent enthalpy change for NAD+ binding is endothermic between pH 7 and pH 10, with a maximum at pH 8.5-9.0. The pH dependence of the delta Ho(app) for both binary and ternary complex formation is consistent with a heat of protonation of -7.5 kcal/mol for the coupled acid dissociating group. The intrinsic enthalpy changes for NAD+ binding and NAD+ plus pyrazole binding to LADH are determined to be approximately 0 and -11.0 kcal/mol, respectively. Enthalpy change data are also presented for the binding of the NAD+ analogues adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose and 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide.

  4. Analysis of acidic surface of Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Esclapez, J; Pire, C; Bautista, V; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Ferrer, J; Bonete, M J

    2007-03-06

    Generally, halophilic enzymes present a characteristic amino acid composition, showing an increase in the content of acidic residues and a decrease in the content of basic residues, particularly lysines. The latter decrease appears to be responsible for a reduction in the proportion of solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface. This role was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of glucose dehydrogenase from Haloferax mediterranei, in which surface aspartic residues were changed to lysine residues. From the biochemical analysis of the mutant proteins, it is concluded that the replacement of the aspartic residues by lysines results in slightly less halotolerant proteins, although they retain the same enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters compared to the wild type enzyme.

  5. The Yeast Complex I Equivalent NADH Dehydrogenase Rescues pink1 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Vilain, Sven; Esposito, Giovanni; Haddad, Dominik; Schaap, Onno; Dobreva, Mariya P.; Vos, Melissa; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Morais, Vanessa A.; De Strooper, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC); however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I–associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling. PMID:22242018

  6. Pea leaf mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is inactivated in vivo in a light-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Budde, R J; Randall, D D

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effect of light on the activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mt-PDC) by using intact green pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. Upon illumination there is an initial drop in mtPDC activity followed by oscillations that dampen during the initial period of photosynthesis to a steady-state level of one-fourth or less of the mtPDC activity measured in the dark. The initial light-dependent decrease in mtPDC activity is inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (an inhibitor of photosystem II of photosynthesis) and does not occur in etiolated seedlings. Therefore, the effect of light is indirect and most likely associated with photosynthesis and/or photorespiration. Conditions that would be unfavorable for photorespiration also inhibited the light-dependent decrease in mtPDC activity. PMID:11607058

  7. Dichloroacetate, the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and the Modulation of mESC Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Correia, Marcelo; Gomes, Andreia; Pereira, Sandro L.; Perestrelo, Tânia; Sousa, Maria Inês; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is localized in the mitochondrial matrix catalyzing the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and NADH. For proper complex regulation the E1-α subunit functions as an on/off switch regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. In different cell types one of the four-pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDHK1-4) can phosphorylate this subunit leading to PDH inactivation. Our previous results with human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC), suggested that PDHK could be a key regulator in the metabolic profile of pluripotent cells, as it is upregulated in pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, we wondered if metabolic modulation, via inexpensive pharmacological inhibition of PDHK, could impact metabolism and pluripotency. Methods/Results In order to assess the importance of the PDH cycle in mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (mESC), we incubated cells with the PDHK inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA) and observed that in its presence ESC started to differentiate. Changes in mitochondrial function and proliferation potential were also found and protein levels for PDH (both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) and PDHK1 were monitored. Interestingly, we were also able to describe a possible pathway that involves Hif-1α and p53 during DCA-induced loss of pluripotency. Results with ESCs treated with DCA were comparable to those obtained for cells grown without Leukemia Inhibitor Factor (LIF), used in this case as a positive control for differentiation. Conclusions DCA negatively affects ESC pluripotency by changing cell metabolism and elements related to the PDH cycle, suggesting that PDHK could function as a possible metabolic gatekeeper in ESC, and may be a good target to modulate metabolism and differentiation. Although further molecular biology-based experiments are required, our data suggests that inactive PDH favors pluripotency and that ESC have similar strategies as cancer cells to maintain a glycolytic

  8. Free energy landscape of the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase: A network analysis of atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoliang; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the structure of a protein is a hierarchy of conformations interconverting on multiple time scales. However, the conformational heterogeneity is rarely considered in the context of enzymatic catalysis in which the reactant is usually represented by a single conformation of the enzyme/substrate complex. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of two forms of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+). Recent experimental results suggest that multiple substates exist within the Michaelis complex of LDH, and they are catalytic competent at different reaction rates. In this study, millisecond-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed on LDH to explore the free energy landscape of the Michaelis complex, and network analysis was used to characterize the distribution of the conformations. Our results provide a detailed view of the kinetic network the Michaelis complex and the structures of the substates at atomistic scale. It also shed some light on understanding the complete picture of the catalytic mechanism of LDH.

  9. Mutations in PDX1, the human lipoyl-containing component X of the pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex gene on chromosome 11p1, in congenital lactic acidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Aral, B; Benelli, C; Ait-Ghezala, G; Amessou, M; Fouque, F; Maunoury, C; Créau, N; Kamoun, P; Marsac, C

    1997-01-01

    We have identified and sequenced a cDNA that encodes an apparent human orthologue of a yeast protein-X component (ScPDX1) of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes. The new human cDNA that has been referred to as "HsPDX1" cDNA was cloned by use of the "database cloning" strategy and had a 1,506-bp open reading frame. The amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the cDNA was 20% identical with that encoded by the yeast PDX1 gene and 40% identical with that encoded by the lipoate acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and included a lipoyl-bearing domain that is conserved in some dehydrogenase enzyme complexes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the major HsPDX1 mRNA was 2.5 kb in length and was expressed mainly in human skeletal and cardiac muscles but was also present, at low levels, in other tissues. FISH analysis performed with a P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC)-containing HsPDX1 gene sublocalized the gene to 11p1.3. Molecular investigation of PDX1 deficiency in four patients with neonatal lactic acidemias revealed mutations 78del85 and 965del59 in a homozygous state, and one other patient had no PDX1 mRNA expression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9399911

  10. Composition and physiological function of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex in Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minoru; Kuniyoshi, Tetsuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Nishimura, Yoshiki; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2012-11-01

    The chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex mediates cyclic electron transport and chloro-respiration and consists of five sub-omplexes, which in angiosperms further associate with photosystem I (PSI) to form a super-complex. In Marchantia polymorpha, 11 plastid-encoded subunits and all the nuclear-encoded subunits of the A, B, membrane and ferredoxin-binding sub-complexes are conserved. However, it is unlikely that the genome of this liverwort encodes Lhca5 and Lhca6, both of which mediate NDH-PSI super-complex formation. It is also unlikely that the subunits of the lumen sub-complex, PnsL1-L4, are encoded by the genome. Consistent with this in silico prediction, the results of blue-native gel electrophoresis showed that NDH subunits were detected in a protein complex with lower molecular mass in Marchantia than the NDH-PSI super-complex in Arabidopsis. Using the plastid transformation technique, we knocked out the ndhB gene in Marchantia. Although the wild-type genome copies were completely segregated out, the ΔndhB lines grew like the wild-type photoautotrophically. A post-illumination transient increase in chlorophyll fluorescence, which reflects NDH activity in vivo in angiosperms, was absent in the thalli of the ΔndhB lines. In ruptured chloroplasts, antimycin A-insensitive, and ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction was impaired, suggesting that chloroplast NDH mediates similar electron transport in Marchantia and Arabidopsis, despite its possible difference in structure. As in angiosperms, linear electron transport was not strongly affected in the ΔndhB lines. However, the plastoquinone pool was slightly more reduced at low light intensity, suggesting that chloroplast NDH functions in redox balancing of the inter system, especially under low light conditions. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Novel 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Lawrence, Harshani; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Cruttenden, Adrian; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2004-08-15

    Extensive structural modifications to the 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid template are described and their effects on the SAR of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes type 1 and 2 from the rat are investigated. Isoform selective inhibitors have been discovered and compound 7 N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3beta-hydroxy-11-oxo-18beta-olean-12-en-30-oic acid amide is highlighted as a very potent selective inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 with an IC(50) = 4pM.

  12. The contribution of lactic acid to acidification of tumours: studies of variant cells lacking lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, M.; Hasuda, K.; Stamato, T.; Tannock, I. F.

    1998-01-01

    Solid tumours develop an acidic extracellular environment with high concentration of lactic acid, and lactic acid produced by glycolysis has been assumed to be the major cause of tumour acidity. Experiments using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-deficient ras-transfected Chinese hamster ovarian cells have been undertaken to address directly the hypothesis that lactic acid production is responsible for tumour acidification. The variant cells produce negligible quantities of lactic acid and consume minimal amounts of glucose compared with parental cells. Lactate-producing parental cells acidified lightly-buffered medium but variant cells did not. Tumours derived from parental and variant cells implanted into nude mice were found to have mean values of extracellular pH (pHe) of 7.03 +/- 0.03 and 7.03 +/- 0.05, respectively, both of which were significantly lower than that of normal muscle (pHe = 7.43 +/- 0.03; P < 0.001). Lactic acid concentration in variant tumours (450 +/- 90 microg g(-1) wet weight) was much lower than that in parental tumours (1880 +/- 140 microg/g(-1)) and similar to that in serum (400 +/- 35 microg/g(-1)). These data show discordance between mean levels of pHe and lactate content in tumours; the results support those of Newell et al (1993) and suggest that the production of lactic acid via glycolysis causes acidification of culture medium, but is not the only mechanism, and is probably not the major mechanism responsible for the development of an acidic environment within solid tumours. PMID:9667639

  13. Membrane-bound sugar alcohol dehydrogenase in acetic acid bacteria catalyzes L-ribulose formation and NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase is independent of the oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Fujii, Y; Ano, Y; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Shinagawa, E; Theeragool, G; Lotong, N; Matsushita, K

    2001-01-01

    To identify the enzyme responsible for pentitol oxidation by acetic acid bacteria, two different ribitol oxidizing enzymes, one in the cytosolic fraction of NAD(P)-dependent and the other in the membrane fraction of NAD(P)-independent enzymes, were examined with respect to oxidative fermentation. The cytoplasmic NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.56) was crystallized from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 12528 and found to be an enzyme having 100 kDa of molecular mass and 5 s as the sedimentation constant, composed of four identical subunits of 25 kDa. The enzyme catalyzed a shuttle reversible oxidoreduction between ribitol and D-ribulose in the presence of NAD and NADH, respectively. Xylitol and L-arabitol were well oxidized by the enzyme with reaction rates comparable to ribitol oxidation. D-Ribulose, L-ribulose, and L-xylulose were well reduced by the enzyme in the presence of NADH as cosubstrates. The optimum pH of pentitol oxidation was found at alkaline pH such as 9.5-10.5 and ketopentose reduction was found at pH 6.0. NAD-Dependent ribitol dehydrogenase seemed to be specific to oxidoreduction between pentitols and ketopentoses and D-sorbitol and D-mannitol were not oxidized by this enzyme. However, no D-ribulose accumulation was observed outside the cells during the growth of the organism on ribitol. L-Ribulose was accumulated in the culture medium instead, as the direct oxidation product catalyzed by a membrane-bound NAD(P)-independent ribitol dehydrogenase. Thus, the physiological role of NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase was accounted to catalyze ribitol oxidation to D-ribulose in cytoplasm, taking D-ribulose to the pentose phosphate pathway after being phosphorylated. L-Ribulose outside the cells would be incorporated into the cytoplasm in several ways when need for carbon and energy sources made it necessary to use L-ribulose for their survival. From a series of simple experiments, membrane-bound sugar alcohol dehydrogenase was concluded to be

  14. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Khyati K.; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production. PMID:26683313

  15. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Dave, Khyati K; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production.

  16. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase. A complex of the apoenzyme and citrate at 1.87 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Hall, M D; Levitt, D G; Banaszak, L J

    1992-08-05

    The crystal structure of malate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli has been determined with a resulting R-factor of 0.187 for X-ray data from 8.0 to 1.87 A. Molecular replacement, using the partially refined structure of porcine mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase as a probe, provided initial phases. The structure of this prokaryotic enzyme is closely homologous with the mitochondrial enzyme but somewhat less similar to cytosolic malate dehydrogenase from eukaryotes. However, all three enzymes are dimeric and form the subunit-subunit interface through similar surface regions. A citrate ion, found in the active site, helps define the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis. Two arginine residues, R81 and R153, interacting with the citrate are believed to confer substrate specificity. The hydroxyl of the citrate is hydrogen-bonded to a histidine, H177, and similar interactions could be assigned to a bound malate or oxaloacetate. Histidine 177 is also hydrogen-bonded to an aspartate, D150, to form a classic His.Asp pair. Studies of the active site cavity indicate that the bound citrate would occupy part of the site needed for the coenzyme. In a model building study, the cofactor, NAD, was placed into the coenzyme site which exists when the citrate was converted to malate and crystallographic water molecules removed. This hypothetical model of a ternary complex was energy minimized for comparison with the structure of the binary complex of porcine cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Many residues involved in cofactor binding in the minimized E. coli malate dehydrogenase structure are homologous to coenzyme binding residues in cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. In the energy minimized structure of the ternary complex, the C-4 atom of NAD is in van der Waals' contact with the C-3 atom of the malate. A catalytic cycle involves hydride transfer between these two atoms.

  17. An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Takakubo, F.; Thorburn, D.R.; Dahl, H.H.M.

    1995-10-01

    A mutation in the mitochondrial targeting sequence was characterized in a male patient with X chromosome-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} deficiency. The mutation was a base substitution of G by C at nucleotide 134 in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the PDHA1 gene, resulting in an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 10 (R10P). Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was 28% of the control value, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decreased level of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha}immunoreactivity. Chimeric constructs in which the normal and mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} targeting sequences were attached to the mitochondrial matrix protein ornithine transcarbamylase were synthesized in a cell free translation system, and mitochondrial import of normal and mutant proteins was compared in vitro. The results show that ornithine transcarbamylase targeted by the mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} sequence was translocated into the mitochondrial matrix at a reduced rate, suggesting that defective import is responsible for the reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase level in mitochondria. The mutation was also present in an affected brother and the mildly affected mother. The clinical presentations of this X chromosome-linked disorder in affected family members are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amino acid substitution in a mitochondrial targeting sequence resulting in a human genetic disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A double mutant of highly purified Geobacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase recognises l-mandelic acid as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Binay, Barış; Sessions, Richard B; Karagüler, Nevin Gül

    2013-05-10

    Lactate dehydrogenase from the thermophilic organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) (bsLDH) has a crucial role in producing chirally pure hydroxyl compounds. α-Hydroxy acids are used in many industrial situations, ranging from pharmaceutical to cosmetic dermatology products. One drawback of this enzyme is its limited substrate specificity. For instance, l-lactate dehydrogenase exhibits no detectable activity towards the large side chain of 2-hydroxy acid l-mandelic acid, an α-hydroxy acid with anti-bacterial activity. Despite many attempts to engineer bsLDH to accept α-hydroxy acid substrates, there have been no attempts to introduce the industrially important l-mandelic acid to bsLDH. Herein, we describe attempts to change the reactivity of bsLDH towards l-mandelic acid. Using the Insight II molecular modelling programme (except 'program' in computers) and protein engineering techniques, we have successfully introduced substantial mandelate dehydrogenase activity to the enzyme. Energy minimisation modelling studies suggested that two mutations, T246G and I240A, would allow the enzyme to utilise l-mandelic acid as a substrate. Genes encoding for the wild-type and mutant enzymes were constructed, and the resulting bsLDH proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using the TAGZyme system. Enzyme assays showed that insertion of this double mutation into highly purified bsLDH switched the substrate specificity from lactate to l-mandelic acid.

  19. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Generation of Electrophilic Lipid Signaling Mediators from Hydroxy Ω-3 Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, Stacy Gelhaus; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Wenzel, Sally; Sobol, Robert W.; Holguin, Fernando; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15PGDH) is the primary enzyme catalyzing the conversion of hydroxylated arachidonic acid species to their corresponding oxidized metabolites. The oxidation of hydroxylated fatty acids, such as the conversion of prostaglandin (PG) E2 to 15-ketoPGE2, by 15PGDH is viewed to inactivate signaling responses. In contrast, the typically electrophilic products can also induce anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative responses. This study determined that hydroxylated docosahexaenoic acid metabolites (HDoHEs) are substrates for 15PGDH. Examination of 15PGDH substrate specificity was conducted in cell culture (A549 and primary human airway epithelia and alveolar macrophages) using chemical inhibition and shRNA knockdown of 15PGDH. Substrate specificity is broad and relies on the carbon position of the acyl chain hydroxyl group. 14-HDoHE was determined to be the optimal DHA substrate for 15PGDH, resulting in the formation of its electrophilic metabolite, 14-oxoDHA. Consistent with this, 14-HDoHE was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of mild to moderate asthmatics, and the exogenous addition of 14-oxoDHA to primary alveolar macrophages inhibited LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression. These data reveal that 15PGDH-derived DHA metabolites are biologically active and can contribute to the salutary signaling actions of Ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:25586183

  20. Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase by malonic acid produces an "excitotoxic" lesion in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Greene, J G; Porter, R H; Eller, R V; Greenamyre, J T

    1993-09-01

    Excitotoxicity and defects in neuronal energy metabolism have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. These two mechanisms may be linked through the NMDA receptor, activation of which is dependent on neuronal membrane potential. Because the ability to maintain membrane potential is dependent on neuronal energy metabolism, bioenergetic defects may affect NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. We now report that reversible inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), an enzyme central to both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain, produces an "excitotoxic" lesion in rat striatum that can be blocked by the NMDA antagonist MK-801. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intrastriatal stereotaxic injections of the SDH inhibitor malonic acid (1 or 2 mumol) in combination with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle or MK-801 (5 mg/kg) 30 min before and 210 min after malonic acid. Animals were killed 72 h after surgery, and brains were processed for histology, cytochrome oxidase activity, and [3H]MK-801 and [3H]AMPA autoradiography. The higher dose of malonic acid (2 mumol) produced large lesions that were markedly attenuated by treatment with MK-801 (28.1 +/- 3.6 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.6 mm3; p < 0.001). [3H]MK-801 and [3H]AMPA binding were reduced in the lesions by 60 and 63%, respectively. One micromole of malonic acid produced smaller lesions that were almost completely blocked by MK-801 treatment (9.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.04 mm3; p < 0.0001). The toxic effects of malonic acid were due specifically to inhibition of SDH inasmuch as coinjection of a threefold excess of succinate with the malonic acid blocked the striatal lesions (p < 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Equilibrium concentrations for pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle at specified concentrations of certain coenzymes.

    PubMed

    Alberty, Robert A

    2004-04-01

    It is of interest to calculate equilibrium compositions of systems of biochemical reactions at specified concentrations of coenzymes because these reactants tend to be in steady states. Thermodynamic calculations under these conditions require the definition of a further transformed Gibbs energy G" by use of a Legendre transform. These calculations are applied to the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction plus the citric acid cycle, but steady-state concentrations of CoA, acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA cannot be specified because they are involved in the conservation of carbon atoms. These calculations require the use of linear algebra to obtain further transformed Gibbs energies of formation of reactants and computer programs to calculate equilibrium compositions. At specified temperature, pH, ionic strength and specified concentrations of several coenzymes, the equilibrium composition depends on the specified concentrations of the coenzymes and the initial amounts of reactants.

  2. A pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid and oxidative stress in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency?

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, A B P; Stroomer, A E M; Abeling, N G G M; van Gennip, A H

    2006-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) constitutes the first step of the pyrimidine degradation pathway in which the pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are catabolised to beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), respectively. The mean concentration of beta-AIB was approximately 5- to 8-fold lower in urine of patients with a DPD deficiency, when compared to age-matched controls. Comparable levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were present in urine from controls and DPD patients at the age <2 year. In contrast, slightly elevated levels of 8-OHdG were detected in urine from DPD patients with an age >2 year, suggesting the presence of increased oxidative stress.

  3. Conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active complex by the phosphate reaction in heart mitochondria is inhibited by alloxan-diabetes or starvation in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, N J; Kerbey, A L; Randle, P J; Sugden, P H

    1978-01-01

    1. The conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active (dephosphorylated) complex by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase is inhibited in heart mitochondria prepared from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats, in mitochondria prepared from acetate-perfused rat hearts and in mitochondria prepared from normal rat hearts incubated with respiratory substrates for 6 min (as compared with 1 min). 2. This conclusion is based on experiments with isolated intact mitochondria in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction was inhibited by pyruvate or ATP depletion (by using oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), and in experiments in which the rate of conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase was measured in extracts of mitochondria. The inhibition of the phosphatase reaction was seen with constant concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (activators of the phosphatase). The phosphatase reaction in these mitochondrial extracts was not inhibited when an excess of exogenous pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was used as substrate. It is concluded that this inhibition is due to some factor(s) associated with the substrate (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex) and not to inhibition of the phosphatase as such. 3. This conclusion was verified by isolating pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex, free of phosphatase, from hearts of control and diabetic rats an from heart mitochondria incubed for 1min (control) or 6min with respiratory substrates. The rates of re-activation of the inactive complexes were then measured with preparations of ox heart or rat heart phosphatase. The rates were lower (relative to controls) with inactive complex from hearts of diabetic rats or from heart mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates. 4. The incorporation of 32Pi into inactive complex took 6min to complete in rat heart mitocondria. The extent of incorporation was consistent with

  4. Conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active complex by the phosphate reaction in heart mitochondria is inhibited by alloxan-diabetes or starvation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hutson, N J; Kerbey, A L; Randle, P J; Sugden, P H

    1978-08-01

    1. The conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active (dephosphorylated) complex by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase is inhibited in heart mitochondria prepared from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats, in mitochondria prepared from acetate-perfused rat hearts and in mitochondria prepared from normal rat hearts incubated with respiratory substrates for 6 min (as compared with 1 min). 2. This conclusion is based on experiments with isolated intact mitochondria in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction was inhibited by pyruvate or ATP depletion (by using oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), and in experiments in which the rate of conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase was measured in extracts of mitochondria. The inhibition of the phosphatase reaction was seen with constant concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (activators of the phosphatase). The phosphatase reaction in these mitochondrial extracts was not inhibited when an excess of exogenous pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was used as substrate. It is concluded that this inhibition is due to some factor(s) associated with the substrate (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex) and not to inhibition of the phosphatase as such. 3. This conclusion was verified by isolating pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex, free of phosphatase, from hearts of control and diabetic rats an from heart mitochondria incubed for 1min (control) or 6min with respiratory substrates. The rates of re-activation of the inactive complexes were then measured with preparations of ox heart or rat heart phosphatase. The rates were lower (relative to controls) with inactive complex from hearts of diabetic rats or from heart mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates. 4. The incorporation of 32Pi into inactive complex took 6min to complete in rat heart mitocondria. The extent of incorporation was consistent with

  5. Expression of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase and α-keto-acid dehydrogenase in rat brain: implications for neurotransmitter metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jeffrey T.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The BCATs are thought to participate in a α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC) catalyzes the second, irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron. PMID:22654736

  6. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase constitute an energy-consuming redox circuit.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Lin, Chien-Te; Ryan, Terence E; Reese, Lauren R; Gilliam, Laura A A; Cathey, Brook L; Lark, Daniel S; Smith, Cody D; Muoio, Deborah M; Neufer, P Darrell

    2015-04-15

    Cellular proteins rely on reversible redox reactions to establish and maintain biological structure and function. How redox catabolic (NAD+/NADH) and anabolic (NADP+/NADPH) processes integrate during metabolism to maintain cellular redox homoeostasis, however, is unknown. The present work identifies a continuously cycling mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)-dependent redox circuit between the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). PDHC is shown to produce H2O2 in relation to reducing pressure within the complex. The H2O2 produced, however, is effectively masked by a continuously cycling redox circuit that links, via glutathione/thioredoxin, to NNT, which catalyses the regeneration of NADPH from NADH at the expense of ΔΨm. The net effect is an automatic fine-tuning of NNT-mediated energy expenditure to metabolic balance at the level of PDHC. In mitochondria, genetic or pharmacological disruptions in the PDHC-NNT redox circuit negate counterbalance changes in energy expenditure. At the whole animal level, mice lacking functional NNT (C57BL/6J) are characterized by lower energy-expenditure rates, consistent with their well-known susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings suggest the integration of redox sensing of metabolic balance with compensatory changes in energy expenditure provides a potential mechanism by which cellular redox homoeostasis is maintained and body weight is defended during periods of positive and negative energy balance.

  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase constitute an energy consuming redox circuit

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Lin, Chien-Te; Ryan, Terence E.; Reese, Lauren R.; Gilliam, Laura A. A.; Cathey, Brook L.; Lark, Daniel S.; Smith, Cody D.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cellular proteins rely on reversible redox reactions to establish and maintain biological structure and function. How redox catabolic (NAD+:NADH) and anabolic (NADP+:NADPH) processes integrate during metabolism to maintain cellular redox homeostasis however is unknown. The present work identifies a continuously cycling, mitochondrial membrane potential-dependent redox circuit between the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). PDHC is shown to produce H2O2 in relation to reducing pressure within the complex. The H2O2 produced however is effectively masked by a continuously cycling redox circuit that links, via glutathione/thioredoxin, to NNT, which catalyzes the regeneration of NADPH from NADH at the expense of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The net effect is an automatic fine tuning of NNT-mediated energy expenditure to metabolic balance at the level of PDHC. In mitochondria, genetic or pharmacological disruptions in the PDHC-NNT redox circuit negate counterbalance changes in energy expenditure. At the whole animal level, mice lacking functional NNT (C57BL/6J) are characterized by lower energy expenditure rates, consistent with their well known susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings suggest the integration of redox sensing of metabolic balance with compensatory changes in energy expenditure provides a potential mechanism by which cellular redox homeostasis is maintained and body weight is defended during periods of positive and negative energy balance. PMID:25643703

  8. Immunocapture and microplate-based activity measurement of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Lib, Margarita; Rodriguez-Mari, Adriana; Marusich, Michael F; Capaldi, Roderick A

    2003-03-01

    Altered pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) functioning occurs in primary PDH deficiencies and in diabetes, starvation, sepsis, and possibly Alzheimer's disease. Currently, the activity of the enzyme complex is difficult to measure in a rapid high-throughput format. Here we describe the use of a monoclonal antibody raised against the E2 subunit to immunocapture the intact PDH complex still active when bound to 96-well plates. Enzyme turnover was measured by following NADH production spectrophotometrically or by a fluorescence assay on mitochondrial protein preparations in the range of 0.4 to 5.0 micro g per well. Activity is sensitive to known PDH inhibitors and remains regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation after immunopurification because of the presence of bound PDH kinase(s) and phosphatase(s). It is shown that the immunocapture assay can be used to detect PDH deficiency in cell extracts of cultured fibroblasts from patients, making it useful in patient screens, as well as in the high-throughput format for discovery of new modulators of PDH functioning.

  9. A possible role for the chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in plant glycolate and glyoxylate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blume, Christian; Behrens, Christof; Eubel, Holger; Braun, Hans-Peter; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Glyoxylate is a peroxisomal intermediate of photorespiration, the recycling pathway for 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG) produced by the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Under hot and dry growth conditions, photorespiratory intermediates can accumulate and must be detoxified by alternative pathways, including plastidal reactions. Moreover, there is evidence that chloroplasts are capable of actively producing glyoxylate from glycolate. Further metabolic steps are unknown, but probably include a CO2 release step. Here, we report that CO2 production from glycolate and glyoxylate in isolated tobacco chloroplasts can be inhibited by pyruvate, but not related compounds. We isolated a protein fraction that was enriched for the chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The fraction contained a protein complex of several MDa in size that included all predicted subunits of the chloroplast PDC and a so far unidentified HSP93-V/ClpC1 heat shock protein. Glyoxylate competitively inhibited NADH formation from pyruvate in this fraction. The Km for pyruvate and the Ki for glyoxylate were 330 and 270 μM, respectively. Glyoxylate decarboxylation was also enriched in this fraction and could be in turn inhibited by pyruvate. Based on these data, we suggest that the chloroplast PDC might be part of a pathway for glycolate and/or glyoxylate oxidation in chloroplasts.

  10. In vitro synthesis of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components of Ascaris suum mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.; Ruff, V.; DuBrul, E.F.; Komuniecki, R.W.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a pivotal role in the anaerobic metabolism of Ascaris suum mitochondria. They have initiated a series of studies on the in vitro synthesis and mitochondrial import of PDC. PDC has been purified from adult Ascaris body wall muscle, fully phosphorylated in vitro, and separated into its component subunits on SDS/PAGE. The individual components were electroeluted from the gels and used to immunize rabbits. IgG's to the individual subunits were prepared from antisera and their specificities were verified by immuno-blotting. Each IgG identified a single specific band at the appropriate location in extracts of adult Ascaris body wall muscle mitochondria. Poly A/sup +/-RNA was prepared from body wall muscle and translated in a reticylocyte lysate system using /sup 35/S-methionine. Translation products were immunoprecipitated with specific IgG's, electrophoresed, and fluorographed. Each immunoprecipitation gave rise to a single radioactive polypeptide that was slightly larger than the specific PDC subunit isolated from the adult mitochondria. This system has demonstrated its feasibility for the study of mitochondrial import of a multienzyme complex that is critical for the anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism of Ascaris suum.

  11. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: Metabolic Link to Ischemic Brain Injury and Target of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erica; Rosenthal, Robert E.; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme complex (greater than 7 million Daltons) that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl CoA, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (the reduced form, NADH), and CO2. This reaction constitutes the bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy metabolism. PDHC enzyme activity and immunoreactivity are lost in selectively vulnerable neurons after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Evidence from experiments carried out in vitro suggests that reperfusion-dependent loss of activity is caused by oxidative protein modifications. Impaired enzyme activity may explain the reduced cerebral glucose and oxygen consumption that occurs after cerebral ischemia. This hypothesis is supported by the hyperoxidation of mitochondrial electron transport chain components and NAD(H) that occurs during reperfusion, indicating that NADH production, rather than utilization, is rate limiting. Additional support comes from the findings that immediate postischemic administration of acetyl-l-carnitine both reduces brain lactate/pyruvate ratios and improves neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest in animals. As acetyl-l-carnitine is converted to acetyl CoA, the product of the PDHC reaction, it follows that impaired production of NADH is due to reduced activity of either PDHC or one or more steps in glycolysis. Impaired cerebral energy metabolism and PDHC activity are associated also with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, suggesting that this enzyme is an important link in the pathophysiology of both acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:15562436

  12. The Spectrum of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency: Clinical, Biochemical and Genetic Features in 371 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kavi P.; O'Brien, Thomas W.; Subramony, Sankarasubramon H.; Shuster, Jonathan; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Context Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a genetic mitochondrial disorder commonly associated with lactic acidosis, progressive neurological and neuromuscular degeneration and, usually, death during childhood. There has been no recent comprehensive analysis of the natural history and clinical course of this disease. Objective We reviewed 371 cases of PDC deficiency, published between 1970-2010, that involved defects in subunits E1α and E1β and components E1, E2, E3 and the E3 Binding Protein of the complex. Data Sources and Extraction English language peer-reviewed publications were identified, primarily by using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. Results Neurodevelopmental delay and hypotonia were the commonest clinical signs of PDC deficiency. Structural brain abnormalities frequently included ventriculomegaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and neuroimaging findings typical of Leigh syndrome. Neither gender nor any clinical or neuroimaging feature differentiated the various biochemical etiologies of the disease. Patients who died were younger, presented clinically earlier and had higher blood lactate levels and lower residual enzyme activities than subjects who were still alive at the time of reporting. Survival bore no relationship to the underlying biochemical or genetic abnormality or to gender. Conclusions Although the clinical spectrum of PDC deficiency is broad, the dominant clinical phenotype includes presentation during the first year of life; neurological and neuromuscular degeneration; structural lesions revealed by neuroimaging; lactic acidosis and a blood lactate:pyruvate ratio ≤20. PMID:22079328

  13. The spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: Clinical, biochemical and genetic features in 371 patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kavi P.; O’Brien, Thomas W.; Subramony, Sankarasubramon H.; Shuster, Jonathan; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Context Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a genetic mitochondrial disorder commonly associated with lactic acidosis, progressive neurological and neuromuscular degeneration and, usually, death during childhood. There has been no recent comprehensive analysis of the natural history and clinical course of this disease. Objective We reviewed 371 cases of PDC deficiency, published between 1970 and 2010, that involved defects in subunits E1α and E1β and components E1, E2, E3 and the E3 binding protein of the complex. Data sources and extraction English language peer-reviewed publications were identified, primarily by using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. Results Neurodevelopmental delay and hypotonia were the commonest clinical signs of PDC deficiency. Structural brain abnormalities frequently included ventriculomegaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and neuroimaging findings typical of Leigh syndrome. Neither gender nor any clinical or neuroimaging feature differentiated the various biochemical etiologies of the disease. Patients who died were younger, presented clinically earlier and had higher blood lactate levels and lower residual enzyme activities than subjects who were still alive at the time of reporting. Survival bore no relationship to the underlying biochemical or genetic abnormality or to gender. Conclusions Although the clinical spectrum of PDC deficiency is broad, the dominant clinical phenotype includes presentation during the first year of life; neurological and neuromuscular degeneration; structural lesions revealed by neuroimaging; lactic acidosis and a blood lactate:pyruvate ratio≤20. PMID:22896851

  14. Efficient production of (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid by using a coupled reconstructed D-lactate dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase system.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Binbin; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lv, Min; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R)-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R)-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory. The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA). The mutant D-nLDHY52L/F299Y was then coexpressed with formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to construct a novel biocatalyst E. coli DF. Thus, a novel bio-reduction process utilizing whole cells of E. coli DF as the biocatalyst and formate as the co-substrate for cofactor regeneration was developed for the production of (R)-HPBA from OPBA. The biocatalysis conditions were then optimized. Under the optimum conditions, 73.4 mM OPBA was reduced to 71.8 mM (R)-HPBA in 90 min. Given its high product enantiomeric excess (>99%) and productivity (47.9 mM h(-1)), the constructed coupling biocatalysis system is a promising alternative for (R)-HPBA production.

  15. Comparative 13C metabolic flux analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient, L-valine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    L-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for L-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP.

  16. Lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes and protein-bound sialic acid in regenerating rat liver.

    PubMed

    Allalouf, D; Schwarzman, S; Levinsky, H; Feller, N; Hart, J; Zoher, S; Menache, R

    1986-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) isoenzyme patterns and protein-bound sialic acid content were compared between normal, regenerating rat liver 10 days after partial hepatectomy and fetal rat liver. For this purpose, liver from ten adult rats and two pools of ten fetal livers each were examined. Isoenzymes were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and their percent distribution calculated after quantitation by densitometry of the bands. LDH-5 and LDH-4 combined represented in all the tissues examined 90%-94% of the total activity. LDH-5/LDH-4 ratios were nearly equivalent in the normal and regenerated liver (7.14, 6.41), but substantially lower in fetal liver (2.50). Two bands of AP were visualized in electropherograms. AP-1/AP-2 ratio was lower in regenerated liver (1.57) as compared to normal liver (2.27) and still lower in fetal liver (1.06). Protein-bound sialic acid was, on protein basis, slightly but not significantly higher in regenerated liver (1.71 microgram/mg protein) than in normal liver (1.43), and significantly higher in fetal liver (1.87). The relatively small differences in isoenzyme patterns and in protein-bound sialic acid between regenerated and normal liver as compared to those between fetal and normal tissue add support to the view that the cells in regenerated liver are not of embryonic origin.

  17. Impaired growth and neurological abnormalities in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mandar A.; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Obayashi, Mariko; Hattab, Eyas M.; Brocken, Eric G.; Liechty, Edward A.; Kubek, Michael J.; Vattem, Krishna M.; Wek, Ronald C.; Harris, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The BCKDH (branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) catalyses the rate-limiting step in the oxidation of BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids). Activity of the complex is regulated by a specific kinase, BDK (BCKDH kinase), which causes inactivation, and a phosphatase, BDP (BCKDH phosphatase), which causes activation. In the present study, the effect of the disruption of the BDK gene on growth and development of mice was investigated. BCKDH activity was much greater in most tissues of BDK−/− mice. This occurred in part because the E1 component of the complex cannot be phosphorylated due to the absence of BDK and also because greater than normal amounts of the E1 component were present in tissues of BDK−/− mice. Lack of control of BCKDH activity resulted in markedly lower blood and tissue levels of the BCAAs in BDK−/− mice. At 12 weeks of age, BDK−/− mice were 15% smaller than wild-type mice and their fur lacked normal lustre. Brain, muscle and adipose tissue weights were reduced, whereas weights of the liver and kidney were greater. Neurological abnormalities were apparent by hind limb flexion throughout life and epileptic seizures after 6–7 months of age. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the brain due to hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) might contribute to the neurological abnormalities seen in BDK−/− mice. BDK−/− mice show significant improvement in growth and appearance when fed a high protein diet, suggesting that higher amounts of dietary BCAA can partially compensate for increased oxidation in BDK−/− mice. Disruption of the BDK gene establishes that regulation of BCKDH by phosphorylation is critically important for the regulation of oxidative disposal of BCAAs. The phenotype of the BDK−/− mice demonstrates the importance of tight regulation of oxidative disposal of BCAAs for normal growth and neurological function. PMID:16875466

  18. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of ascites tumour. Activation by AMP and other properties of potential significance in metabolic regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A; Sols, A

    1980-01-01

    1. AMP is an activator of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of the Ehrlich--Lettré ascites tumour, increasing its V up to 2-fold, with Ka of 40 microM at pH 7.4. This activation appears to be an allosteric effect on the decarboxylase subunit of the complex. 2. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex has a Km for pyruvate within the range 17--36 microM depending on the pH, the optimum pH being approx. 7.4, with a V of approx. 0.1 unit/g of cells. The rate-limiting step is dependent on the transformation of the enzyme--substrate complex. The Km for CoA is 15 microM. The Km for NAD+ is 0.7 mM for both the complex and the lipoamide dehydrogenase. The complex is inhibited by acetyl-CoA competitively with CoA; the Ki is 60 microM. The lipoamide dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADH and NADPH competitively with NAD+, with Ki values of 80 and 90 microM respectively. In the reverse reaction the Km values for NADH and NADPH are essentially equal to their Ki values for the forward reaction, the V for the latter being 0.09 of that of the former. Hence the reaction rate of the complex in vivo is likely to be markedly affected by feedback isosteric inhibition by reduced nicotinamide nucleotides and possibly acetyl-CoA. PMID:7193456

  19. L-lactic acid production from D-xylose with Candida sonorensis expressing a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Koivuranta, Kari T; Ilmén, Marja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

    2014-08-08

    Bioplastics, like polylactic acid (PLA), are renewable alternatives for petroleum-based plastics. Lactic acid, the monomer of PLA, has traditionally been produced biotechnologically with bacteria. With genetic engineering, yeast have the potential to replace bacteria in biotechnological lactic acid production, with the benefits of being acid tolerant and having simple nutritional requirements. Lactate dehydrogenase genes have been introduced to various yeast to demonstrate this potential. Importantly, an industrial lactic acid producing process utilising yeast has already been implemented. Utilisation of D-xylose in addition to D-glucose in production of biochemicals such as lactic acid by microbial fermentation would be beneficial, as it would allow lignocellulosic raw materials to be utilised in the production processes. The yeast Candida sonorensis, which naturally metabolises D-xylose, was genetically modified to produce L-lactic acid from D-xylose by integrating the gene encoding L-lactic acid dehydrogenase (ldhL) from Lactobacillus helveticus into its genome. In microaerobic, CaCO3-buffered conditions a C. sonorensis ldhL transformant having two copies of the ldhL gene produced 31 g l-1 lactic acid from 50 g l-1 D-xylose free of ethanol.Anaerobic production of lactic acid from D-xylose was assessed after introducing an alternative pathway of D-xylose metabolism, i.e. by adding a xylose isomerase encoded by XYLA from Piromyces sp. alone or together with the xylulokinase encoding gene XKS1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains were further modified by deletion of the endogenous xylose reductase encoding gene, alone or together with the xylitol dehydrogenase encoding gene. Strains of C. sonorensis expressing xylose isomerase produced L-lactic acid from D-xylose in anaerobic conditions. The highest anaerobic L-lactic acid production (8.5 g l-1) was observed in strains in which both the xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes had been

  20. Lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae transformants with modified lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Skory, C D

    2004-04-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is capable of producing high levels of lactic acid by the fermentation of glucose. Yields typically vary over 60-80%, with the remaining glucose diverted primarily into ethanol fermentation. The goal of this work was to increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, so lactic acid fermentation could more effectively compete for available pyruvate. Three different constructs, pLdhA71X, pLdhA48XI, and pLdhA89VII, containing various lengths of the ldhA gene fragment, were transformed into R. oryzae. This fungus rarely integrates DNA used for transformation, but instead relies on extra-chromosomal replication in a high-copy number. Plasmid pLdhA48XI was linearized prior to transformation in order to facilitate integration into the pyrG gene used for selection. Isolates transformed with ldhA containing plasmid were compared with both the wild-type parent strain and the auxotrophic recipient strain containing vector only. All isolates transformed with pLdhA71X or pLdhA48XI had multiple copies of the ldhA gene that resulted in ldhA transcript accumulation, LDH specific activity, and lactic acid production higher than the controls. Integration of plasmid pLdhA48XI increased the stability of the strain, but did not seem to offer any benefit for increasing lactic acid production. Since lactic acid fermentation competes with ethanol and fumaric acid production, it was not unexpected that increased lactic acid production was always concomitant with decreased ethanol and fumaric acid. Plasmid pLdhA71X, containing a large ldhA fragment (6.1 kb), routinely yielded higher levels of lactic acid than the smaller region (3.3 kb) used to construct plasmid pLdhA48XI. The greatest levels of ldhA transcript and enzyme production occurred with isolates transformed with plasmid pLdhA89VII. However, these transformants always produced less lactic acid and higher amounts of ethanol, fumaric, and glycerol compared with the control.

  1. Alternative Biotransformation of Retinal to Retinoic Acid or Retinol by an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Hye; Ngo, Ho-Phuong-Thuy; Nam, Hyun-Koo; Kim, Kyoung-Rok

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel bacterial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that converts retinal to retinoic acid was first identified in Bacillus cereus. The amino acid sequence of ALDH from B. cereus (BcALDH) was more closely related to mammalian ALDHs than to bacterial ALDHs. This enzyme converted not only small aldehydes to carboxylic acids but also the large aldehyde all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid with NAD(P)+. We newly found that BcALDH and human ALDH (ALDH1A1) could reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol with NADPH. The catalytic residues in BcALDH were Glu266 and Cys300, and the cofactor-binding residues were Glu194 and Glu457. The E266A and C300A variants showed no oxidation activity. The E194S and E457V variants showed 15- and 7.5-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for the reduction of all-trans-retinal than the wild-type enzyme, respectively. The wild-type, E194S variant, and E457V variant enzymes with NAD+ converted 400 μM all-trans-retinal to 210 μM all-trans-retinoic acid at the same amount for 240 min, while with NADPH, they converted 400 μM all-trans-retinal to 20, 90, and 40 μM all-trans-retinol, respectively. These results indicate that BcALDH and its variants are efficient biocatalysts not only in the conversion of retinal to retinoic acid but also in its conversion to retinol with a cofactor switch and that retinol production can be increased by the variant enzymes. Therefore, BcALDH is a novel bacterial enzyme for the alternative production of retinoic acid and retinol. IMPORTANCE Although mammalian ALDHs have catalyzed the conversion of retinal to retinoic acid with NAD(P)+ as a cofactor, a bacterial ALDH involved in the conversion is first characterized. The biotransformation of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid by BcALDH and human ALDH was altered to the biotransformation to all-trans-retinol by a cofactor switch using NADPH. Moreover, the production of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol was changed by mutations

  2. Loss of fatty acid control of gluconeogenesis and PDH complex flux in adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ciprés, G; Urcelay, E; Butta, N; Ayuso, M S; Parrilla, R; Martín-Requero, A

    1994-10-01

    This work aimed to determine the role played by the adrenal gland in the fatty acid control of gluconeogenesis in isolated perfused rat livers. The gluconeogenic substrate concentration responses were not altered in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats. This observation indicates that glucocorticoids are not essential to maintain normal basal gluconeogenic rates. In contrast, fatty acid failed to stimulate gluconeogenesis from lactate and elicited attenuated stimulation with pyruvate as substrate in livers from ADX rats. Fatty acid-induced stimulation of respiration and ketone body production were similar in control and ADX rats. Thus the diminished responsiveness of the gluconeogenic pathway to fatty acid cannot be the result of different rates of energy production and/or generation of reducing power. Fatty acids did not inhibit pyruvate decarboxylation in livers from ADX rats. Even though mitochondria isolated from livers of ADX rats showed normal basal rates of pyruvate metabolism, fatty acids failed to inhibit pyruvate decarboxylation and the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This novel observation of the glucocorticoid effect in controlling the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex responsiveness indicates that the mitochondrial partitioning of pyruvate between carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions may be altered in livers from ADX rats. We propose that the diminished effect of fatty acid in stimulating gluconeogenesis in livers from ADX rats is the result of a limited pyruvate availability for the carboxylase reaction due to a lack of inhibition of flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

  3. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE PAGES

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; ...

    2016-01-29

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificialmore » chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100° C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80° C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.« less

  4. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms. PMID:26858706

  5. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from 1,4-({sup 14}C)succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD{sup +} ratios were elevated, but the formation of {sup 14}C propionate was unchanged.

  6. Novel Inhibitors Complexed with Glutamate Dehydrogenase: ALLOSTERIC REGULATION BY CONTROL OF PROTEIN DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Smith, Christopher J.; Walker, Matthew T.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-12-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P){sup +} as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH.

  7. Folate in demethylation: the crystal structure of the rat dimethylglycine dehydrogenase complexed with tetrahydrofolate.

    PubMed

    Luka, Zigmund; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Newcomer, Marcia E; Wagner, Conrad

    2014-07-11

    Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH) is a mammalian mitochondrial enzyme which plays an important role in the utilization of methyl groups derived from choline. DMGDH is a flavin containing enzyme which catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of dimethylglycine in vitro with the formation of sarcosine (N-methylglycine), hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. DMGDH binds tetrahydrofolate (THF) in vivo, which serves as an acceptor of formaldehyde and in the cell the product of the reaction is 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate instead of formaldehyde. To gain insight into the mechanism of the reaction we solved the crystal structures of the recombinant mature and precursor forms of rat DMGDH and DMGDH-THF complexes. Both forms of DMGDH reveal similar kinetic parameters and have the same tertiary structure fold with two domains formed by N- and C-terminal halves of the protein. The active center is located in the N-terminal domain while the THF binding site is located in the C-terminal domain about 40Å from the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. The folate binding site is connected with the enzyme active center via an intramolecular channel. This suggests the possible transfer of the intermediate imine of dimethylglycine from the active center to the bound THF where they could react producing a 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Based on the homology of the rat and human DMGDH the structural basis for the mechanism of inactivation of the human DMGDH by naturally occurring His109Arg mutation is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel inhibitors complexed with glutamate dehydrogenase: allosteric regulation by control of protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Smith, Christopher J; Walker, Matthew T; Smith, Thomas J

    2009-08-21

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P)(+) as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH.

  9. Regulatory effect of thiamin pyrophosphate on pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S; Czerniecki, J; Dobrzyn, P

    1999-03-16

    The kinetic behavior of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) containing bound endogenous thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was affected by exogenous TPP. In the absence of exogenous TPP, a lag phase of the PDC reaction was observed. TPP added to the PDC reaction medium containing Mg2+ led to a disappearance of the lag phase, inducing strong reduction of the Km value for pyruvate (from 76.7 to 19.0 microM) but a more moderate decrease of Km for CoA (from 12.2 to 4.3 microM) and Km for NAD+ (from 70.2 to 33.6 microM), with no considerable change in the maximum reaction rate. Likewise, thiamin monophosphate (TMP) decreased the Km value of PDC for pyruvate, but to a lesser extent (from 76.7 to 57.9 microM) than TPP. At the unsaturating level of pyruvate, the A50 values for TPP and TMP were 0.2 microM and 0.3 mM, respectively. This could mean that the effect of TPP on PDC was more specific. In addition, exogenous TPP changed the UV spectrum and lowered the fluorescence emission of the PDC containing bound endogenous TPP in its active sites. The data obtained suggest that TPP plays, in addition to its catalytic function, the important role of positive regulatory effector of pig heart PDC.

  10. Complex, unusual conformational changes in kidney betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase suggested by chemical modification with disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Castro, Hector G; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M; Figueroa-Soto, Ciria G; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2007-12-15

    The NAD+-dependent animal betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases participate in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine and carnitine, as well as in polyamines catabolism. We studied the kinetics of inactivation of the porcine kidney enzyme (pkBADH) by the drug disulfiram, a thiol-reagent, with the double aim of exploring the enzyme dynamics and investigating whether it could be an in vivo target of disulfiram. Both inactivation by disulfiram and reactivation by reductants were biphasic processes with equal limiting amplitudes. Under certain conditions half of the enzyme activity became resistant to disulfiram inactivation. NAD+ protected almost 100% at 10 microM but only 50% at 5mM, and vice versa if the enzyme was pre-incubated with NAD+ before the chemical modification. NADH, betaine aldehyde, and glycine betaine also afforded greater protection after pre-incubation with the enzyme than without pre-incubation. Together, these findings suggest two kinds of active sites in this seemingly homotetrameric enzyme, and complex, unusual ligand-induced conformational changes. In addition, they indicate that, in vivo, pkBADH is most likely protected against disulfiram inactivation.

  11. Atomic-Resolution Structures of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase with NAD[superscript +] and Fluoroalcohols Define Strained Michaelis Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2013-01-16

    Structures of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase complexed with NAD{sup +} and unreactive substrate analogues, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol or 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl alcohol, were determined at 100 K at 1.12 or 1.14 {angstrom} resolution, providing estimates of atomic positions with overall errors of 0.02 {angstrom}, the geometry of ligand binding, descriptions of alternative conformations of amino acid residues and waters, and evidence of a strained nicotinamide ring. The four independent subunits from the two homodimeric structures differ only slightly in the peptide backbone conformation. Alternative conformations for amino acid side chains were identified for 50 of the 748 residues in each complex, and Leu-57 and Leu-116 adopt different conformations to accommodate the different alcohols at the active site. Each fluoroalcohol occupies one position, and the fluorines of the alcohols are well-resolved. These structures closely resemble the expected Michaelis complexes with the pro-R hydrogens of the methylene carbons of the alcohols directed toward the re face of C4N of the nicotinamide rings with a C-C distance of 3.40 {angstrom}. The oxygens of the alcohols are ligated to the catalytic zinc at a distance expected for a zinc alkoxide (1.96 {angstrom}) and participate in a low-barrier hydrogen bond (2.52 {angstrom}) with the hydroxyl group of Ser-48 in a proton relay system. As determined by X-ray refinement with no restraints on bond distances and planarity, the nicotinamide rings in the two complexes are slightly puckered (quasi-boat conformation, with torsion angles of 5.9{sup o} for C4N and 4.8{sup o} for N1N relative to the plane of the other atoms) and have bond distances that are somewhat different compared to those found for NAD(P){sup +}. It appears that the nicotinamide ring is strained toward the transition state on the path to alcohol oxidation.

  12. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase binds nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeremy E; Hamaguchi, Nobuko; Belenky, Peter; Mortimer, Sarah E; Stanton, Martin; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2004-01-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. In addition to the catalytic domain, IMPDH contains a subdomain of unknown function composed of two cystathione beta-synthase domains. Our results, using three different assays, show that IMPDHs from Tritrichomonas foetus, Escherichia coli, and both human isoforms bind single-stranded nucleic acids with nanomolar affinity via the subdomain. Approx. 100 nucleotides are bound per IMPDH tetramer. Deletion of the subdomain decreases affinity 10-fold and decreases site size to 60 nucleotides, whereas substitution of conserved Arg/Lys residues in the subdomain with Glu decreases affinity by 20-fold. IMPDH is found in the nucleus of human cells, as might be expected for a nucleic-acid-binding protein. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments show that IMPDH binds both RNA and DNA in vivo. These experiments indicate that IMPDH has a previously unappreciated role in replication, transcription or translation that is mediated by the subdomain. PMID:14766016

  13. Semi-Rational Engineering of Leucine Dehydrogenase for L-2-Aminobutyric Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Miao; Cheng, Feng; Fu, Fang-Tian; Hu, Hai-Feng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-07-01

    L-2-aminobutyric acid (L-ABA) as a precursor for the anticonvulsant and the antituberculotic is a key intermediate in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, leucine dehydrogenase (LeuDH) with NAD(+) regeneration was developed for L-ABA production on a large scale. Previously, the L-ABA yield was improved by optimizing conversion conditions, including cofactor regeneration and enzyme immobilization but not protein engineering on LeuDH due to lacking an applicable high-throughput screening (HTS) method. Recently, an HTS assay was developed by us, which enables researchers to engineer LeuDH in a relatively short period of time. Herein, a semirational engineering was performed on LeuDH to increase the catalytic efficiency of BcLeuDH. Firstly, the structure of wild-type (WT) BcLeuDH was modeled and seven potentially beneficial positions were selected for mutation. Five beneficial variants were then identified from the seven site-saturation mutagenesis (SSM) libraries by HTS and confirmed by rescreening via amino acid analyzer. The "best" variant M5 (WT + Q358N) showed 44.5-fold higher catalytic efficiency (k cat/K M) than BcLeuDH WT, which suggested that BcLeuDH M5 is an attractive candidate for L-ABA production on a large scale. Furthermore, the structure-functional relationship was investigated based on the docking and kinetic results.

  14. Global view of cognate kinase activation by the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Elena L.; Yang, Luying; Birkaya, Barbara; Zhou, Jieyu; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Patel, Mulchand S.; Jordan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) comprises four multidomain components, E1, E3, E2 and an E3-binding protein (E3BP), the latter two forming the core as E2·E3BP sub-complex. Pyruvate flux through PDC is regulated via phosphorylation (inactivation) at E1 by four PDC kinases (PDKs), and reactivation by two PDC phosphatases. Up-regulation of PDK isoform gene expression is reported in several forms of cancer, while PDKs may be further activated by PDC by binding to the E2·E3BP core. Hence, the PDK: E2·E3BP interaction provides new therapeutic targets. We carried out both functional kinetic and thermodynamic studies to demonstrate significant differences in the activation of PDK isoforms by binding to the E2·E3BP core: (i) PDK2 needs no activation by E2·E3BP for efficient functioning, while PDK4 was the least effective of the four isoforms, and could not be activated by E2·E3BP. Hence, development of inhibitors to the interaction of PDK2 and PDK4 with E2·E3BP is not promising; (ii) Design of inhibitors to interfere with interaction of E2·E3BP with PDK1 and PDK3 is promising. PDK3 needs E2·E3BP core for activation, an activation best achieved by synergistic combination of E2-derived catalytic domain and tridomain. PMID:28230160

  15. Global view of cognate kinase activation by the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Elena L; Yang, Luying; Birkaya, Barbara; Zhou, Jieyu; Nemeria, Natalia S; Patel, Mulchand S; Jordan, Frank

    2017-02-23

    The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) comprises four multidomain components, E1, E3, E2 and an E3-binding protein (E3BP), the latter two forming the core as E2·E3BP sub-complex. Pyruvate flux through PDC is regulated via phosphorylation (inactivation) at E1 by four PDC kinases (PDKs), and reactivation by two PDC phosphatases. Up-regulation of PDK isoform gene expression is reported in several forms of cancer, while PDKs may be further activated by PDC by binding to the E2·E3BP core. Hence, the PDK: E2·E3BP interaction provides new therapeutic targets. We carried out both functional kinetic and thermodynamic studies to demonstrate significant differences in the activation of PDK isoforms by binding to the E2·E3BP core: (i) PDK2 needs no activation by E2·E3BP for efficient functioning, while PDK4 was the least effective of the four isoforms, and could not be activated by E2·E3BP. Hence, development of inhibitors to the interaction of PDK2 and PDK4 with E2·E3BP is not promising; (ii) Design of inhibitors to interfere with interaction of E2·E3BP with PDK1 and PDK3 is promising. PDK3 needs E2·E3BP core for activation, an activation best achieved by synergistic combination of E2-derived catalytic domain and tridomain.

  16. Energy landscape of the Michaelis complex of lactate dehydrogenase: relationship to catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huo-Lei; Deng, Hua; Dyer, R Brian; Callender, Robert

    2014-03-25

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the "live" reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ⇌ LDH·NAD(+)·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate's C2═O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2═O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2═O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2═O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure-activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution.

  17. Energy Landscape of the Michaelis Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase: Relationship to Catalytic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the “live” reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ⇌ LDH·NAD+·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate’s C2=O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2=O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2=O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2=O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure–activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution. PMID:24576110

  18. The effects of alpha-adrenergic stimulation on the regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R A; Tanabe, S; Buxton, D B; Olson, M S

    1985-08-05

    The regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex was investigated during alpha-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine in the isolated perfused rat liver. The metabolic flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was monitored by measuring the production of 14CO2 from infused [1-14C] pyruvate. In livers from fed animals perfused with a low concentration of pyruvate (0.05 mM), phenylephrine infusion significantly inhibited the rate of pyruvate decarboxylation without affecting the amount of pyruvate dehydrogenase in its active form. Also, phenylephrine caused no significant effect on tissue NADH/NAD+ and acetyl-CoA/CoASH ratios or on the kinetics of pyruvate decarboxylation in 14CO2 washout experiments. Phenylephrine inhibition of [1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation was, however, closely associated with a decrease in the specific radioactivity of perfusate lactate, suggesting that the pyruvate decarboxylation response simply reflected dilution of the labeled pyruvate pool due to phenylephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis. This suggestion was confirmed in additional experiments which showed that the alpha-adrenergic-mediated inhibitory effect on pyruvate decarboxylation was reduced in livers perfused with a high concentration of pyruvate (1 mM) and was absent in livers from starved rats. Thus, alpha-adrenergic agonists do not exert short term regulatory effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase in the liver. Furthermore, the results suggest either that the rat liver pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is insensitive to changes in mitochondrial calcium or that changes in intramitochondrial calcium levels as a result of alpha-adrenergic stimulation are considerably less than suggested by others.

  19. Inhibition of several enzymes by gold compounds. II. beta-Glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and L-malate dehydrogenase by sodium thiomalatoraurate (I), sodium thiosulfatoaurate (I) and thioglucosoaurate (I).

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Ahmed, T; Haddad, R; Friedman, M E

    1989-01-01

    Bovine liver beta-D-glucuronide glucuronohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.32), wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoesterphosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) and bovine liver L-malate dehydrogenase (L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) were inhibited by a series of gold (I) complexes that have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Both sodium thiosulfatoaurate (I) (Na AuTs) and sodium thiomalatoraurate (NaAuTM) effectively inhibited all three enzymes, while thioglucosoaurate (I) (AuTG) only inhibited L-malate dehydrogenase. The equilibrium constants (K1) ranged from nearly 4000 microM for the NaAuTM-beta-glucuronidase interaction to 24 microM for the NaAuTS-beta-glucuronidase interaction. The rate of covalent bond formation (kp) ranged from 0.00032 min-1 for NaAuTM-beta-glucuronidase formation to 1.7 min-1 for AuTG-L-malate dehydrogenase formation. The equilibrium data shows that the gold (I) drugs bind by several orders lower than the gold (III) compounds, suggesting a significantly stronger interaction between the more highly charged gold ion and the enzyme. Yet the rate of covalent bond formation depends as much on the structure of the active site as upon the lability of the gold-ligand bond. It was also observed that the more effective the gold inhibition the more toxic the compound.

  20. The elementary reactions of the pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. A study of the inhibition by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D A; Cooper, R H; Denton, R M; Bridges, B J; Randle, P J

    1976-07-01

    1. A method was devised for preparing pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), permitting studies of the binding of [35S]TPP to pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate. The Kd of TPP for pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 6.2-8.2 muM, whereas that for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was approximately 15 muM; both forms of the complex contained about the same total number of binding sites (500 pmol/unit of enzyme). EDTA completely inhibited binding of TPP; sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and GTP, which are inhibitors (competitive with TPP) of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction, did not appreciably affect TPP binding. 2. Initial-velocity patterns of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction obtained with varying TPP, CoA and NAD+ concentrations at a fixed pyruvate concentration were consistent with a sequential three-site Ping Pong mechanism; in the presence of oxaloacetate and citrate synthase to remove acetyl-CoA (an inhibitor of the overall reaction) the values of Km for NAD+ and CoA were 53+/- 5 muM and 1.9+/-0.2 muM respectively. Initial-velocity patterns observed with varying TPP concentrations at various fixed concentrations of pyruvate were indicative of either a compulsory order of addition of substrates to form a ternary complex (pyruvate-Enz-TPP) or a random-sequence mechanism in which interconversion of ternary intermediates is rate-limiting; values of Km for pyruvate and TPP were 25+/-4 muM and 50+/-10 nM respectively. The Kia-TPP (the dissociation constant for Enz-TPP complex calculated from kinetic plots) was close to the value of Kd-TPP (determined by direct binding studies). 3. Inhibition of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction by pyrophosphate was mixed non-competitive versus pyruvate and competitive versus TPP; however, pyrophosphate did not alter the calculated value for Kia-TPP, consistent with the lack of effect of pyrophosphate on the Kd for TPP. 4

  1. Formation of ursodeoxycholic acid from chenodeoxycholic acid by a 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating Eubacterium aerofaciens strain cocultured with 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating organisms.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, I A; Rochon, Y P; Hutchison, D M; Holdeman, L V

    1982-01-01

    A gram-positive, anaerobic, chain-forming, rod-shaped anaerobe (isolate G20-7) was isolated from normal human feces. This organism was identified by cellular morphology as well as fermentative and biochemical data as Eubacterium aerofaciens. When isolate G20-7 was grown in the presence of Bacteroides fragilis or Escherichia coli (or another 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase producer) and chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid produced. Time course curves revealed that 3 alpha-hydroxy-7-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid produced by B. fragilis or E. coli or introduced into the medium as a pure substance was reduced by G20-7 specifically to ursodeoxycholic acid. The addition of glycine- and taurine-conjugated primary bile acids (chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids) and other bile acids to binary cultures of B. fragilis and G20-7 revealed that (i) both conjugates were hydrolyzed to give free bile acids, (ii) ursocholic acid (3 alpha, 7 beta, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic acid) was produced when conjugated (or free) cholic acid was the substrate, and (iii) the epimerization reaction was at least partially reversible. Corroborating these observations, an NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (reacting specifically with 7 beta-OH-groups) was demonstrated in cell-free preparations of isolate G20-7; production of the enzyme was optimal at between 12 and 18 h of growth. This enzyme, when measured in the oxidative direction, was active with ursodeoxycholic acid, ursocholic acid, and the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (but not with chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, or cholic acids) and displayed an optimal pH range of 9.8 to 10.2 Images PMID:6758698

  2. Inhibition of snowshoe hare succinate dehydrogenase activity as a mechanism of deterrence for papyriferic acid in birch.

    PubMed

    Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen; Pu, Xinzhu; Xu, Dong; Kielland, Knut; Bryant, John

    2011-12-01

    The plant secondary metabolite papyriferic acid (PA) deters browsing by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) on the juvenile developmental stage of the Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana). However, the physiological mechanism that reduces browsing remains unknown. We used pharmacological assays and molecular modeling to test the hypothesis that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a mode of action (MOA) of toxicity of PA in snowshoe hares. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of PA on the activity of SDH in liver mitochondria isolated from wild hares. In addition, we used molecular modeling to determine the specific binding site of PA on SDH. We found that PA inhibits SDH from hares by an uncompetitive mechanism in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular modeling suggests that inhibition of SDH is a result of binding of PA at the ubiquinone binding sites in complex II. Our results provide a MOA for toxicity that may be responsible for the concentration-dependent anti-feedant effects of PA. We propose that snowshoe hares reduce the dose-dependent toxic consequences of PA by relying on efflux transporters and metabolizing enzymes that lower systemic exposure to dietary PA.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of binary and ternary complexes of Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Esclapez, Julia; Britton, K Linda; Baker, Patrick J; Fisher, Martin; Pire, Carmen; Ferrer, Juan; Bonete, María José; Rice, David W

    2005-08-01

    Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) belongs to the medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily and requires zinc for catalysis. In the majority of these family members, the catalytic zinc is tetrahedrally coordinated by the side chains of a cysteine, a histidine, a cysteine or glutamate and a water molecule. In H. mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase, sequence analysis indicates that the zinc coordination is different, with the invariant cysteine replaced by an aspartate residue. In order to analyse the significance of this replacement and to contribute to an understanding of the role of the metal ion in catalysis, a range of binary and ternary complexes of the wild-type and a D38C mutant protein have been crystallized. For most of the complexes, crystals belonging to space group I222 were obtained using sodium/potassium citrate as a precipitant. However, for the binary and non-productive ternary complexes with NADPH/Zn, it was necessary to replace the citrate with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. Despite the radical change in conditions, the crystals thus formed were isomorphous.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of binary and ternary complexes of Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Esclapez, Julia; Britton, K. Linda; Baker, Patrick J.; Fisher, Martin; Pire, Carmen; Ferrer, Juan; Bonete, María José; Rice, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) belongs to the medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily and requires zinc for catalysis. In the majority of these family members, the catalytic zinc is tetrahedrally coordinated by the side chains of a cysteine, a histidine, a cysteine or glutamate and a water molecule. In H. mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase, sequence analysis indicates that the zinc coordination is different, with the invariant cysteine replaced by an aspartate residue. In order to analyse the significance of this replacement and to contribute to an understanding of the role of the metal ion in catalysis, a range of binary and ternary complexes of the wild-type and a D38C mutant protein have been crystallized. For most of the complexes, crystals belonging to space group I222 were obtained using sodium/potassium citrate as a precipitant. However, for the binary and non-productive ternary complexes with NADPH/Zn, it was necessary to replace the citrate with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. Despite the radical change in conditions, the crystals thus formed were isomorphous. PMID:16511145

  5. Magnetic and optical properties of copper-substituted alcohol dehydrogenase: a bisthiolate copper (II) complex.

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, J A; Formicka, G; Zeppezauer, M; Thomson, A J

    1996-01-01

    Replacement of the catalytic Zn(II) in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) with copper produces a mononuclear Cu(II) chromophore with a ligand set consisting of two cysteine sulphurs, one histidine nitrogen plus one further atom. The fourth ligand to the metal ion and the conformation of the protein may be altered by addition of exogenous ligands and/or the cofactor NADH. Absorbance, CD, low-temperature magnetic CD (MCD) and EPR spectra are presented of copper-substituted HLADH samples in both 'open' and 'closed' conformations and in the presence and absence of the exogenous ligands pyrazole and DMSO. The EPR spectra indicate a strong, predominantly axial field about the copper(II) ion with high copper-thiol (cysteine) covalence. The optical and MCD spectra are interpreted in terms of four d-d transitions to low energy, also reflecting the axial ligand field, and four charge-transfer transitions to copper(II) between 30000 and 16000 cm-1 arising from the two cysteine sulphur atoms which give two pairs of oppositely signed MCD C-terms. These transitions are polarized mainly in the axial plane defined by Cys-46, Cys-174 and His-67. The binary complex formed with pyrazole displays quite different EPR and optical spectra which can be understood in terms of a rotation of the copper hole-orbital away from the axial plane thus decreasing sharply the copper-thiol covalence. The magneto-optical spectra in the presence and absence of DMSO are indistinguishable. PMID:8713071

  6. The effect of 2-oxoglutarate or 3-hydroxybutyrate on pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in isolated cerebrocortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lai, J C; Sheu, K F

    1987-08-01

    The oxidation of pyruvate is mediated by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC; EC 1.2.4.1, EC 2.3.1.12 and EC 1.6.4.3) whose catalytic activity is influenced by phosphorylation and by product inhibition. 2-Oxoglutarate and 3-hydroxybutyrate are readily utilized by brain mitochondria and inhibit pyruvate oxidation. To further elucidate the regulatory behavior of brain PDHC, the effects of 2-oxoglutarate and 3-hydroxybutyrate on the flux of PDHC (as determined by [1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation) and the activation (phosphorylation) state of PDHC were determined in isolated, non-synaptic cerebro-cortical mitochondria in the presence or absence of added adenine nucleotides (ADP or ATP). [1-14C]Pyruvate decarboxylation by these mitochondria is consistently depressed by either 3-hydroxybutyrate or 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of ADP when mitochondrial respiration is stimulated. In the presence of exogenous ADP, 3-hydroxybutyrate inhibits pyruvate oxidation mainly through the phosphorylation of PDHC, since the reduction of the PDHC flux parallels the depression of PDHC activation state under these conditions. On the other hand, in addition to the phosphorylation of PDHC, 2-oxoglutarate may also regulate pyruvate oxidation by product inhibition of PDHC in the presence of 0.5 mM pyruvate plus ADP or 5 mM pyruvate alone. This conclusion is based upon the observation that 2-oxoglutarate inhibits [1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation to a much greater extent than that predicted from the PDHC activation state (i.e. catalytic capacity) alone. In conjunction with the results from our previous study (Lai, J. C. K. and Sheu, K.-F. R. (1985) J. Neurochem. 45, 1861-1868), the data of the present study are consistent with the notion that the relative importance of the various mechanisms that regulate brain and peripheral tissue PDHCs shows interesting differences.

  7. Changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity during and following severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cardell, M; Siesjö, B K; Wieloch, T

    1991-01-01

    The effect of severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia on the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) was investigated in homogenates of frozen rat cerebral cortex during burst suppression EEG, after 10, 30, and 60 min of isoelectric EEG, and after 30 and 180 min and 24 h of recovery following 30 min of hypoglycemic coma. Changes in PDHC activity were correlated to levels of labile organic phosphates and glycolytic metabolites. In cortex from control animals, the rate of [1-14C]pyruvate decarboxylation was 7.1 +/- 1.3 U/mg of protein, or 35% of the total PDHC activity. The activity was unchanged during burst suppression EEG whereas the active fraction increased to 81-87% during hypoglycemic coma. Thirty minutes after glucose-induced recovery, the PDHC activity had decreased by 33% compared to control levels, and remained significantly depressed after 3 h of recovery. This decrease in activity was not due to a decrease in the total PDHC activity. At 24 h of recovery, PDHC activity had returned to control levels. We conclude that the activation of PDHC during hypoglycemic coma is probably the result of an increased PDH phosphatase activity following depolarization and calcium influx, and allosteric inhibition of PDH kinase due to increased ADP/ATP ratio. The depression of PDHC activity following hypoglycemic coma is probably due to an increased phosphorylation of the enzyme, as a consequence of an imbalance between PDH phosphatase and kinase activities. Since some reduction of the ATP/ADP ratio persisted and since the lactate/pyruvate ratio had normalized by 3 h of recovery, the depression of PDHC most likely reflects a decrease in PDH phosphatase activity, probably due to a decrease in intramitochondrial Ca2+.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of eucaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex: decarboxylation rate, oscillations, and multiplicity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An-Ping; Modak, Jayant; Deckwer, Wolf-Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) multienzyme complex is known as a key node in affecting the metabolic fluxes of animal cell culture. However, its possible role in causing possible nonlinear dynamic behavior such as oscillations and multiplicity of animal cells has received little attention. In this work, the kinetic and dynamic behavior of PDH of eucaryotic cells has been analyzed by using both in vitro and simplified in vivo models. With the in vitro model the overall reaction rate (nu(1)) of PDH is shown to be a nonlinear function of pyruvate concentration, leading to oscillations under certain conditions. All enzyme components affect nu(1) and the nonlinearity of PDH significantly, the protein X and the core enzyme dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (E2) being mostly predominant. By considering the synthesis rates of pyruvate and PDH components the in vitro model is expanded to emulate in vivo conditions. Analysis using the in vivo model reveals another interesting kinetic feature of the PDH system, namely, multiple steady states. Depending on the pyruvate and enzyme levels or the operation mode, either a steady state with high pyruvate decarboxylation rate or a steady state with significantly lower decarboxylation rate can be achieved under otherwise identical conditions. In general, the more efficient steady state is associated with a lower pyruvate concentration. A possible time delay in the substrate supply and enzyme synthesis can also affect the steady state to be achieved and leads to oscillations under certain conditions. Overall, the predictions of multiplicity for the PDH system agree qualitatively well with recent experimental observations in animal cell cultures. The model analysis gives some hints for improving pyruvate metabolism in animal cell culture.

  9. Phosphatidic Acid Binds to Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase and Promotes Its Cleavage in Arabidopsis *

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Chul; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a class of lipid messengers involved in a variety of physiological processes. To understand how PA mediates cell functions in plants, we used a PA affinity membrane assay to isolate PA-binding proteins from Camelina sativa followed by mass spectrometric sequencing. A cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) was identified to bind to PA, and detailed analysis was carried out subsequently using GAPC1 and GAPC1 from Arabidopsis. The PA and GAPC binding was abolished by the cation zinc whereas oxidation of GAPCs promoted the PA binding. PA had little impact on the GAPC catalytic activity in vitro, but the PA treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings induced proteolytic cleavage of GAPC2 and inhibited Arabidopsis seedling growth. The extent of PA inhibition was greater in GAPC-overexpressing than wild-type seedlings, but the greater PA inhibition was abolished by application of zinc to the seedling. The PA treatment also reduced the expression of genes involved in PA synthesis and utilization, and the PA-reduced gene expression was partially recovered by zinc treatment. These data suggest that PA binds to oxidized GAPDH and promotes its cleavage and that the PA and GAPC interaction may provide a signaling link coordinating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:23504314

  10. Calcium regulates glutamate dehydrogenase and poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis in Bacillus natto.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yonghong; Dong, Guiru; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yuling; Chen, Weifeng

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of Ca(2+) on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and its role in poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) synthesis in Bacillus natto HSF 1410. When the concentration of Ca(2+) varied from 0 to 0.1 g/l in the growth medium of B. natto HSF 1410, γ-PGA production increased from 6.8 to 9.7 g/l, while GDH specific activity and NH4Cl consumption improved from 183 to 295 U/mg and from 0.65 to 0.77 g/l, respectively. GDH with α-ketoglutarate as substrate primarily used NADPH as coenzyme with a K m of 0.08 mM. GDH was responsible for the synthesis of endogenous glutamate. The specific activity of GDH remained essentially unchanged in the presence of CaCl2 (0.05-0.2 g/l) in vitro. However, the specific activity of GDH and its expression was significantly increased by CaCl2 in vivo. Therefore, the regulation of GDH and PGA synthesis by Ca(2+) is an intracellular process. Calcium regulation may be an effective approach for producing γ-PGA on an industrial scale.

  11. Retinol Dehydrogenase-10 Regulates Pancreas Organogenesis and Endocrine Cell Differentiation via Paracrine Retinoic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir; Strasser, Jürgen; Gouignard, Nadège; Johansson, Jenny K; Singh, Tania; Mazur, Magdalena; Semb, Henrik; Artner, Isabella; Minichiello, Liliana; Pera, Edgar M

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here, we show that retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight, and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early glucagon(+) and insulin(+) cells. During the secondary transition, the reduction of Neurogenin3(+) endocrine progenitors in the mutant dorsal pancreas accounted for fewer α- and β-cells. Changes in the expression of α- and β-cell-specific transcription factors indicated that Rdh10 might also participate in the terminal differentiation of endocrine cells. Together, our results highlight the importance of both mesenchymal and epithelial Rdh10 for pancreogenesis and the first wave of endocrine cell differentiation. We further propose a model in which the Rdh10-expressing exocrine tissue acts as an essential source of RA signals in the second wave of endocrine cell differentiation.

  12. Biliary epithelial expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: an immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Tsuneyama, K; Kono, N; Hoso, M; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    1995-01-01

    It has been reported recently that there is a unique distribution of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) on biliary epithelial cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) but not primary sclerosing cholangitis. This distribution has been demonstrated using a mouse monoclonal antibody, coined C355.1. The epitope recognized by C355.1 is near the lipoic acid binding site of PDC-E2. C355.1 inhibits PDC-E2 activity in vitro and, unlike a panel of other monoclonal antibodies against different regions of PDC-E2, appears to bind not only to mitochondria but also to a unique antigen expressed predominantly on the luminal side of biliary epithelial cells in PBC. We have extended these observations by studying the subcellular reactivity of C355.1 using postembedding immunoelectron microscopy on the intrahepatic small bile ducts of PBC livers, extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EBO) livers, and normal livers. We report that the reactivity of C355.1 can be classified into two categories. The first category is characterized by small foci of reaction products that were randomly dispersed in cytoplasm, particularly in supranuclear areas; the ultrastructural characterization of these foci was impossible to define but was similar in PBC and EBO. However, of particular interest was the second category of reactivity, which was characterized by deposition of reaction products around the biliary lumen, including microvilli and adjacent subluminal ectoplasm and secretory substances in the biliary lumen. This staining pattern was frequent in PBC livers, only occasionally evident in EBO livers, and not found in normal livers. These data further define and highlight the unique subcellular distribution of PDC-E2 around the biliary lumen in PBC livers and suggest that this abnormality is related to the pathogenesis of bile duct lesions.

  13. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Takanari; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Adams, Sean H; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2013-12-01

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of BCKA catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal models. In this study, we examined the regulation of hepatic BCKDC in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed a control or a 60% of energy high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Concentrations of blood components and the activities and protein amounts of hepatic BCKDC and its specific kinase (BDK) were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone were significantly elevated in DIO rats compared to those fed the control diet, suggestive of insulin resistance. Blood BCAA concentrations were not increased. The activity of hepatic BCKDC that was present in the active form in the liver was higher in DIO rats compared to controls, although the total activity and the enzyme amount were not different between two diet groups. The activity of hepatic BDK and the abundance of BDK bound to the BCKDC were decreased in DIO rats. The total amount of hepatic BDK was also significantly decreased in DIO rats. In rats made obese through HFD feeding, in contrast to prior studies in rat models of type 2 diabetes, hepatic BDK was down-regulated and thereby hepatic BCKDC was activated, suggesting that DIO promotes liver BCKA catabolism. In this model there was no evidence that increased blood BCAAs drive DIO-associated insulin resistance, since concentrations of BCAAs were not altered by DIO.

  14. Novel Binding Motif and New Flexibility Revealed by Structural Analyses of a Pyruvate Dehydrogenase-Dihydrolipoyl Acetyltransferase Subcomplex from the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Palaniappa; Wang, Junjie; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Reynolds, Shelley; Brown, Ian; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Calero, Guillermo; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components, E1p, E2p, and E3, that sequentially carry out distinct steps in the overall reaction converting pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Efficient functioning requires the enzymatic components to assemble into a large complex, the integrity of which is maintained by tethering of the displaced, peripheral E1p and E3 components to the E2p core through non-covalent binding. We here report the crystal structure of a subcomplex between E1p and an E2p didomain containing a hybrid lipoyl domain along with the peripheral subunit-binding domain responsible for tethering to the core. In the structure, a region at the N terminus of each subunit in the E1p homodimer previously unseen due to crystallographic disorder was observed, revealing a new folding motif involved in E1p-E2p didomain interactions, and an additional, unexpected, flexibility was discovered in the E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex, both of which probably have consequences in the overall multienzyme complex assembly. This represents the first structure of an E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex involving a homodimeric E1p, and the results may be applicable to a large range of complexes with homodimeric E1 components. Results of HD exchange mass spectrometric experiments using the intact, wild type 3-lipoyl E2p and E1p are consistent with the crystallographic data obtained from the E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex as well as with other biochemical and NMR data reported from our groups, confirming that our findings are applicable to the entire E1p-E2p assembly. PMID:25210042

  15. Identification and Validation of Aspartic Acid Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase as a New Anti-Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Target

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jianzhou; Yang, Yanhui; Xiao, Chunling; Guan, Yan; Hao, Xueqin; Deng, Qi; Lu, Zhongyang

    2015-01-01

    Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80%) in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs. PMID:26437401

  16. Identification and Validation of Aspartic Acid Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase as a New Anti-Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Target.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianzhou; Yang, Yanhui; Xiao, Chunling; Guan, Yan; Hao, Xueqin; Deng, Qi; Lu, Zhongyang

    2015-09-30

    Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80%) in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs.

  17. Influence of Carboxylic Acids on the Stereospecific Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide-Dependent and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide-Independent Lactate Dehydrogenases of Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    PubMed Central

    Doelle, Horst W.

    1971-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides increased its lactic acid production from glucose threefold when malic acid was added to the culture. This increase resulted also in a reduction of the ratio of d-lactic acid to l-lactic acid (31.5 to 1.23). Addition of malic acid increased 6.5-fold the specific activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-linked l-lactate dehydrogenase and increased 3.2-fold that of NAD-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase. The Michaelis constant (Km) for NAD of the NAD-linked l-lactate dehydrogenase increased with the addition of malate, but no change was observed in the Km values for the respective d-enzyme. The effect of carboxylic acids on the NAD-linked l-lactate dehydrogenase activities was tested by using partially purified enzyme preparations from cells grown with glucose alone and from cells grown with glucose plus malate. Malate stimulated the l-enzyme and inhibited the d-lactate dehydrogenase. The NAD-linked l-lactate dehydrogenase exhibited the same activity bands on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whether the cell-free preparation originated from cells grown on glucose plus malate or on glucose as the sole carbon source. The NAD-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase, however, exhibited a different pattern of electrophoretic mobility, depending upon the source of origin of the cell-free preparation. The results suggest that malate has a stimulatory effect on the synthesis of both enzymes and may result in rearrangement of the protein structure of the d-lactate dehydrogenase. This rearrangement apparently makes the d-enzyme more susceptible to inhibition of catalytic activity. The l-lactate dehydrogenase, however, is stimulated not only in its synthesis but also in its activity. It is proposed that these effects are responsible for the regulation of lactic acid production. PMID:4333321

  18. Solution Structure and Characterisation of the Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Core Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakrishnan, S.; Kelly, S.M.; Gilbert, R.J.C.; Callow, P.; Bhella, D.; Forsyth, T.; Lindsay, J.G.; Byron, O.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a key multi-enzyme assembly that is responsible for glucose homeostasis maintenance and conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. It comprises a central pentagonal dodecahedral core consisting of two subunit types (E2 and E3BP) to which peripheral enzymes (E1 and E3) bind tightly but non-covalently. Currently, there are two conflicting models of PDC (E2 + E3BP) core organisation: the ‘addition’ model (60 + 12) and the ‘substitution’ model (48 + 12). Here we present the first ever low-resolution structures of human recombinant full-length PDC core (rE2/E3BP), truncated PDC core (tE2/E3BP) and native bovine heart PDC core (bE2/E3BP) obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. These structures, corroborated by negative-stain and cryo electron microscopy data, clearly reveal open pentagonal core faces, favouring the ‘substitution’ model of core organisation. The native and recombinant core structures are all similar to the truncated bacterial E2 core crystal structure obtained previously. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of rE2/E3BP and rE2/E3BP:E3 directly confirm that the core has open pentagonal faces, agree with scattering-derived models and show density extending outwards from their surfaces, which is much more structurally ordered in the presence of E3. Additionally, analytical ultracentrifugation characterisation of rE2/E3BP, rE2 (full-length recombinant E2-only) and tE2/E3BP supports the substitution model. Superimposition of the small-angle neutron scattering tE2/E3BP and truncated bacterial E2 crystal structures demonstrates conservation of the overall pentagonal dodecahedral morphology, despite evolutionary diversity. In addition, unfolding studies using circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy show that the rE2/E3BP is less stable than its rE2 counterpart, indicative of a role for E3BP in core destabilisation. The architectural

  19. Effect of malonate and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid on hepatic succinic dehydrogenase activity of ageing lizards.

    PubMed

    Jena, B S; Patnaik, B K

    1990-01-01

    The degree of inhibition of hepatic succinic dehydrogenase activity by malonate, a competitive inhibitor, did not differ between young and middle-aged lizards. On the other hand, the same parameter increased significantly between middle-aged and old lizards. The percent inhibition of enzyme activity by p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid was also age-dependent, being higher in middle-aged and old than in young lizards.

  20. Lethal neonatal case and review of primary short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency associated with secondary lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bedoyan, Jirair K; Yang, Samuel P; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jack, Rhona M; Miron, Alexander; Grahame, George; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; Hoppel, Charles L; Kerr, Douglas S; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in ECHS1 result in short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency which mainly affects the catabolism of various amino acids, particularly valine. We describe a case compound heterozygous for ECHS1 mutations c.836T>C (novel) and c.8C>A identified by whole exome sequencing of proband and parents. SCEH deficiency was confirmed with very low SCEH activity in fibroblasts and nearly absent immunoreactivity of SCEH. The patient had a severe neonatal course with elevated blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations, high plasma alanine and slightly low plasma cystine. 2-Methyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid was markedly elevated as were metabolites of the three branched-chain α-ketoacids on urine organic acids analysis. These urine metabolites notably decreased when lactic acidosis decreased in blood. Lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity was deficient, but PDC and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities in cultured fibroblasts were normal. Oxidative phosphorylation analysis on intact digitonin-permeabilized fibroblasts was suggestive of slightly reduced PDC activity relative to control range in mitochondria. We reviewed 16 other cases with mutations in ECHS1 where PDC activity was also assayed in order to determine how common and generalized secondary PDC deficiency is associated with primary SCEH deficiency. For reasons that remain unexplained, we find that about half of cases with primary SCEH deficiency also exhibit secondary PDC deficiency. The patient died on day-of-life 39, prior to establishing his diagnosis, highlighting the importance of early and rapid neonatal diagnosis because of possible adverse effects of certain therapeutic interventions, such as administration of ketogenic diet, in this disorder. There is a need for better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and phenotypic variability in this relatively recently discovered disorder.

  1. Dogfish M4 lactate dehydrogenase: reversible inactivation by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and complete protection in complexes that mimic the active ternary complex.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S S; Engel, P C

    1975-01-01

    Dogfish M4 lactate dehydrogenase, like the corresponding pig enzyme, is inactivated by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate through modification of a single essential lysine residue. The activity is completely protected in the complexes E-NAD+-oxalate, E-NADH-oxamate and E-(NAD+-pyruvate adduct), but only partially protected in E-NAD+, E-NADH, E-NAD+-oxamate and E-NADH-oxalate. PMID:175780

  2. Elementary steps in the reaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pig heart. Kinetics of thiamine diphosphate binding to the complex.

    PubMed

    Sümegi, B; Alkonyi, I

    1983-11-02

    In the progress curve of the reaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a lag phase was observed when the concentration of thiamin diphosphate was lower than usual (about 0.2-1 mM) in the enzyme assay. The length of the lag phase was dependent on thiamin diphosphate concentration, ranging from 0.2 min to 2 min as the thiamin diphosphate concentration varied from 800 nM to 22 nM. The lag phase was also observed in the elementary steps catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase component. A Km value of 107 nM was found for thiamin diphosphate with respect to the steady-state reaction rate following the lag phase. The pre-steady-state kinetic data indicate that the resulting lag phase was the consequence of a slow holoenzyme formation from apoenzyme and thiamin diphosphate. The thiamin diphosphate can bind to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the absence of pyruvate, but the presence of 2 mM pyruvate increases the rate constant of binding from 1.4 X 10(4) M-1 S-1 to 1.3 X 10(5) M-1 S-1 and decreases the rate constant of dissociation from 2.3 X 10(-2) S-1 to 4.1 X 10(-3) S-1. On the other hand, the effect of pyruvate on the thiamin diphosphate binding revealed the existence of a thiamin-diphosphate-independent pyruvate-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Direct evidence was also obtained with fluorescence techniques for the existence of this binding site and the dissociation constant of pyruvate was found to be 0.38 mM. On the basis of these data we have proposed a random mechanism for the binding of pyruvate and thiamin diphosphate to the complex. Binding of substrates to the enzyme complex caused an increase in the fluorescence of the dansylaziridine-labelled pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, showing that binding of substrates to the complex is accompanied by structural changes.

  3. Glutamate dehydrogenase requirement for apoptosis induced by aristolochic acid in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry; Bonala, Radha; Johnson, Francis; Grollman, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AA) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adduct formation, is well-documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. Epithelial cell death is a critical characteristic of these pathological conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms of AA-induced cytotoxicity, we explored AA-interacting proteins in tubular epithelial cells (TEC). We found that AA interacts with a mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and moderately inhibits its activity. We report that AA induces cell death in GDH-knockdown TEC preferentially via non-apoptotic means, whereas in GDH-positive cells, death was executed by both the non-apoptotic and apoptotic mechanisms. Apoptosis is an energy-reliant process and demands higher adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) consumption than does the non-apoptotic cell death. We found that, after AAI treatment, the ATP depletion is more pronounced in GDH-knockdown cells. When we reduced ATP in TEC cells by inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, cell death mode switched from apoptosis and necrosis to necrosis only. In addition, in cells incubated at low glucose and no glutamine conditions, oxaloacetate and pyruvate reduced AAI-induced apoptosis our data suggest that AAI-GDH interactions in TEC are critical for the induction of apoptosis by direct inhibition of GDH activity. AA binding may also induce changes in GDH conformation and promote interactions with other molecules or impair signaling by GDH metabolic products, leading to apoptosis.

  4. Regulation of the activity of lactate dehydrogenases from four lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Salit, Anna; Hering, Silvio; Messiha, Hanan L; Veith, Nadine; Cojocaru, Vlad; Sieg, Antje; Westerhoff, Hans V; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C; Fiedler, Tomas

    2013-07-19

    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphate (Pi), and ionic strength (NaCl concentration) on six LDHs from four LABs studied at pH 6 and pH 7. We found that 1) the extent of activation by FBP (Kact) differs. Lactobacillus plantarum LDH is not regulated by FBP, but the other LDHs are activated with increasing sensitivity in the following order: Enterococcus faecalis LDH2 ≤ Lactococcus lactis LDH2 < E. faecalis LDH1 < L. lactis LDH1 ≤ Streptococcus pyogenes LDH. This trend reflects the electrostatic properties in the allosteric binding site of the LDH enzymes. 2) For L. plantarum, S. pyogenes, and E. faecalis, the effects of Pi are distinguishable from the effect of changing ionic strength by adding NaCl. 3) Addition of Pi inhibits E. faecalis LDH2, whereas in the absence of FBP, Pi is an activator of S. pyogenes LDH, E. faecalis LDH1, and L. lactis LDH1 and LDH2 at pH 6. These effects can be interpreted by considering the computed binding affinities of Pi to the catalytic and allosteric binding sites of the enzymes modeled in protonation states corresponding to pH 6 and pH 7. Overall, the results show a subtle interplay among the effects of Pi, FBP, and pH that results in different regulatory effects on the LDHs of different LABs.

  5. Kinetic characterization and regulation of the human retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 enzyme during production of retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Yehuda; Jubran, Halim; Nassar, Taher; Hirschberg, Joseph; Fainsod, Abraham

    2016-05-15

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important regulator of embryogenesis and tissue homoeostasis. Perturbation of RA signalling causes developmental disorders, osteoarthritis, schizophrenia and several types of tumours. RA is produced by oxidation of retinaldehyde from vitamin A. The main enzyme producing RA in the early embryo is retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2, ALDH1A2). In the present study we describe in depth the kinetic properties and regulation of the human RALDH2 (hRALDH2) enzyme. We show that this enzyme produces RA using in vivo and in vitro assays. We studied the naturally occurring all-trans-, 9-cis- and 13-cis-retinaldehyde isomers as substrates of hRALDH2. Based on the values measured for the Michaelis-Menten constant Km and the maximal rate Vmax, in vitro hRALDH2 displays the same catalytic efficiency for their oxidation. We characterized two known inhibitors of the vertebrate RALDH2 and determined their kinetic parameters on hRALDH2. In addition, RA was studied as a possible inhibitor of hRALDH2 and a regulator of its activity. We show that hRALDH2 is not inhibited by its oxidation product, all-trans-RA, suggesting the absence of a negative feedback regulatory loop. Expression of the Raldh2 gene is known to be regulated by RA itself, suggesting that the main regulation of the hRALDH2 activity level is transcriptional. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 converts farnesal into farnesoic acid in the corpora allata of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Clifton, Mark E; Garcia, Elena Martin; LeBlanc, Elizabeth; Noriega, Fernando G

    2013-08-01

    The juvenile hormones (JHs) play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. Interrupting JH biosynthesis has long been considered a promising strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. Using a combination of RNAi, in vivo and in vitro studies we characterized the last unknown biosynthetic enzyme of the JH pathway, a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (AaALDH3) that oxidizes farnesal into farnesoic acid (FA) in the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes. The AaALDH3 is structurally and functionally a NAD(+)-dependent class 3 ALDH showing tissue- and developmental-stage-specific splice variants. Members of the ALDH3 family play critical roles in the development of cancer and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome in humans, but have not been studies in groups other than mammals. Using a newly developed assay utilizing fluorescent tags, we demonstrated that AaALDH3 activity, as well as the concentrations of farnesol, farnesal and FA were different in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. In CA of blood-fed females the low catalytic activity of AaALDH3 limited the flux of precursors and caused a remarkable increase in the pool of farnesal with a decrease in FA and JH synthesis. The accumulation of the potentially toxic farnesal stimulated the activity of a reductase that converted farnesal back into farnesol, resulting in farnesol leaking out of the CA. Our studies indicated AaALDH3 plays a key role in the regulation of JH synthesis in blood-fed females and mosquitoes seem to have developed a "trade-off" system to balance the key role of farnesal as a JH precursor with its potential toxicity.

  7. Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Stress Signaling via Mitochondrial Succinate Dehydrogenase1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are known for their role in ATP production and generation of reactive oxygen species, but little is known about the mechanism of their early involvement in plant stress signaling. The role of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in salicylic acid (SA) signaling was analyzed using two mutants: disrupted in stress response1 (dsr1), which is a point mutation in SDH1 identified in a loss of SA signaling screen, and a knockdown mutant (sdhaf2) for SDH assembly factor 2 that is required for FAD insertion into SDH1. Both mutants showed strongly decreased SA-inducible stress promoter responses and low SDH maximum capacity compared to wild type, while dsr1 also showed low succinate affinity, low catalytic efficiency, and increased resistance to SDH competitive inhibitors. The SA-induced promoter responses could be partially rescued in sdhaf2, but not in dsr1, by supplementing the plant growth media with succinate. Kinetic characterization showed that low concentrations of either SA or ubiquinone binding site inhibitors increased SDH activity and induced mitochondrial H2O2 production. Both dsr1 and sdhaf2 showed lower rates of SA-dependent H2O2 production in vitro in line with their low SA-dependent stress signaling responses in vivo. This provides quantitative and kinetic evidence that SA acts at or near the ubiquinone binding site of SDH to stimulate activity and contributes to plant stress signaling by increased rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production, leading to part of the SA-dependent transcriptional response in plant cells. PMID:28209841

  8. New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid?

    PubMed

    Van Kuilenburg, André B P; Stroomer, Alida E M; Van Lenthe, Henk; Abeling, Nico G G M; Van Gennip, Albert H

    2004-04-01

    DPD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) constitutes the first step of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, in which the pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are catabolized to beta-alanine and the R-enantiomer of beta-AIB (beta-aminoisobutyric acid) respectively. The S-enantiomer of beta-AIB is predominantly derived from the catabolism of valine. It has been suggested that an altered homoeostasis of beta-alanine underlies some of the clinical abnormalities encountered in patients with a DPD deficiency. In the present study, we demonstrated that only a slightly decreased concentration of beta-alanine was present in the urine and plasma, whereas normal levels of beta-alanine were present in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a DPD deficiency. Therefore the metabolism of beta-alanine-containing peptides, such as carnosine, may be an important factor involved in the homoeostasis of beta-alanine in patients with DPD deficiency. The mean concentration of beta-AIB was approx. 2-3-fold lower in cerebrospinal fluid and urine of patients with a DPD deficiency, when compared with controls. In contrast, strongly decreased levels (10-fold) of beta-AIB were present in the plasma of DPD patients. Our results demonstrate that, under pathological conditions, the catabolism of valine can result in the production of significant amounts of beta-AIB. Furthermore, the observation that the R-enantiomer of beta-AIB is abundantly present in the urine of DPD patients suggests that significant cross-over exists between the thymine and valine catabolic pathways.

  9. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignin is a significant barrier in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired CAD or COMT activity have attracted considerable agronomic interest for their altered lignin composition and improved digestibility. Here, we identified and functionally characterized candidate genes encoding CAD and COMT enzymes in the grass model species Brachypodium distachyon with the aim of improving crops for efficient biofuel production. Results We developed transgenic plants overexpressing artificial microRNA designed to silence BdCAD1 or BdCOMT4. Both transgenes caused altered flowering time and increased stem count and weight. Downregulation of BdCAD1 caused a leaf brown midrib phenotype, the first time this phenotype has been observed in a C3 plant. While acetyl bromide soluble lignin measurements were equivalent in BdCAD1 downregulated and control plants, histochemical staining and thioacidolysis indicated a decrease in lignin syringyl units and reduced syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in the transgenic plants. BdCOMT4 downregulated plants exhibited a reduction in total lignin content and decreased Maule staining of syringyl units in stem. Ethanol yield by microbial fermentation was enhanced in amiR-cad1-8 plants. Conclusion These results have elucidated two key genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in B. distachyon that, when perturbed, may result in greater stem biomass yield and bioconversion efficiency. PMID:23902793

  10. Selective inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 by 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid but not 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid.

    PubMed

    Classen-Houben, Dirk; Schuster, Daniela; Da Cunha, Thierry; Odermatt, Alex; Wolber, Gerhard; Jordis, Ulrich; Kueenburg, Bernhard

    2009-02-01

    Elevated cortisol concentrations have been associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes type 2 and obesity. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1, catalyzing the conversion of inactive 11-ketoglucocorticoids into their active 11beta-hydroxy forms, plays an important role in the regulation of cortisol levels within specific tissues. The selective inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 is currently considered as promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metabolic diseases. In recent years, natural compound-derived drug design has gained considerable interest. 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a metabolite of the natural product glycyrrhizin, is not selective and inhibits both 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2. Here, we compare the biological activity of 18beta-GA and its diastereomer 18alpha-GA against the two enzymes in lysates of transfected HEK-293 cells and show that 18alpha-GA selectively inhibits 11beta-HSD1 but not 11beta-HSD2. This is in contrast to 18beta-GA, which preferentially inhibits 11beta-HSD2. Using a pharmacophore model based on the crystal structure of the GA-derivative carbenoxolone in complex with human 11beta-HSD1, we provide an explanation for the differences in the activities of 18alpha-GA and 18beta-GA. This model will be used to design novel selective derivatives of GA.

  11. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency induces compensatory amino acid metabolism during fasting in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoki; Yoshida, Yuma; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2016-11-01

    Glucose is used as an energy source in many organs and obtained from dietary carbohydrates. However, when the external energy supply is interrupted, e.g., during fasting, carbohydrates preserved in the liver and glycogenic precursors derived from other organs are used to maintain blood glucose levels. Glycerol and glycogenic amino acids derived from adipocytes and skeletal muscles are utilized as glycogenic precursors. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), an NAD(+)/NADH-dependent enzyme present in the cytosol, catalyzes the reversible conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Since G3P is one of the substrates utilized for gluconeogenesis in the liver, the conversion of G3P to DHAP by GPD1 is essential for maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting. We focused on GPD1 and examined its roles in gluconeogenesis during fasting. Using GPD1 null model BALB/cHeA mice (HeA mice), we measured gluconeogenesis from glycerol and the change of blood glucose levels under fasting conditions. We also measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis in the liver and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. BALB/cBy mice (By mice) were used as a control. The blood glucose levels in the HeA mice were lower than that in the By mice after glycerol administration. Although lack of GPD1 inhibited gluconeogenesis from glycerol, blood glucose levels in the HeA mice after 1-4h of fasting were significantly higher than that in the By mice. Muscle protein synthesis in HeA mice was significantly lower than that in the By mice. Moreover, blood alanine levels and usage of alanine for gluconeogenesis in the liver were significantly higher in the HeA mice than that in the By mice. Although these data indicate that a lack of GPD1 inhibits gluconeogenesis from glycerol, chronic GPD1 deficiency may induce an adaptation that enhances gluconeogenesis from glycogenic amino acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase and Short Branched-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase in the Metabolism of Valproic Acid: Implications for the Branched-Chain Amino Acid Oxidation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luís, Paula B. M.; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; IJlst, Lodewijk; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Duran, Marinus; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Vockley, Jerry; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many biological systems including the oxidative catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are affected in vivo by valproate therapy. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of valproic acid (VPA) and some of its metabolites on the metabolism of BCAAs. In vitro studies were performed using isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IBD), and short branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD), enzymes involved in the degradation pathway of leucine, valine, and isoleucine. The enzymatic activities of the three purified human enzymes were measured using optimized high-performance liquid chromatography procedures, and the respective kinetic parameters were determined in the absence and presence of VPA and the corresponding CoA and dephosphoCoA conjugates. Valproyl-CoA and valproyl-dephosphoCoA inhibited IVD activity significantly by a purely competitive mechanism with Ki values of 74 ± 4 and 170 ± 12 μM, respectively. IBD activity was not affected by any of the tested VPA esters. However, valproyl-CoA did inhibit SBCAD activity by a purely competitive mechanism with a Ki of 249 ± 29 μM. In addition, valproyl-dephosphoCoA inhibited SBCAD activity via a distinct mechanism (Ki = 511 ± 96 μM) that appeared to be of the mixed type. Furthermore, we show that both SBCAD and IVD are active, using valproyl-CoA as a substrate. The catalytic efficiency of SBCAD turned out to be much higher than that of IVD, demonstrating that SBCAD is the most probable candidate for the first dehydrogenation step of VPA β-oxidation. Our data explain some of the effects of valproate on the branched-chain amino acid metabolism and shed new light on the biotransformation pathway of valproate. PMID:21430231

  13. Crystal structures of complexes of NAD{sup +}-dependent formate dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 with formate

    SciTech Connect

    Filippova, E. V. Polyakov, K. M.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Stekhanova, T. N.; Boiko, K. M.; Sadykhov, I. G.; Tishkov, V. I.; Popov, V. O.; Labru, N.

    2006-07-15

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 catalyzes oxidation of formate to NI{sub 2} with the coupled reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}). The three-dimensional structures of the apo form (the free enzyme) and the holo form (the ternary FDH-NAD{sup +}-azide complex) of FDH have been established earlier. In the present study, the structures of FDH complexes with formate are solved at 2.19 and 2.28 A resolution by the molecular replacement method and refined to the R factors of 22.3 and 20.5%, respectively. Both crystal structures contain four protein molecules per asymmetric unit. These molecules form two dimers identical to the dimer of the apo form of FDH. Two possible formatebinding sites are found in the active site of the FDH structure. In the complexes the sulfur atom of residue Cys354 exists in the oxidized state.

  14. The peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus: preparation and characterization of its binding to the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase component.

    PubMed Central

    Hipps, D S; Packman, L C; Allen, M D; Fuller, C; Sakaguchi, K; Appella, E; Perham, R N

    1994-01-01

    The peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase polypeptide chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was released by limited proteolysis from a di-domain (lipoyl domain plus binding domain) encoded by a subgene over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The domain was characterized by N-terminal sequence analysis, electrospray m.s. and c.d. spectroscopy. It was found to be identical in all respects to a chemically synthesized peptide of the same sequence. The association of the di-domain and binding domain (both natural and synthetic) with dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase was analysed in detail and a tight binding was demonstrated. As judged by several different techniques, it was found that only one peripheral subunit-binding domain is bound to one dimer of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, implying that the association is highly anti-cooperative. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:8280091

  15. The peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus: preparation and characterization of its binding to the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase component.

    PubMed

    Hipps, D S; Packman, L C; Allen, M D; Fuller, C; Sakaguchi, K; Appella, E; Perham, R N

    1994-01-01

    The peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase polypeptide chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was released by limited proteolysis from a di-domain (lipoyl domain plus binding domain) encoded by a subgene over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The domain was characterized by N-terminal sequence analysis, electrospray m.s. and c.d. spectroscopy. It was found to be identical in all respects to a chemically synthesized peptide of the same sequence. The association of the di-domain and binding domain (both natural and synthetic) with dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase was analysed in detail and a tight binding was demonstrated. As judged by several different techniques, it was found that only one peripheral subunit-binding domain is bound to one dimer of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, implying that the association is highly anti-cooperative.

  16. Carbon Flux Trapping: Highly Efficient Production of Polymer-Grade d-Lactic Acid with a Thermophilic d-Lactate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2016-08-17

    High production of polymer-grade d-lactic acid is urgently required, particularly for the synthesis of polylactic acid. High-temperature fermentation has multiple advantages, such as lower equipment requirement and energy consumption, which are essential for lowering operating costs. We identified and introduced a unique d-lactate dehydrogenase into a thermotolerant butane-2,3-diol-producing strain. Carbon flux "trapping" was achieved by a "trapping point" created by combination of the introduced enzyme and the host efflux pump, which afforded irreversible transport of d-lactic acid. The overall carbon flux of the engineered strain was significantly enhanced and was redistributed predominantly to d-lactic acid. Under optimized conditions at 50 °C, d-lactic acid reached the highest titer (226.6 g L(-1) ) reported to date. This discovery allows us to extend the carbon flux trapping strategy to engineering complex metabolic networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Characterization of the major dehydrogenase related to d-lactic acid synthesis in Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Jung-Mi; Seo, Eunyoung; Ahn, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Han, Nam Soo

    2012-10-10

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 is a lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to d-(-)-lactic acid by using d-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for d-lactic acid formation in this organism and to characterize the enzyme to facilitate the production of optically pure d-lactic acid. A genomic analysis of L. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 revealed that 7 genes encode lactate-related dehydrogenase. According to transcriptomic, proteomic, and phylogenetic analyses, LEUM_1756 was the major gene responsible for the production of d-lactic acid. The LEUM_1756 gene, of 996bp and encoding 332 amino acids (36.5kDa), was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star from an inducible pET-21a(+) vector. The enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and showed a specific activity of 4450U/mg, significantly higher than those of other previously reported ldhDs. The gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the purified enzyme exists as tetramers in solution and this was the first report among lactic acid bacteria. The pH and temperature optima were pH 8.0 and 30°C, respectively, for the pyruvate reduction reaction, and pH 11.0 and 20°C, respectively, for the lactate oxidation reaction. The K(m) kinetic parameters for pyruvate and lactate were 0.58mM and 260mM, respectively. In addition, the k(cat) values for pyruvate and lactate were 2900s(-1) and 2280s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was not inhibited by Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), or urea, but was inhibited by 1mM Zn(2+) and 1mM SDS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Principles of quasi-equivalence and Euclidean geometry govern the assembly of cubic and dodecahedral cores of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Tina; Ævarsson, Arnthor; Allen, Mark D.; Westphal, Adrie H.; Perham, Richard N.; de Kok, Aart; Hol, Wim G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (Mr of 5–10 million) is assembled around a structural core formed of multiple copies of dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2p), which exhibits the shape of either a cube or a dodecahedron, depending on the source. The crystal structures of the 60-meric dihydrolipoyl acyltransferase cores of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes were determined and revealed a remarkably hollow dodecahedron with an outer diameter of ≈237 Å, 12 large openings of ≈52 Å diameter across the fivefold axes, and an inner cavity with a diameter of ≈118 Å. Comparison of cubic and dodecahedral E2p assemblies shows that combining the principles of quasi-equivalence formulated by Caspar and Klug [Caspar, D. L. & Klug, A. (1962) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 1–4] with strict Euclidean geometric considerations results in predictions of the major features of the E2p dodecahedron matching the observed features almost exactly. PMID:9990008

  19. Cooperation of divalent ions and thiamin diphosphate in regulation of the function of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Czerniecki, J; Czygier, M

    2001-12-01

    The role of Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ in regulation of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) containing endogenous thiamin diphosphate (TDP) was studied. It was found that the effects of the cations depended on the presence of exogenous TDP. In the absence of added TDP, the divalent cations led to a shortening of a lag phase of the PDC reaction and a strong reduction of the Km value for pyruvate. The relative efficiency of the three types of ions are presented as follows: Mn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The other sources claim that in the presence of exogenous TDP, which alone strongly increased the affinity of PDC for pyruvate, any significant additional effects of the cations were not observed. However, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ decreased the Km value for CoA in both cases, the absence and presence of exogenous TDP, in approximately a similar extent (about twofold). The affinity of PDC for NAD+ seems to be not sensitive to the presence of the divalent cations. The data obtained suggest that Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ can cooperate with TDP as positive regulatory effectors of pig heart PDC on the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipoamide acetyltransferase components of the complex.

  20. Effects of low molecular-weight organic acids and dehydrogenase activity in rhizosphere sediments of mangrove plants on phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Fang, Ling; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-03-01

    This work evaluated the roles of the low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) from root exudates and the dehydrogenase activity in the rhizosphere sediments of three mangrove plant species on the removal of mixed PAHs. The results showed that the concentrations of LMWOAs and dehydrogenase activity changed species-specifically with the levels of PAH contamination. In all plant species, the concentration of citric acid was the highest, followed by succinic acid. For these acids, succinic acid was positively related to the removal of all the PAHs except Chr. Positive correlations were also found between the removal percentages of 4-and 5-ring PAHs and all LMWOAs, except citric acid. LMWOAs enhanced dehydrogenase activity, which positively related to PAH removal percentages. These findings suggested that LMWOAs and dehydrogenase activity promoted the removal of PAHs. Among three mangrove plants, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, the plant with the highest root biomass, dehydrogenase activity and concentrations of LMWOAs, was most efficient in removing PAHs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pistacia lentiscus Oleoresin: Virtual Screening and Identification of Masticadienonic and Isomasticadienonic Acids as Inhibitors of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Anna; Seibert, Julia; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P; Rollinger, Judith M; Odermatt, Alex; Schuster, Daniela; Assimopoulou, Andreana N

    2015-04-01

    In traditional medicine, the oleoresinous gum of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, so-called mastic gum, has been used to treat multiple conditions such as coughs, sore throats, eczema, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Mastic gum is rich in triterpenes, which have been postulated to exert antidiabetic effects and improve lipid metabolism. In fact, there is evidence of oleanonic acid, a constituent of mastic gum, acting as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, and mastic gum being antidiabetic in mice in vivo. Despite these findings, the exact antidiabetic mechanism of mastic gum remains unknown. Glucocorticoids play a key role in regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 that converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol has been proposed as a promising approach to combat metabolic disturbances including diabetes. In this study, a pharmacophore-based virtual screening was applied to filter a natural product database for possible 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors. The hit list analysis was especially focused on the triterpenoids present in Pistacia species. Multiple triterpenoids, such as masticadienonic acid and isomasticadienonic acid, main constituents of mastic gum, were identified. Indeed, masticadienonic acid and isomasticadienonic acid selectively inhibited 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 over 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 at low micromolar concentrations. These findings suggest that inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 contributes to the antidiabetic activity of mastic gum.

  2. Metabolic fate of unsaturated glucuronic/iduronic acids from glycosaminoglycans: molecular identification and structure determination of streptococcal isomerase and dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yukie; Oiki, Sayoko; Takase, Ryuichi; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru

    2015-03-06

    Glycosaminoglycans in mammalian extracellular matrices are degraded to their constituents, unsaturated uronic (glucuronic/iduronic) acids and amino sugars, through successive reactions of bacterial polysaccharide lyase and unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase. Genes coding for glycosaminoglycan-acting lyase, unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, and the phosphotransferase system are assembled into a cluster in the genome of pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococci and clostridia. Here, we studied the streptococcal metabolic pathway of unsaturated uronic acids and the structure/function relationship of its relevant isomerase and dehydrogenase. Two proteins (gbs1892 and gbs1891) of Streptococcus agalactiae strain NEM316 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 4-Deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate (Dhu) nonenzymatically generated from unsaturated uronic acids was converted to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate via 3-deoxy-d-glycero-2,5-hexodiulosonate through successive reactions of gbs1892 isomerase (DhuI) and gbs1891 NADH-dependent reductase/dehydrogenase (DhuD). DhuI and DhuD enzymatically corresponded to 4-deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate ketol-isomerase (KduI) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate dehydrogenase (KduD), respectively, involved in pectin metabolism, although no or low sequence identity was observed between DhuI and KduI or between DhuD and KduD, respectively. Genes for DhuI and DhuD were found to be included in the streptococcal genetic cluster, whereas KduI and KduD are encoded in clostridia. Tertiary and quaternary structures of DhuI and DhuD were determined by x-ray crystallography. Distinct from KduI β-barrels, DhuI adopts an α/β/α-barrel structure as a basic scaffold similar to that of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase. The structure of DhuD is unable to accommodate the substrate/cofactor, suggesting that conformational changes are essential to trigger enzyme catalysis. This is the first report on the bacterial metabolism of

  3. Maple syrup urine disease. Complete primary structure of the E1 beta subunit of human branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex deduced from the nucleotide sequence and a gene analysis of patients with this disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nobukuni, Y; Mitsubuchi, H; Endo, F; Akaboshi, I; Asaka, J; Matsuda, I

    1990-01-01

    A defect in the E1 beta subunit of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex is one cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). In an attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of MSUD, we isolated and characterized a 1.35 kbp cDNA clone encoding the entire precursor of the E1 beta subunit of BCKDH complex from a human placental cDNA library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the isolated cDNA clone (lambda hBE1 beta-1) contained a 5'-untranslated sequence of four nucleotides, the translated sequence of 1,176 nucleotides and the 3'-untranslated sequence of 169 nucleotides. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert of the clone with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified mature bovine BCKDH-E1 beta subunit showed that the cDNA insert encodes for a 342-amino acid subunit with a Mr = 37,585. The subunit is synthesized as the precursor with a leader sequence of 50 amino acids and is processed at the NH2 terminus. A search for protein homology revealed that the primary structure of human BCKDH-E1 beta was similar to the bovine BCKDH-E1 beta and to the E1 beta subunit of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, in all regions. The structures and functions of mammalian alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes are apparently highly conserved. Genomic DNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from normal and five MSUD patients, in whom E1 beta was not detected by immunoblot analysis, gave the same restriction maps on Southern blot analysis. The gene has at least 80 kbp. Images PMID:2365818

  4. [Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: decrease in 4-OH-butyric acid levels with low doses of vigabatrin].

    PubMed

    Escalera, G Iglesias; Ferrer, I; Marina, Ll Carrasco; Sala, P Ruiz; Salomons, G S; Jakobs, C; Pérez-Cerdá, C

    2010-02-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria) is a rare neurometabolic disease caused by a deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric degradation, resulting in an increase in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biological fluids. The clinical spectrum is heterogeneous, including a variety of neurological manifestations and psychiatric symptoms. The treatment usually used is vigabatrin, but its clinical efficacy is under discussion. We present two affected siblings. The older brother was examined when he was 2.5 years old due to psychomotor and developmental delay, disturbances in motor coordination, axial hypotonia and language disability. His younger brother had mild axial hypotonia when 5 months old. Metabolic studies demonstrated a high plasma and urine concentration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Mutation analysis of the gene ALDH5A1 confirmed the disease. After 1 year of treatment with low-doses of vigabatrin of the older patient, a decrease in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid plasma levels and a slow clinical improvement were observed.

  5. Equivalence between Pfr and Cyclic AMP in the Induction of d-Usnic Acid Dehydrogenase in the Lichen Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    Avalos, A; Vicente, C

    1987-07-01

    d-Usnic acid dehydrogenase is induced in Evernia prunastri thalli by a supply of exogenous d-usnic acid in light. This effect is enhanced by red light pulses through a two step way: a very rapid increase of activity after the first 10 minutes of red light, which is not reversed by far-red light, and a slow enhancement following successive red light pulses at the beginning of each hour of incubation. The last response is completely reversed by far-red following red light. Although induction of the enzyme is not achieved in the dark, 0.1 and 0.5 millimolar cyclic AMP, or 0.1 millimolar dibutyryl cyclic AMP substitutes light action and, then, the enzyme is produced. In addition, phytochrome-far red-absorbing form-increases the amount of endogenously produced cyclic AMP and this effect is shown to be photoreversible when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is inhibiting adenylate cyclase.

  6. Structural insight into the catalytic mechanism of gluconate 5-dehydrogenase from Streptococcus suis: Crystal structures of the substrate-free and quaternary complex enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiangmin; Peng, Hao; Gao, Feng; Liu, Yiwei; Cheng, Hao; Thompson, John; Gao, George F

    2009-01-01

    Gluconate 5-dehydrogenase (Ga5DH) is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes a reversible oxidoreduction reaction between d-gluconate and 5-keto-d-gluconate, thereby regulating the flux of this important carbon and energy source in bacteria. Despite the considerable amount of physiological and biochemical knowledge of Ga5DH, there is little physical or structural information available for this enzyme. To this end, we herein report the crystal structures of Ga5DH from pathogenic Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in both substrate-free and liganded (NADP+/d-gluconate/metal ion) quaternary complex forms at 2.0 Å resolution. Structural analysis reveals that Ga5DH adopts a protein fold similar to that found in members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, while the enzyme itself represents a previously uncharacterized member of this family. In solution, Ga5DH exists as a tetramer that comprised four identical ∼29 kDa subunits. The catalytic site of Ga5DH shows considerable architectural similarity to that found in other enzymes of the SDR family, but the S. suis protein contains an additional residue (Arg104) that plays an important role in the binding and orientation of substrate. The quaternary complex structure provides the first clear crystallographic evidence for the role of a catalytically important serine residue and also reveals an amino acid tetrad RSYK that differs from the SYK triad found in the majority of SDR enzymes. Detailed analysis of the crystal structures reveals important contributions of Ca2+ ions to active site formation and of specific residues at the C-termini of subunits to tetramer assembly. Because Ga5DH is a potential target for therapy, our findings provide insight not only of catalytic mechanism, but also suggest a target of structure-based drug design. PMID:19177572

  7. Human 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex E1 Component Forms a Thiamin-derived Radical by Aerobic Oxidation of the Enamine Intermediate*

    PubMed Central

    Nemeria, Natalia S.; Ambrus, Attila; Patel, Hetalben; Gerfen, Gary; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Tretter, Laszlo; Zhou, Jieyu; Wang, Junjie; Jordan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Herein are reported unique properties of the human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (OGDHc), a rate-limiting enzyme in the Krebs (citric acid) cycle. (a) Functionally competent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1o-h) and dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase components have been expressed according to kinetic and spectroscopic evidence. (b) A stable free radical, consistent with the C2-(C2α-hydroxy)-γ-carboxypropylidene thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) cation radical was detected by electron spin resonance upon reaction of the E1o-h with 2-oxoglutarate (OG) by itself or when assembled from individual components into OGDHc. (c) An unusual stability of the E1o-h-bound C2-(2α-hydroxy)-γ-carboxypropylidene thiamin diphosphate (the “ThDP-enamine”/C2α-carbanion, the first postdecarboxylation intermediate) was observed, probably stabilized by the 5-carboxyl group of OG, not reported before. (d) The reaction of OG with the E1o-h gave rise to superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide (reactive oxygen species (ROS)). (e) The relatively stable enzyme-bound enamine is the likely substrate for oxidation by O2, leading to the superoxide anion radical (in d) and the radical (in b). (f) The specific activity assessed for ROS formation compared with the NADH (overall complex) activity, as well as the fraction of radical intermediate occupying active centers of E1o-h are consistent with each other and indicate that radical/ROS formation is an “off-pathway” side reaction comprising less than 1% of the “on-pathway” reactivity. However, the nearly ubiquitous presence of OGDHc in human tissues, including the brain, makes these findings of considerable importance in human metabolism and perhaps disease. PMID:25210035

  8. Two shikimate dehydrogenases, VvSDH3 and VvSDH4, are involved in gallic acid biosynthesis in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Bontpart, Thibaut; Marlin, Thérèse; Vialet, Sandrine; Guiraud, Jean-Luc; Pinasseau, Lucie; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Sommerer, Nicolas; Cheynier, Véronique; Terrier, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the shikimate pathway provides aromatic amino acids that are used to generate numerous secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds. In this pathway, shikimate dehydrogenases (SDH) ‘classically’ catalyse the reversible dehydrogenation of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate. The capacity of SDH to produce gallic acid from shikimate pathway metabolites has not been studied in depth. In grapevine berries, gallic acid mainly accumulates as galloylated flavan-3-ols. The four grapevine SDH proteins have been produced in Escherichia coli. In vitro, VvSDH1 exhibited the highest ‘classical’ SDH activity. Two genes, VvSDH3 and VvSDH4, mainly expressed in immature berry tissues in which galloylated flavan-3-ols are accumulated, encoded enzymes with lower ‘classical’ activity but were able to produce gallic acid in vitro. The over-expression of VvSDH3 in hairy-roots increased the content of aromatic amino acids and hydroxycinnamates, but had little or no effect on molecules more distant from the shikimate pathway (stilbenoids and flavan-3-ols). In parallel, the contents of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and galloylated flavan-3-ols were increased, attesting to the influence of this gene on gallic acid metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis from dicotyledon SDHs opens the way for the examination of genes from other plants which accumulate gallic acid-based metabolites. PMID:27241494

  9. Two shikimate dehydrogenases, VvSDH3 and VvSDH4, are involved in gallic acid biosynthesis in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Bontpart, Thibaut; Marlin, Thérèse; Vialet, Sandrine; Guiraud, Jean-Luc; Pinasseau, Lucie; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Sommerer, Nicolas; Cheynier, Véronique; Terrier, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    In plants, the shikimate pathway provides aromatic amino acids that are used to generate numerous secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds. In this pathway, shikimate dehydrogenases (SDH) 'classically' catalyse the reversible dehydrogenation of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate. The capacity of SDH to produce gallic acid from shikimate pathway metabolites has not been studied in depth. In grapevine berries, gallic acid mainly accumulates as galloylated flavan-3-ols. The four grapevine SDH proteins have been produced in Escherichia coli In vitro, VvSDH1 exhibited the highest 'classical' SDH activity. Two genes, VvSDH3 and VvSDH4, mainly expressed in immature berry tissues in which galloylated flavan-3-ols are accumulated, encoded enzymes with lower 'classical' activity but were able to produce gallic acid in vitro The over-expression of VvSDH3 in hairy-roots increased the content of aromatic amino acids and hydroxycinnamates, but had little or no effect on molecules more distant from the shikimate pathway (stilbenoids and flavan-3-ols). In parallel, the contents of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and galloylated flavan-3-ols were increased, attesting to the influence of this gene on gallic acid metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis from dicotyledon SDHs opens the way for the examination of genes from other plants which accumulate gallic acid-based metabolites.

  10. Antisense inhibition of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in tomato demonstrates its importance for plant respiration and during leaf senescence and fruit maturation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Wagner L; Tohge, Takayuki; Osorio, Sonia; Lohse, Marc; Balbo, Ilse; Krahnert, Ina; Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Usadel, Björn; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing a fragment of the gene encoding the E1 subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in the antisense orientation and exhibiting substantial reductions in the activity of this enzyme exhibit a considerably reduced rate of respiration. They were, however, characterized by largely unaltered photosynthetic rates and fruit yields but restricted leaf, stem, and root growth. These lines displayed markedly altered metabolic profiles, including changes in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and in the majority of the amino acids but unaltered pyridine nucleotide content both in leaves and during the progression of fruit ripening. Moreover, they displayed a generally accelerated development exhibiting early flowering, accelerated fruit ripening, and a markedly earlier onset of leaf senescence. In addition, transcript and selective hormone profiling of gibberellins and abscisic acid revealed changes only in the former coupled to changes in transcripts encoding enzymes of gibberellin biosynthesis. The data obtained are discussed in the context of the importance of this enzyme in both photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism as well as in programs of plant development connected to carbon-nitrogen interactions.

  11. Antisense Inhibition of the 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex in Tomato Demonstrates Its Importance for Plant Respiration and during Leaf Senescence and Fruit Maturation[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Wagner L.; Tohge, Takayuki; Osorio, Sonia; Lohse, Marc; Balbo, Ilse; Krahnert, Ina; Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Usadel, Björn; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing a fragment of the gene encoding the E1 subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in the antisense orientation and exhibiting substantial reductions in the activity of this enzyme exhibit a considerably reduced rate of respiration. They were, however, characterized by largely unaltered photosynthetic rates and fruit yields but restricted leaf, stem, and root growth. These lines displayed markedly altered metabolic profiles, including changes in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and in the majority of the amino acids but unaltered pyridine nucleotide content both in leaves and during the progression of fruit ripening. Moreover, they displayed a generally accelerated development exhibiting early flowering, accelerated fruit ripening, and a markedly earlier onset of leaf senescence. In addition, transcript and selective hormone profiling of gibberellins and abscisic acid revealed changes only in the former coupled to changes in transcripts encoding enzymes of gibberellin biosynthesis. The data obtained are discussed in the context of the importance of this enzyme in both photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism as well as in programs of plant development connected to carbon–nitrogen interactions. PMID:22751214

  12. Enzymological and physiological consequences of restructuring the lipoyl domain content of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Guest, J R; Attwood, M M; Machado, R S; Matqi, K Y; Shaw, J E; Turner, S L

    1997-02-01

    The core-forming lipoate acetyltransferase (E2p) subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex of Escherichia coli contain three tandemly repeated lipoyl domains although one lipoyl domain is apparently sufficient for full catalytic activity in vitro. Plasmids containing IPTG-inducible aceEF-IpdA operons which express multilip-PDH complexes bearing one N-terminal lipoyl domain and up to seven unlipoylated (mutant) domains per E2p chain, were constructed. Each plasmid restored the nutritional lesion of a strain lacking the PDH complex and expressed a sedimentable PDH complex, although the catalytic activities declined significantly as the number of unlipoylated domains increased above four per E2p chain. It was concluded that the extra domains protrude from the 24-meric E2p core without affecting assembly of the E1p and E3 subunits, and that the lipoyl cofactor bound to the outermost domain can participate successfully at each of the three types of active site in the assembled complex. Physiological studies with two series of isogenic strains expressing multilip-PDH complexes from modified chromosomal pdh operons (pdhR-aceEF-IpdA) showed that three lipoyl domains per E2p chain is optimal and that only the outermost domain need be lipoylated for optimal activity. It is concluded that the reason for retaining three lipoyl domains is to extend the reach of the outermost lipoyl cofactor rather than to provide extra cofactors for catalysis.

  13. L-Malate dehydrogenase activity in the reductive arm of the incomplete citric acid cycle of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Charles E

    2013-11-01

    The autotrophic nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea does not synthesize 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase under aerobic conditions and so has an incomplete citric acid cycle. L-malate (S-malate) dehydrogenase (MDH) from N. europaea was predicted to show similarity to the NADP(+)-dependent enzymes from chloroplasts and was separated from the NAD(+)-dependent proteins from most other bacteria or mitochondria. MDH activity in a soluble fraction from N. europaea ATCC 19718 was measured spectrophotometrically and exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the reductive direction, activity with NADH increased from pH 6.0 to 8.5 but activity with NADPH was consistently lower and decreased with pH. At pH 7.0, the K m for oxaloacetate was 20 μM; the K m for NADH was 22 μM but that for NADPH was at least 10 times higher. In the oxidative direction, activity with NAD(+) increased with pH but there was very little activity with NADP(+). At pH 7.0, the K m for L-malate was 5 mM and the K m for NAD(+) was 24 μM. The reductive activity was quite insensitive to inhibition by L-malate but the oxidative activity was very sensitive to oxaloacetate. MDH activity was not strongly activated or inhibited by glycolytic or citric acid cycle metabolites, adenine nucleotides, NaCl concentrations, or most metal ions, but increased with temperature up to about 55 °C. The reductive activity was consistently 10-20 times higher than the oxidative activity. These results indicate that the L-malate dehydrogenase in N. europaea is similar to other NAD(+)-dependent MDHs (EC 1.1.1.37) but physiologically adapted for its role in a reductive biosynthetic sequence.

  14. The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J C; Taylor, J G; Jackson, A A; Chambers, G K; Fincham, J R

    1975-01-01

    The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1000

  15. Characterization of carnitine and fatty acid metabolism in the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mouse

    PubMed Central

    van Vlies, Naomi; Tian, Liqun; Overmars, Henk; Bootsma, Albert H.; Kulik, Willem; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Wood, Philip A.; Vaz, Frédéric M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe a novel method which enables the analysis of tissue acylcarnitines and carnitine biosynthesis intermediates in the same sample. This method was used to investigate the carnitine and fatty acid metabolism in wild-type and LCAD−/− (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient) mice. In agreement with previous results in plasma and bile, we found accumulation of the characteristic C14:1-acylcarnitine in all investigated tissues from LCAD−/− mice. Surprisingly, quantitatively relevant levels of 3-hydroxyacylcarnitines were found to be present in heart, muscle and brain in wild-type mice, suggesting that, in these tissues, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is rate-limiting for mitochondrial β-oxidation. The 3-hydroxyacylcarnitines were absent in LCAD−/− tissues, indicating that, in this situation, the β-oxidation flux is limited by the LCAD deficiency. A profound deficiency of acetylcarnitine was observed in LCAD−/− hearts, which most likely corresponds with low cardiac levels of acetyl-CoA. Since there was no carnitine deficiency and only a marginal elevation of potentially cardiotoxic acylcarnitines, we conclude from these data that the cardiomyopathy in the LCAD−/− mouse is caused primarily by a severe energy deficiency in the heart, stressing the important role of LCAD in cardiac fatty acid metabolism in the mouse. PMID:15535801

  16. Biophysical and structural characterization of proton-translocating NADH-dehydrogenase (complex I) from the strictly aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Djafarzadeh, R; Kerscher, S; Zwicker, K; Radermacher, M; Lindahl, M; Schägger, H; Brandt, U

    2000-07-20

    Mitochondrial proton-translocating NADH-dehydrogenase (complex I) is one of the largest and most complicated membrane bound protein complexes. Despite its central role in eukaryotic oxidative phosphorylation and its involvement in a broad range of human disorders, little is known about its structure and function. Therefore, we have started to use the powerful genetic tools available for the strictly aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to study this respiratory chain enzyme. To establish Y. lipolytica as a model system for complex I, we purified and characterized the multisubunit enzyme from Y lipolytica and sequenced the nuclear genes coding for the seven central subunits of its peripheral part. Complex I from Y lipolytica is quite stable and could be isolated in a highly pure and monodisperse state. One binuclear and four tetranuclear iron-sulfur clusters, including N5, which was previously known only from mammalian mitochondria, were detected by EPR spectroscopy. Initial structural analysis by single particle electron microscopy in negative stain and ice shows complex I from Y. lipolytica as an L-shaped particle that does not exhibit a thin stalk between the peripheral and the membrane parts that has been observed in other systems.

  17. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from halophilic archaebacteria: purification and properties of the enzyme from halobacterium halobium

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, J.J.; McQuattie, A.; Stevenson, K.J.

    1986-07-01

    Halophilic archaebacteria possess dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity but apparently lack the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes of which it is usually an integral component. In this paper, the purification of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Halobacterium halobium is reported. The enzyme is a dimer with a polypeptide chain M/sub r/ of 58,000 (+/-3000). The amino acid composition of the enzyme is compared with those of the eubacterial and eukaryotic dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases, and evidence is presented to suggest that the N-terminal amino acid of the H. halobium enzyme is blocked. Chemical modification with the trivalent arsenical reagent (p-aminophenyl)dichloroarsine indicates the involvement of a reversibly reducible disulfide bond in the enzyme's catalytic mechanism. The possible metabolic role of this dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the absence of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes is discussed.

  18. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase in Fatty Acid Synthesis in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jinshan; Behal, Robert H.; Back, Stephanie L.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Oliver, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) formed within the plastid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and, through them, a range of important biomolecules. The source of acetyl-CoA in the plastid is not known, but two enzymes are thought to be involved: acetyl-CoA synthetase and plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To determine the importance of these two enzymes in synthesizing acetyl-CoA during lipid accumulation in developing Arabidopsis seeds, we isolated cDNA clones for acetyl-CoA synthetase and for the ptE1α- and ptE1β-subunits of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence from a plant source. The Arabidopsis acetyl-CoA synthetase preprotein has a calculated mass of 76,678 D, an apparent plastid targeting sequence, and the mature protein is a monomer of 70 to 72 kD. During silique development, the spatial and temporal patterns of the ptE1β mRNA level are very similar to those of the mRNAs for the plastidic heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits. The pattern of ptE1β mRNA accumulation strongly correlates with the formation of lipid within the developing embryo. In contrast, the level of mRNA for acetyl-CoA synthetase does not correlate in time and space with lipid accumulation. The highest level of accumulation of the mRNA for acetyl-CoA synthetase during silique development is within the funiculus. These mRNA data suggest a predominant role for plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase in acetyl-CoA formation during lipid synthesis in seeds. PMID:10859180

  19. Effect of an Oxygen-Tolerant Bifurcating Butyryl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase/Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Complex from Clostridium difficile on Butyrate Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aboulnaga, El-Hussiny; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Schiffels, Johannes; El-Refai, Ahmed; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The butyrogenic genes from Clostridium difficile DSM 1296T have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, phosphate butyryltransferase, and butyrate kinase and the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex composed of the dehydrogenase and two electron-transferring flavoprotein subunits were individually produced in E. coli and kinetically characterized in vitro. While most of these enzymes were measured using well-established test systems, novel methods to determine butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activities with respect to physiological function were developed. Subsequently, the individual genes were combined to form a single plasmid-encoded operon in a plasmid vector, which was successfully used to confer butyrate-forming capability to the host. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that C. difficile possesses a bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase which catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of ferredoxin coupled to the reduction of crotonyl-CoA also by NADH. Since the reoxidation of ferredoxin by a membrane-bound ferredoxin:NAD+-oxidoreductase enables electron transport phosphorylation, additional ATP is formed. The butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. difficile is oxygen stable and apparently uses oxygen as a co-oxidant of NADH in the presence of air. These properties suggest that this enzyme complex might be well suited to provide butyryl-CoA for solventogenesis in recombinant strains. The central role of bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases and membrane-bound ferredoxin:NAD oxidoreductases (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation [RNF]), which affect the energy yield of butyrate fermentation in the clostridial metabolism, is discussed. PMID:23772070

  20. A novel 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid analogue as a potent and selective inhibitor of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Su, Xiangdong; Lawrence, Harshani; Cruttenden, Adrian; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2004-06-21

    Using 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid as a template, the synthesis of a series of secondary amides at the 30-position is described and the effects of these modifications on the SAR of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes type 1 and 2 from the rat are investigated. An isoform selective inhibitor has been discovered and compound 5, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3beta-hydroxy-11-oxo-18beta-olean-12-en-30-oic acid amide, is highlighted as a very potent and selective inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 with an IC(50)=4 pM.

  1. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P

    2016-04-01

    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2 ± 0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions.

  2. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: nutrient control and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sugden, M C; Orfali, K A; Holness, M J

    1995-06-01

    This review examines the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate competition between glucose and lipid in starvation and in insulin-resistant states. We demonstrate that lipid-derived substrates are oxidized in preference to glucose by skeletal muscle in vivo during prolonged starvation. An accelerated and exaggerated lipolytic and ketogenic response to starvation in late pregnancy is associated with more rapid suppression of glucose oxidation by the maternal skeletal-muscle mass. These benign adaptations to changes in lipid availability (which occur secondarily to changes in carbohydrate supply and demand) contrast with the well-documented detrimental effects to health of an inappropriately high supply of dietary lipid. We present results that indicate that the prolonged consumption of a diet high in saturated fat is associated with a stable enhancement of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase activity at least in two oxidative tissues--liver and heart. This long-term enhancement of PDH kinase activity is concomitant with the development of whole-body insulin resistance and adds a new dimension to the potential role of dietary composition in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  3. Effect of acetic acid present in bagasse hydrolysate on the activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luanne Helena Augusto; das Graças de Almeida Felipe, Maria; Vitolo, Michele; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2004-11-01

    The first two steps in xylose metabolism are catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR) (EC 1.1.1.21) and NAD(P)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) (EC 1.1.1.9), which lead to xylose-->xylitol-->xylulose conversion. Xylitol has high commercial value, due to its sweetening and anticariogenic properties, as well as several clinical applications. The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse allows the separation of a xylose-rich hemicellulosic fraction that can be used as a substrate for Candida guilliermondii to produce xylitol. However, the hydrolysate contains acetic acid, an inhibitor of microbial metabolism. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on the activities of XR and XDH and on xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii were studied. For this purpose, fermentations were carried out in bagasse hydrolysate and in synthetic medium. The activities of XR and XDH were higher in the medium containing acetic acid than in control medium. Moreover, none of the fermentative parameters were significantly altered during cell culture. It was concluded that acetic acid does not interfere with xylitol formation since the increase in XR activity is proportional to XDH activity, leading to a greater production of xylitol and its subsequent conversion to xylulose.

  4. Inhibition of 3beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in rat Leydig cells by perfluorooctane acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binghai; Chu, Yanhui; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-kun; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) is classified as a persistent organic pollutant and as an endocrine disruptor. The mechanism by which PFOA causes reduced testosterone production in males is not known. We tested our hypothesis that PFOA interferes with Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes by measuring its effect on 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17beta-HSD3) activities in rat testis microsomes and Leydig cells. The IC(50)s of PFOA and mode of inhibition were assayed. PFOA inhibited microsomal 3beta-HSD with an IC(50) of 53.2+/-25.9 microM and 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) 17.7+/-6.8 microM. PFOA inhibited intact Leydig cell 3beta-HSD with an IC(50) of 146.1+/-0.9 microM and 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) of 194.8+/-1.0 microM. The inhibitions of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 by PFOA were competitive for the substrates. In conclusion, PFOA inhibits 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 in rat Leydig cells.

  5. Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor exerts protective effect against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Suhaimi, Farihah; Asri, Siti Fadziyah Mohamad; Ahmad, Fairus; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2013-05-01

    Rapid onset of bone loss is a frequent complication of systemic glucocorticoid therapy which may lead to fragility fractures. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). Regulations of 11β-HSD1 activity may protect the bone against bone loss due to excess glucocorticoids. Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) is a potent inhibitor of 11β-HSD. Treatment with GCA led to significant reduction in bone resorption markers. In this study we determined the effect of GCA on 11β-HSD1 activity in bones of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic rats. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 3 months and weighing 250-300 g) were divided randomly into groups of ten. (1) G1, sham operated group; (2) G2, adrenalectomized rats administered with intramuscular dexamethasone 120 μg/kg/day and oral vehicle normal saline vehicle; and (3) G3, adrenalectomized rats administered with intramuscular dexamethasone 120 μg/kg/day and oral GCA 120 mg/kg/day The results showed that GCA reduced plasma corticosterone concentration. GCA also reduced serum concentration of the bone resorption marker, pyridinoline and induced 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity in the bone. GCA improved bone structure, which contributed to stronger bone. Therefore, GCA has the potential to be used as an agent to protect the bone against glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis.

  6. Impact of cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes on lactate dehydrogenase activity and cytotoxicity in gastric and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rico Bautista, Hugo; Saavedra Díaz, Rafael Omar; Shen, Longzhu Q; Orvain, Christophe; Gaiddon, Christian; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Ryabov, Alexander D

    2016-10-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a redox enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells allowing their survival in stressful metabolic tumor environment. Ruthenium(II) complexes have been shown to impact on the activity of purified horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase but the physiological relevance remains unclear. In this study we investigated how ruthenium complexes impact on the activity of LDH in vitro and in cancer cells and performed a comparative study using polypyridine ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (1) and its structurally related cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridinato counterpart [Ru(phpy)(bpy)2](+) (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, phpyH=2-phenylpyridine). We show that the cytotoxicity in gastric and colon cancer cells induced by 2 is significantly higher compared to 1. The kinetic inhibition mechanisms on purified LDH and the corresponding inhibition constants Ki or i0.5 values were calculated. Though complexes 1 and 2 are structurally very similar (one Ru-C bond in 2 replaces one Ru-N bond in 1), their inhibition modes are different. Cyclometalated complex 2 behaves exclusively as a non-competitive inhibitor of LDH from rabbit muscle (LDHrm), strongly suggesting that 2 does not interact with LDH in the vicinities of either lactate/pyruvate or NAD(+)/NADH binding sites. Sites of interaction of 1 and 2 with LDHrm were revealed theoretically through computational molecular docking. Inhibition of LDH activity by 2 was confirmed in cancer cells. Altogether, these results revealed an inhibition of LDH activity by ruthenium complex through a direct interaction structurally tuned by a Ru-C bond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The catalytic core of an archaeal 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex is a 42-mer protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Marrott, Nia L; Marshall, Jacqueline J T; Svergun, Dmitri I; Crennell, Susan J; Hough, David W; Danson, Michael J; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2012-03-01

    The dihydrolipoyl acyl-transferase (E2) enzyme forms the structural and catalytic core of the tripartite 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes of the central metabolic pathways. Although this family of multienzyme complexes shares a common architecture, their E2 cores form homo-trimers that, depending on the source, further associate into either octahedral (24-mer) or icosahedral (60-mer) assemblies, as predicted by the principles of quasi-equivalence. In the crystal structure of the E2 core from Thermoplasma acidophilum, a thermophilic archaeon, the homo-trimers assemble into a unique 42-mer oblate spheroid. Analytical equilibrium centrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses confirm that this catalytically active 1.08 MDa assembly exists as a single species in solution, forming a hollow spheroid with a maximum diameter of 220 Å. In this paper we show that a monodisperse macromolecular assembly, built from identical subunits in non-identical environments, forms an irregular protein shell via non-equivalent interactions. This unusually irregular protein shell, combining cubic and dodecahedral geometrical elements, expands on the concept of quasi-equivalence as a basis for understanding macromolecular assemblies by showing that cubic point group symmetry is not a physical requirement in multienzyme assembly. These results extend our basic knowledge of protein assembly and greatly expand the number of possibilities to manipulate self-assembling biological complexes to be utilized in innovative nanotechnology applications.

  8. A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

    2014-07-01

    Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Semi-Rational Design of Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-Lactate Dehydrogenase to Access Various Chiral α-Hydroxy Acids.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Aşkın Sevinç; Birmingham, William R; Karagüler, Nevin Gül; Turner, Nicholas J; Binay, Barış

    2016-06-01

    Chiral α-hydroxy acids (AHAs) are rapidly becoming important synthetic building blocks, in particular for the production of pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals. Chiral compounds of a variety of functionalities are now often derived using enzymes, and L-lactate dehydrogenase from the thermophilic organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus (bsLDH) has the potential to be employed for the industrial synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy acids. Despite the thorough characterization of this enzyme, generation of variants with high activity on non-natural substrates has remained difficult and therefore limits the use of bsLDH in industry. Here, we present the engineering of bsLDH using semi-rational design as a method of focusing screening in a small and smart library for novel biocatalysts. In this study, six mutant libraries were designed in an effort to expand the substrate range of bsLDH. The eight variants identified as having enhanced activity toward the selected α-keto acids belonged to the same library, which targeted two positions simultaneously. These new variants now may be useful biocatalysts for chiral synthesis of α-hydroxy acids.

  10. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  11. The human Krebs cycle 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex creates an additional source of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide from 2-oxoadipate as alternative substrate.

    PubMed

    Nemeria, Natalia S; Gerfen, Gary; Guevara, Elena; Nareddy, Pradeep Reddy; Szostak, Michal; Jordan, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported that the human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (hE1o) component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) could produce the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (detected by chemical means) from its substrate 2-oxoglutarate (OG), most likely concurrently with one-electron oxidation by dioxygen of the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-derived enamine intermediate to a C2α-centered radical (detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) [Nemeria et al., 2014 [17]; Ambrus et al. 2015 [18

  12. Effect of Butanedioic Acid Mono (2,2-Dimethylhydrazide) on the Activity of Membrane-Bound Succinate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    See, Raymond M.; Foy, Chester L.

    1982-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from hypocotyls of five-day-old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine') seedlings rapidly oxidized succinate, malate, and NADH. Oxidation rates, respiratory control, and ADP:O ratios obtained with saturating concentrations of all three substrates indicated that the mitochondria were tightly coupled. The mitochondrial preparation was then employed to investigate the respiration-inhibiting effects of butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl-hydrazide) (daminozide) a plant growth retardant having structural similarity to an endogenous respiratory substrate (succinate). Daminozide markedly inhibited the activity of membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase. Inhibition was of the competitive type (apparent Ki, 20.2 millimolar) with respect to succinate. Although not excluding other hypotheses, the results support an active role for daminozide in the suppression of respiration as an important metabolic site of its action as a plant growth regulator. PMID:16662493

  13. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Valérie; Matt, Nicolas; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The retinoic acid (RA) signal, produced locally from vitamin A by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) and transduced by the nuclear receptors for retinoids (RA receptor and 9-cis-RA receptor), is indispensable for ontogenesis and homeostasis of numerous tissues. We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which are similar to those observed in vitamin A-deficient fetuses and/or in retinoid receptor mutants. Raldh3 knockout notably causes choanal atresia (CA), which is responsible for respiratory distress and death of Raldh3-null mutants at birth. CA is due to persistence of nasal fins, whose rupture normally allows the communication between nasal and oral cavities. This malformation, which is similar to isolated congenital CA in humans and may result from impaired RA-controlled down-regulation of Fgf8 expression in nasal fins, can be prevented by a simple maternal treatment with RA. PMID:14623956

  14. A survey for isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in C3-, C 4-and crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants, and green algae.

    PubMed

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1979-01-01

    Two isoenzymes each of glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.43) were separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography from green leaves of the C3-plants spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), of the Crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen, and from the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardii. After isolation of cell organelles from spinach leaves by isopyenic centrifugation in sucrose gradients one of two isoenzymes of each of the four enzymes was found to be associated with whole chloroplasts while the other was restricted to the soluble cell fraction, implying the same intracellular distribution of these isoenzymes also in the other species.Among C4-plants, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in only one form in corn (Zea mays L.), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) and Coix lacrymajobi L., but as two isoenzymes in Atriplex spongiosa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. In corn, the two dehydrogenases were mainly associated with isolated mesophyll protoplasts while in Atriplex spongiosa they were of similar specific activity in both mesophyll protoplasts and bundle-sheath strands. In all five C4-plants three isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase were found. In corn two were localized in the bundle-sheath strands and the third one in the mesophyll protoplasts. The amount of activity of the enzymes was similar in each of the two cell fractions. Apparently, C4 plants have isoenzymes not only in two cell compartments, but also in physiologically closely linked cell types such as mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells.

  15. Rate constants for a mechanism including intermediates in the interconversion of ternary complexes by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhar, V.C.; Plapp, B.V. )

    1990-05-08

    Transient kinetic data for partial reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and simulations of progress curves have led to estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism, at pH 8.0 and 25{degrees}C: E in equilibrium E-NAD+ in equilibrium *E-NAD+ in equilibrium E-NAD(+)-RCH2OH in equilibrium E-NAD+-RCH2O- in equilibrium *E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH in equilibrium E. Previous results show that the E-NAD+ complex isomerizes with a forward rate constant of 620 s-1. The enzyme-NAD(+)-alcohol complex has a pK value of 7.2 and loses a proton rapidly (greater than 1000 s-1). The transient oxidation of ethanol is 2-fold faster in D{sub 2}O, and proton inventory results suggest that the transition state has a charge of -0.3 on the substrate oxygen. Rate constants for hydride ion transfer in the forward or reverse reactions were similar for short-chain aliphatic substrates (400-600 s-1). A small deuterium isotope effect for transient oxidation of longer chain alcohols is apparently due to the isomerization of the E-NAD+ complex. The transient reduction of aliphatic aldehydes showed no primary deuterium isotope effect; thus, an isomerization of the E-NADH-aldehyde complex is postulated, as isomerization of the E-NADH complex was too fast to be detected. The estimated microscopic rate constants show that the observed transient reactions are controlled by multiple steps.

  16. Phosphorescence maxima and triplet state lifetimes of NAD+ and epsilon-NAD+ in ternary complexes with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rousslang, K; Allen, L; Ross, J B

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the phosphorescence emission and decay times of NAD+ and its fluorescent etheno derivative, epsilon-NAD+, in the pyrazole ternary complex with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We show that the epsilon-NAD+ triplet state, as well as the tryptophan triplet state, can be utilized to monitor the coenzyme-enzyme interaction. The decays of NAD+ and AMP are single exponential, and the lifetimes are the same within experimental error. The phosphorescence lifetimes, evaluated as single exponentials, are slightly shorter in epsilon-NAD+ than they are in epsilon-AMP. Whereas the decay of epsilon-AMP was adequately fit by a single exponential with a time constant of very close to 0.5 s, it was necessary to fit the decay of epsilon-NAD+ to a double exponential. Ternary complexes with NAD+ excited at 297 nm exhibit decay kinetics nearly identical to those of ADH by itself. On the other hand, when excitation of the epsilon-NAD+ ternary complex is provided at 313 nm, where there is very little absorption by either tryptophan residue, the decay law of the ternary complex is similar to that of epsilon-NAD+ in solution. Our results demonstrate that NAD+ and epsilon-NAD+ quench tryptophan phosphorescence in ADH. Normalizing the phosphorescence intensity to the 0-0 vibronic band assigned to Trp-15 (blue-edge), we calculate a 21% decrease in the phosphorescence associated with Trp-314 at stoichiometric saturation of the coenzyme binding sites with NAD+ in the ternary complex. When the active sites are saturated with epsilon-NAD+, the relative phosphorescence due to Trp-314 decreases by 63%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Structure and function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: role of critical amino acids in co-substrate binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Anupam; Tripathi, Abhai K; Desai, Prashant V; Mukherjee, Prasenjit K; Avery, Mitchell A; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2009-01-01

    The malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal glycine motif, which forms a characteristic Rossman dinucleotide-binding fold in the co-substrate binding pocket, differentiates PfMDH (GlyXGlyXXGly) from other eukaryotic and prokaryotic malate dehydrogenases (GlyXXGlyXXGly). The amino acids lining the co-substrate binding pocket are completely conserved in MDHs from different species of human, primate and rodent malaria parasites. Based on this knowledge and conserved domains among prokaryotic and eukaryotic MDH, the role of critical amino acids lining the co-substrate binding pocket was analyzed in catalytic functions of PfMDH using site-directed mutagenesis. Insertion of Ala at the 9th or 10th position, which converts the N-terminal GlyXGlyXXGly motif (characteristic of malarial MDH and LDH) to GlyXXGlyXXGly (as in bacterial and eukaryotic MDH), uncoupled regulation of the enzyme through substrate inhibition. The dinucleotide fold GlyXGlyXXGly motif seems not to be responsible for the distinct affinity of PfMDH to 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide (APAD, a synthetic analog of NAD), since Ala9 and Ala10 insertion mutants still utilized APADH. The Gln11Met mutation, which converts the signature glycine motif in PfMDH to that of PfLDH, did not change the enzyme function. However, the Gln11Gly mutant showed approximately a 5-fold increase in catalytic activity, and higher susceptibility to inhibition with gossypol. Asn119 and His174 participate in binding of both co-substrate and substrate. The Asn119Gly mutant exhibited approximately a 3-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency, while mutation of His174 to Asn or Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme. These studies provide critical insights into the co

  18. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be... the controlled reaction between ascorbic acid and nicotinamide, melting in the range 141 °C to 145 °C...

  19. The case for regulating indispensable amino acid metabolism: the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Susan M

    2006-11-15

    BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids) are indispensable (essential) amino acids that are required for body protein synthesis. Indispensable amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must be acquired from the diet. The BCAA leucine provides hormone-like signals to tissues such as skeletal muscle, indicating overall nutrient sufficiency. BCAA metabolism provides an important transport system to move nitrogen throughout the body for the synthesis of dispensable (non-essential) amino acids, including the neurotransmitter glutamate in the central nervous system. BCAA metabolism is tightly regulated to maintain levels high enough to support these important functions, but at the same time excesses are prevented via stimulation of irreversible disposal pathways. It is well known from inborn errors of BCAA metabolism that dysregulation of the BCAA catabolic pathways that leads to excess BCAAs and their alpha-keto acid metabolites results in neural dysfunction. In this issue of Biochemical Journal, Joshi and colleagues have disrupted the murine BDK (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase) gene. This enzyme serves as the brake on BCAA catabolism. The impaired growth and neurological abnormalities observed in this animal show conclusively the importance of tight regulation of indispensable amino acid metabolism.

  20. Synthesis of new glycyrrhetinic acid derived ring A azepanone, 29-urea and 29-hydroxamic acid derivatives as selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gaware, Rawindra; Khunt, Rupesh; Czollner, Laszlo; Stanetty, Christian; Da Cunha, Thierry; Kratschmar, Denise V; Odermatt, Alex; Kosma, Paul; Jordis, Ulrich; Classen-Houben, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Glycyrrhetinic acid, the metabolite of the natural product glycyrrhizin, is a well known nonselective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and type 2. Whereas inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is currently under consideration for treatment of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, 11β-HSD2 inhibitors may find therapeutic applications in chronic inflammatory diseases and certain forms of cancer. Recently, we published a series of hydroxamic acid derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid showing high selectivity for 11β-HSD2. The most potent and selective compound is active against human 11β-HSD2 in the low nanomolar range with a 350-fold selectivity over human 11β-HSD1. Starting from the lead compounds glycyrrhetinic acid and the hydroxamic acid derivatives, novel triterpene type derivatives were synthesized and analyzed for their biological activity against overexpressed human 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 in cell lysates. Here we describe novel 29-urea- and 29-hydroxamic acid derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid as well as derivatives with the Beckman rearrangement of the 3-oxime to a seven-membered ring, and the rearrangement of the C-ring from 11-keto-12-ene to 12-keto-9(11)-ene. The combination of modifications on different positions led to compounds comprising further improved selective inhibition of 11β-HSD2 in the lower nanomolar range with up to 3600-fold selectivity.

  1. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  2. A ROLE FOR AMPK IN THE INHIBITION OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as β-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:19646964

  3. Decreased fatty acid beta-oxidation in riboflavin-responsive, multiple acylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase-deficient patients is associated with an increase in uncoupling protein-3.

    PubMed

    Russell, Aaron P; Schrauwen, Patrick; Somm, Emmanuel; Gastaldi, Giacomo; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Schaart, Gert; Kornips, Esther; Lo, Sing Kai; Bufano, Daniela; Giacobino, Jean-Paul; Muzzin, Patrick; Ceccon, Mara; Angelini, Corrado; Vergani, Lodovica

    2003-12-01

    Riboflavin-responsive, multiple acylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (RR-MAD), a lipid storage myopathy, is characterized by, among others, a decrease in fatty acid (FA) beta-oxidation capacity. Muscle uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is up-regulated under conditions that either increase the levels of circulating free FA and/or decrease FA beta-oxidation. Using a relatively large cohort of seven RR-MAD patients, we aimed to better characterize the metabolic disturbances of this disease and to explore the possibility that it might increase UCP3 expression. A battery of biochemical and molecular tests were performed, which demonstrated decreases in FA beta-oxidation and in the activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II. These metabolic alterations were associated with increases of 3.1- and 1.7-fold in UCP3 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. All parameters were restored to control values after riboflavin treatment. We postulate that the up-regulation of UCP3 in RR-MAD is due to the accumulation of muscle FA/acylCoA. RR-MAD is an optimal model to support the hypothesis that UCP3 is involved in the outward translocation of an excess of FA from the mitochondria and to show that, in humans, the effects of FA on UCP3 expression are direct and independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation.

  4. The protein conformation of Cd-substituted horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase and its metal-site coordination geometry in binary and ternary inhibitor complexes.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsen, L; Bauer, R; Bjerrum, M J; Adolph, H W; Zeppezauer, M; Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E

    1996-10-15

    The coordination geometry of the metal at the active site in Cd-substituted horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) has been investigated for the binary complexes of LADH with imidazole, isobutyramide, decanoic acid and Cl-, and for the ternary complexes of LADH with NADH and imidazole, NADH and isobutyramide, NAD+ and decanoic acid and NAD+ and Cl-, by using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma-rays (PAC). The spectral results are consistent with a flexible structure around the metal for the binary complexes with inhibitors. For ternary complexes, however, a rigid structure is observed. An exception is the ternary complex between LADH, NADH and imidazole, in which the metal site is still flexible. Comparing with available structures determined by X-ray crystallography, we found a correlation between open structures and flexible metal sites, and between closed structures and rigid metal sites. This indicates that the PAC technique can be applied to distinguish the two conformations in solution. The spectral parameters, omega(o) and eta, of the experiments, except for the complexes with imidazole, fall into two groups: one with low omega(o) and one with high omega(o) (eta is relatively constant in all experiments). In this work it is clarified that the low omega(o) values are connected with the presence of a negatively charged solvent ligand. Using an angular-overlap approach to interpret the results, the low omega(o) values are found to be compatible with a coordination geometry where the S-Cd-S (Cys174 and Cys46 coordinate to the metal) angle is about 110 degrees as suggested in [Hemmingsen, L., Bauer, R., Danielsen, E., Bjerrum. M. J., Zeppezauer, M., Adolph, H. W., Formicka, G. & Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 7145-7153], whereas high omega(o) values are compatible with an S-Cd-S angle of 130 degrees. The presence of a negatively charged metal ligand, therefore, might trigger the movement of the sulfur of Cys174. As it is

  5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: mRNA and protein expression patterns of E1α subunit genes in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana; Silva, Maria João; Graça, Inês; Silva, Joaquina; Sá, Rosália; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Rivera, Isabel

    2012-09-10

    During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo a complex process of cell differentiation and morphological restructuring, which depends on the coordinated expression of different genes. Some vital examples are those involved in cell energy metabolism, namely the genes encoding the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: the somatic PDHA1 (X-linked) and the testis-specific PDHA2 (autosomal). There are no data related to the study at the RNA and protein levels of PDHA genes during human spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to describe the mRNA and protein expression patterns of the human PDHA genes during spermatogenesis. Expression profiles of the PDHA1 and PDHA2 genes were characterized using different human tissues and cells. Diploid and haploid germ cells fractions were obtained from testis tissues. The mRNA profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, whereas the protein profiles were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Expression of the PDHA1 gene was found in all somatic cells, whereas expression of PDHA2 gene was restricted to germ cells. The switch from X-linked to autosomic gene expression occurred in spermatocytes. Data suggest the activation of PDHA2 gene expression is most probably a mechanism to ensure the continued expression of the protein, thus allowing germ cell viability and functionality.

  6. Dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase is physically associated with the respiratory complex and its loss leads to mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, JingXian; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Yagi, Mikako; Matsumoto, Shinya; Amamoto, Rie; Takazaki, Shinya; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kang, Dongchon

    2012-01-01

    Some mutations of the DHODH (dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase) gene lead to postaxial acrofacial dysostosis or Miller syndrome. Only DHODH is localized at mitochondria among enzymes of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. Since the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is coupled to the mitochondrial RC (respiratory chain) via DHODH, impairment of DHODH should affect the RC function. To investigate this, we used siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown and observed that DHODH knockdown induced cell growth retardation because of G2/M cell-cycle arrest, whereas pyrimidine deficiency usually causes G1/S arrest. Inconsistent with this, the cell retardation was not rescued by exogenous uridine, which should bypass the DHODH reaction for pyrimidine synthesis. DHODH depletion partially inhibited the RC complex III, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species). We observed that DHODH physically interacts with respiratory complexes II and III by IP (immunoprecipitation) and BN (blue native)/SDS/PAGE analysis. Considering that pyrimidine deficiency alone does not induce craniofacial dysmorphism, the DHODH mutations may contribute to the Miller syndrome in part through somehow altered mitochondrial function. PMID:23216091

  7. Succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 is needed for assembly and activity of mitochondrial complex II and for normal root elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) plays a central role in respiratory metabolism as a component of both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We report the identification of an SDH assembly factor by analysis of T-DNA insertions in At5g51040, a protein with unknown function that was identified by mass spectrometry analysis as a low abundance mitochondrial protein. This gene is co-expressed with a number of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, including SDH1-1, and has low partial sequence similarity to human SDHAF2, a protein required for flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) insertion into SDH. In contrast to observations of other SDH deficient lines in Arabidopsis, the sdhaf2 line did not affect photosynthetic rate or stomatal conductance, but instead showed inhibition of primary root elongation with early lateral root emergence, presumably due to the low SDH activity caused by the reduced abundance of SDHAF2. Both roots and leaves showed succinate accumulation but different responses in the abundance of other organic acids and amino acids assayed. Isolated mitochondria showed lowered SDH1 protein abundance, lowered maximal SDH activity and less protein-bound flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) at the molecular mass of SDH1 in the gel separation. The short root phenotype and SDH function of sdhaf2 was fully complemented by transformation with SDHAF2. Application of the SDH inhibitor, malonate, phenocopied the sdhaf2 root architecture in WT. Whole root respiratory assays showed no difference between WT and sdhaf2, but micro-respirometry of the tips of roots clearly showed low oxygen consumption in sdhaf2 which could explain a metabolic deficit responsible for root tip growth.

  8. Disease-causing mutations affecting surface residues of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase impair stability, heteromeric complex formation and mitochondria architecture.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, Jessica; Lohmöller, Benjamin; Schweizer, Michaela; Tidow, Henning; Gersting, Søren W; Muntau, Ania C; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The neurometabolic disorder glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding the mitochondrial matrix protein glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes. Twenty percent of all pathogenic mutations affect single amino acid residues on the surface of GCDH resulting in a severe clinical phenotype. We report here on heterologous expression studies of 18 missense mutations identified in GA1 patients affecting surface amino acids. Western blot and pulse chase experiments revealed that the stability of half of the GCDH mutants was significantly reduced. In silico analyses showed that none of the mutations impaired the 3D structure of GCDH. Immunofluorescence co-localisation studies in HeLa cells demonstrated that all GCDH mutants were correctly translocated into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the expression of p.Arg88Cys GCDH as well as further substitutions by alanine, lysine, or methionine but not histidine or leucine resulted in the disruption of mitochondrial architecture forming longitudinal structures composed of stacks of cristae and partial loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The expression of mitochondrial fusion or fission proteins was not affected in these cells. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analyses revealed that all GCDH mutants exhibit an increased binding affinity to electron transfer flavoprotein beta, whereas only p.Tyr155His GCDH showed a reduced interaction with dihydrolipoamide succinyl transferase. Our data underscore the impact of GCDH protein interactions mediated by amino acid residues on the surface of GCDH required for proper enzymatic activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A unique enzyme of acetic acid bacteria, PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, is also present in Frateuria aurantia.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2013-08-01

    A membrane-bound, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was purified from Frateuria aurantia LMG 1558(T). Although F. aurantia belongs to a group of γ-Proteobacteria, the characteristics of its PQQ-ADH were similar to the enzyme characteristics of the typical high-acetic acid-resistant bacterium Gluconacetobacter europaeus from the group of α-Proteobacteria. The PQQ-dependent ADH was solubilized from the membranes and purified after anionic, cationic, and affinity chromatography with specific activity of 117 U/mg. The purified enzyme was estimated to be composed of two subunits of ca. 72 and 45 kDa, as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had maximum activity at pH 4.5 and showed the highest substrate specificity to ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol. The deduced sequences of cloned genes adhA and adhB encoding subunits I and II of PQQ-ADH showed 80 % amino acid (AA) identity to AdhA and 68 % AA identity to AdhB of Ga. europaeus V3 (LMG 18494). Because of the high similarity between genes encoding subunits I and II of PQQ-ADH and its homologous genes found in a distantly related taxonomic group of acetic acid bacteria, the results suggest the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between these two groups of genera.

  10. Formation of reactive oxygen species by human and bacterial pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes reconstituted from recombinant components.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Attila; Nemeria, Natalia S; Torocsik, Beata; Tretter, Laszlo; Nilsson, Mattias; Jordan, Frank; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Individual recombinant components of pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes (PDHc, OGDHc) of human and Escherichia coli (E. coli) origin were expressed and purified from E. coli with optimized protocols. The four multienzyme complexes were each reconstituted under optimal conditions at different stoichiometric ratios. Binding stoichiometries for the highest catalytic efficiency were determined from the rate of NADH generation by the complexes at physiological pH. Since some of these complexes were shown to possess 'moonlighting' activities under pathological conditions often accompanied by acidosis, activities were also determined at pH 6.3. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the E3 component of hOGDHc is a pathologically relevant feature, superoxide generation by the complexes with optimal stoichiometry was measured by the acetylated cytochrome c reduction method in both the forward and the reverse catalytic directions. Various known affectors of physiological activity and ROS production, including Ca(2+), ADP, lipoylation status or pH, were investigated. The human complexes were also reconstituted with the most prevalent human pathological mutant of the E3 component, G194C and characterized; isolated human E3 with the G194C substitution was previously reported to have an enhanced ROS generating capacity. It is demonstrated that: i. PDHc, similarly to OGDHc, is able to generate ROS and this feature is displayed by both the E. coli and human complexes, ii. Reconstituted hPDHc generates ROS at a significantly higher rate as compared to hOGDHc in both the forward and the reverse reactions when ROS generation is calculated for unit mass of their common E3 component, iii. The E1 component or E1-E2 subcomplex generates significant amount of ROS only in hOGDHc; iv. Incorporation of the G194C variant of hE3, the result of a disease-causing mutation, into reconstituted hOGDHc and hPDHc indeed leads to a decreased activity of both

  11. Formation of reactive oxygen species by human and bacterial pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes reconstituted from recombinant components

    PubMed Central

    Ambrus, Attila; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Torocsik, Beata; Tretter, Laszlo; Nilsson, Mattias; Jordan, Frank; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Individual recombinant components of pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes (PDHc, OGDHc) of human and Escherichia coli (E. coli) origin were expressed and purified from E. coli with optimized protocols. The four multienzyme complexes were each reconstituted under optimal conditions at different stoichiometric ratios. Binding stoichiometries for the highest catalytic efficiency were determined from the rate of NADH generation by the complexes at physiological pH. Since some of these complexes were shown to possess ‘moonlighting’ activities under pathological conditions often accompanied by acidosis, activities were also determined at pH 6.3. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the E3 component of hOGDHc is a pathologically relevant feature, superoxide generation by the complexes with optimal stoichiometry was measured by the acetylated cytochrome c reduction method in both the forward and the reverse catalytic directions. Various known affectors of physiological activity and ROS production, including Ca2+, ADP, lipoylation status or pH, were investigated. The human complexes were also reconstituted with the most prevalent human pathological mutant of the E3 component, G194C and characterized; isolated human E3 with the G194C substitution was previously reported to have an enhanced ROS generating capacity. It is demonstrated that: i. PDHc, similarly to OGDHc, is able to generate ROS and this feature is displayed by both the E. coli and human complexes, ii. Reconstituted hPDHc generates ROS at a significantly higher rate as compared to hOGDHc in both the forward and the reverse reactions when ROS generation is calculated for unit mass of their common E3 component, iii. The E1 component or E1-E2 subcomplex generates significant amount of ROS only in hOGDHc; iv. Incorporation of the G194C variant of hE3, the result of a disease-causing mutation, into reconstituted hOGDHc and hPDHc indeed leads to a decreased activity of both

  12. Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family Annonaceae are powerful inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I).

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, M; Ghelli, A; Ratta, M; Cortes, D; Estornell, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products from the plants of the family Annonaceae, collectively called Annonaceous acetogenins, are very potent inhibitors of the NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) activity of mammalian mitochondria. The properties of five of such acetogenins are compared with those of rotenone and piericidin, classical potent inhibitors of Complex I. Rolliniastatin-1 and rolliniastatin-2 are more powerful than piericidin in terms of both their inhibitory constant and the protein-dependence of their titre in bovine submitochondrial particles. These acetogenins could be considered therefore the most potent inhibitors of mammalian Complex I. Squamocin and otivarin also have an inhibitory constant lower than that of piericidin, but display a larger protein-dependence of the titre. Squamocin and otivarin, contrary to the other acetogenins, behave qualitatively like rotenone. Rolliniastatin-2 shows unique properties as its interaction, although mutually exclusive to that of piericidin, appears to be mutually non-exclusive to that of rotenone. It is the first time that a potent inhibitor of Complex I is found not to overlap the active site of rotenone. PMID:8037664

  13. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) mutations in pituitary tumors: could this be a new role for mitochondrial complex II and/or Krebs cycle defects?

    PubMed

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-12-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or mitochondrial complex II is a multimeric enzyme that is bound to the inner membrane of mitochondria and has a dual role as it serves both as a critical step of the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle and as a member of the respiratory chain that transfers electrons directly to the ubiquinone pool. Mutations in SDH subunits have been implicated in the formation of familial paragangliomas (PGLs) and/or pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and in Carney-Stratakis syndrome. More recently, SDH defects were associated with predisposition to a Cowden disease phenotype, renal, and thyroid cancer. We recently described a kindred with the coexistence of familial PGLs and an aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, harboring an SDHD mutation. The pituitary tumor showed loss of heterozygosity at the SDHD locus, indicating the possibility that SDHD's loss was causatively linked to the development of the neoplasm. In total, 29 cases of pituitary adenomas presenting in association with PHEOs and/or extra-adrenal PGLs have been reported in the literature since 1952. Although a number of other genetic defects are possible in these cases, we speculate that the association of PHEOs and/or PGLs with pituitary tumors is a new syndromic association and a novel phenotype for SDH defects.

  14. Bacillus anthracis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in action: the first bacterial series of structures of phosphate ion-, substrate-, and product-bound complexes.

    PubMed

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Wu, Ruiying; Wilton, Rosemarie; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R; Wang, Ximi K; Zhang, Rongguang; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Mack, Jamey C; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Binkowski, T Andrew; Gornicki, Piotr; Kuhn, Misty L; Anderson, Wayne F; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-08-07

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the first unique step of the GMP branch of the purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is found in organisms of all three kingdoms. IMPDH inhibitors have broad clinical applications in cancer treatment, as antiviral drugs and as immunosuppressants, and have also displayed antibiotic activity. We have determined three crystal structures of Bacillus anthracis IMPDH, in a phosphate ion-bound (termed "apo") form and in complex with its substrate, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), and product, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). This is the first example of a bacterial IMPDH in more than one state from the same organism. Furthermore, for the first time for a prokaryotic enzyme, the entire active site flap, containing the conserved Arg-Tyr dyad, is clearly visible in the structure of the apoenzyme. Kinetic parameters for the enzymatic reaction were also determined, and the inhibitory effect of XMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been studied. In addition, the inhibitory potential of two known Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH inhibitors was examined for the B. anthracis enzyme and compared with those of three bacterial IMPDHs from Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio cholerae. The structures contribute to the characterization of the active site and design of inhibitors that specifically target B. anthracis and other microbial IMPDH enzymes.

  15. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) mutations in pituitary tumors: could this be a new role for mitochondrial complex II and/or Krebs cycle defects?

    PubMed Central

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2013-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or mitochondrial complex II is a multimeric enzyme that is bound to the inner membrane of mitochondria and has a dual role as it serves both as a critical step of the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle and as a member of the respiratory chain that transfers electrons directly to the ubiquinone pool. Mutations in SDH subunits have been implicated in the formation of familial paragangliomas (PGLs) and/or pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and in Carney–Stratakis syndrome. More recently, SDH defects were associated with predisposition to a Cowden disease phenotype, renal, and thyroid cancer. We recently described a kindred with the coexistence of familial PGLs and an aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, harboring an SDHD mutation. The pituitary tumor showed loss of heterozygosity at the SDHD locus, indicating the possibility that SDHD’s loss was causatively linked to the development of the neoplasm. In total, 29 cases of pituitary adenomas presenting in association with PHEOs and/or extra-adrenal PGLs have been reported in the literature since 1952. Although a number of other genetic defects are possible in these cases, we speculate that the association of PHEOs and/or PGLs with pituitary tumors is a new syndromic association and a novel phenotype for SDH defects. PMID:22889736

  16. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Luttik, Marijke A H; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-10-21

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1α, E1β, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs(+) reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. Importance: Genetically engineered microorganisms are intensively investigated and applied for production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable sugars. To make such processes economically and environmentally sustainable, the energy

  17. Crystal Structure of Binary and Ternary Complexes of Archaeal UDP-galactose 4-Epimerase-like l-Threonine Dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma volcanium*

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Araki, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A gene from the thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma volcanium encoding an l-threonine dehydrogenase (l-ThrDH) with a predicted amino acid sequence that was remarkably similar to the sequence of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its product was purified and characterized. The expressed enzyme was moderately thermostable, retaining more than 90% of its activity after incubation for 10 min at up to 70 °C. The catalytic residue was assessed using site-directed mutagenesis, and Tyr137 was found to be essential for catalysis. To clarify the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism, four different crystal structures were determined using the molecular replacement method: l-ThrDH-NAD+, l-ThrDH in complex with NAD+ and pyruvate, Y137F mutant in complex with NAD+ and l-threonine, and Y137F in complex with NAD+ and l-3-hydroxynorvaline. Each monomer consisted of a Rossmann-fold domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain, and the fold of the catalytic domain showed notable similarity to that of the GalE-like l-ThrDH from the psychrophilic bacterium Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1. The substrate binding model suggests that the reaction proceeds through abstraction of the β-hydroxyl hydrogen of l-threonine via direct proton transfer driven by Tyr137. The factors contributing to the thermostability of T. volcanium l-ThrDH were analyzed by comparing its structure to that of F. frigidimaris l-ThrDH. This comparison showed that the presence of extensive inter- and intrasubunit ion pair networks are likely responsible for the thermostability of T. volcanium l-ThrDH. This is the first description of the molecular basis for the substrate recognition and thermostability of a GalE-like l-ThrDH. PMID:22374996

  18. Function of Several Critical Amino Acids in Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Revealed by Its Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Ciszak, E.; Patel, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and reductive acetylation of lipoyl moieties of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The roles of beta W135, alpha P188, alpha M181, alpha H15 and alpha R349 of E1 determined by kinetic analysis were reassessed by analyzing the three-dimensional structure of human E1. The residues identified above are found to play a structural role rather than being directly involved in catalysis: beta W135 is the center residue in the hydrophobic interaction between beta and beta' subunits; alpha P188 and alpha M181 are critical for the conformation of the TPP-binding motif and interaction between alpha and beta subunits; alpha H15, is necessary for the organization of the N-terminus of alpha and alpha'; subunits and alpha R349 supports the interaction of the C-terminus of the alpha subunits with the beta subunits. Analysis of several critical E1 residues confirms the importance of residues distant from the active site for subunit interactions and enzyme function.

  19. Transfer nuclear Overhauser effect study of coenzyme binding to distinct sites in binary and ternary complexes in glutamate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.; Levy, H.R.; Levy, G.C.; LiMuti, C.; Goldstein, B.M.; Bell, J.E.

    1987-12-15

    The oxidized coenzyme NAD binds to two sites per subunit of bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase with equal affinity in the absence of dicarboxylic acid coligands. In the presence of glutarate or 2-oxoglutarate, the affinity to one site is unchanged, but the affinity to the other (presumed to be the active site) is considerably increased and now requires two dissociation constants to describe its saturation. A combination of transfer nuclear Overhauser effects (TRNOE) together with an examination of the slopes of TRNOE time dependence indicates that while NAD is bound in a syn conformation at both binding sites, NADP (which binds only to the active site) is bound in a syn-anti mixture. The existence of N6 to N3' and N6 and N2' and N1' to N3' NOE's with NAD suggest that the two coenzyme binding sites are located near enough to allow intermolecular NOE's. In the presence of 2-oxoglutarate where only binding to the active site is effectively observed, the conformation of either coenzyme is syn. Modeling studies using the distance estimates from the TRNOE results suggest that the nicotinamide ribose approximates a 3'-endo conformation. The absence of evidence for intermolecular NOE's under these conditions indicates that while the active and regulatory NAD sites per subunit are in close proximity, the six active sites per hexamer are located greater than 5 (A symbol) apart.

  20. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-29

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100° C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80° C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  1. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Lopes, José Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney-Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney-Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney-Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred.

  2. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Manuel Lopes, José

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney–Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney–Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney–Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred. PMID:22948025

  3. A chemical proteomic probe for detecting dehydrogenases: catechol rhodanine.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xia; Sem, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Inherent complexity of the proteome often demands that it be studied as manageable subsets, termed subproteomes. A subproteome can be defined in a number of ways, although a pragmatic approach is to define it based on common features in an active site that lead to binding of a common small molecule ligand (e.g., a cofactor or a cross-reactive drug lead). The subproteome, so defined, can be purified using that common ligand tethered to a resin, with affinity chromatography. Affinity purification of a subproteome is described in the next chapter. That subproteome can then be analyzed using a common ligand probe, such as a fluorescent common ligand that can be used to stain members of the subproteome in a native gel. Here, we describe such a fluorescent probe, based on a catechol rhodanine acetic acid (CRAA) ligand that binds to dehydrogenases. The CRAA ligand is fluorescent and binds to dehydrogenases at pH > 7, and hence can be used effectively to stain dehydrogenases in native gels to identify what subset of proteins in a mixture are dehydrogenases. Furthermore, if one is designing inhibitors to target one or more of these dehydrogenases, the CRAA staining can be performed in a competitive assay format, with or without inhibitor, to assess the selectivity of the inhibitor for the targeted dehydrogenase. Finally, the CRAA probe is a privileged scaffold for dehydrogenases, and hence can easily be modified to increase affinity for a given dehydrogenase.

  4. Expression in Escherichia coli of a sub-gene encoding the lipoyl and peripheral subunit-binding domains of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Hipps, D S; Perham, R N

    1992-05-01

    A sub-gene encoding the N-terminal 170 residues of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed polypeptide consists of the lipoyl domain, inter-domain linker and peripheral subunit-binding domain; these were found to have folded into their native functional conformations as judged by reductive acetylation of the lipoyl domain, limited proteolysis of the linker region and ability to bind the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase dimer. The di-domain was largely (80%) unlipoylated; a small proportion (4%) was correctly modified with lipoic acid and the remainder (16%) was aberrantly modified with octanoic acid. A polyclonal antiserum was raised that recognized both the di-domain and the individual component domains. The 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectrum of the di-domain showed resonances corresponding to those seen in spectra of the lipoyl domain, plus others characteristic of amino acid residues in the flexible linker region. Further, as yet unidentified, resonances are likely to be derived from the peripheral subunit-binding domain. The existence and independent folding of the peripheral subunit-binding domain is thus confirmed and its purification in large-scale amounts for detailed structural analysis is now possible.

  5. Expression in Escherichia coli of a sub-gene encoding the lipoyl and peripheral subunit-binding domains of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Hipps, D S; Perham, R N

    1992-01-01

    A sub-gene encoding the N-terminal 170 residues of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed polypeptide consists of the lipoyl domain, inter-domain linker and peripheral subunit-binding domain; these were found to have folded into their native functional conformations as judged by reductive acetylation of the lipoyl domain, limited proteolysis of the linker region and ability to bind the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase dimer. The di-domain was largely (80%) unlipoylated; a small proportion (4%) was correctly modified with lipoic acid and the remainder (16%) was aberrantly modified with octanoic acid. A polyclonal antiserum was raised that recognized both the di-domain and the individual component domains. The 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectrum of the di-domain showed resonances corresponding to those seen in spectra of the lipoyl domain, plus others characteristic of amino acid residues in the flexible linker region. Further, as yet unidentified, resonances are likely to be derived from the peripheral subunit-binding domain. The existence and independent folding of the peripheral subunit-binding domain is thus confirmed and its purification in large-scale amounts for detailed structural analysis is now possible. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1590756

  6. Structure of daidzin, a naturally occurring anti-alcohol-addiction agent, in complex with human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Edward D; Gao, Guang-Yao; Johnson, Louise N; Keung, Wing Ming

    2008-08-14

    The ALDH2*2 gene encoding the inactive variant form of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) protects nearly all carriers of this gene from alcoholism. Inhibition of ALDH2 has hence become a possible strategy to treat alcoholism. The natural product 7-O-glucosyl-4'-hydroxyisoflavone (daidzin), isolated from the kudzu vine ( Peruraria lobata), is a specific inhibitor of ALDH2 and suppresses ethanol consumption. Daidzin is the active principle in a herbal remedy for "alcohol addiction" and provides a lead for the design of improved ALDH2. The structure of daidzin/ALDH2 in complex at 2.4 A resolution shows the isoflavone moiety of daidzin binding close to the aldehyde substrate-binding site in a hydrophobic cleft and the glucosyl function binding to a hydrophobic patch immediately outside the isoflavone-binding pocket. These observations provide an explanation for both the specificity and affinity of daidzin (IC50 =80 nM) and the affinity of analogues with different substituents at the glucosyl position.

  7. Production of natural fragrance aromatic acids by coexpression of trans-anethole oxygenase and p-anisaldehyde dehydrogenase genes of Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongfei; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kanaly, Robert A; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2012-12-05

    A gene encoding p-anisaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of p-anisaldehyde to p-anisic acid, was identified to be clustered with the trans-anethole oxygenase (tao) gene in Pseudomonas putida JYR-1. Heterologously expressed PAADH in Escherichia coli catalyzed the oxidation of vanillin, veratraldehyde, and piperonal to the corresponding aromatic acids vanillic acid, veratric acid, and piperonylic acid, respectively. Coexpression of trans-anethole oxygenase (TAO) and PAADH in E. coli also resulted in the successful transformation of trans-anethole, isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole to p-anisic acid, vanillic acid, veratric acid, and piperonylic acid, respectively, which are compounds found in plants as secondary metabolites. Because of the relaxed substrate specificity and high transformation rates by coexpressed TAO and PAADH in E. coli , the engineered strain has potential to be applied in the fragrance industry.

  8. Fatty acid labeling from glutamine in hypoxia can be explained by isotope exchange without net reductive isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) flux.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Shlomi, Tomer

    2013-10-25

    Acetyl-CoA is an important anabolic precursor for lipid biosynthesis. In the conventional view of mammalian metabolism, acetyl-CoA is primarily derived by the oxidation of glucose-derived pyruvate in mitochondria. Recent studies have employed isotope tracers to show that in cancer cells grown in hypoxia or with defective mitochondria, a major fraction of acetyl-CoA is produced via another route, reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate (catalyzed by reverse flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH). Here, we employ a quantitative flux model to show that in hypoxia and in cells with defective mitochondria, oxidative IDH flux persists and may exceed the reductive flux. Therefore, IDH flux may not be a net contributor to acetyl-CoA production, although we cannot rule out net reductive IDH flux in some compartments. Instead of producing large amounts of net acetyl-CoA reductively, the cells adapt by reducing their demand for acetyl-CoA by importing rather than synthesizing fatty acids. Thus, fatty acid labeling from glutamine in hypoxia can be explained by spreading of label without net reductive IDH flux.

  9. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer. PMID:27885267

  10. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-11-25

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer.

  11. Phosphorylation of serine 264 impedes active site accessibility in the E1 component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Franziska; Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Golbik, Ralph; Spinka, Michael; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Brauer, Johanna; Patel, Mulchand S; Tittmann, Kai

    2007-05-29

    At the junction of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in cellular metabolism, the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. In mammals, PDHc is tightly regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of three serine residues in the thiamin-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. In vivo, inactivation of human PDHc correlates mostly with phosphorylation of serine 264, which is located at the entrance of the substrate channel leading to the active site of E1. Despite intense investigations, the molecular mechanism of this inactivation has remained enigmatic. Here, a detailed analysis of microscopic steps of catalysis in human wild-type PDHc-E1 and pseudophosphorylation variant Ser264Glu elucidates how phosphorylation of Ser264 affects catalysis. Whereas the intrinsic reactivity of the active site in catalysis of pyruvate decarboxylation remains nearly unaltered, the preceding binding of substrate to the enzyme's active site via the substrate channel and the subsequent reductive acetylation of the E2 component are severely slowed in the phosphorylation variant. The structure of pseudophosphorylation variant Ser264Glu determined by X-ray crystallography reveals no differences in the three-dimensional architecture of the phosphorylation loop or of the active site, when compared to those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the channel leading to the active site is partially obstructed by the side chain of residue 264 in the variant. By analogy, a similar obstruction of the substrate channel can be anticipated to result from a phosphorylation of Ser264. The kinetic and thermodynamic results in conjunction with the structure of Ser264Glu suggest that phosphorylation blocks access to the active site by imposing a steric and electrostatic barrier for substrate binding and active site coupling with the E2 component. As a Ser264Gln variant, which carries no charge at position 264, is also selectively

  12. A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, J. Samuel; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Wright, Megan; Klise, Andrew; Broman, Karl W.; Huang, Hao; Patek, Bonnie; Sergeev, Yuri; Hose, Stacey; Xaiodong, Jiao; Vasquez, David; Maragakis, Nicholas; Mori, Susumu; Goldman, David; Sinha, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    A novel mutation, causing a phenotype we named frogleg because its most obvious characteristic is a severe splaying of the hind limbs, arose spontaneously in a colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. Frogleg is a complex phenotype that includes abnormalities in hind limb function, reduced brain weight with dilated ventricles and infertility. Using micro-satellite markers spanning the entire rat genome, the mutation was mapped to a region of rat chromosome 1 between D1Rat131 and D1Rat287. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data within the linkage interval, identified a missense mutation in the branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase kinase (Bckdk) gene. The protein encoded by Bckdk is an integral part of an enzyme complex located in the mitochondrial matrix of many tissues which regulates the levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs are essential amino acids (not synthesized by the body), and circulating levels must be tightly regulated; levels that are too high or too low are both deleterious. BCKDK phosphorylates Ser293 of the E1α subunit of the BCKDH protein, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the BCAAs, inhibiting BCKDH and thereby, limiting breakdown of the BCAAs. In contrast, when Ser293 is not phosphorylated, BCKDH activity is unchecked and the levels of the BCAAs will decrease dramatically. The mutation is located within the kinase domain of Bckdk and is predicted to be damaging. Consistent with this, we show that in rats homozygous for the mutation, phosphorylation of BCKDH in the brain is markedly decreased relative to wild type or heterozygous littermates. Further, circulating levels of the BCAAs are reduced by 70–80% in animals homozygous for the mutation. The frogleg phenotype shares important characteristics with a previously described Bckdk knockout mouse and with human subjects with Bckdk mutations. In addition, we report novel data regarding peripheral neuropathy of the hind limbs

  13. A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

    PubMed

    Zigler, J Samuel; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Wright, Megan; Klise, Andrew; Sundin, Olof; Broman, Karl W; Hejtmancik, Fielding; Huang, Hao; Patek, Bonnie; Sergeev, Yuri; Hose, Stacey; Brayton, Cory; Xaiodong, Jiao; Vasquez, David; Maragakis, Nicholas; Mori, Susumu; Goldman, David; Hoke, Ahmet; Sinha, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    A novel mutation, causing a phenotype we named frogleg because its most obvious characteristic is a severe splaying of the hind limbs, arose spontaneously in a colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. Frogleg is a complex phenotype that includes abnormalities in hind limb function, reduced brain weight with dilated ventricles and infertility. Using micro-satellite markers spanning the entire rat genome, the mutation was mapped to a region of rat chromosome 1 between D1Rat131 and D1Rat287. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data within the linkage interval, identified a missense mutation in the branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase kinase (Bckdk) gene. The protein encoded by Bckdk is an integral part of an enzyme complex located in the mitochondrial matrix of many tissues which regulates the levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs are essential amino acids (not synthesized by the body), and circulating levels must be tightly regulated; levels that are too high or too low are both deleterious. BCKDK phosphorylates Ser293 of the E1α subunit of the BCKDH protein, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the BCAAs, inhibiting BCKDH and thereby, limiting breakdown of the BCAAs. In contrast, when Ser293 is not phosphorylated, BCKDH activity is unchecked and the levels of the BCAAs will decrease dramatically. The mutation is located within the kinase domain of Bckdk and is predicted to be damaging. Consistent with this, we show that in rats homozygous for the mutation, phosphorylation of BCKDH in the brain is markedly decreased relative to wild type or heterozygous littermates. Further, circulating levels of the BCAAs are reduced by 70-80% in animals homozygous for the mutation. The frogleg phenotype shares important characteristics with a previously described Bckdk knockout mouse and with human subjects with Bckdk mutations. In addition, we report novel data regarding peripheral neuropathy of the hind limbs.

  14. Structural and Functional Studies of WlbA: A Dehydrogenase Involved in the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2010-09-08

    2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid (ManNAc3NAcA) is an unusual dideoxy sugar first identified nearly 30 years ago in the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O:3a,d. It has since been observed in other organisms, including Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of UDP-ManNAc3NAcA starting from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Here we describe a structural study of WlbA, the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step in the pathway, namely, the oxidation of the C-3{prime} hydroxyl group on the UDP-linked sugar to a keto moiety and the reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH. This enzyme has been shown to use {alpha}-ketoglutarate as an oxidant to regenerate the oxidized dinucleotide. For this investigation, three different crystal structures were determined: the enzyme with bound NAD(H), the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate, and the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and its substrate (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminuronic acid). The tetrameric enzyme assumes an unusual quaternary structure with the dinucleotides positioned quite closely to one another. Both {alpha}-ketoglutarate and the UDP-linked sugar bind in the WlbA active site with their carbon atoms (C-2 and C-3{prime}, respectively) abutting the re face of the cofactor. They are positioned {approx}3 {angstrom} from the nicotinamide C-4. The UDP-linked sugar substrate adopts a highly unusual curved conformation when bound in the WlbA active site cleft. Lys 101 and His 185 most likely play key roles in catalysis.

  15. Chronic alcoholism in rats induces a compensatory response, preserving brain thiamine diphosphate, but the brain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases are inactivated despite unchanged coenzyme levels.

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, Yulia M; Kudryavtsev, Pavel A; Pylypchuk, Svetlana Yu; Chekhivska, Lilia I; Stepanenko, Svetlana P; Sergiichuk, Andrej A; Bunik, Victoria I

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent changes in alcoholic brain were studied using a rat model. Brain thiamine and its mono- and diphosphates were not reduced after 20 weeks of alcohol exposure. However, alcoholism increased both synaptosomal thiamine uptake and thiamine diphosphate synthesis in brain, pointing to mechanisms preserving thiamine diphosphate in the alcoholic brain. In spite of the unchanged level of the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate, activities of the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes decreased in alcoholic brain. The inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was caused by its increased phosphorylation. The inactivation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) correlated with a decrease in free thiols resulting from an elevation of reactive oxygen species. Abstinence from alcohol following exposure to alcohol reactivated OGDHC along with restoration of the free thiol content. However, restoration of enzyme activity occurred before normalization of reactive oxygen species levels. Hence, the redox status of cellular thiols mediates the action of oxidative stress on OGDHC in alcoholic brain. As a result, upon chronic alcohol consumption, physiological mechanisms to counteract the thiamine deficiency and silence pyruvate dehydrogenase are activated in rat brain, whereas OGDHC is inactivated due to impaired antioxidant ability.

  16. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  19. Intrastriatal injections of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, malonate, cause a rise in extracellular amino acids that is blocked by MK-801.

    PubMed

    Messam, C A; Greene, J G; Greenamyre, J T; Robinson, M B

    1995-07-03

    The effects of intrastriatal injections of a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, malonate, on the extracellular concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters were examined using a microdialysis probe that was positioned a fixed distance from an injection cannula. Malonate (2 mumol) caused a 23 +/- 5-fold increase in extracellular glutamate (Glu), a 18 +/- 6-fold increase extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a modest increase in extracellular aspartate (Asp, 2.9 +/- 0.8-fold increase). Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (5 mg/kg) prior to injection of malonate almost completely blocked these increases. This study provides direct evidence that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase causes an increase in extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters and further evidence that bioenergetic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases through an excitotoxic mechanism.

  20. Nicotine Dehydrogenase Complexed with 6-Hydroxypseudooxynicotine Oxidase Involved in the Hybrid Nicotine-Degrading Pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33.

    PubMed

    Li, Huili; Xie, Kebo; Yu, Wenjun; Hu, Liejie; Huang, Haiyan; Xie, Huijun; Wang, Shuning

    2016-01-04

    Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine dehydrogenase initializing the nicotine degradation from the strain and found that it forms a complex with a novel 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine oxidase. The purified complex is composed of three different subunits encoded by ndhAB and pno, where ndhA and ndhB overlap by 4 bp and are ∼26 kb away from pno. As predicted from the gene sequences and from chemical analyses, NdhA (82.4 kDa) and NdhB (17.1 kDa) harbor a molybdopterin cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] clusters, respectively, whereas Pno (73.3 kDa) harbors an flavin mononucleotide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Mutants with disrupted ndhA or ndhB genes did not grow on nicotine but grew well on 6-hydroxynicotine and HSP, whereas the pno mutant did not grow on nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine but grew well on HSP, indicating that NdhA and NdhB are responsible for initialization of nicotine oxidation. We successfully expressed pno in Escherichia coli and found that the recombinant Pno presented 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduction activity when it was coupled with 6-hydroxynicotine oxidation. The determination of reaction products catalyzed by the purified enzymes or mutants indicated that NdhAB catalyzed nicotine oxidation to 6-hydroxynicotine, whereas Pno oxidized 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylsemialdehyde pyridine. These results provide new insights into this novel hybrid pathway of nicotine degradation in A. tumefaciens S33.

  1. Nicotine Dehydrogenase Complexed with 6-Hydroxypseudooxynicotine Oxidase Involved in the Hybrid Nicotine-Degrading Pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huili; Xie, Kebo; Yu, Wenjun; Hu, Liejie; Huang, Haiyan; Xie, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine dehydrogenase initializing the nicotine degradation from the strain and found that it forms a complex with a novel 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine oxidase. The purified complex is composed of three different subunits encoded by ndhAB and pno, where ndhA and ndhB overlap by 4 bp and are ∼26 kb away from pno. As predicted from the gene sequences and from chemical analyses, NdhA (82.4 kDa) and NdhB (17.1 kDa) harbor a molybdopterin cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] clusters, respectively, whereas Pno (73.3 kDa) harbors an flavin mononucleotide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Mutants with disrupted ndhA or ndhB genes did not grow on nicotine but grew well on 6-hydroxynicotine and HSP, whereas the pno mutant did not grow on nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine but grew well on HSP, indicating that NdhA and NdhB are responsible for initialization of nicotine oxidation. We successfully expressed pno in Escherichia coli and found that the recombinant Pno presented 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduction activity when it was coupled with 6-hydroxynicotine oxidation. The determination of reaction products catalyzed by the purified enzymes or mutants indicated that NdhAB catalyzed nicotine oxidation to 6-hydroxynicotine, whereas Pno oxidized 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylsemialdehyde pyridine. These results provide new insights into this novel hybrid pathway of nicotine degradation in A. tumefaciens S33. PMID:26729714

  2. Application of a Genetically Encoded Biosensor for Live Cell Imaging of L-Valine Production in Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains. PMID:24465669

  3. Communication between thiamin cofactors in the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component active centers: evidence for a "direct pathway" between the 4'-aminopyrimidine N1' atoms.

    PubMed

    Nemeria, Natalia S; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Mossad, Madouna; Tittmann, Kai; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2010-04-09

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and structural analysis tested the hypothesis that a chain of residues connecting the 4'-aminopyrimidine N1' atoms of thiamin diphosphates (ThDPs) in the two active centers of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component provides a signal transduction pathway. Substitution of the three acidic residues (Glu(571), Glu(235), and Glu(237)) and Arg(606) resulted in impaired binding of the second ThDP, once the first active center was filled, suggesting a pathway for communication between the two ThDPs. 1) Steady-state kinetic and fluorescence quenching studies revealed that upon E571A, E235A, E237A, and R606A substitutions, ThDP binding in the second active center was affected. 2) Analysis of the kinetics of thiazolium C2 hydrogen/deuterium exchange of enzyme-bound ThDP suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity for the E1 component, with fast (activated site) and slow exchanging sites (dormant site). The E235A and E571A variants gave no evidence for the slow exchanging site, indicating that only one of two active sites is filled with ThDP. 3) Titration of the E235A and E237A variants with methyl acetylphosphonate monitored by circular dichroism suggested that only half of the active sites were filled with a covalent predecarboxylation intermediate analog. 4) Crystal structures of E235A and E571A in complex with ThDP revealed the structural basis for the spectroscopic and kinetic observations and showed that either substitution affects cofactor binding, despite the fact that Glu(235) makes no direct contact with the cofactor. The role of the conserved Glu(571) residue in both catalysis and cofactor orientation is revealed by the combined results for the first time.

  4. Production of L-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Ilmén, Marja; Koivuranta, Kari; Ruohonen, Laura; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

    2013-05-25

    Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional

  5. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the

  6. Biosynthesis of Germacrene A Carboxylic Acid in Chicory Roots. Demonstration of a Cytochrome P450 (+)-Germacrene A Hydroxylase and NADP+-Dependent Sesquiterpenoid Dehydrogenase(s) Involved in Sesquiterpene Lactone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    de Kraker, Jan-Willem; Franssen, Maurice C. R.; Dalm, Marcella C. F.; de Groot, Aede; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2001-01-01

    Sprouts of chicory (Cichorium intybus), a vegetable grown in the dark, have a slightly bitter taste associated with the presence of guaianolides, eudesmanolides, and germacranolides. The committed step in the biosynthesis of these compounds is catalyzed by a (+)-germacrene A synthase. Formation of the lactone ring is the postulated next step in biosynthesis of the germacrene-derived sesquiterpene lactones. The present study confirms this hypothesis by isolation of enzyme activities from chicory roots that introduce a carboxylic acid function in the germacrene A isopropenyl side chain, which is necessary for lactone ring formation. (+)-Germacrene A is hydroxylated to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme, and is subsequently oxidized to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid by NADP+-dependent dehydrogenase(s). Both oxidized germacrenes were detected as their Cope-rearrangement products elema-1,3,11(13)-trien-12-ol and elema-1,3,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid, respectively. The cyclization products of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol, i.e. costol, were also observed. The (+)-germacrene A hydroxylase is inhibited by carbon monoxide (blue-light reversible), has an optimum pH at 8.0, and hydroxylates β-elemene with a modest degree of enantioselectivity. PMID:11299372

  7. Antisense inhibition of the iron-sulphur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase enhances photosynthesis and growth in tomato via an organic acid-mediated effect on stomatal aperture.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Wagner L; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Osorio, Sonia; Usadel, Björn; Fuentes, Daniela; Nagy, Réka; Balbo, Ilse; Lehmann, Martin; Studart-Witkowski, Claudia; Tohge, Takayuki; Martinoia, Enrico; Jordana, Xavier; Damatta, Fábio M; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2011-02-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing a fragment of the Sl SDH2-2 gene encoding the iron sulfur subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase protein complex in the antisense orientation under the control of the 35S promoter exhibit an enhanced rate of photosynthesis. The rate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was reduced in these transformants, and there were changes in the levels of metabolites associated with the TCA cycle. Furthermore, in comparison to wild-type plants, carbon dioxide assimilation was enhanced by up to 25% in the transgenic plants under ambient conditions, and mature plants were characterized by an increased biomass. Analysis of additional photosynthetic parameters revealed that the rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance were markedly elevated in the transgenic plants. The transformants displayed a strongly enhanced assimilation rate under both ambient and suboptimal environmental conditions, as well as an elevated maximal stomatal aperture. By contrast, when the Sl SDH2-2 gene was repressed by antisense RNA in a guard cell-specific manner, changes in neither stomatal aperture nor photosynthesis were observed. The data obtained are discussed in the context of the role of TCA cycle intermediates both generally with respect to photosynthetic metabolism and specifically with respect to their role in the regulation of stomatal aperture.

  8. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  9. Glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02: Enzymatic properties and specific functions in glutamic acid synthesis for poly-γ-glutamic acid production.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guangming; Wang, Qin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ma, Xin; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-04-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a natural biopolymer, is widely used in cosmetics, medicine, food, water treatment, and agriculture owing to its features of moisture sequestration, cation chelation, non-toxicity and biodegradability. Intracellular glutamic acid, the substrate of γ-PGA, is a limiting factor for high yield in γ-PGA production. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis are both important γ-PGA producing strains, and B. subtilis synthesizes glutamic acid in vivo using the unique GOGAT/GS pathway. However, little is known about the glutamate synthesis pathway in B. licheniformis. The aim of this work was to characterize the glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in glutamic acid synthesis from B. licheniformis with both in vivo and in vitro experiments. By re-directing the carbon flux distribution, the rocG gene deletion mutant WX-02ΔrocG produced intracellular glutamic acid with a concentration of 90ng/log(CFU), which was only 23.7% that of the wild-type WX-02 (380ng/log(CFU)). Furthermore, the γ-PGA yield of mutant WX-02ΔrocG was 5.37g/L, a decrease of 45.3% compared to the wild type (9.82g/L). In vitro enzymatic assays of RocG showed that RocG has higher affinity for 2-oxoglutarate than glutamate, and the glutamate synthesis rate was far above degradation. This is probably the first study to reveal the glutamic acid synthesis pathway and the specific functions of RocG in B. licheniformis. The results indicate that γ-PGA production can be enhanced through improving intracellular glutamic acid synthesis.

  10. Free fatty acid inhibition of the insulin induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat hepatocyte monolayers.

    PubMed

    Salati, L M; Adkins-Finke, B; Clarke, S D

    1988-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were utilized to determine if the decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity resulting from the ingestion of fat can be mimicked by the addition of fatty acids to a chemically, hormonally defined medium. G6PD activity in cultured hepatocytes was induced several-fold by insulin. Dexamethasone or T3 did not amplify the insulin induction of G6PD. Glucose alone increased G6PD activity in cultured hepatocytes from fasted donors by nearly 500%. Insulin in combination with glucose induced G6PD an additional two-fold. The increase in G6PD activity caused by glucose was greater in hepatocytes isolated from 72 hr-fasted rats as compared to fed donor rats. Such a response was reminiscent of the "overshoot" phenomenon in which G6PD activity is induced well above the normal level by fasting-refeeding rats a high glucose diet. Addition of linoleate to the medium resulted in a significant suppression of insulin's ability to induce G6PD, but linoleate had no effect on the induction of G6PD activity by glucose alone. A shift to the right in the insulin-response curve for the induction of G6PD also was detected for the induction of malic enzyme and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Arachidonate (0.25 mM) was a significantly more effective inhibitor of the insulin action than linoleate was. Apparently rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture can be utilized as a model to investigate the molecular mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit the production of lipogenic enzymes. In part, this mechanism of fatty acid inhibition involves desensitization of hepatocytes to the lipogenic action of insulin.

  11. Site-directed Mutagenesis as a Probe of the Acid-base Catalytic Mechanism of Homoisocitrate Dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; West, Ann H.; Cook, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HIcDH) catalyzes the Mg2+- and K+-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of homoisocitrate to α-ketoadipate using NAD as the oxidant. A recent consideration of the structures of enzymes in the same family as HIcDH, including isopropylmalate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, suggests all of the family members utilize a Lys-Tyr pair to catalyze the acid-base chemistry of the reaction (Aktas, D. F., and Cook, P. F. (2009) Biochemistry submitted.). Multiple sequence alignment indicates the active site Lys-Tyr pair consists of lysine-206 and tyrosine-150. Therefore, the K206M and Y150F mutants of HIcDH were prepared and characterized in order to test the potential roles of these residues as acid-base catalysts. The V/Et values of the K206M and Y150F mutant enzymes at pH 7.5 are decreased by about 2400- and 680-fold, respectively, compared to wild type HIcDH; the Km for HIc does not change significantly. V/Et and V/KMgHIc Et for the K206M mutant enzyme are pH independent below pH 6 and decrease to a constant value above pH 7, while V/KNAD Et is independent over the pH range 6.2 to 9.5. In the case of the Y150F mutant enzyme, V/Et and V/KNAD Et are pH independent above pH 9.5 and decrease to a constant value below pH 8. This behavior can be compared to wild type enzyme, where V/Et decreases at high and low pH giving pKa values of about 6.5 and 9.5. Data were interpreted in terms of a group with a pKa of 6.5 that acts as a general base in the hydride transfer step, and a group with a pKa of 9.5 that acts as a general acid to protonate C3 in the tautomerization reaction (Lin, Y., Volkman, J., Nicholas, K. M., Yamamoto, T., Eguchi, T., Nimmo, S. L., West, A. H., Cook, P. F. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 4169–4180.). Solvent deuterium isotope effects on V and V/KMgHIc were near unity for the K206M mutant enzyme, but about 2.2 for the Y150F mutant enzyme. The dramatic decreases in activity, the measured solvent deuterium isotope effects and changes in the

  12. Enzyme-substrate complexes of the quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum enable new insights in substrate and cofactor binding, specificity, and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Astrid; Schomburg, Dietmar; Niefind, Karsten

    2013-11-01

    Quinate dehydrogenase (QDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of quinate to 3-dehydroquinate by nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and is involved in the catabolic quinate metabolism required for the degradation of lignin. The enzyme is a member of the family of shikimate/quinate dehydrogenases (SDH/QDH) occurring in bacteria and plants. We characterized the dual-substrate quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase (QSDH) from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CglQSDH) kinetically and revealed a clear substrate preference of CglQSDH for quinate compared with shikimate both at the pH optimum and in a physiological pH range, which is a remarkable contrast to closely related SDH/QDH enzymes. With respect to the cosubstrate, CglQSDH is strictly NAD(H) dependent. These substrate and cosubstrate profiles correlate well with the details of three atomic resolution crystal structures of CglQSDH in different functional states we report here: with bound NAD+ (binary complex) and as ternary complexes with NADH plus either shikimate or quinate. The CglQSDH-NADH-quinate structure is the first complex structure of any member of the SDH/QDH family with quinate. Based on this novel structural information and systematic sequence and structure comparisons with closely related enzymes, we can explain the strict NAD(H) dependency of CglQSDH as well as its discrimination between shikimate and quinate.

  13. Crystal structure of 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine 4-carboxylic acid 5-dehydrogenase, an NAD⁺-dependent dismutase from Mesorhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Andrew Njagi; Kobayashi, Jun; Mikami, Bunzo; Yoshikane, Yu; Yagi, Toshiharu; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2015-01-02

    5-Formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine 4-carboxylic acid 5-dehydrogenase (FHMPCDH) from Mesorhizobium loti is the fifth enzyme in degradation pathway I for pyridoxine. The enzyme catalyzes a dismutation reaction: the oxidation of 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine 4-carboxylic acid (FHMPC) to 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine 4,5-dicarboxylic acid with NAD(+) and reduction of FHMPC to 4-pyridoxic acid with NADH. FHMPCDH belongs to the l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) family. The crystal structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined to a resolution of 1.55Å (R-factor of 16.4%, Rfree=19.4%). There were two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The overall structure of the monomer consisted of N- and C-terminal domains connected by a short linker loop. The monomer was similar to members of the HAD family (RMSD=1.9Å). The active site was located between the domains and highly conserved to that of human heart l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HhHAD). His-Glu catalytic dyad, a serine and two asparagine residues of HhHAD were conserved. Ser116, His137 and Glu149 in FHMPCDH are connected by a hydrogen bonding network forming a catalytic triad. The functions of the active site residues in the reaction mechanism are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Holder, A A; Wootton, J C; Baron, A J; Chambers, G K; Fincham, J R

    1975-01-01

    Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1002

  15. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations prime the all-trans retinoic acid myeloid differentiation pathway in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Boutzen, Héléna; Saland, Estelle; Larrue, Clément; de Toni, Fabienne; Gales, Lara; Castelli, Florence A; Cathebas, Mathilde; Zaghdoudi, Sonia; Stuani, Lucille; Kaoma, Tony; Riscal, Romain; Yang, Guangli; Hirsch, Pierre; David, Marion; De Mas-Mansat, Véronique; Delabesse, Eric; Vallar, Laurent; Delhommeau, François; Jouanin, Isabelle; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Le Cam, Laurent; Linares, Laetitia K; Junot, Christophe; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vergez, François; Récher, Christian; Sarry, Jean-Emmanuel

    2016-04-04

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant blasts with impaired differentiation programs caused by recurrent mutations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations found in 15% of AML patients. These mutations result in the production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), leading to a hypermethylation phenotype that dysregulates hematopoietic differentiation. In this study, we identified mutant R132H IDH1-specific gene signatures regulated by key transcription factors, particularly CEBPα, involved in myeloid differentiation and retinoid responsiveness. We show that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at clinically achievable doses markedly enhanced terminal granulocytic differentiation in AML cell lines, primary patient samples, and a xenograft mouse model carrying mutant IDH1. Moreover, treatment with a cell-permeable form of 2-HG sensitized wild-type IDH1 AML cells to ATRA-induced myeloid differentiation, whereas inhibition of 2-HG production significantly reduced ATRA effects in mutant IDH1 cells. ATRA treatment specifically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of mutant IDH1 blasts in vitro. ATRA also reduced tumor burden of mutant IDH1 AML cells xenografted in NOD-Scid-IL2rγ(null)mice and markedly increased overall survival, revealing a potent antileukemic effect of ATRA in the presence of IDH1 mutation. This therapeutic strategy holds promise for this AML patient subgroup in future clinical studies. © 2016 Boutzen et al.

  16. Expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in barley in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, M; Nakamura, T; Han, S Y; Takabe, T

    1995-01-01

    When subjected to salt stress or drought, some vascular plants such as barley respond with an increased accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (betaine), being the last step of betaine synthesis catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). We report here cloning and characterization of BADH cDNA from barley, a monocot, and the expression pattern of a BADH transcript. An open reading frame of 1515 bp encoded a protein which showed high homology to BADH enzymes present in other plants (spinach and sugar-beet) and in Escherichia coli. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring the clone expressed high levels of both BADH protein and its enzymatic activity. Northern blot analyses indicated that BADH mRNA levels increased almost 8-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in leaves and roots of barley plants grown in high-salt conditions, and that these levels decreased upon release of the stress, whereas they did not decrease under continuous salt stress. BADH transcripts also accumulate in response to water stress or drought, indicating a common response of the plant to osmotic changes that affect its water status. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to plants during growth also increased the levels of BADH transcripts dramatically, although the response was delayed when compared to that found for salt-stressed plants. Removal of plant roots before transferring the plants to high-salt conditions reduced only slightly the accumulation of BADH transcripts in the leaves.

  17. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations prime the all-trans retinoic acid myeloid differentiation pathway in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Boutzen, Héléna; Saland, Estelle; Larrue, Clément; de Toni, Fabienne; Gales, Lara; Castelli, Florence A.; Cathebas, Mathilde; Zaghdoudi, Sonia; Stuani, Lucille; Kaoma, Tony; Riscal, Romain; Yang, Guangli; Hirsch, Pierre; David, Marion; De Mas-Mansat, Véronique; Delabesse, Eric; Vallar, Laurent; Delhommeau, François; Jouanin, Isabelle; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Le Cam, Laurent; Linares, Laetitia K.; Junot, Christophe; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vergez, François; Récher, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant blasts with impaired differentiation programs caused by recurrent mutations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations found in 15% of AML patients. These mutations result in the production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), leading to a hypermethylation phenotype that dysregulates hematopoietic differentiation. In this study, we identified mutant R132H IDH1-specific gene signatures regulated by key transcription factors, particularly CEBPα, involved in myeloid differentiation and retinoid responsiveness. We show that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at clinically achievable doses markedly enhanced terminal granulocytic differentiation in AML cell lines, primary patient samples, and a xenograft mouse model carrying mutant IDH1. Moreover, treatment with a cell-permeable form of 2-HG sensitized wild-type IDH1 AML cells to ATRA-induced myeloid differentiation, whereas inhibition of 2-HG production significantly reduced ATRA effects in mutant IDH1 cells. ATRA treatment specifically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of mutant IDH1 blasts in vitro. ATRA also reduced tumor burden of mutant IDH1 AML cells xenografted in NOD–Scid–IL2rγnull mice and markedly increased overall survival, revealing a potent antileukemic effect of ATRA in the presence of IDH1 mutation. This therapeutic strategy holds promise for this AML patient subgroup in future clinical studies. PMID:26951332

  18. Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH) Activity as a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker of Mycophenolic Acid Effects in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Goebel, Jens; Thøgersen, Håvard; Maseck, Denise; Cox, Shareen; Logan, Barbara; Sherbotie, Joseph; Seikaly, Mouin; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)–induced immunosuppression may serve as a novel approach in pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD)–guided therapy. The authors prospectively studied MPA pharmacokinetics and IMPDH inhibition in 28 pediatric de novo kidney transplant recipients. Pretransplant IMPDH activity and full PK/PD profiles were obtained at 3 different occasions: 1 to 3 days, 4 to 9 days, and approximately 6 months after transplant. Large intra- and interpatient variability was noted in MPA pharmacokinetics and exposure and IMPDH inhibition. MPA exposure (AUC0-12 h) was low early posttransplant and increased over time and stabilized at months 3 to 6. Mean pretransplant IMPDH activity (6.4 ± 4.6 nmol/h/mg protein) was lower than previously reported in adults. In most of the patients, IMPDH enzyme activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory Emax model (EC50 = 0.97 mg/L). This study suggests the importance of early PK/PD monitoring to improve drug exposure. Because IMPDH inhibition is well correlated to MPA concentration, pre-transplant IMPDH activity may serve as an early marker to guide the initial level of MPA exposure required in a pediatric population. PMID:20418509

  19. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and arsenite: LD(50) in hamsters and in vitro inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Petrick, J S; Jagadish, B; Mash, E A; Aposhian, H V

    2001-06-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a metabolite of inorganic arsenic, has received very little attention from investigators of arsenic metabolism in humans. MMA(III), like sodium arsenite, contains arsenic in the +3 oxidation state. Although we have previously demonstrated that it is more toxic than arsenite in cultured Chang human hepatocytes, there are no data showing in vivo toxicity of MMA(III). When MMA(III) or sodium arsenite was administered intraperitoneally to hamsters, the LD(50)s were 29.3 and 112.0 micromol/kg of body wt, respectively. In addition, inhibition of hamster kidney or purified porcine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity by MMA(III) or arsenite was determined. To inhibit hamster kidney PDH activity by 50%, the concentrations (mean +/- SE) of MMA(III) as methylarsine oxide, MMA(III) as diiodomethylarsine, and arsenite were 59.9 +/- 6.5, 62.0 +/- 1.8, and 115.7 +/- 2.3 microM, respectively. To inhibit activity of purified porcine heart PDH activity by 50%, the concentrations (mean +/- SE) of MMA(III) as methylarsine oxide and arsenite were 17.6 +/- 4.1 and 106.1 +/- 19.8 microM, respectively. These data demonstrate that MMA(III) is more toxic than inorganic arsenite, both in vivo and in vitro, and call into question the hypothesis that methylation of inorganic arsenic is a detoxication process.

  20. The role of hydrophobic amino acids of K-segments in the cryoprotection of lactate dehydrogenase by dehydrins.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Endo, Takuya; Kamiya, Keita; Kameyama, Ayuko

    2017-03-01

    Dehydrins, which are group 2 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, accumulate in plants during the development of the embryo and exposure to abiotic stresses including low temperature. Dehydrins exhibit cryoprotection of freezing-sensitive enzymes, e.g. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Although it has been reported that K-segments conserved in dehydrins are related to their cryoprotection activity, it has not been determined which sequence features of the K-segments contribute to the cryoprotection. A cryoprotection assay using LDH indicated that 13 K-segments including 12 K-segments found in Arabidopsis dehydrins and a typical K-segment (TypK, EKKGIMEKIKEKLPG) derived from the K-segments of many plants showed similar cryoprotective activities. Mutation of the TypK sequence demonstrated that hydrophobic amino acids were clearly involved in preventing the cryoinactivation, cryoaggregation, and cryodenaturation of LDH. We propose that the cryoprotective activities of dehydrins may be made possible by the hydrophobic residues of the K-segments.

  1. Salicylic acid stimulates secretion of the normally symplastic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase: a possible defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-yi; Zamski, Eli; Guo, Wei-wen; Pharr, D Mason; Williamson, John D

    2009-11-01

    The sugar alcohol mannitol is an important carbohydrate with well-documented roles in both metabolism and osmoprotection in many plants and fungi. In addition to these traditionally recognized roles, mannitol is reported to be an antioxidant and as such may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. Current research suggests that pathogenic fungi can secrete mannitol into the apoplast to suppress reactive oxygen-mediated host defenses. Immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and biochemical data reported here show that the normally symplastic plant enzyme, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD), is secreted into the apoplast after treatment with the endogenous inducer of plant defense responses salicylic acid (SA). In contrast, a cytoplasmic marker protein, hexokinase, remained cytoplasmic after SA-treatment. Secreted MTD retained activity after export to the apoplast. Given that MTD converts mannitol to the sugar mannose, MTD secretion may be an important component of plant defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens such as Alternaria. After SA treatment, MTD was not detected in the Golgi apparatus, and its SA-induced secretion was resistant to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of Golgi-mediated protein transport. Together with the absence of a known extracellular targeting sequence on the MTD protein, these data suggest that a plant's response to pathogen challenge may include secretion of selected defensive proteins by as yet uncharacterized, non-Golgi mechanisms.

  2. Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply: Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Barbara U.; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R.; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1α, E1β, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs+ reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. PMID:25336454

  3. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) subunits moonlight as interaction partners of phosphorylated STAT5 in adipocytes and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Richard, Allison J; Hang, Hardy; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2017-10-05

    STAT5 proteins play a role in adipocyte development and function, but their specific functions are largely unknown. To this end, we used an unbiased MS-based approach to identify novel STAT5-interacting proteins. We observed that STAT5A bound the E1β and E2 subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Whereas STAT5A typically localizes to the cytosol or nucleus, PDC normally resides within the mitochondrial matrix where it converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. We employed affinity purification and immunoblotting to validate the interaction between STAT5A and PDC subunits in murine and human cultured adipocytes, as well as in adipose tissue. We found that multiple PDC subunits interact with hormone-activated STAT5A in a dose- and time-dependent manner that coincides with tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5. Using subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that PDC-E2 is present within the adipocyte nucleus where it associates with STAT5A. Since STAT5A is a transcription factor, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to assess PDC's ability to interact with STAT5 DNA-binding sites. These analyses revealed that PDC-E2 is bound to a STAT5-binding site in the promoter of the STAT5 target gene cish (cytokine inducible SH2 containing protein). We have demonstrated a compelling interaction between STAT5A and PDC subunits in adipocytes under physiological conditions. There is previous evidence that PDC localizes to cancer cell nuclei where it plays a role in histone acetylation. On the basis of our ChIP data and these previous findings, we hypothesize that PDC may modulate STAT5's ability to regulate gene expression by controlling histone or STAT5 acetylation. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Mild reduction in the activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex elevates GABA shunt and glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qingli; Risa, Øystein; Sonnewald, Ursula; Gibson, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Diminished energy metabolism and reduced activity of brain α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The relation between diminished KGDHC activity and altered energy metabolism is unknown. The present study tested whether a reduction in the KGDHC activity would alter cellular metabolism by comparing metabolism of [U-13C]glucose in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line (E2k100) to one in which the KGDHC activity was about 70% of control (E2k67). After a two hours incubation of the cells with [U-13C]glucose, the E2k67 cells showed a greater increase in 13C labeling of alanine compared to the E2k100 cells. This suggested an increase in glycolysis. Furthermore, an increase in labeled lactate after 12 hr incubation supported the suggestion of an increased glycolysis in the E2k67 cells. Increased GABA shunt in the E2k67 cells was indicated by increased 13C labeling of GABA at both 2 and 12 hr compared to the control cells. GABA concentration as determined by HPLC was also increased in the E2k67 cells compared to the control cells. However, the GABA shunt was not sufficient to normalize metabolism in the E2k67 cells compared to control at 2 or 12 hours. However, by 24 hr metabolism had normalized (ie. labeling was similar in E2k67 and E2k100). Thus, the data are consistent with an enhanced glycolysis and GABA shunt in response to a mild reduction in KGDHC. Our findings indicate that a mild change in KGDHC activity can lead to large changes in metabolism. The changes may maintain normal energy metabolism but make the cells more vulnerable to perturbations such as occur with oxidants. PMID:19393030

  5. Mild reduction in the activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex elevates GABA shunt and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingli; Risa, Øystein; Sonnewald, Ursula; Gibson, Gary E

    2009-05-01

    Diminished energy metabolism and reduced activity of brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The relation between diminished KGDHC activity and altered energy metabolism is unknown. The present study tested whether a reduction in the KGDHC activity would alter cellular metabolism by comparing metabolism of [U-13C]glucose in a human embryonic kidney cell line (E2k100) to one in which the KGDHC activity was about 70% of control (E2k67). After a 2 h incubation of the cells with [U-13C]glucose, the E2k67 cells showed a greater increase in 13C labeling of alanine compared with the E2k100 cells. This suggested an increase in glycolysis. Furthermore, an increase in labeled lactate after 12 h incubation supported the suggestion of an increased glycolysis in the E2k67 cells. Increased GABA shunt in the E2k67 cells was indicated by increased 13C labeling of GABA at both 2 and 12 h compared with the control cells. GABA concentration as determined by HPLC was also increased in the E2k67 cells compared with the control cells. However, the GABA shunt was not sufficient to normalize metabolism in the E2k67 cells compared with control at 2 or 12 h. However, by 24 h metabolism had normalized (i.e. labeling was similar in E2k67 and E2k100). Thus, the data are consistent with an enhanced glycolysis and GABA shunt in response to a mild reduction in KGDHC. Our findings indicate that a mild change in KGDHC activity can lead to large changes in metabolism. The changes may maintain normal energy metabolism but make the cells more vulnerable to perturbations such as occur with oxidants.

  6. Synthesis of novel 3-amino and 29-hydroxamic acid derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid as selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stanetty, Christian; Czollner, Laszlo; Koller, Iris; Shah, Priti; Gaware, Rawindra; Cunha, Thierry Da; Odermatt, Alex; Jordis, Ulrich; Kosma, Paul; Classen-Houben, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid, the metabolite of the natural product glycyrrhizin, is a well known nonselective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and type 2. Whereas inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is currently under consideration for treatment of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, 11β-HSD2 inhibitors may find therapeutic applications in chronic inflammatory diseases and certain forms of cancer. So far, no selective 11β-HSD2 inhibitor has been developed and neither animal studies nor clinical trials have been reported based on 11β-HSD2 inhibition. Starting from the lead compound glycyrrhetinic acid, novel triterpene type derivatives were synthesized and analyzed for their biological activity against overexpressed human 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 in cell lysates. Several hydroxamic acid derivatives showed high selectivity for 11β-HSD2. The most potent and selective compound is active against human 11β-HSD2 in the low nanomolar range with a 350-fold selectivity over human 11β-HSD1.

  7. Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds.

    PubMed

    Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2014-07-31

    A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds.

  8. Mechanism for enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja Eun; Cho, Hye Rim; Xu, Wen Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Kwon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Se-Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sunghyouk; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-08-21

    Fluorescence-guided surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has become the main treatment modality in malignant gliomas. However unlike glioblastomas, there are inconsistent result about fluorescence status in WHO grade III gliomas. Here, we show that mutational status of IDH1 is linked to 5-ALA fluorescence. Using genetically engineered malignant glioma cells harboring wild type (U87MG-IDH1WT) or mutant (U87MG-IDH1R132H) IDH1, we demonstrated a lag in 5-ALA metabolism and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in U87MG-IDH1R132Hcells. Next, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to screen for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolite changes caused by 5-ALA exposure. We observed low baseline levels of NADPH, an essential cofactor for the rate-limiting step of heme degradation, in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. High levels of NADPH are required to metabolize excessive 5-ALA, giving a plausible reason for the temporarily enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence in mutant IDH1 cells. This hypothesis was supported by the results of metabolic screening in human malignant glioma samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a relationship between enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence and IDH1 mutations in WHO grade III gliomas. Low levels of NADPH in tumors with mutated IDH1 is responsible for the enhanced fluorescence.

  9. Mechanism for enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Kwon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Se-Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sunghyouk; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has become the main treatment modality in malignant gliomas. However unlike glioblastomas, there are inconsistent result about fluorescence status in WHO grade III gliomas. Here, we show that mutational status of IDH1 is linked to 5-ALA fluorescence. Using genetically engineered malignant glioma cells harboring wild type (U87MG-IDH1WT) or mutant (U87MG-IDH1R132H) IDH1, we demonstrated a lag in 5-ALA metabolism and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. Next, we used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to screen for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolite changes caused by 5-ALA exposure. We observed low baseline levels of NADPH, an essential cofactor for the rate-limiting step of heme degradation, in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. High levels of NADPH are required to metabolize excessive 5-ALA, giving a plausible reason for the temporarily enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence in mutant IDH1 cells. This hypothesis was supported by the results of metabolic screening in human malignant glioma samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a relationship between enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence and IDH1 mutations in WHO grade III gliomas. Low levels of NADPH in tumors with mutated IDH1 is responsible for the enhanced fluorescence. PMID:26008980

  10. Two novel mutations in the BCKDK (branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase kinase) gene are responsible for a neurobehavioral deficit in two pediatric unrelated patients.

    PubMed

    García-Cazorla, Angels; Oyarzabal, Alfonso; Fort, Joana; Robles, Concepción; Castejón, Esperanza; Ruiz-Sala, Pedro; Bodoy, Susanna; Merinero, Begoña; Lopez-Sala, Anna; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nunes, Virginia; Ugarte, Magdalena; Artuch, Rafael; Palacín, Manuel; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Alcaide, Patricia; Navarrete, Rosa; Sanz, Paloma; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Vilaseca, Ma Antonia; Ormaizabal, Aida; Pristoupilova, Anna; Agulló, Sergi Beltran

    2014-04-01

    Inactivating mutations in the BCKDK gene, which codes for the kinase responsible for the negative regulation of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD), have recently been associated with a form of autism in three families. In this work, two novel exonic BCKDK mutations, c.520C>G/p.R174G and c.1166T>C/p.L389P, were identified at the homozygous state in two unrelated children with persistently reduced body fluid levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), developmental delay, microcephaly, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Functional analysis of the mutations confirmed the missense character of the c.1166T>C change and showed a splicing defect r.[520c>g;521_543del]/p.R174Gfs1*, for c.520C>G due to the presence of a new donor splice site. Mutation p.L389P showed total loss of kinase activity. Moreover, patient-derived fibroblasts showed undetectable (p.R174Gfs1*) or barely detectable (p.L389P) levels of BCKDK protein and its phosphorylated substrate (phospho-E1α), resulting in increased BCKD activity and the very rapid BCAA catabolism manifested by the patients' clinical phenotype. Based on these results, a protein-rich diet plus oral BCAA supplementation was implemented in the patient homozygous for p.R174Gfs1*. This treatment normalized plasma BCAA levels and improved growth, developmental and behavioral variables. Our results demonstrate that BCKDK mutations can result in neurobehavioral deficits in humans and support the rationale for dietary intervention. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Biochemical changes of the synovial liquid of corpses with regard to the cause of death. 2: Alkaline phosphatase, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT).

    PubMed

    More, D S; Arroyo, M C

    1985-04-01

    We studied the activity of various enzymes in the synovial liquid of 100 corpses with regard to the cause of death finding that the alkaline phospatase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) are increased in cranioencephalic trauma, possibly as a result of the important cellular lysis which goes with them; and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) is increased in the pulmonary processes, almost certainly with relation to the great quantity of this enzyme in the lung.

  12. Effects of denervation on the activities of some tricarboxylic acid-cycle-associated dehydrogenases and adenine-metabolizing enzymes in rat diaphragm muscle

    PubMed Central

    Turner, L. V.; Manchester, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    1. The activity of several tricarboxylic acid-cycle-associated dehydrogenases, adenine-metabolizing enzymes and glutathione reductase and the content of myoglobin were measured in rat diaphragm muscle after unilateral nerve section. 2. Consistent with morphological disintegration of the mitochondria there was a rapid diminution in activity of NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. 3. Creatine phosphokinase and adenylate kinase, by contrast, showed little change in activity; adenylate deaminase and glutathione reductase activities increased during the hypertrophic phase. The concentration of myoglobin at first declined, then increased again. 4. The distribution of enzymes between the left and right hemidiaphragms was found not to be uniform. 5. Activities of adenine-metabolizing enzymes in the diaphragm were as great as in white muscle. It is suggested that their reputedly lower activities in red muscle properly refer to muscle containing a high proportion of intermediate fibres, which is not the case with diaphragm. 6. The possible causes of the transient hypertrophy after nerve section are discussed. PMID:4404765

  13. Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-α-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of D-lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-02

    An NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of α-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), α-ketobutyric acid, α-ketovaleric acid, β-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type D-nLDH, the Y52L mutant D-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-α-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50 mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90 min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral α-hydroxy carboxylic acids.

  14. Mild reductions in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity result in lower amino acid contents and pigmentation without impacting growth.

    PubMed

    Sulpice, Ronan; Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Osorio, Sonia; Krahnert, Ina; Stitt, Mark; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2010-10-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were generated targeting the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (SlICDH1) via the RNA interference approach. The resultant transformants displayed a relatively mild reduction in the expression and activity of the target enzyme in the leaves. However, biochemical analyses revealed that the transgenic lines displayed a considerable shift in metabolism, being characterized by decreases in the levels of the TCA cycle intermediates, total amino acids, photosynthetic pigments, starch and NAD(P)H. The plants showed little change in photosynthesis with the exception of a minor decrease in maximum photosynthetic efficiency (F (v)/F (m)), and a small decrease in growth compared to the wild type. These results reveal that even small changes in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity lead to noticeable alterations in the activities of enzymes involved in primary nitrate assimilation and in the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate derived amino acids. These data are discussed within the context of current models for the role of the various isoforms of isocitrate dehydrogenase within plant amino acid metabolism.

  15. Mild reductions in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity result in lower amino acid contents and pigmentation without impacting growth

    PubMed Central

    Sulpice, Ronan; Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Osorio, Sonia; Krahnert, Ina; Stitt, Mark; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were generated targeting the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (SlICDH1) via the RNA interference approach. The resultant transformants displayed a relatively mild reduction in the expression and activity of the target enzyme in the leaves. However, biochemical analyses revealed that the transgenic lines displayed a considerable shift in metabolism, being characterized by decreases in the levels of the TCA cycle intermediates, total amino acids, photosynthetic pigments, starch and NAD(P)H. The plants showed little change in photosynthesis with the exception of a minor decrease in maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), and a small decrease in growth compared to the wild type. These results reveal that even small changes in cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity lead to noticeable alterations in the activities of enzymes involved in primary nitrate assimilation and in the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate derived amino acids. These data are discussed within the context of current models for the role of the various isoforms of isocitrate dehydrogenase within plant amino acid metabolism. PMID:20473773

  16. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (a) The additive is the product of the controlled reaction between ascorbic acid and nicotinamide... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex...

  17. Enhancement of cell growth and glycolic acid production by overexpression of membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Shi, Lulu; Mao, Xinlei; Lin, Jinping; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-11-10

    Membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH) was overexpressed in Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003, and the effects on cell growth and glycolic acid production were investigated. The transcription levels of two terminal ubiquinol oxidases (bo3 and bd) in the respiratory chain of the engineered strain G. oxydans-adhABS were up-regulated by 13.4- and 3.8-fold, respectively, which effectively enhanced the oxygen uptake rate, resulting in higher resistance to acid. The cell biomass of G. oxydans-adhABS could increase by 26%-33% when cultivated in a 7L bioreactor. The activities of other major membrane-bound dehydrogenases were also increased to some extent, particularly membrane-bound aldehyde dehydrogenase (mALDH), which is involved in the catalytic oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acids and was 1.26-fold higher. Relying on the advantages of the above, G. oxydans-adhABS could produce 73.3gl(-1) glycolic acid after 45h of bioconversion with resting cells, with a molar yield 93.5% and a space-time yield of 1.63gl(-1)h(-1). Glycolic acid production could be further improved by fed-batch fermentation. After 45h of culture, 113.8gl(-1) glycolic acid was accumulated, with a molar yield of 92.9% and a space-time yield of 2.53gl(-1)h(-1), which is the highest reported glycolic acid yield to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NdhP is an exclusive subunit of large complex of NADPH dehydrogenase essential to stabilize the complex in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingsong; Gao, Fudan; Zhao, Jiaohong; Ogawa, Teruo; Wang, Quanxi; Ma, Weimin

    2014-07-04

    Two major complexes of NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) have been identified in cyanobacteria. A large complex (NDH-1L) contains NdhD1 and NdhF1, which are absent in a medium size complex (NDH-1M). They play important roles in respiration, cyclic electron transport around photosystem I, and CO2 acquisition. Two mutants sensitive to high light for growth and impaired in NDH-1-mediated cyclic electron transfer were isolated from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 transformed with a transposon-bearing library. Both mutants had a tag in sml0013 encoding NdhP, a single transmembrane small subunit of the NDH-1 complex. During prolonged incubation of the wild type thylakoid membrane with n-dodecyl β-d-maltoside (DM), about half of the NDH-1L was disassembled to NDH-1M and the rest decomposed completely without forming NDH-1M. In the ndhP deletion mutant (ΔndhP), disassembling of NDH-1L to NDH-1M occurred even on ice, and decomposition to a small piece occurred at room temperature much faster than in the wild type. Deletion of the C-terminal tail of NdhP gave the same result. The C terminus of NdhP was tagged by YFP-His6. Blue native gel electrophoresis of the DM-treated thylakoid membrane of this strain and Western analysis using the antibody against GFP revealed that NdhP-YFP-His6 was exclusively confined to NDH-1L. During prolonged incubation of the thylakoid membrane of the tagged strain with DM at room temperature, NDH-1L was partially disassembled to NDH-1M and the 160-kDa band containing NdhP-YFP-His6 and possibly NdhD1 and NdhF1. We therefore conclude that NdhP, especially its C-terminal tail, is essential to assemble NdhD1 and NdhF1 and stabilize the NDH-1L complex. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Thiamin-responsive maple-syrup-urine disease: decreased affinity of the mutant branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase for alpha-ketoisovalerate and thiamin pyrophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, D T; Ku, L S; Cox, R P

    1982-01-01

    The biochemical basis for the therapeutic effects of thiamin in thiamin-responsive maple-syrup-urine disease (MSUD) was investigated in intact and disrupted fibroblast cultures from normals and patients with various forms of MSUD. Decarboxylation of alpha-keto[1-14C]isovalerate (KIV) by intact cells from a thiamin-responsive MSUD patient was at 30-40% of the normal rate with or without thiamin in the incubation medium. Under similar conditions, intact classical MSUD fibroblasts failed to decarboxylate KIV. Branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase activity measured in disrupted cells from the thiamin-responsive subject showed sigmoidal kinetics in the absence of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), with an increased concentration of substrate needed for half-maximal velocity (K0.5 for KIV = 7 mM vs. 0.05 mM in normal cells). When assayed with 0.2 mM TPP present, the mutant enzyme showed (i) a shift in kinetics to near Michaelis-Menten type as observed with the normal BCKA dehydrogenase and (ii) a lower K0.5 value of 4 mM for KIV, suggesting a TPP-mediated increase in the mutant enzyme's affinity for substrate. By contrast, TPP increased only the Vmax and was without effect on the apparent Km for KIV of the BCKA dehydrogenase from cells of normals and patients with classical MSUD and variant thiamin-responsive MSUD (grade 3). Measurement of the apparent Km for TPP of the BCKA dehydrogenase from thiamin-responsive mutant MSUd cells showed a 16-fold increase in the constant to 25 microM compared to enzymes from normal or classical MSUD cells. These findings demonstrate that the primary defect in the thiamin-responsive MSUD patient is a reduced affinity of the mutant BCKA dehydrogenase for TPP that results in impaired oxidative decarboxylation of BCKA. PMID:6954481

  20. Structure and function of the catalytic domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component in Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Nemeria, Natalia S; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Kumaran, Sowmini; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Reynolds, Shelley; Calero, Guillermo; Brukh, Roman; Kakalis, Lazaros; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2014-05-30

    The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) catalyzing conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA comprises three components: E1p, E2p, and E3. The E2p is the five-domain core component, consisting of three tandem lipoyl domains (LDs), a peripheral subunit binding domain (PSBD), and a catalytic domain (E2pCD). Herein are reported the following. 1) The x-ray structure of E2pCD revealed both intra- and intertrimer interactions, similar to those reported for other E2pCDs. 2) Reconstitution of recombinant LD and E2pCD with E1p and E3p into PDHc could maintain at least 6.4% activity (NADH production), confirming the functional competence of the E2pCD and active center coupling among E1p, LD, E2pCD, and E3 even in the absence of PSBD and of a covalent link between domains within E2p. 3) Direct acetyl transfer between LD and coenzyme A catalyzed by E2pCD was observed with a rate constant of 199 s(-1), comparable with the rate of NADH production in the PDHc reaction. Hence, neither reductive acetylation of E2p nor acetyl transfer within E2p is rate-limiting. 4) An unprecedented finding is that although no interaction could be detected between E1p and E2pCD by itself, a domain-induced interaction was identified on E1p active centers upon assembly with E2p and C-terminally truncated E2p proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The inclusion of each additional domain of E2p strengthened the interaction with E1p, and the interaction was strongest with intact E2p. E2p domain-induced changes at the E1p active site were also manifested by the appearance of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the canonical 4'-aminopyrimidine tautomer of bound thiamin diphosphate (AP).

  1. Responses of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex to thiamine deficiency may contribute to regional selective vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q; Karuppagounder, S S; Xu, H; Pechman, D; Chen, H; Gibson, G E

    2007-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent enzymes are diminished in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Thiamine deficiency (TD) reduces the activity of thiamine dependent-enzymes [e.g., the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC)], induces regional selective neurodegeneration and serves as a model of a mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The current experiments tested whether changes in KGDHC protein subunits (E1k, E2k and E3) or activity or message levels underlie the selective loss of neurons in particular brain regions. Thus, TD-induced changes in these variables in the brain region most vulnerable to TD [the sub-medial thalamic nucleus (SmTN)] were compared to those in a region that is relatively resistant to TD (cortex) at stages of TD when the neuron loss in SmTN is not present, minimal or severe. Impaired motor performance on rotarod was apparent by 8 days of TD (-32%) and was severe by 10 days of TD (-97%). At TD10, the overall KGDHC activity measured by an in situ histochemical staining method declined 52% in SmTN but only 20% in cortex. Reductions in the E2k and E3 mRNA in SmTN occurred as early as TD6 (-28 and -18%, respectively) and were more severe by TD10 (-61 and -66%, respectively). On the other hand, the level of E1k mRNA did not decline in SmTN until TD10 (-48%). In contrast, TD did not alter mRNA levels of the subunits in cortex at late stages. Western blots and immunocytochemistry revealed different aspects of the changes in protein levels. In SmTN, the immunoreactivity of E1k and E3 by Western blotting increased 34 and 40%, respectively, only at TD8. In cortex, the immunoreactivity of the three subunits was not altered. Immunocytochemical staining of brain sections from TD10 mice indicated a reduction in the immunoreactivity of all subunits in SmTN, but not in cortex. These findings demonstrate that the response of the KGDHC activity, mRNA and immunoreactivity of E1k, E2k and E3 to TD is region and time dependent. Loss of KGDHC activity in cortex is

  2. A new class of IMP dehydrogenase with a role in self-resistance of mycophenolic acid producing fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi have potent biological activities, to which the producer organism must be resistant. An example of pharmaceutical interest is mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressant molecule produced by several Penicillium species. The target of MPA is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides. The recent discovery of the MPA biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium brevicompactum revealed an extra copy of the IMPDH-encoding gene (mpaF) embedded within the cluster. This finding suggests that the key component of MPA self resistance is likely based on the IMPDH encoded by mpaF. Results In accordance with our hypothesis, heterologous expression of mpaF dramatically increased MPA resistance in a model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, which does not produce MPA. The growth of an A. nidulans strain expressing mpaF was only marginally affected by MPA at concentrations as high as 200 μg/ml. To further substantiate the role of mpaF in MPA resistance, we searched for mpaF orthologs in six MPA producer/non-producer strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. All six strains were found to hold two copies of IMPDH. A cladistic analysis based on the corresponding cDNA sequences revealed a novel group constituting mpaF homologs. Interestingly, a conserved tyrosine residue in the original class of IMPDHs is replaced by a phenylalanine residue in the new IMPDH class. Conclusions We identified a novel variant of the IMPDH-encoding gene in six different strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. The novel IMPDH variant from MPA producer P. brevicompactum was shown to confer a high degree of MPA resistance when expressed in a non-producer fungus. Our study provides a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of MPA resistance and has relevance for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21923907

  3. A new class of IMP dehydrogenase with a role in self-resistance of mycophenolic acid producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjarne G; Genee, Hans J; Kaas, Christian S; Nielsen, Jakob B; Regueira, Torsten B; Mortensen, Uffe H; Frisvad, Jens C; Patil, Kiran R

    2011-09-16

    Many secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi have potent biological activities, to which the producer organism must be resistant. An example of pharmaceutical interest is mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressant molecule produced by several Penicillium species. The target of MPA is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides. The recent discovery of the MPA biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium brevicompactum revealed an extra copy of the IMPDH-encoding gene (mpaF) embedded within the cluster. This finding suggests that the key component of MPA self resistance is likely based on the IMPDH encoded by mpaF. In accordance with our hypothesis, heterologous expression of mpaF dramatically increased MPA resistance in a model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, which does not produce MPA. The growth of an A. nidulans strain expressing mpaF was only marginally affected by MPA at concentrations as high as 200 μg/ml. To further substantiate the role of mpaF in MPA resistance, we searched for mpaF orthologs in six MPA producer/non-producer strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. All six strains were found to hold two copies of IMPDH. A cladistic analysis based on the corresponding cDNA sequences revealed a novel group constituting mpaF homologs. Interestingly, a conserved tyrosine residue in the original class of IMPDHs is replaced by a phenylalanine residue in the new IMPDH class. We identified a novel variant of the IMPDH-encoding gene in six different strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. The novel IMPDH variant from MPA producer P. brevicompactum was shown to confer a high degree of MPA resistance when expressed in a non-producer fungus. Our study provides a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of MPA resistance and has relevance for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Co-expression of two heterologous lactate dehydrogenases genes in Kluyveromyces marxianus for l-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; In, Jung Hoon; Park, Joon-Bum; Shin, Jonghyeok; Park, Jin Hwan; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Jin-Byoung; Kim, Soo Rin; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2017-01-10

    Lactic acid (LA) is a versatile compound used in the food, pharmaceutical, textile, leather, and chemical industries. Biological production of LA is possible by yeast strains expressing a bacterial gene encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging non-conventional yeast with various phenotypes of industrial interest. However, it has not been extensively studied for LA production. In this study, K. marxianus was engineered to express and co-express various heterologous LDH enzymes that were reported to have different pH optimums. Specifically, three LDH enzymes originating from Staphylococcus epidermidis (SeLDH; optimal at pH 5.6), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LaLDH; optimal at pH 5.3), and Bos taurus (BtLDH; optimal at pH 9.8) were functionally expressed individually and in combination in K. marxianus, and the resulting strains were compared in terms of LA production. A strain co-expressing SeLDH and LaLDH (KM5 La+SeLDH) produced 16.0g/L LA, whereas the strains expressing those enzymes individually produced only 8.4 and 6.8g/L, respectively. This co-expressing strain produced 24.0g/L LA with a yield of 0.48g/g glucose in the presence of CaCO3. Our results suggest that co-expression of LDH enzymes with different pH optimums provides sufficient LDH activity under dynamic intracellular pH conditions, leading to enhanced production of LA compared to individual expression of the LDH enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  6. In vivo activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Mai, K; Kullmann, V; Bobbert, T; Maser-Gluth, C; Möhlig, M; Bähr, V; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J; Diederich, S

    2005-10-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) induce hepatic insulin resistance and enhance hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) also stimulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is mediated by increased activity of hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), accompanied by elevated hepatic cortisol levels. Following a 10-h overnight fast, six healthy male volunteers were investigated. A euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed during lipid or saline infusion. To assess hepatic 11beta-HSD1 activity, plasma cortisol levels were measured after oral administration of cortisone acetate during lipid or saline infusion. In addition, 11beta-HSD activities were determined in vivo by calculating the urinary ratios of GC metabolites. Lipid infusion increased FFAs (5.41 +/- 1.00 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.20 mmol/l; P < 0.005) and significantly increased insulin resistance [glucose infusion rate (GIR) 6.02 +/- 2.60 vs. 4.08 +/- 2.15 mg/kg/min; P < 0.005]. After lipid and saline infusions no changes in 11beta-HSD1 activity were found, neither by changes in cortisone acetate to cortisol conversion nor by differences in urinary free cortisol (UFF) or cortisone (UFE), 5beta-tetrahydrocortisol (THF), 5alpha-THF, cortisone (THE), UFF/UFE and (5alpha-THF + THF)/THE ratios. We found no change in hepatic and whole-body 11beta-HSD1 activity during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether 11beta-HSD1 in muscle and adipose tissue is influenced by FFAs and whether 11beta-HSD1 is involved in other conditions of insulin resistance.

  7. Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

    2013-10-01

    The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production.

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  9. Metabolic Analysis of Wild-type Escherichia coli and a Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDHC)-deficient Derivative Reveals the Role of PDHC in the Fermentative Metabolism of Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Murarka, Abhishek; Clomburg, James M.; Moran, Sean; Shanks, Jacqueline V.; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate is located at a metabolic junction of assimilatory and dissimilatory pathways and represents a switch point between respiratory and fermentative metabolism. In Escherichia coli, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and pyruvate formate-lyase are considered the primary routes of pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA for aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation, respectively. During glucose fermentation, the in vivo activity of PDHC has been reported as either very low or undetectable, and the role of this enzyme remains unknown. In this study, a comprehensive characterization of wild-type E. coli MG1655 and a PDHC-deficient derivative (Pdh) led to the identification of the role of PDHC in the anaerobic fermentation of glucose. The metabolism of these strains was investigated by using a mixture of 13C-labeled and -unlabeled glucose followed by the analysis of the labeling pattern in protein-bound amino acids via two-dimensional 13C,1H NMR spectroscopy. Metabolite balancing, biosynthetic 13C labeling of proteinogenic amino acids, and isotopomer balancing all indicated a large increase in the flux of the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (ox-PPP) in response to the PDHC deficiency. Because both ox-PPP and PDHC generate CO2 and the calculated CO2 evolution rate was significantly reduced in Pdh, it was hypothesized that the role of PDHC is to provide CO2 for cell growth. The similarly negative impact of either PDHC or ox-PPP deficiencies, and an even more pronounced impairment of cell growth in a strain lacking both ox-PPP and PDHC, provided further support for this hypothesis. The three strains exhibited similar phenotypes in the presence of an external source of CO2, thus confirming the role of PDHC. Activation of formate hydrogen-lyase (which converts formate to CO2 and H2) rendered the PDHC deficiency silent, but its negative impact reappeared in a strain lacking both PDHC and formate hydrogen-lyase. A stoichiometric analysis of CO2

  10. Human acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-9 plays a novel role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ensenauer, Regina; He, Miao; Willard, Jan-Marie; Goetzman, Eric S; Corydon, Thomas J; Vandahl, Brian B; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Isaya, Grazia; Vockley, Jerry

    2005-09-16

    Unsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the prevention of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, their oxidation in vivo by acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) that catalyze the first step of each cycle of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation is not entirely understood. Recently, a novel ACAD (ACAD-9) of unknown function that is highly homologous to human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was identified by large-scale random sequencing. To characterize its enzymatic role, we have expressed ACAD-9 in Escherichia coli, purified it, and determined its pattern of substrate utilization. The N terminus of the mature form of the enzyme was identified by in vitro mitochondrial import studies of precursor protein. A 37-amino acid leader peptide was cleaved sequentially by two mitochondrial peptidases to yield a predicted molecular mass of 65 kDa for the mature subunit. Submitochondrial fractionation studies found native ACAD-9 to be associated with the mitochondrial membrane. Gel filtration analysis indicated that, like very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ACAD-9 is a dimer, in contrast to the other known ACADs, which are tetramers. Purified mature ACAD-9 had maximal activity with long-chain unsaturated acyl-CoAs as substrates (C16:1-, C18:1-, C18:2-, C22:6-CoA). These results suggest a previously unrecognized role for ACAD-9 in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. Because of the substrate specificity and abundance of ACAD-9 in brain, we speculate that it may play a role in the turnover of lipid membrane unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane integrity and structure.

  11. Interaction of component enzymes with the peripheral subunit-binding domain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus: stoichiometry and specificity in self-assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, I A; Perham, R N

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the pyruvate decarboxylase (E1) component and a di-domain (lipoyl domain plus peripheral subunit-binding domain) from the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) component of the Bacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex was investigated. Only 1 mol of di-domain (binding domain) was bound to 1 mol of heterotetrameric E1 (alpha 2 beta 2) and the binding was without effect on the kinetic activity of E1. Similarly, the di-domain bound to separate E1 beta subunits at a maximal polypeptide chain ratio of 1:2, but no detectable interaction was found with the E1 alpha subunit. However, addition of the monomeric E1 alpha subunit to an E1 beta-di-domain complex generated a fully functional E1 (alpha 2 beta 2)-di-domain complex, indicating that the E1 beta subunit plays the critical part in binding the E1 component to the di-domain and suggesting that no chaperonin is needed in vitro to promote the assembly of the three separate proteins. Mixing the E1 and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) components in the presence of di-domain revealed that E1 and E3 cannot bind simultaneously to the same molecule of di-domain, a new feature of the assembly pathway and an important factor in determining the ultimate structure of the assembled enzyme complex. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7702567

  12. The plastid ndh genes code for an NADH-specific dehydrogenase: isolation of a complex I analogue from pea thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Sazanov, L A; Burrows, P A; Nixon, P J

    1998-02-03

    The plastid genomes of several plants contain ndh genes-homologues of genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, or complex I, involved in respiration in mitochondria and eubacteria. From sequence similarities with these genes, the ndh gene products have been suggested to form a large protein complex (Ndh complex); however, the structure and function of this complex remains to be established. Herein we report the isolation of the Ndh complex from the chloroplasts of the higher plant Pisum sativum. The purification procedure involved selective solubilization of the thylakoid membrane with dodecyl maltoside, followed by two anion-exchange chromatography steps and one size-exclusion chromatography step. The isolated Ndh complex has an apparent total molecular mass of approximately 550 kDa and according to SDS/PAGE consists of at least 16 subunits including NdhA, NdhI, NdhJ, NdhK, and NdhH, which were identified by N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting. The Ndh complex showed an NADH- and deamino-NADH-specific dehydrogenase activity, characteristic of complex I, when either ferricyanide or the quinones menadione and duroquinone were used as electron acceptors. This study describes the isolation of the chloroplast analogue of the respiratory complex I and provides direct evidence for the function of the plastid Ndh complex as an NADH:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. Our results are compatible with a dual role for the Ndh complex in the chlororespiratory and cyclic photophosphorylation pathways.

  13. Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-D-proline and other D-amino acid analogues by D-alanine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Charles E

    2004-09-15

    3,4-Dehydro-DL-proline is a toxic analogue of L-proline which has been useful in studying the uptake and metabolism of this key amino acid. When membrane fractions from Escherichia coli strain UMM5 (putA1::Tn5 proC24) lacking both L-proline dehydrogenase and L-Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase were incubated with 3,4-dehydro-DL-proline, pyrrole-2-carboxylate was formed. There was no enzyme activity with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline, but activity was restored after racemization of the substrate. Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-DL-proline by membrane fractions from strain UMM5 was induced by growth in minimal medium containing D- or L-alanine, had a pH optimum of 9, and was competitively inhibited by D-alanine. An E. coli strain with no D-alanine dehydrogenase activity due to the dadA237 mutation was unable to oxidize either 3,4-dehydro-D-proline or D-alanine, as were spontaneous Dad(-) mutants of E. coli strain UMM5. Membrane fractions containing D-alanine dehydrogenase also catalyzed the oxidation of D-2-aminobutyrate, D-norvaline, D-norleucine, cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline, and DL-ethionine. These results indicate that d-alanine dehydrogenase is responsible for the residual 3,4-dehydro-DL-proline oxidation activity in putA proC mutants of E. coli and provide further evidence that this enzyme plays a general role in the metabolism of D-amino acids and their analogues.

  14. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production—NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)—were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  15. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 is involved in bile acid homeostasis by modulating fatty acid transport protein-5 in the liver of micea

    PubMed Central

    Penno, Carlos A.; Morgan, Stuart A.; Rose, Adam J.; Herzig, Stephan; Lavery, Gareth G.; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1) plays a key role in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Besides, it metabolizes some oxysterols and bile acids (BAs). The GR regulates BA homeostasis; however, the impact of impaired 11β-HSD1 activity remained unknown. We profiled plasma and liver BAs in liver-specific and global 11β-HSD1-deficient mice. 11β-HSD1-deficiency resulted in elevated circulating unconjugated BAs, an effect more pronounced in global than liver-specific knockout mice. Gene expression analyses revealed decreased expression of the BA-CoA ligase Fatp5, suggesting impaired BA amidation. Reduced organic anion-transporting polypeptide-1A1 (Oatp1a1) and enhanced organic solute-transporter-β (Ostb) mRNA expression were observed in livers from global 11β-HSD1-deficient mice. The impact of 11β-HSD1-deficiency on BA homeostasis seems to be GR-independent because intrahepatic corticosterone and GR target gene expression were not substantially decreased in livers from global knockout mice. Moreover, Fatp5 expression in livers from hepatocyte-specific GR knockout mice was unchanged. The results revealed a role for 11β-HSD1 in BA homeostasis. PMID:25061560

  16. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi in complex with substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Cecilia; Larrieux, Nicole; Medeiros, Andrea; Botti, Horacio; Comini, Marcelo; Buschiazzo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    An N-terminally truncated version of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the first 37 residues was crystallized both in its apo form and in a binary complex with glucose 6-­phosphate. The crystals both belonged to space group P21 and diffracted to 2.85 and 3.35 Å resolution, respectively. Self-rotation function maps were consistent with point group 222. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, confirming a tetrameric quaternary structure. PMID:22102256

  17. Species-specific differences in tissue-specific expression of alcohol dehydrogenase are under the control of complex cis-acting loci: Evidence from Drosophila hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganayakulu, G.; Reddy, A.R. ); Kirkpatrick, R.B.; Martin, P.F. )

    1991-12-01

    Differences in the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase in the hindgut and testis of adult Drosophila virilis, D. texana, D. novamexicana and D. borealis flies were observed. These heritable differences do not arise due to chromosomal rearrangements, since the polytene chromosome banding patterns did not reveal any such gross chromosomal rearrangements near the Adh locus in any of the tested species. Analysis of the interspecific hybrids revealed that these differences are controlled by complex cis-acting genetic loci. Further, the cis-acting locus controlling the expression of ADH in testis was found to be separable by crossing-over.

  18. An enantioselective NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for cooxidative production of (3S)-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Minoru; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Kurosaki, Kaishi; Chhetri, Rajan Thapa; Motomatsu, Shigekazu; Suzuki, Ichiro; Sahabi, Danladi Mahuta

    2016-06-01

    A soil bacterium, Mycobacterium sp. B-009, is able to grow on racemic 1,2-propanediol (PD). The strain was revealed to oxidize 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol (MPD) to 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid (HMPA) during growth on PD. MPD was converted into an almost equimolar amount of the S-form of HMPA (S-HMPA) at 72%ee, suggesting the presence of an enantioselective MPD dehydrogenase (MPD-DH). As expected, an NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the initial step of MPD oxidation, was detected and purified from the cell-free extract. This enzyme was suggested to be a homodimeric medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR). The catalytic and kinetic parameters indicated that MPD is the most suitable substrate for the enzyme. The enzyme was encoded by a 1047-bp gene (mpd1) and several mycobacterial strains were found to have putative MDR genes similar to mpd1. In a phylogenetic tree, MPD-DH formed an independent clade together with the putative MDR of Mycobacterium neoaurum, which produces opportunistic infections.

  19. The Effects of Unbound Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) on Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH) Inhibition in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Thomas A.; Cox, Shareen; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Sherbotie, Joseph; Ward, Robert; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a key immunosuppressive drug that acts through inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). MPA is commonly measured as part of therapeutic drug monitoring as the total concentration in plasma. However, it has been postulated that the free (unbound) fraction of MPA (fMPA) is responsible for the immunosuppressive effects. In this study, a sensitive low volume high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed to measure fMPA concentrations in order to explore the relationship between fMPA and IMPDH activity. Methods To obtain fMPA concentrations, plasma samples were filtrated using Centrifree® Ultrafiltration Devices. The ultrafiltrate was analyzed by HPLC using a Kinetex® C18 column (2.6 μm, 3.0 × 75 mm). fMPA concentrations were compared to total MPA concentrations available in 28 pediatric kidney transplant patients at 3 consecutive occasions post-transplantation. The relationship between fMPA and IMPDH activity was analyzed using an Emax-model. Results The HPLC-assay using 25μL of the ultrafiltrates was validated over a range from 2.5 to 1000 μg/L with good accuracy, precision and reproducibility. Total and free MPA concentrations were well correlated (R2 = 0.85, P < 0.0001) although large intra-and inter-individual variability in the bound MPA fractions was observed. The overall relationship between fMPA concentrations and IMPDH inhibition using the Emax-model was comparable to that of total MPA as previously reported. The model estimated EC50 (164.5 μg/L) is in good agreement with reported in vitro EC50 values. Conclusions This study provides a simple HPLC method for the measurement of fMPA and a pharmacologically reasonable EC50-estimate. The good correlation between total and free MPA concentrations suggests that routine measurement of fMPA to characterize mycophenolate PK/PD does not seem warranted although the large variability in the bound fractions of MPA warrants further study

  20. Cofluorescence of Eu 3+ in complexes of aromatic carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, B. S.; Peter, Susy; Viswanathan, K. S.

    1997-12-01

    The fluorescence of Eu 3+ in certain Eu 3+-aromatic acid complexes were enhanced by over two orders of magnitude, by the addition of La 3+; a process referred to as cofluorescence. Cofluorescence was observed only with certain aromatic acid ligands; trismesic acid, pyromellitic acid and mellitic acid; thereby clearly establishing a correlation between the structure of the ligand and the process of cofluorescence. While cofluorescence has been extensively studied using β-diketones as ligands, our studies demonstrate cofluorescence for the first time in ligands other than β-diketones. Furthermore, the mechanism of cofluorescence in the aromatic acid complexes studied by us appears to be different from that operating in the β-diketones. While intermolecular energy transfer is believed to occur in the β-diketones, formation of polynuclear complexes appears to be responsible for cofluorescence in the aromatic acid ligands.

  1. Overexpression of the NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icdA) in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Hayashi, Rie; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    In the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitric acid to form α-ketoglutaric acid with NADP(+) as a cofactor. We constructed an NADP(+)-ICDH gene (icdA)-overexpressing strain (OPI-1) using Aspergillus niger WU-2223L as a host and examined the effects of increase in NADP(+)-ICDH activity on citric acid production. Under citric acid-producing conditions with glucose as the carbon source, the amounts of citric acid produced and glucose consumed by OPI-1 for the 12-d cultivation period decreased by 18.7 and 10.5%, respectively, compared with those by WU-2223L. These results indicate that the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger can be altered with the NADP(+)-ICDH activity. Therefore, NADP(+)-ICDH is an important regulator of citric acid production in the TCA cycle of A. niger. Thus, we propose that the icdA gene is a potentially valuable tool for modulating citric acid production by metabolic engineering.

  2. Ellagic acid protects against arsenic toxicity in isolated rat mitochondria possibly through the maintaining of complex II.

    PubMed

    Keshtzar, E; Khodayar, M J; Javadipour, M; Ghaffari, M A; Bolduc, D L; Rezaei, M

    2016-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to many health problems including diabetes and cancer. In the present study, we assessed the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) against toxicity induced by arsenic in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential decline were assayed using dichlorofluorescein diacetate and rhodamine 123, respectively, and dehydrogenase activity obtained by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide conversion assay. Arsenic increased ROS levels and mitochondrial dysfunction, which led to a reduction in mitochondrial total dehydrogenase activity. Mitochondria pretreated with EA exposed to arsenic at various concentrations led to a reversal of ROS production and mitochondrial damage. Our results showed that mitochondria were significantly affected when exposed to arsenic, which resulted in excessive ROS production and mitochondrial membrane disruption. Pretreatment with EA, reduced ROS amounts, mitochondrial damage, and restored total dehydrogenase activity specifically associated with mitochondrial complex II. EA protective characteristics may be accomplished particularly throughout the mitochondrial maintenance either directly by its antioxidant property or indirectly through its maintaining of complex II. These findings also suggest a potential role for EA in treating or preventing mitochondria associated disorders.

  3. Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hung, Hui-Ju; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wu, Mei-Li

    2007-06-27

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the biosynthesis of Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C). The Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto gene for the proline dehydrogenase (BnPRODH) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone revealed an open-reading frame that encodes 302 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 34.5 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed sequence similarity to bacterial PRODH and PutA of E. coli. The BnPRODH gene was cloned into pET21b and was expressed at a high level in E. coli BL21(DE3). The expressed protein was purified by using nickel ion affinity column chromatography to homogeneity before characterization. The purified recombinant BnPRODH was used to produce P5C. Model system composed of P5C and methylglyoxal was set up to study the formation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Our data showed that P5C, derived from the conversion of l-proline by the purified recombinant PRODH, might react directly with methylglyoxal to form 2-AP. P5C/methylglyoxal pathway represents the first report of a biological mechanism by which 2-AP may be synthesized in vitro by PRODH.

  4. Equivalence between Pfr and Cyclic AMP in the Induction of d-Usnic Acid Dehydrogenase in the Lichen Evernia prunastri1

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, A.; Vicente, C.

    1987-01-01

    d-Usnic acid dehydrogenase is induced in Evernia prunastri thalli by a supply of exogenous d-usnic acid in light. This effect is enhanced by red light pulses through a two step way: a very rapid increase of activity after the first 10 minutes of red light, which is not reversed by far-red light, and a slow enhancement following successive red light pulses at the beginning of each hour of incubation. The last response is completely reversed by far-red following red light. Although induction of the enzyme is not achieved in the dark, 0.1 and 0.5 millimolar cyclic AMP, or 0.1 millimolar dibutyryl cyclic AMP substitutes light action and, then, the enzyme is produced. In addition, phytochrome—far red-absorbing form—increases the amount of endogenously produced cyclic AMP and this effect is shown to be photoreversible when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is inhibiting adenylate cyclase. PMID:16665525

  5. Contribution of the 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Ruminococcus gnavus N53 to ursodeoxycholic acid formation in the human colon[S

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ja-Young; Arai, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Fukiya, Satoru; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid composition in the colon is determined by bile acid flow in the intestines, the population of bile acid-converting bacteria, and the properties of the responsible bacterial enzymes. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is regarded as a chemopreventive beneficial bile acid due to its low hydrophobicity. However, it is a minor constituent of human bile acids. Here, we characterized an UDCA-producing bacterium, N53, isolated from human feces. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified this isolate as Ruminococcus gnavus, a novel UDCA-producer. The forward reaction that produces UDCA from 7-oxo-lithocholic acid was observed to have a growth-dependent conversion rate of 90–100% after culture in GAM broth containing 1 mM 7-oxo-lithocholic acid, while the reverse reaction was undetectable. The gene encoding 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH), which facilitates the UDCA-producing reaction, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the purified 7β-HSDH revealed that the kcat/Km value was about 55-fold higher for the forward reaction than for the reverse reaction, indicating that the enzyme favors the UDCA-producing reaction. As R. gnavus is a common, core bacterium of the human gut microbiota, these results suggest that this bacterium plays a pivotal role in UDCA formation in the colon. PMID:23729502

  6. Decomposition of peracetic acid catalyzed by vanadium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A.P.; Gekhman, A.E.; Moiseev, I.I.; Polotryuk, O.Y.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of peracetic acid (AcOOH) in acetic acid (AcOH) catalyzed by vanadium complexes. It is shown that peractic acid in acetic acid solutions of ammonium anadate decomposes with the predominant formation of 0/sub 2/ and small amounts of CO/sub 2/, the yield of which increases with increasing temperature and peracetic acid concentration. Both reactions proceed without the formation of free radicals in amounts detectable by ESR spectroscopy. The rate of oxygen release under conditions in which the formation of CO/sub 2/ is insignificant obeys a kinetic equation indicating the intermediate formation of a complex between V/sup 5 +/ ions and peracetic acid and the slow conversion of this complex into the observed products.

  7. 3, 4-dihydroxyl-phenyl lactic acid restores NADH dehydrogenase 1 α subunit 10 to ameliorate cardiac reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yuan; He, Ke; Pan, Chun-Shui; Li, Quan; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Bai-He; Chang, Xin; Mao, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Li-Jun; Hu, Shui-Wang; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Guo-Cheng; Fan, Jing-Yu; Fan, Tai-Ping; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to detect the role of 3, 4-dihydroxyl-phenyl lactic acid (DLA) during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced myocardial injury with emphasis on the underlying mechanism of DLA antioxidant. Male Spragu-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to left descending artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Treatment with DLA ameliorated myocardial structure and function disorder, blunted the impairment of Complex I activity and mitochondrial function after I/R. The results of 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis revealed that DLA prevented the decrease in NDUFA10 expression, one of the subunits of Complex I. To find the target of DLA, the binding affinity of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to DLA and DLA derivatives with replaced two phenolic hydroxyls was detected using surface plasmon resonance and bilayer interferometry. The results showed that DLA could activate SIRT1 after I/R probably by binding to this protein, depending on phenolic hydroxyl. Moreover, the importance of SIRT1 to DLA effectiveness was confirmed through siRNA transfection in vitro. These results demonstrated that DLA was able to prevent I/R induced decrease in NDUFA10 expression, improve Complex I activity and mitochondrial function, eventually attenuate cardiac structure and function injury after I/R, which was possibly related to its ability of binding to and activating SIRT1.

  8. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  9. Homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose by redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-08-01

    Optically pure d-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose was achieved by using the Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase gene was substituted with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 27 h of fermentation, 38.6 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of arabinose.

  10. Identification of the 2-hydroxyglutarate and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenases as alternative electron donors linking lysine catabolism to the electron transport chain of Arabidopsis mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Wagner L; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Larson, Tony R; Tohge, Takayuki; Krahnert, Ina; Witt, Sandra; Obata, Toshihiro; Schauer, Nicolas; Graham, Ian A; Leaver, Christopher J; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2010-05-01

    The process of dark-induced senescence in plants is relatively poorly understood, but a functional electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex, which supports respiration during carbon starvation, has recently been identified. Here, we studied the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in the expression of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase to extended darkness and other environmental stresses. Evaluations of the mutant phenotypes following carbon starvation induced by extended darkness identify similarities to those exhibited by mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex. Metabolic profiling and isotope tracer experimentation revealed that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is involved in degradation of the branched-chain amino acids, phytol, and Lys, while 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase is involved exclusively in Lys degradation. These results suggest that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is the more critical for alternative respiration and that a series of enzymes, including 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, plays a role in Lys degradation. Both physiological and metabolic phenotypes of the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase mutants were not as severe as those observed for mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex, indicating some functional redundancy of the enzymes within the process. Our results aid in the elucidation of the pathway of plant Lys catabolism and demonstrate that both isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase act as electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via an ETF/ETFQO-mediated route.

  11. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, A A; Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Yu; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30-100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect.

  12. Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2008-11-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages.

  13. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A. A.; Kargov, I. S.; Kleimenov, S. Yu.; Savin, S. S.; Tishkov, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30–100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect. PMID:26483960

  14. Influence of human serum albumin on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yorio; Funagayama, Mayumi; Shinohara, Akio; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Furusawa, Hidemi; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Saitoh, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Komaki, Kansei

    2014-09-01

    The influence of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) was studied in vitro. A rat liver microsomal fraction was prepared, and the 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in the presence of various concentrations of bile acids and HSA was determined using hydrocortisone as the substrate. The products of the reaction were extracted and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The magnitude of the inhibition decreased with the addition of HSA in a dose-dependent manner. Four percent human albumin decreased the inhibitory effects of 100 μM chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid from 89.9 ± 5.6 to 54.5 ± 6.1% and from 83.8 ± 4.8 to 20.8 ± 4.2%, respectively. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid showed no inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity in the presence of 4% human serum albumin, and the addition of 1% γ-globulin to the assay mixture in the presence of bile acids did not affect the enzyme activity. Our in vitro study showed that the addition of HSA ameliorated the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 and that the magnitude of the change is dependent on the species of bile acid, presumably based on the numbers of hydroxyl groups. These results suggest that HSA seems to protect the bile acid-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 in the healthy subject. On the other hand, in the patients with obstructive biliary diseases, not only elevated serum bile acid but also the accompanying hypoalbuminemia is important to evaluate the pathophysiology of the bile acid-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 of the disease.

  15. Role of the complex upstream region of the GDH2 gene in nitrogen regulation of the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the upstream region of the GDH2 gene, which encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for elements important for the regulation of the gene by the nitrogen source. The levels of this enzyme are high in cells grown with glutamate as the sole source of nitrogen and low in cells grown with glutamine or ammonium. We found that this regulation occurs at the level of transcription and that a total of six sites are required to cause a CYC1-lacZ fusion to the GDH2 gene to be regulated in the same manner as the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase. Two sites behaved as upstream activation sites (UASs). The remaining four sites were found to block the effects of the two UASs in such a way that the GDH2-CYC1-lacZ fusion was not expressed unless the cells containing it were grown under conditions favorable for the activity of both UASs. This complex regulatory system appears to account for the fact that GDH2 expression is exquisitely sensitive to glutamine, whereas the expression of GLN1, coding for glutamine synthetase, is not nearly as sensitive. Images PMID:1682801

  16. Conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid by a NADP-dependent dehydrogenase in bean and spinach leaf. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, M.W.; Bedgar, D.L.; Saito, Kazumi; Loewus, F.A. )

    1990-11-01

    An NADP-dependent dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid has been isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Spinacia oleracea L. and partially purified. It is stable at {minus}20{degree}C for up to 8 months. Molecular masses, as determined by gel filtration, were 21 and 29 kilodaltons for bean and spinach enzymes, respectively. K{sub m} for sorbosone were 12 {plus minus} 2 and 18 {plus minus} 2 millimolar and for NADP{sup +}, 0.14 {plus minus} 0.05 and 1.2 {plus minus} 0.5 millimolar, for bean and spinach, respectively. Lycorine, a purported inhibitor of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis, had no effect on the reaction.

  17. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  18. Dual loss of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and complex I activity is necessary to recapitulate the metabolic phenotype of SDH mutant tumors.

    PubMed

    Lorendeau, Doriane; Rinaldi, Gianmarco; Boon, Ruben; Spincemaille, Pieter; Metzger, Kristine; Jäger, Christian; Christen, Stefan; Dong, Xiangyi; Kuenen, Sabine; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstreken, Patrik; Cassiman, David; Vermeersch, Pieter; Verfaillie, Catherine; Hiller, Karsten; Fendt, Sarah-Maria

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are associated with tumor development and neurodegenerative diseases. Only in tumors, loss of SDH activity is accompanied with the loss of complex I activity. Yet, it remains unknown whether the metabolic phenotype of SDH mutant tumors is driven by loss of complex I function, and whether this contributes to the peculiarity of tumor development versus neurodegeneration. We addressed this question by decoupling loss of SDH and complex I activity in cancer cells and neurons. We found that sole loss of SDH activity was not sufficient to recapitulate the metabolic phenotype of SDH mutant tumors, because it failed to decrease mitochondrial respiration and to activate reductive glutamine metabolism. These metabolic phenotypes were only induced upon the additional loss of complex I activity. Thus, we show that complex I function defines the metabolic differences between SDH mutation associated tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, which could open novel therapeutic options against both diseases. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolutionary conserved light regulation of Calvin cycle activity by NADPH-mediated reversible phosphoribulokinase/CP12/ glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase complex dissociation.

    PubMed

    Wedel, N; Soll, J

    1998-08-04

    For higher plant chloroplasts, two key enzymes of the Calvin cycle, phosphoribulokinase (EC 2.7.1.19) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.13), have recently been shown to be oligomerized onto the nonenzymatic peptide CP12. Enzymatic activity depends on complex dissociation, mediated by NADPH. The discovery of genes for CP12 in mosses, green algae, and cyanobacteria, together with the analysis of equivalent multiprotein complexes of Chlamydomonas and Synechocystis suggests that light regulation of Calvin cycle activity via NADPH-mediated reversible phosphoribulokinase/CP12/GAPDH complex dissociation is conserved in all photosynthetic organisms, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In vitro complex reconstitution assays with heterologously expressed Synechocystis wild-type and mutagenized CP12 demonstrate a conserved subunit composition, stoichiometry, and topology in this complex. Further finding of genes, coding for chimeric proteins, carrying CP12 or parts of it as genetic fusions, indicates that evolution has used the peptide loops of CP12 as universal modules to keep various enzymatic activities under the control of NADP(H). These fusion events occurred at least twice in evolution. First was the fusion of the duplicated genes for CP12 and the ORF4 protein of Anabaena variabilis to the chimeric gene for the heterocyst-specific expressed ORF3 protein, most probably involved in N2 fixation. A second gene fusion, which led to the higher plant chloroplast-specific GAPDH subunit, GAPB, has taken place during the transition from water- to land plants.

  20. The complex of band 3 protein of the human erythrocyte membrane and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: stoichiometry and competition by aldolase.

    PubMed

    von Rückmann, Bogdan; Schubert, Dieter

    2002-02-10

    The cytoplasmic domain of band 3, the main intrinsic protein of the erythrocyte membrane, possesses binding sites for a variety of other proteins of the membrane and the cytoplasm, including the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aldolase. We have studied the stoichiometry of the complexes of human band 3 protein and GAPDH and the competition by aldolase for the binding sites. In addition, we have tried to verify the existence of mixed band 3/GAPDH/aldolase complexes, which could represent the nucleus of a putative glycolytic multienzyme complex on the erythrocyte membrane. The technique applied was analytical ultracentrifugation, in particular sedimentation equilibrium analysis, on mixtures of detergent-solubilized band 3 and dye-labelled GAPDH, in part of the experiments supplemented by aldolase. The results obtained were analogous to those reported for the binding of hemoglobin, aldolase and band 4.1 to band 3: (1) the predominant or even sole band 3 oligomer forming the binding site is the tetramer. (2) The band 3 tetramer can bind up to four tetramers of GAPDH. (3) The band 3/GAPDH complexes are unstable. (4) Artificially stabilized band 3 dimers also represent GAPDH binding sites. In addition it was found that aldolase competes with GAPDH for binding to the band 3 tetramer, and that ternary complexes of band 3 tetramers, GAPDH and aldolase do exist.

  1. Rapid purification and mass spectrometric characterization of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) from rodent brain and a dopaminergic neuronal cell line.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Birgit; Bharath M M, Srinivas; Row, Richard H; Murray, James; Cusack, Michael P; Capaldi, Roderick A; Freed, Curt R; Prasad, Kedar N; Andersen, Julie K; Gibson, Bradford W

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction signify important biochemical events associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies using in vitro and in vivo PD models or tissues from diseased patients have demonstrated a selective inhibition of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I of the OXPHOS electron transport chain) that affects normal mitochondrial physiology leading to neuronal death. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that oxidative stress due to glutathione depletion in dopaminergic cells, a hallmark of PD, leads to Complex I inhibition via cysteine thiol oxidation (Jha et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 26096-26101). Complex I is a approximately 980-kDa multimeric enzyme spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane comprising at least 45 protein subunits. As a prerequisite to investigating modifications to Complex I using a rodent disease model for PD, we developed two independent rapid and mild isolation procedures based on sucrose gradient fractionation and immunoprecipitation to isolate Complex I from mouse brain and a cultured rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell line. Both protocols are capable of purifying Complex I from small amounts of rodent tissue and cell cultures. Blue Native gel electrophoresis, one-dimensional and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE were employed to assess the purity and composition of isolated Complex I followed by extensive mass spectrometric characterization. Altogether, 41 of 45 rodent Complex I subunits achieved MS/MS sequence coverage. To our knowledge, this study provides the first detailed mass spectrometric analysis of neuronal Complex I proteins and provides a means to investigate the role of cysteine oxidation and other posttranslational modifications in pathologies associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Properties and subunit structure of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hamada, M; Hiraoka, T; Koike, K; Ogasahara, K; Kanzaki, T

    1976-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase [EC 1.2.4.1] was separated from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 150,000 by sedimentation equilibrium methods. The enzyme was dissociated into two subunits (alpha and beta), with estimated molecular weights of 41,000 (alpha) and 36,000 (beta), respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The subunits were separated by phosphocellulose column chromatography and their chemical properties were examined. The subunit structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase was assigned as alpha2beta2. The content of right-handed alpha-helix in the enzyme molecule was estimated to be about 29 and 28% by optical rotatory dispersion and by circular dichroism, respectively. The enzyme contained no thiamine-PP, and its dehydrogenase activity was completely dependent on added thiamine-PP and partially dependent on added Mg2+ and Ca2+. The Km value of pyruvate dehydrogenase for thiamine diphosphate was estimated to be 6.5 X 10(-5) M in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. The enzyme showed highly specific activity for thiamine-PP dependent oxidation of both pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate, but it also showed some activity with alpha-ketovalerate, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and alpha-ketoisovalerate. The pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was strongly inhibited by bivalent heavy metal ions and by sulfhydryl inhibitors; and the enzyme molecule contained 27 moles of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-reactive sulfhydryl groups and a total of 36 moles of sulfhydryl groups. The inhibitory effect of p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by preincubating the enzyme with thiamine-PP plus pyruvate. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase necessary for formation of the complex is also reported.

  3. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid/titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid has been produced and investigated by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. It is claimed that it represents an interpolymeric complex of polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated titanium oxide.

  5. Characteristics of external and internal NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Hoya carnosa mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hoang Thi Kim; Nose, Akihiro

    2012-12-01

    This study aims at characterizing NAD(P)H dehydrogenases on the inside and outside of the inner membrane of mitochondria of one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Hoya carnosa. In crassulacean acid metabolism plants, NADH is produced by malate decarboxylation inside and outside mitochondria. The relative importance of mitochondrial alternative NADH dehydrogenases and their association was determined in intact-and alamethicin-permeabilized mitochondria of H. carnosa to discriminate between internal and external activities. The major findings in H. carnosa mitochondria are: (i) external NADPH oxidation is totally inhibited by DPI and totally dependent on Ca(2+), (ii) external NADH oxidation is partially inhibited by DPI and mainly dependent on Ca(2+), (iii) total NADH oxidation measured in permeabilized mitochondria is partially inhibited by rotenone and also by DPI, (iv) total NADPH oxidation measured in permeabilized mitochondria is partially dependent on Ca(2+) and totally inhibited by DPI. The results suggest that complex I, external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, and internal NAD(P)H dehydrogenases are all linked to the electron transport chain. Also, the total measurable NAD(P)H dehydrogenases activity was less than the total measurable complex I activity, and both of these enzymes could donate their electrons not only to the cytochrome pathway but also to the alternative pathway. The finding indicated that the H. carnosa mitochondrial electron transport chain is operating in a classical way, partitioning to both Complex I and alternative Alt. NAD(P)H dehydrogenases.

  6. Uranyl complexes of n-alkanediaminotetra-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M L; Mota, A M; da Silva, J J

    1984-07-01

    The uranyl complexes of n-propanediaminetetra-acetic acid, n-butanediaminetetra-acetic acid and n-hexanediaminetetra-acetic acid have been studied by potentiometry, with computer evaluation of the titration data by the MINIQUAD program. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 2:1 metal:ligand chelates have been determined as well as the respective hydrolysis and polymerization constants at 25 degrees in 0.10M and 1.00M KNO(3). The influence of the length of the alkane chain of the ligands on the complexes formed is discussed.

  7. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number and the activities of electron transport chain complexes and pyruvate dehydrogenase in the frontal cortex from subjects with autism.

    PubMed

    Gu, F; Chauhan, V; Kaur, K; Brown, W T; LaFauci, G; Wegiel, J; Chauhan, A

    2013-09-03

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may contribute to the etiology of autism. This is the first study to compare the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes (I-V) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), as well as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in the frontal cortex tissues from autistic and age-matched control subjects. The activities of complexes I, V and PDH were most affected in autism (n=14) being significantly reduced by 31%, 36% and 35%, respectively. When 99% confidence interval (CI) of control group was taken as a reference range, impaired activities of complexes I, III and V were observed in 43%, 29% and 43% of autistic subjects, respectively. Reduced activities of all five ETC complexes were observed in 14% of autistic cases, and the activities of multiple complexes were decreased in 29% of autistic subjects. These results suggest that defects in complexes I and III (sites of mitochondrial free radical generation) and complex V (adenosine triphosphate synthase) are more prevalent in autism. PDH activity was also reduced in 57% of autistic subjects. The ratios of mtDNA of three mitochondrial genes ND1, ND4 and Cyt B (that encode for subunits of complexes I and III) to nuclear DNA were significantly increased in autism, suggesting a higher mtDNA copy number in autism. Compared with the 95% CI of the control group, 44% of autistic children showed higher copy numbers of all three mitochondrial genes examined. Furthermore, ND4 and Cyt B deletions were observed in 44% and 33% of autistic children, respectively. This study indicates that autism is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain.

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH alternative dehydrogenase Ndi1p, as a tool to identify new genes involved in complex I related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cossard, Raynald; Esposito, Michela; Sellem, Carole H.; Pitayu, Laras; Vasnier, Christelle; Delahodde, Agnès; Dassa, Emmanuel P.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated complex I deficiencies are one of the most commonly observed biochemical features in patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders. In the majority of these clinical cases the molecular bases of the diseases remain unknown suggesting the involvement of unidentified factors that are critical for complex I function. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDI1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial internal NADH dehydrogenase was previously shown to complement a complex I deficient strain in Caenorhabditis elegans with notable improvements in reproduction and whole organism respiration. These features indicate that Ndi1p can functionally integrate the respiratory chain, allowing complex I deficiency complementation. Taking into account the Ndi1p ability to bypass complex I, we evaluate the possibility to extend the range of defects/mutations causing complex I deficiencies that can be alleviated by NDI1 expression. We report here that NDI1 expressing animals unexpectedly exhibit a slightly shortened lifespan, a reduction in the progeny, and a depletion of the mitochondrial genome. However, Ndi1p is expressed and targeted to the mitochondria as a functional protein that confers rotenone resistance to those animals without affecting their respiration rate and ATP content. We show that the severe embryonic lethality level caused by the RNAi knockdowns of complex I structural subunit encoding genes (e.g., NDUFV1, NDUFS1, NDUFS6, NDUFS8, or GRIM-19 human orthologs) in wild type animals is significantly reduced in the Ndi1p expressing worm. All together these results open up the perspective to identify new genes involved in complex I function, assembly, or regulation by screening an RNAi library of genes leading to embryonic lethality that should be rescued by NDI1 expression. PMID:26124772

  9. A study of the ionic properties of the essential histidine residue of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase in complexes of the enzyme with its coenzymes and substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, C J; Dickinson, F M

    1977-01-01

    1. Initial-rate studies of the reduction of acetaldehyde by NADH, catalysed by yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, were performed at pH 4.9 and 9.9, in various buffers, at 25 degrees C. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanism previously proposed for the pH range 5.9-8.9 [Dickenson & Dickinson (1975) Biochem. J. 147, 303-311]. 2. Acetaldehyde forms a u.v.-absorbing complex with glycine. This was shown not to affect the results of kinetic experiments under the conditions used in this and earlier work. 3. The variation with pH of the dissociation constant for the enzyme-NADH complex, calculated from the initial-rate data, indicates that the enzyme possesses a group with pK7.1 in the free enzyme and pK8.7 in the complex. 4. The pH-dependences of the second-order rate constants for inactivation of the enzyme by diethyl pyrocarbonate were determined for the free enzymes (pK7.1), the enzyme-NAD+ complex (pK approx. 7.1) and the enzyme-NADH complex (pK approx. 8.4). The essential histidine residue may therefore be the group involved in formation and dissociation of the enzyme-NADH complex. 5. Estimates of the rate constant for reaction of acetaldehyde with the enzyme-NADH complex indicate that acetaldehyde may combine only when the essential histidine residue is protonated. The dissociation constants for butan-1-ol and propan-2-ol, calculated on the basis of earlier kinetic data, are, however, independent of pH. 6. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the role of the essential histidine residue in the mechanism of formation of binary and ternary complexes of the enzyme with its coenzymes and substrates. PMID:15541

  10. Enhanced activity of galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase and ascorbate-glutathione cycle in mitochondria from complex III deficient Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zsigmond, Laura; Tomasskovics, Bálint; Deák, Veronika; Rigó, Gábor; Szabados, László; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Szarka, András

    2011-08-01

    The mitochondrial antioxidant homeostasis was investigated in Arabidopsis ppr40-1 mutant, which presents a block of electron flow at complex III. The activity of the ascorbate biosynthetic enzyme, L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.2.3) (GLDH) was elevated in mitochondria isolated from mutant plants. In addition increased activities of the enzymes of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle and elevated glutathione (GSH) level were observed in the mutant mitochondria. Lower ascorbate and ascorbate plus dehydroascorbate contents were detected at both cellular and mitochondrial level. Moreover, the more oxidized mitochondrial redox status of ascorbate in the ppr40-1 mutant indicated that neither the enhanced activity of GLDH nor Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle could compensate for the enhanced ascorbate consumption in the absence of a functional respiratory chain.

  11. JWH-018 ω-OH, a shared hydroxy metabolite of the two synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and AM-2201, undergoes oxidation by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes in vitro forming the carboxylic acid metabolite.

    PubMed

    Holm, Niels Bjerre; Noble, Carolina; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-09-30

    Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) acting as agonists at the cannabinoid receptors. The aminoalkylindole-type synthetic cannabinoid naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) was among the first to appear on the illicit drug market and its metabolism has been extensively investigated. The N-pentyl side chain is a major site of human cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative metabolism, and the ω-carboxylic acid metabolite appears to be a major in vivo human urinary metabolite. This metabolite is, however, not formed to any significant extent in human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations raising the possibility that the discrepancy is due to involvement of cytosolic enzymes. Here we demonstrate in incubations with human liver cytosol (HLC), that JWH-018 ω-OH, but not the JWH-018 parent compound, is a substrate for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. The sole end-product identified in HLC was the JWH-018 ω-COOH metabolite, while trapping tests with methoxyamine proved the presence of the aldehyde intermediate. ADH/ALDH and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT) enzymes may therefore both act on the JWH-018 ω-OH substrate. Finally, we note that for [1-(5-fluoropentyl)indol-3-yl]-naphthalen-1-yl-methanone (AM-2201), the ω-fluorinated analog of JWH-018, a high amount of JWH-018 ω-OH was formed in HLM incubated without NADPH, suggesting that the oxidative defluorination is efficiently catalyzed by non-CYP enzyme(s). The pathway presented here may therefore be especially important for N-(5-fluoropentyl) substituted synthetic cannabinoids, because the oxidative defluorination can occur even if the CYP-mediated metabolism preferentially takes place on other parts of the molecule than the N-alkyl side chain. Controlled clinical studies in humans are ultimately required to demonstrate the in vivo importance of the oxidation pathway presented here

  12. A membrane-associated adenylate cyclase modulates lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities required for bull sperm capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Silvina; Córdoba, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid, as well as heparin, is a glycosaminoglycan present in the female genital tract of cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism and intracellular signals mediated by a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (mAC), in sperm capacitation with hyaluronic acid and heparin, in cryopreserved bull sperm. The mAC inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, was used in the present study. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities and lactate concentration were determined spectrophotometrically in the incubation medium. Capacitation and acrosome reaction were evaluated by chlortetracycline technique, while plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were determined by trypan blue stain/differential interference contrast microscopy. Heparin capacitated samples had a significant decrease in LDH and CK activities, while in hyaluronic acid capacitated samples LDH and CK activities both increased compared to control samples, in heparin and hyaluronic acid capacitation conditions, respectively. A significant increase in lactate concentration in the incubation medium occurred in hyaluronic acid-treated sperm samples compared to heparin treatment, indicating this energetic metabolite is produced during capacitation. The LDH and CK enzyme activities and lactate concentrations in the incubation medium were decreased with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine treatment in hyaluronic acid samples. The mAC inhibitor significantly inhibited heparin-induced capacitation of sperm cells, but did not completely inhibit hyaluronic acid capacitation. Therefore, hyaluronic acid and heparin are physiological glycosaminoglycans capable of inducing in vitro capacitation in cryopreserved bull sperm, stimulating different enzymatic pathways and intracellular signals modulated by a mAC. Hyaluronic acid induces sperm capacitation involving LDH and CK activities, thereby reducing oxidative metabolism, and this process is mediated by mAC.

  13. Geometry and cooperativity effects in adenosine-carboxylic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Sebastian; Mladenovic, Milena; Basílio Janke, Eline M; Engels, Bernd; Weisz, Klaus

    2005-11-23

    NMR experiments and theoretical investigations were performed on hydrogen bonded complexes of specifically 1- and 7-15N-labeled adenine nucleosides with carboxylic acids. By employing a freonic solvent of CDClF2 and CDF3, NMR spectra were acquired at temperatures as low as 123 K, where the regime of slow hydrogen bond exchange is reached and several higher-order complexes were found to coexist in solution. Unlike acetic acid, chloroacetic acid forms Watson-Crick complexes with the proton largely displaced from oxygen to the nitrogen acceptor in an ion pairing structure. Calculated geometries and chemical shifts of the proton in the hydrogen bridge favorably agree with experimentally determined values if vibrational averaging and solvent effects are taken into account. The results indicate that binding a second acidic ligand at the adenine Hoogsteen site in a ternary complex weakens the hydrogen bond to the Watson-Crick bound carboxylic acid. However, substituting a second adenine nucleobase for a carboxylic acid in the trimolecular complex leads to cooperative binding at Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen faces of adenosine.

  14. Polymeric complexes of isonicotinic acid hydrazide with antituberculosis effects.

    PubMed

    Slivkin, A I; Lapenko, V L; Bychuk, A I; Suslina, S N; Slivkin, D A; Kornienko, S V; Belenova, A S

    2013-10-01

    We studied the effects of an analogue of isonicotinic acid hydrazide on the treatment course of experimental tuberculosis. Complex analysis has demonstrated the efficiency of isonicotinic acid hydrazide immobilized on a carrier that consisted of water-soluble cation-active analogue of chitosan (N-chlorohydroxypropyl chitosan) in a complex with cobalt ions in the therapy of experimental tuberculosis. Immunostimulating activity of the polymeric metal complex was revealed. The obtained data can be used for the development of highly effective methods for tuberculosis treatment.

  15. Technetium(I) Complexes of Bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Abdolreza; Janzen, Nancy; Czorny, Shannon; Valliant, John F

    2017-03-06

    Bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPS) complexes of technetium(I) of the type [Tc(CO)3(BPS)(L)](n) (L = imidazole derivatives) were synthesized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. [(99m)Tc(CO)3(BPS)(MeIm)](-) (MeIm = 1-methyl-1H-imidazole) was prepared in near-quantitative yield using a convenient two-step, one-pot labeling procedure. A targeted analogue capable of binding regions of calcium turnover associated with bone metabolism was also prepared. Here, a bisphosphonate was linked to the metal through an imidazole ligand to give [(99m)Tc(CO)3(BPS)(ImAln)](2-) (ImAln = an imidazole-alendronate ligand) in high yield. The technetium(I) complexes were stable in vitro, and in biodistribution studies, [(99m)Tc(CO)3(BPS)(ImAln)](2-) exhibited rapid clearance from nontarget tissues and significant accumulation in the shoulder (7.9 ± 0.2% ID/g) and knees (15.1 ± 0.9% ID/g) by 6 h, with the residence time in the skeleton reaching 24 h. A rhenium analogue, which is luminescent and has the same structure, was also prepared and used for fluorescence labeling of cells in vitro. The data reported demonstrate the potential of this class of compounds for use in creating isostructural optical and nuclear probes.

  16. Metabolism of lysine in alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient fibroblasts: evidence for an alternative pathway of pipecolic acid formation.

    PubMed

    Struys, Eduard A; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2010-01-04

    The mammalian degradation of lysine is believed to proceed via two distinct routes, the saccharopine and the pipecolic acid routes, that ultimately converge at the level of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alpha-AASA). alpha-AASA dehydrogenase-deficient fibroblasts were grown in cell culture medium supplemented with either L-[alpha-(15)N]lysine or L-[epsilon-(15)N]lysine to explore the exact route of lysine degradation. L-[alpha-(15)N]lysine was catabolised into [(15)N]saccharopine, [(15)N]alpha-AASA, [(15)N]Delta(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylate, and surprisingly in [(15)N]pipecolic acid, whereas L-[epsilon-(15)N]lysine resulted only in the formation of [(15)N]saccharopine. These results imply that lysine is exclusively degraded in fibroblasts via the saccharopine branch, and pipecolic acid originates from an alternative precursor. We hypothesize that pipecolic acid derives from Delta(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylate by the action of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid reductase, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism.

  17. Interactions among the branched-chain amino acids and their effects on methionine utilization in growing pigs: effects on plasma amino- and keto-acid concentrations and branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Langer, S; Scislowski, P W; Brown, D S; Dewey, P; Fuller, M F

    2000-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to elucidate the mechanism of the methionine-sparing effect of excess branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reported in the previous paper (Langer & Fuller, 2000). Twelve growing gilts (30-35 kg) were prepared with arterial catheters. After recovery, they received for 7 d a semipurified diet with a balanced amino acid pattern. On the 7th day blood samples were taken before (16 h postabsorptive) and after the morning meal (4 h postprandial). The animals were then divided into three groups and received for a further 7 d a methionine-limiting diet (80% of requirement) (1) without any amino acid excess; (2) with excess leucine (50% over requirement); or (3) with excesses of all three BCAA (leucine, isoleucine, valine, each 50% over the requirement). On the 7th day blood samples were taken as in the first period, after which the animals were killed and liver and muscle samples taken. Plasma amino acid and branched-chain keto acid (BCKA) concentrations in the blood and branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH; EC 1.2.4.4) activity in liver and muscle homogenates were determined. Compared with those on the balanced diet, pigs fed on methionine-limiting diets had significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma methionine concentrations in the postprandial but not in the postabsorptive state. There was no effect of either leucine or a mixture of all three BCAA fed in excess on plasma methionine concentrations. Excess dietary leucine reduced (P < 0.05) the plasma concentrations of isoleucine and valine in both the postprandial and postabsorptive states. Plasma concentrations of the BCKA reflected the changes in the corresponding amino acids. Basal BCKDH activity in the liver and total BCKDH activity in the biceps femoris muscle were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by excesses of leucine or all BCAA.

  18. Structures of dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase apoenzyme and inhibitor complex: probing the subunit interface with site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Vincenzo; Endo, Satoshi; Sumii, Rie; Chung, Roland P-T; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira; El-Kabbani, Ossama

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD) catalyses the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+)-dependent oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols of aromatic hydrocarbons to their corresponding catechols. This is the first report of the crystal structure of the dimeric enzyme determined at 2.0 A resolution. The tertiary structure is formed by a classical dinucleotide binding fold comprising of two betaalphabetaalphabeta motifs at the N-terminus and an eight-stranded, predominantly antiparallel beta-sheet at the C-terminus. The active-site of DD, occupied either by a glycerol molecule or the inhibitor 4-hydroxyacetophenone, is located in the C-terminal domain of the protein and maintained by a number of residues including Lys97, Trp125, Phe154, Leu158, Val161, Asp176, Leu177, Tyr180, Trp254, Phe279, and Asp280. The dimer interface is stabilized by a large number of intermolecular contacts mediated by the beta-sheet of each monomer, which includes an intricate hydrogen bonding network maintained in principal by Arg148 and Arg202. Site-directed mutagenesis has demonstrated that the intact dimer is not essential for catalytic activity. The similarity between the quaternary structures of mammalian DD and glucose-fructose oxidoreductase isolated from the prokaryotic organism Zymomonas mobilis suggests that both enzymes are members of a unique family of oligomeric proteins and may share a common ancestral gene. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Role of pyruvate transporter in the regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex in perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Zwiebel, F M; Schwabe, U; Olson, M S; Scholz, R

    1982-01-19

    Metabolic substrates such as octanoate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and alpha-ketoisocaproate which produce acetoacetate stimulate the rate of pyruvate decarboxylation in perfused livers from fed rats at perfusate pyruvate concentrations in the physiological range (below 0.2 mM). A quantitative relationship between pyruvate oxidation (14CO2 production from [1-14C]pyruvate) and ketogenesis (production of acetoacetate or total ketone bodies) was observed with all ketogenic substrates when studied over a wide range of concentrations. The ratio of extra pyruvate decarboxylated to extra acetoacetate produced was greater than 1 with octanoate and alpha-ketoisocaproate, but it was less than 1 with beta-hydroxybutyrate. The stimulatory effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on pyruvate decarboxylation was abolished completely in the presence of 0.1 mM alpha-cyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of the pyruvate transporting system in the mitochondrial membrane. The data suggest that the mechanism by which the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is stimulated in liver under ketogenic conditions involves an acceleration of the net rate of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria compartment due to an exchange with acetoacetate and/or acetoacetate plus beta-hydroxybutyrate.

  20. Phosphatase-like activity, DNA binding, DNA hydrolysis, anticancer and lactate dehydrogenase inhibition activity promoting by a new bis-phenanthroline dicopper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Anbu, Sellamuthu; Kandaswamy, Muthusamy; Kamalraj, Subban; Muthumarry, Johnpaul; Varghese, Babu

    2011-07-28

    A new bis-phenanthroline dicopper(II) complex has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The molecular structure of the dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu(2)(μ-CH(3)COO)(μ-H(2)O)(μ-OH)(phen)(2)](2+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) (1) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The coordination environment around each Cu(II) ion in complex 1 can be described as slightly distorted square pyramidal geometry. The distance between the CuCu centers in the complex is found to be 2.987 Å. The electronic, redox, phosphate hydrolysis, DNA binding and DNA cleavage have been studied. The antiproliferative effect of complex 1 was confirmed by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme level in MCF-7 cancer cell lysate and content media. The dicopper(II) complex inhibited the LDH enzyme as well as the growth of the human breast cancer MCF7 cell line at an IC(50) value of 0.011 μg ml(-1). The results strongly suggest that complex 1 is a good cancer therapeutic agent. Electrochemical studies of complex 1 showed an irreversible, followed by a quasi-reversible, one electron reduction processes between -0.20 to -0.8 V. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate by complex 1 are k(cat) = 3.56 × 10(-2) s(-1) and K(M) = 4.3 × 10(-2) M. Complex 1 shows good binding propensity to calf thymus DNA, with a binding constant value of 1.3 (±0.13) × 10(5) M(-1) (s = 2.1). The size of the binding site and viscosity data suggest a DNA intercalative binding nature of the complex. Complex 1 shows efficient hydrolytic cleavage of supercoiled pBR322-DNA in the dark and in the absence of any external reagents, as demonstrated by the T4 ligase experiment. The pseudo-Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for DNA hydrolysis by complex 1 are k(cat) = 1.27 ± 0.4 h(-1) and K(M) = 7.7 × 10(-2) M.

  1. Evolution of cytochrome bc complexes: from membrane-anchored dehydrogenases of ancient bacteria to triggers of apoptosis in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of the cytochrome bc complexes from their early spread among prokaryotic lineages and up to the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III) and its role in apoptosis. The results of phylogenomic analysis suggest that the bacterial cytochrome b6f-type complexes with short cytochromes b were the ancient form that preceded in evolution the cytochrome bc1-type complexes with long cytochromes b. The common ancestor of the b6f-type and the bc1-type complexes probably resembled the b6f-type complexes found in Heliobacteriaceae and in some Planctomycetes. Lateral transfers of cytochrome bc operons could account for the several instances of acquisition of different types of bacterial cytochrome bc complexes by archaea. The gradual oxygenation of the atmosphere could be the key evolutionary factor that has driven further divergence and spread of the cytochrome bc complexes. On one hand, oxygen could be used as a very efficient terminal electron acceptor. On the other hand, auto-oxidation of the components of the bc complex results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which necessitated diverse adaptations of the b6f-type and bc1-type complexes, as well as other, functionally coupled proteins. A detailed scenario of the gradual involvement of the cardiolipin-containing mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex into the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is proposed, where the functioning of the complex as an apoptotic trigger is viewed as a way to accelerate the elimination of the cells with irreparably damaged, ROS-producing mitochondria. PMID:23871937

  2. Cloning of D-lactate dehydrogenase genes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and their roles in D-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanna; You, Chunping; Liu, Zhenmin

    2017-07-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a heterogenous lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to D-lactic acid using D-lactate dehydrogenases (D-LDHs), whose functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, the D-LDHs genes (ldb0101, ldb0813, ldb1010, ldb1147 and ldb2021) were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli JM109 from an inducible pUC18 vector, respectively, and the resulting strains were compared in terms of D-lactic acid production. The strain expressing ldb0101 and ldb1010 gene individually produced more D-lactate than other three strains. Further study revealed that Ldb0101 activity was down-regulated by the oxygen and, therefore, achieved a highest titer of D-lactate (1.94 g/L) under anaerobic condition, and introduction of ldb1010 gene enhanced D-lactate formation (0.94 and 0.85 g/L, respectively) both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions due to a relatively stable q d-lactate. Our results suggested that the enzyme Ldb0101 and Ldb1010 played a role of more importance in D-lactate formation. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the roles of different D-LDH homologs from L. bulgaricus in D-lactic acid production.

  3. Identification of a novel operon in Lactococcus lactis encoding three enzymes for lactic acid synthesis: phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, R M; Harris, C J; Hillier, A J; Davidson, B E

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a novel multicistronic operon that encodes phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is reported. The three genes in the operon, designated pfk, pyk, and ldh, contain 340, 502, and 325 codons, respectively. The intergenic distances are 87 bp between pfk and pyk and 117 bp between pyk and ldh. Plasmids containing pfk and pyk conferred phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, respectively, on their host. The identity of ldh was established previously by the same approach (R. M. Llanos, A. J. Hillier, and B. E. Davidson, J. Bacteriol. 174:6956-6964, 1992). Each of the genes is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site. The operon is expressed in a 4.1-kb transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was determined to be a G nucleotide positioned 81 bp upstream from the pfk start codon. The pattern of codon usage within the operon is highly biased, with 11 unused amino acid codons. This degree of bias suggests that the operon is highly expressed. The three proteins encoded on the operon are key enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, the central pathway of energy production and lactic acid synthesis in L. lactis. For this reason, we have called the operon the las (lactic acid synthesis) operon. Images PMID:8478320

  4. Efficient production of L-Lactic acid by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a genome-integrated L-lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Matsuyama, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2005-04-01

    We developed a metabolically engineered yeast which produces lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant strain, the coding region for pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) on chromosome XII is substituted for that of the l-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) through homologous recombination. The expression of mRNA for the genome-integrated LDH is regulated under the control of the native PDC1 promoter, while PDC1 is completely disrupted. Using this method, we constructed a diploid yeast transformant, with each haploid genome having a single insertion of bovine LDH. Yeast cells expressing LDH were observed to convert glucose to both lactate (55.6 g/liter) and ethanol (16.9 g/liter), with up to 62.2% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid under neutralizing conditions. This transgenic strain, which expresses bovine LDH under the control of the PDC1 promoter, also showed high lactic acid production (50.2 g/liter) under nonneutralizing conditions. The differences in lactic acid production were compared among four different recombinants expressing a heterologous LDH gene (i.e., either the bovine LDH gene or the Bifidobacterium longum LDH gene): two transgenic strains with 2microm plasmid-based vectors and two genome-integrated strains.

  5. Engineering of Serine-Deamination pathway, Entner-Doudoroff pathway and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to improve poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Lin, Zhenquan; Liu, Qiaojie; Li, Yifan; Wang, Zhiwen; Ma, Hongwu; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2014-12-16

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable bio-plastic, is one of the most common homopolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHB is synthesized by a variety of microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds in response to environmental stresses. Bio-based production of PHB from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to the petroleum-based chemical synthesis of plastics. In this study, a novel strategy was applied to improve the PHB biosynthesis from different carbon sources. In this research, we have constructed E. coli strains to produce PHB by engineering the Serine-Deamination (SD) pathway, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Firstly, co-overexpression of sdaA (encodes L-serine deaminase), L-serine biosynthesis genes and pgk (encodes phosphoglycerate kinase) activated the SD Pathway, and the resulting strain SD02 (pBHR68), harboring the PHB biosynthesis genes from Ralstonia eutropha, produced 4.86 g/L PHB using glucose as the sole carbon source, representing a 2.34-fold increase compared to the reference strain. In addition, activating the ED pathway together with overexpressing the PDH complex further increased the PHB production to 5.54 g/L with content of 81.1% CDW. The intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration and the [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio were enhanced after the modification of SD pathway, ED pathway and the PDH complex. Meanwhile, these engineering strains also had a significant increase in PHB concentration and content when xylose or glycerol was used as carbon source. Significant levels of PHB biosynthesis from different kinds of carbon sources can be achieved by engineering the Serine-Deamination pathway, Entner-Doudoroff pathway and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in E. coli JM109 harboring the PHB biosynthesis genes from Ralstonia eutropha. This work demonstrates a novel strategy for improving PHB production in E. coli. The strategy reported here should be

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of phosphate prodrugs of 4-phospho-D-erythronohydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ruda, Gian Filippo; Alibu, Vincent P; Mitsos, Christos; Bidet, Olivier; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Barrett, Michael P; Gilbert, Ian H

    2007-08-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, the third enzyme of the phosphate pentose pathway, from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis. These inhibitors were charged phosphate derivatives with restricted capacity to enter cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of five different classes of prodrugs: phosphoramidate; bis-S-acyl thioethyl esters (bis-SATE); bis-pivaloxymethyl (bis-POM); CycloSaligenyl; and phenyl, S-acyl thioethyl mixed phosphate esters (mix-SATE). Prodrugs were studied for stability and activity against the intact parasites. Most prodrugs caused inhibition of the growth of the parasites. The activity of the prodrugs against the parasites appeared to be related to their stability in aqueous buffer.

  7. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid is a potential aldehyde dehydrogenase inducer in murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujia; Kurita, Ayuki; Nakashima, Sayaka; Zhu, Beiwei; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2017-10-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is one of the major colonic microflora-produced catabolites of quercetin glycosides, such as quercetin 4'-glucoside derived from onion. Here, we investigated whether DOPAC modulates the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and protects the cells from the acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. DOPAC was shown to enhance not only the total ALDH activity, but also the gene expression of ALDH1A1, ALDH2 and ALDH3A1 in a concentration-dependent manner. DOPAC simultaneously stimulated the nuclear translocation of NFE2-related factor 2 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The pretreatment of DOPAC completely protected the cells from the acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity. The present study suggested that DOPAC acts as a potential ALDH inducer to prevent the alcohol-induced abnormal reaction.

  8. Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Kidney Bean. l-Galactono-γ-Lactone Dehydrogenase Is an Intrinsic Protein Located at the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane1

    PubMed Central

    Siendones, Emilio; González-Reyes, José A.; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos; Navas, Plácido; Córdoba, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    Hypocotyls of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accumulated ascorbate after preincubation with a number of possible precursors, mainly l-galactono-γ-lactone (l-GL) and l-gulono-γ-lactone. The increase in the intracellular ascorbate concentration was parallel to the high stimulation of the l-GL dehydrogenase (l-GLD) activity measured in vitro using l-GL as a substrate and cytochrome c as an electron acceptor. Cell fractionation using a continuous linear Percoll gradient demonstrated that l-GLD is associated with mitochondria; therefore, pure mitochondria were isolated and subjected to detergent treatment to separate soluble from membrane-linked proteins. l-GLD activity was mainly associated with the detergent phase, suggesting that a membrane-intrinsic protein is responsible for the ascorbic acid biosynthetic activity. Subfractionation of mitochondria demonstrated that l-GLD is located at the inner membrane. PMID:10398727

  9. An amperometric D-amino acid biosensor prepared with a thermostable D-proline dehydrogenase and a carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yuji; Itoyama, Yukiko; Nishi, Kenichi; Wada, Chikahiro; Shoda, Yoshio; Satomura, Takenori; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Hayashi, Yukako; Yabutani, Tomoki; Motonaka, Junko

    2009-07-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) gel, which is composed of a mixture of single-wall CNT, an ionic liquid, and a thermostable D-proline dehydrogenase (D-Pro DH) immobilized electrode was utilized for the determination of D-amino acids (DAAs) in food samples. When a critical comparison with CNT, Ketjen Black (KB), and carbon powder (CP) was also carried out, the CNT/D-Pro DH immobilized electrode showed the highest sensitivity and the lowest detection limit of D-proline. In addition, the CNT/D-Pro DH immobilized electrode was applied to detection of DAAs in rice wine and vinegar samples. The concentrations of DAAs in rice wine and vinegar samples were 0.0210 +/- 0.0001 and 0.55 +/- 0.05 mmol L(-1), respectively.

  10. Scaffold electrodes based on thioctic acid-capped gold nanoparticles coordinated Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Azure A films for high performance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Anquela, C; García-Mendiola, T; Abad, José M; Pita, M; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2015-12-01

    Nanometric size gold nanoparticles capped with thiotic acid are used to coordinate with the Zn (II) present in the catalytic center of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH). In combination with the NADH oxidation molecular catalyst Azure A, electrografted onto carbon screen-printed electrodes, they are used as scaffold electrodes for the construction of a very efficient ethanol biosensor. The final biosensing device exhibits a highly efficient ethanol oxidation with low overpotential of -0.25 V besides a very good analytical performance with a detection limit of 0.14±0.01 μM and a stable response for more than one month. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed Central

    Perozich, J.; Nicholas, H.; Wang, B. C.; Lindahl, R.; Hempel, J.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project. PMID:10210192

  12. Pharmacological activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reduces statin-mediated upregulation of FOXO gene targets and protects against statin myopathy in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Joanne E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Glaves, Philip D; Martin, Elizabeth A; Davies, Wendy J; Westwood, F Russell; Sidaway, James E; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2012-12-15

    We previously reported that statin myopathy is associated with impaired carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in fast-twitch rodent skeletal muscle, which we hypothesised occurred as a result of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) gene transcription. Upregulation of FOXO gene targets known to regulate proteasomal and lysosomal muscle protein breakdown was also evident. We hypothesised that increasing CHO oxidation in vivo, using the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), would blunt activation of FOXO gene targets and reduce statin myopathy. Female Wistar Hanover rats were dosed daily for 12 days (oral gavage) with either vehicle (control, 0.5% w/v hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose 0.1% w/v polysorbate-80; n = 9), 88 mg( )kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin (n = 8), 88 mg( )kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin + 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DCA (n = 9) or 88 mg kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin + 40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DCA (n = 9). Compared with control, simvastatin reduced body mass gain and food intake, increased muscle fibre necrosis, plasma creatine kinase levels, muscle PDK4, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and cathepsin-L mRNA expression, increased PDK4 protein expression, and proteasome and cathepsin-L activity, and reduced muscle PDC activity. Simvastatin with DCA maintained body mass gain and food intake, abrogated the myopathy, decreased muscle PDK4 mRNA and protein, MAFbx and cathepsin-L mRNA, increased activity of PDC and reduced proteasome activity compared with simvastatin. PDC activation abolished statin myopathy in rodent skeletal muscle, which occurred at least in part via inhibition of FOXO-mediated transcription of genes regulating muscle CHO utilisation and protein breakdown.

  13. Surface complexation modeling or organic acid sorption to goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Evanko, C.R.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and

  14. Surface Complexation Modeling of Organic Acid Sorption to Goethite.

    PubMed

    Evanko; Dzombak

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and constants similar to those for pyromellitic acid. This four-carboxyl group compound may be useful as a model for fulvic acid with respect to sorption. Other simple organic acids having multiple carboxylic and phenolic functional groups were identified as potential models for humic

  15. Human 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-ligand complexes: crystals of different space groups with various cations and combined seeding and co-crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.-W.; Han, Q.; Qiu, W.; Campbell, R. L.; Xie, B.-X.; Azzi, A.; Lin, S.-X.

    1999-01-01

    Human estrogenic 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD1) is responsible for the synthesis of active estrogens that stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The enzyme has been crystallized using a Mg 2+/PEG (3500)/β-octyl glucoside system [Zhu et al., J. Mol. Biol. 234 (1993) 242]. The space group of these crystals is C2. Here we report that cations can affect 17β-HSD1 crystallization significantly. In the presence of Mn 2+ instead of Mg 2+, crystals have been obtained in the same space group with similar unit cell dimensions. In the presence of Li + and Na + instead of Mg 2+, the space group has been changed to P2 12 12 1. A whole data set for a crystal of 17ß-HSD1 complex with progesterone grown in the presence of Li + has been collected to 1.95 Å resolution with a synchrotron source. The cell dimensions are a=41.91 Å, b=108.21 Å, c=117.00 Å. The structure has been preliminarily determined by molecular replacement, yielding important information on crystal packing in the presence of different cations. In order to further understand the structure-function relationship of 17β-HSD1, enzyme complexes with several ligands have been crystallized. As the steroids have very low aqueous solubility, we used a combined method of seeding and co-crystallization to obtain crystals of 17β-HSD1 complexed with various ligands. This method provides ideal conditions for growing complex crystals, with ligands such as 20α-hydroxysteroid progesterone, testosterone and 17β-methyl-estradiol-NADP +. Several complex structures have been determined with reliable electronic density of the bound ligands.

  16. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D.

    2006-11-14

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

  17. Higher thermostability of l-lactate dehydrogenases is a key factor in decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from Lactobacillus coryniformis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sol-A; Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Seil; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-05-10

    Lactobacillus coryniformis is known to produce d-lactic acid as a dominant fermentation product at a cultivation temperature of approximately 30°C. However, the considerable production of l-lactic acid is observed when the fermentation temperature is greater than 40°C. Because optically pure lactates are synthesized from pyruvate by the catalysis of chiral-specific d- or l-lactate dehydrogenase, the higher thermostability of l-LDHs is assumed to be one of the key factors decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from L. coryniformis at high temperature. To verify this hypothesis, two types of d-ldh genes and six types of l-ldh genes based on the genomic information of L. coryniformis were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the LDHs tested, five LDHs showed activity and were used to construct polyclonal antibodies. d-LDH1, l-LDH2, and l-LDH3 were found to be expressed in L. coryniformis by Western blotting analysis. The half-life values (t1/2) of the LDHs at 40°C were estimated to be 10.50, 41.76, and 2311min, and the T50(10) values were 39.50, 39.90, and 58.60°C, respectively. In addition, the Tm values were 36.0, 41.0, and 62.4°C, respectively, which indicates that l-LDH has greater thermostability than d-LDH. The higher thermostability of l-LDHs compared with that of d-LDH1 may be a major reason why the enantiopurity of d-lactic acid is decreased at high fermentation temperatures. The key enzymes characterized will suggest a direction for the design of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to produce optically pure d-lactic acid.

  18. Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a novel NADP(+)-dependent 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Clostridium difficile and its application for the oxidation of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, Daniel; Hummel, Werner

    2017-04-01

    A gene encoding a novel 7α-specific NADP(+)-dependent hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Clostridium difficile was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified using an N-terminal hexa-his-tag and biochemically characterized. The optimum temperature is at 60°C, but the enzyme is inactivated at this temperature with a half-life time of 5min. Contrary to other known 7α-HSDHs, for example from Clostridium sardiniense or E. coli, the enzyme from C. difficile does not display a substrate inhibition. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this enzyme, a small-scale biotransformation of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) into 7-ketolithocholic acid (7-KLCA) was carried out with simultaneous regeneration of NADP(+) using an NADPH oxidase that resulted in a complete conversion (<99%). Furthermore, by a structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, cofactor specificity of the 7α-HSDH from Clostridium difficile was altered to accept NAD(H). This mutant was biochemically characterized and compared to the wild-type.

  19. Analysis of Amino Acid Residues Involved in Catalysis of Polyethylene Glycol Dehydrogenase from Sphingopyxis terrae, Using Three-Dimensional Molecular Modeling-Based Kinetic Characterization of Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Ken; Tani, Akio; Kimbara, Kazuhide; Kawai, Fusako

    2006-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol dehydrogenase (PEGDH) from Sphingopyxis terrae (formerly Sphingomonas terrae) is composed of 535 amino acid residues and one flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer protein in a homodimeric structure. Its amino acid sequence shows 28.5 to 30.5% identity with glucose oxidases from Aspergillus niger and Penicillium amagasakiense. The ADP-binding site and the signature 1 and 2 consensus sequences of glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductases are present in PEGDH. Based on three-dimensional molecular modeling and kinetic characterization of wild-type PEGDH and mutant PEGDHs constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, residues potentially involved in catalysis and substrate binding were found in the vicinity of the flavin ring. The catalytically important active sites were assigned to His-467 and Asn-511. One disulfide bridge between Cys-379 and Cys-382 existed in PEGDH and seemed to play roles in both substrate binding and electron mediation. The Cys-297 mutant showed decreased activity, suggesting the residue's importance in both substrate binding and electron mediation, as well as Cys-379 and Cys-382. PEGDH also contains a motif of a ubiquinone-binding site, and coenzyme Q10 was utilized as an electron acceptor. Thus, we propose several important amino acid residues involved in the electron transfer pathway from the substrate to ubiquinone. PMID:16751555

  20. Pathways of Amino Acid Degradation in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) with Special Reference to Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Yuan, San-Yue; Tang, Yao-Hua; Li, Kai-Long; Yang, Lu; Fu, Qiang; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens harbors yeast-like symbionts (YLSs). In present paper, a genome-wide analysis found 115 genes from Ni. lugens and 90 genes from YLSs that were involved in the metabolic degradation of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. These 205 genes encoded for 77 enzymes. Accordingly, the degradation pathways for the 20 amino acids were manually constructed. It is postulated that Ni. lugens can independently degrade fourteen amino acids (threonine, alanine, glycine, serine, aspartate, asparagine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamate, glutamine, proline, histidine, leucine and lysine). Ni. lugens and YLSs enzymes may work collaboratively to break down tryptophan, cysteine, arginine, isoleucine, methionine and valine. We cloned a lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase gene (Nllkr/sdh) that encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism. Nllkr/sdh is widely expressed in the first through fifth instar nymphs and adults, and is highly expressed in the fat body, ovary and gut in adults. Ingestion of dsNllkr/sdh by nymphs successfully knocked down the target gene, and caused nymphal/adult mortality, shortened nymphal development stage an