Science.gov

Sample records for acid deposition control

  1. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  2. Acid deposition and integrated zoning control in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Gao, Jixi

    2002-08-01

    China's rapidly growing economy is coupled with the consumption of large amounts of coal. An energy mix dominated by coal and inefficient energy utilization processes have led to increasingly serious problems of acid rain and sulfur dioxide pollution. Moreover, trends in the emissions of acidifying air pollutants lead to predictions of a very serious acid deposition problem in the future. In the absence of mitigating actions, these trends foretell a future of increasingly detrimental impacts to ecosystems in China and, potentially, to ecosystems in neighboring countries. China has implemented a two control zone (TCZ) policy, resulting in the establishment of acid rain and sulfur dioxide control zones, in an attempt to implement a cost-effective approach to mitigating acid deposition problems. While some short-term successes have resulted from management actions associated with the TCZ policy, it is clear additional measures and new policy directions are needed to reverse worsening acid deposition problems in the long term. To this end the following recommendations are presented: adjusting the primary energy mix, placing a greater emphasis on abating the effects of acid deposition, concentrating pollution control on large point sources, implementing an emission permit system for coal-fired power plants, utilizing an integrated approach in designing and evaluating control measures, and developing a greater research capacity. Research strategies must be developed that will lead to: (1) an improved scientific understanding of the sources of acidifying pollutants, their associated migration patterns, and their impacts; and (2) an identification of cost-effective mitigating strategies for the entire country.

  3. Effects of acid deposition on paints and metals: Results of a controlled field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edney, E. O.; Cheek, S. F.; Stiles, D. C.; Corse, E. W.; Wheeler, M. L.; Spence, J. W.; Haynie, F. H.; Wilson, W. E.

    A controlled field study was conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC to determine the impact of acid deposition on paints and metals. A computer-controlled system was designed so that test panels of galvanized steel, five exterior paints and Teflon could be exposed under the following conditions: (1) dry deposition only; (2) dry plus ambient wet deposition; and (3) dry deposition plus deionized water. A 78-day, 11-rain-event exposure experiment was conducted in which ambient and DI run-off samples were collected from each material on a rain-event basis and chemically analyzed. The run-off results show that the dry and wet deposition of acidic species accelerates the dissolution rates of galvanized-steel corrosion products and alkaline compounds in exterior paints. CaCO 3 and ZnO in latex paints and Al in aluminum flake paint react with acids either directly deposited or produced in thin films of moisture covering the surfaces. The results indicate that the uptake of SO 2 into moisture is strongly influenced by the reactivity of the material towards H +. Galvanized steel was found to have the highest SO 2 deposition velocity, whereas an oil-based paint, containing no known alkaline compounds, had the smallest value. Run-off results also suggest that Zn corrosion products were dissolved in ambient precipitation by acids produced by dissolved CO 2.

  4. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  5. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. PMID:17478019

  6. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Interim Assessment: the causes and effects of acidic deposition. Volume 2. Emissions and control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume on Emissions and Controls is the second in a four-volume set which comprises the NAPAP Interim Assessment. It contains three chapters, (1) Historical Emissions, (2) Emission Control Technologies, and (3) Future Emissions. Volume III, Atmospheric Processes and Deposition, contains chapters on (4) Atmospheric Processes, and (5) Acidic Deposition and Air Quality. The last volume, entitled, Effects of Acidic Deposition, covers (6) Agricultural Crops, (7) Forests, (8) Aquatics Systems, (9) 'Materials, and (10) Human Health and Visibility. Each of these chapters describes the National Program's research orientation and major conclusions within each of the ten primary areas of substantive concern. In order to learn how these first-order conclusions relate to the issue of acidic deposition in an overall, or synoptic, sense, the reader is directed to Volume I, Executive Summary, where the conclusions from each of the ten chapters are distilled in a manner that will allow interested parties to quickly reference the status of a variety of factors that pertain to the scientific understanding of acidic deposition.

  7. Acid deposition: a national problem

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The deposition of excessive quantities of sulfur and nitrogen from the atmosphere constitutes a problem encompassing all of the United States east of the Mississippi River. It also occurs in some areas of the western US. Calculations based on emission inventories and simplifying assumptions indicate electric utilities account for 66% of SO/sub 2/ emissions, 29% of NO/sub x/ emissions and about half of precipitation acidity. Acidification of clearwater lakes and streams is a widespread problem only in areas receiving rain with an average acidity less than or equal to 4.7. The dominant anion in such waters is SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and concentrations of aluminum derived from watershed acidification may exceed 200 ..mu..g 1/sup -1/. Changes in assemblages of aquatic biota become increasingly apparent as pH decreases below 6.0, and elimination of fish from some waters has been documented. The sensitivity of surface waters is controlled by and represents an integration of biogeochemical processes in their edaphic settings. Changes in surface water chemistry imply changes in the terrestrial environment. Direct evidence of changes in terrestrial environments is sparse. Nevertheless, observations of forest dieback in the US and abroad suggest that acid deposition may contribute to the problem. Very few credible studies are available which allow an evaluation of acid precipitation effects on crops.

  8. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  9. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  10. (Acidic deposition and the environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

    1990-10-24

    The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

  11. (International conference on acidic deposition)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. Jr.

    1990-10-05

    The traveler took the opportunity to participate in a mini-sabbatical at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) in Edinburgh, Scotland, as a part of planned travel to Glasgow, Scotland, to attend the International Conference on Acidic Precipitation. The purpose of the sabbatical was to provide quality time for study and interchange of ideas with scientists at ITE working on physiological effects of acidic deposition and to allocate significant time for writing and synthesizing of results of physiological studies from the National Forest Response Program's Spruce/Fir Research Cooperative. The study focused on the very significant cytological and physiological effects of calcium deficiency in trees, a response that appears to be amplified in spruce by acidic deposition.

  12. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  13. Acid deposition: Processes of Lake Acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Panel on Processes of Lake Acidification was assembled by the National Research Council at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency. The panel was charged with discussing the processes that control the rate of acidification of streams and lakes and to suggest how EPA's research program might approach addressing current deficiencies in knowledge. The panel defined the acidification of lakes and streams as a decrease in alkalinity over time. Soil acidification is the decrease in the percent base saturation over time. The panel concurred that in forested watersheds that are underlain by granitic or other highly siliceous bedrock with acidic forest soils not receiving appreciable acid deposition, most lakes and streams have bicarbonate as the dominant anion and pH levels above 5.5. Generally, lakes and streams in similar habitats but in areas receiving appreciable acid deposition have sulfate as the dominant anion.

  14. Deposition System Controller

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variablesmore » are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.« less

  15. CASTNet mountain acid deposition monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, J.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Edgerton, E.S.; Mohnen, V.; Baumgardener, R.

    1994-12-31

    Concern over the influence of air pollution on forest decline has led the USEPA to establish the Mountain Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (MADMP) to quantify total deposition at high altitudes, i.e., above cloud base. Clouds can be a major source of atmospheric deposition to sensitive, mountain ecosystems. This program is a part of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), a national assessment of the effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act. The objectives of MADMP are to estimate total deposition, measure cloud chemistry, and characterize spacial and temporal trends at four selected high altitude sites in the Eastern US. Four MADMP sites have been established for the 1994 field season: Clingman`s Dome, Great Smoky Mountain Nat. Park, TN; Slide Mountain, Catskill State Park, NY; Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack State Park, NY; and Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers Nat`l Recreational Area, VA. An automated cloud collection system will be utilized in combination with continuous measurements of cloud liquid water content in order to estimate cloudwater deposition. Other relevant data will include continuous meteorological measurements, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations, wet deposition from rainfall analysis, and dry deposition from filter pack analysis. Quality assurance and quality control measures will be employed to maximize accuracy and precision.

  16. Controlling surface roughness in vapor-deposited poly(amic acid) films by solvent-vapor exposure.

    PubMed

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Letts, Stephan A; Cook, Robert C

    2004-07-20

    A series of vapor-deposited poly(amic acid) (PAA) films were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vapors to investigate sorption kinetics and surface smoothing phenomena. Gravimetric sorption and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results are both consistent with frontal (case II) diffusion. These experiments suggest that the solvent front is defined by a sharp interface that delineates the swollen material from the unswollen material. Solvent-vapor smoothing was studied by first depositing PAA onto rough aluminum surfaces, and then, during solvent-vapor exposure, the surface topology was continuously monitored using a light interference microscope. The resulting time-dependent power spectra indicate that high-frequency defects smooth faster than low-frequency defects. This frequency dependence was further investigated by depositing PAA onto a series of sinusoidal surfaces and exposing them to solvent vapor inside a flow channel. The sinusoidal amplitudes decay exponentially with time, with decay constants that are proportional to the surface frequency. To explain the physics of surface smoothing, a two-parameter model is presented and agrees qualitatively with experimental data.

  17. (Acidic deposition: Its nature and impacts)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Turner, R.S. ); Ryan, P.F. )

    1990-10-18

    The travelers presented papers on various aspects of modeling performed as part of the US National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition: Its Nature and Impacts. The meeting was sponsored by the Royal Society of Edinburgh and was attended by over 800 scientists, primarily from Europe and North America. The conference focused on nine aspects of the nature and impacts of atmospheric pollutants, including ozone: chemistry of atmospheric pollutants; processes controlling the deposition of pollutants; effects of pollutants on soils; physiology of plant responses to pollutants; effects of pollutants in agricultural and natural or seminatural ecosystems; atmospheric pollutants and forests; effects of pollutants on the chemistry of freshwater streams and lakes; effects of pollutants on freshwater plants and animals; and effects of pollutants, indoors and outdoors, on materials and buildings.

  18. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery.

  19. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:24863206

  20. Emerging acid deposition research and monitoring issues

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, R.

    1997-12-31

    The research baselines established for acid rain in the 1980s position scientists and policy makers to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the acid rain control program and to test the variety of scientific hypotheses made regarding the chemical, transport and biological processes involved in acidic deposition. Several new research questions have evolved. How effective are the emissions reductions? What is the residual risk? How have ecological recovery rates been affected and what other environmental factors influence recovery? What are the critical requirements to measure ecological change including the extent and rate while also capturing the extent and severity of emerging ecological stressors (such as watershed nitrogen saturation)? These and other questions are currently being synthesized within and outside of EPA to develop a long-term strategy to provide guidance to emerging research and monitoring issues.

  1. Mesoscale acid deposition modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Proctor, F. H.; Zack, John W.; Karyampudi, V. Mohan; Price, P. E.; Bousquet, M. D.; Coats, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in support of the EPA/DOE MADS (Mesoscale Acid Deposition) Project included the development of meteorological data bases for the initialization of chemistry models, the testing and implementation of new planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in the MASS model, the simulation of transport and precipitation for MADS case studies employing the MASS model, and the use of the TASS model in the simulation of cloud statistics and the complex transport of conservative tracers within simulated cumuloform clouds. The work performed in support of the NASA/FAA Wind Shear Program included the use of the TASS model in the simulation of the dynamical processes within convective cloud systems, the analyses of the sensitivity of microburst intensity and general characteristics as a function of the atmospheric environment within which they are formed, comparisons of TASS model microburst simulation results to observed data sets, and the generation of simulated wind shear data bases for use by the aviation meteorological community in the evaluation of flight hazards caused by microbursts.

  2. Effects of acid deposition on agricultural production

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Oden, N.L.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Coveney, E.A.; Jacobson, J.S.; Rosenthal, R.E.; Evans, L.S.; Lewin, K.F.; Allen, F.L.

    1985-09-01

    A preliminary assessment, both qualitative and quantitative, was carried out on the effects of acid deposition on agriculture. An inventory was made of US crops exposed to different acid deposition levels in 1982. Most crops (valued at more than $50 billion) were exposed to annual average acid deposition levels greater than pH 4.6, but crops worth more than $220 billion were exposed to even lower pH levels. Published results of experiments on crop response to acid deposition have not identified any single crop as being consistently sensitive, and suggest that present levels of acidic precipitation in the US are not significantly affecting growth and yield of crops. Because relatively few experiments appropriate to a quantitative acid deposition assessment have been conducted, the quantitative section is necessarily based on a restricted data set. Corn, potatoes, and soybeans have been studied in experimental environments which simulate agronomic conditions and which have adequate statistical power for yield estimates; only some varieties of soybeans have demonstrated statistically significant sensitivity to acid deposition.

  3. Florida acid deposition study - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C.D.; Hendrickson, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive literature searches were performed in the areas of source attribution and long-range transport and ecological and material effects. The literature searches were designed to determine the impacts of acid deposition that are specific to Florida. In January 1982 the results of Phase I programs were issued. These reports were: (1) Monitoring Program Phase I Summary Report; (2) Source Attribution Phase I Summary Report; and (3) A Literature Review of the Ecological and Materials Effects of Acid Deposition.

  4. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed.

  5. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed. PMID:25119487

  6. RESULTS FROM THE MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the. requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The main ob...

  7. Acidic deposition and surface water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. R.

    A pair of back-to-back (morning and afternoon) hydrology sessions, held December 10, 1987, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., covered “Predicting the Effects of Acidic Deposition on Surface Water Chemistry.” The combined sessions included four invited papers, 12 contributed papers, and a panel discussion at its conclusion. The gathering dealt with questions on a variety of aspects of modeling the effects of acidic deposition on surface water chemistry.Contributed papers included discussions on the representation of processes in models as well as limiting assumptions in model application (V. S. Tripathi et al., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., and E. C. Krug, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign), along with problems in estimating depositional inputs to catchments and thus inputs to be used in the simulation of catchment response (M. M. Reddy et al., U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colo.; and E. A. McBean, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada). L. A. Baker et al. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) dealt with the problem of modeling seepage lake systems, an exceedingly important portion of the aquatic resources in Florida and parts of the upper U.S. Midwest. J. A. Hau and Y. Eckstein (Kent State University, Kent, Ohio) considered equilibrium modeling of two northern Ohio watersheds that receive very different loads of acidic deposition but are highly similar in other respects.

  8. Acid deposition in Maryland: Implications of the results of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowmann, M.; Ross, J.; Blundell, C.; Price, R.

    1991-07-01

    Acid deposition, commonly referred to as 'acid rain,' is a major global environmental concern. Acid deposition has reportedly resulted in damage to aquatic, terrestrial, and physical resources and has potentially adverse effects on human health. A component of the Maryland acid deposition program is the preparation of an annual report that summarizes yearly activities and costs of ongoing acid deposition research and monitoring programs.

  9. Digital electrospray for controlled deposition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiwei; Waits, C Mike; Gomez, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Many novel functional structures are now fabricated by controlled deposition as a maskless, bottom-up fabrication technique. These applications require rapid and precise deposition of minute amounts of solutions/suspensions or their ultimate particle products in predefined patterns. The electrospray is a promising alternative to the commonly used inkjet printing because it can easily handle highly viscous liquid, avoid high shear rates, and has low risk of clogging. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept digital electrospray. This system consists of a 61-nozzle array microfabricated in silicon and a 61-element digital extractor fabricated using flexible polyimide substrates. "Digital" refers to the state of each electrospray source that can be tuned either on or off independently and responsively. We showed a resolution of 675 mum and a response frequency up to 100 Hz. With similar design and industry standard fabrication procedures, it is feasible to scale up the system to O(1000) sources with spatial resolution better than 250 mum and a O(kHz) response frequency. The latter is controlled by the viscous damping time.

  10. Acidic Depositions: Effects on Wildlife and Habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of 'acid rain' is not new; it was recognized in the mid-1800s in industrialized Europe. In the 1960s a synthesis of information about acidification began in Europe, along with predictions of ecological effects. In the U.S. studies of acidification began in the 1920s. By the late 1970s research efforts in the U.S. and Canada were better coordinated and in 1980 a 10-year research program was undertaken through the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Plan (NAPAP) to determine the causes and consequences of acidic depositions. Much of the bedrock in the northeastern U.S. and Canada contains total alkalinity of 20 kg/ha/yr of wet sulphate depositions and are vulnerable to acidifying processes. Acidic depositions contribute directly to acidifying processes of soil and soil water. Soils must have sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity or acidity of soil will increase. Natural soil-forming processes that lead to acidification can be accelerated by acidic depositions. Long-term effects of acidification are predicted, which will reduce soil productivity mainly through reduced availability of nutrients and mobilization of toxic metals. Severe effects may lead to major alteration of soil chemistry, soil biota, and even loss of vegetation. Several species of earthworms and several other taxa of soil-inhabiting invertebrates, which are important food of many vertebrate wildlife species, are affected by low pH in soil. Loss of canopy in declining sugar maples results in loss of insects fed on by certain neotropical migrant bird species. No definitive studies categorically link atmospheric acidic depositions with direct or indirect effects on wild mammals. Researchers have concentrated on vegetative and aquatic effects. Circumstantial evidence suggests that effects are probable for certain species of aquatic-dependent mammals (water shrew, mink, and otter) and that these species are at risk from the loss of foods or contamination of these foods by metals

  11. Deposition of salicylic acid into hamster sebaceous.

    PubMed

    Motwani, M R; Rhein, L D; Zatz, J L

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we identified vehicles that are miscible with sebum, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this paper, the potential of these vehicles to deliver salicylic acid (SA) into the sebum-filled follicles of hamster ears is examined. The main objective of this study is to correlate the melting transitions of a model sebum with the follicular delivery of SA, using two different types of vehicles (fatty and polar). Generally, the fatty vehicles show higher deposition than the polar vehicles. Follicular delivery of salicylic acid correlates well with its solubility in the respective vehicles. This extent of deposition also shows a relationship with the effect of the vehicle on thermal behavior of the model sebum. The nature of the relationship depends on the vehicle (polar or fatty) tested. We conclude that DSC could be used to identify appropriate vehicles for drugs whose follicular delivery depends on solubility. The results also suggest that delivery into the sebaceous glands occurs by two different mechanisms, depending upon the polarity of the vehicle and the physicochemical properties of the drug. The results of these experiments are further extended to investigate follicular delivery of SA from two different types of oil-in-water emulsion formulations. From these studies we conclude that either increasing the volume of the oil phase or changing the emulsion to a water-in-oil emulsion would increase follicular deposition. Our research highlights the role of sebum, its compatibility with drug molecules, and vehicle selection in the transport of drugs into the follicles. The overall results of these experiments provide a reasonable understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transport of drugs to, and subsequently through, the sebaceous follicle.

  12. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Interim Assessment: the causes and effects of acidic deposition. Volume 4. Effects of acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume on Effects of Acidic Deposition is the last in a four-volume set which comprises the NAPAP Interim Assessment. It contains five individual chapters covering (6) Agricultural Crops, (7) Forests, (8) Aquatic Systems, (9) Materials, and (10) Human Health and Visibility. Volume III, Atmospheric Processes and Deposition, has two chapters on (4) Atmospheric Processes, and (5) Acidic Deposition and Air Quality. Volume II, Emissions and Controls, contains three chapters on (1) Historical Emissions, (2) Emission Control Technologies, and (3) Future Emissions. Each of these chapters describes the National Program's research orientation and major conclusions within each of the ten primary areas of substantive concern. In order to learn how these first-order conclusions relate to the issue of acidic deposition in an overall, or synoptic, sense, the reader is directed to Volume I, Executive Summary, where the conclusions from each of the ten subject chapters are distilled in a manner that will allow interested parties to quickly reference the status of a variety of factors that pertain to the scientific understanding of acidic deposition.

  13. Current research on the effects of acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    Preliminary research aimed at quantifying relationships between emission and acid deposition and on-the-ground effects indicates that small water supplies fed by surface waters or shallow wells and cistern supplies may be adversely affected by acid deposition. In addition, acid deposition makes water more corrosive, which may result in dangerous quantities of heavy metals in distribution systems. This will not be a problem with relatively hard water or with relatively large supplies, and corrosivity should be treatable at reasonable cost.

  14. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the science of corrosion control and control of scaling in drinking water systems. Topics covered include: types of corrosion; physical, microbial and chemical factors influencing corrosion; corrosion of specific materials; direct ...

  15. Acid deposition: Atmospheric processes in Eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report examines scientific evidence on the relationship between emissions of acid-forming pollutants and damage to sensitive ecosystems from acid rain and other forms of acid deposition. The report's conclusions represent the most authoritative statement yet that reductions in emissions of these pollutants will result in proportional reductions in acid rain.

  16. Acid deposition and the acidification of soils and waters

    SciTech Connect

    Reuss, J.O.; Johnson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual model of acid deposition is presented consistent with established physicochemical principles and the bulk of available information. The authors seek to provide insight into probable long-term effects of acid deposition; a testable hypotheses; plus design and interpretation of the research. (PSB)

  17. Effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems and their rehabilitation strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zong-wei; Miao, Hong; Zhang, Fu-zhu; Huang, Yi-zong

    2002-04-01

    South China has become the third largest region associated with acid deposition following Europe and North America, the area subject to damage by acid deposition increased from 1.75 million km2 in 1985 to 2.8 million km2 in 1993. Acid deposition has caused serious damage to ecosystem. Combined pollution of acid rain and SO2 showed the obvious multiple effects on crops. Vegetable was more sensitive to acid deposition than foodstuff crops. Annual economic loss of crops due to acid deposition damage in eleven provinces of south China was 4.26 billion RMB Yuan. Acid deposition caused serious damage to forest. Annual economic loss of wood volume was about 1.8 billion RMB Yuan and forest ecological benefit loss 16.2 billion in eleven provinces of south China. Acid deposition in south China was typical "sulfuric acid type". According to the thoughts of sustainable development, some strategies were brought forward as follows: (1) enhancing environmental management, specifying acid-controlling region, controlling and abating the total emission amount of SO2; (2) selecting practical energy technologies of clean coal, for example, cleansing and selecting coal, sulfur-fixed-type industrial briqutting, abating sulfur from waste gas and so on; (3) developing other energy sources to replace coal, including water electricity, atomic energy and the new energy such as solar energy, wind energy and so on; (4) in acid deposition region of south China, selecting acid-resistant type of crop and tree to decrease agricultural losses, planting more green fertilizer crops, using organic fertilizers and liming, in order to improve buffer capacities of soil.

  18. Acidic deposition, plant pests, and the fate of forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gragnani, A; Gatto, M; Rinaldi, S

    1998-12-01

    We present and analyze a nonlinear dynamical system modelling forest-pests interactions and the way they are affected by acidic deposition. The model includes mechanisms of carbon and nitrogen exchange between soil and vegetation, biomass decomposition and microbial mineralization, and defoliation by pest grazers, which are partially controlled by avian or mammalian predators. Acidic deposition is assumed to directly damage vegetation, to decrease soil pH, which in turn damages roots and inhibits microbial activity, and to predispose trees to increased pest attack. All the model parameters are set to realistic values except the inflow of protons to soil and the predation mortality inflicted to the pest which are allowed to vary inside reasonable ranges. A numerical bifurcation analysis with respect to these two parameters is carried out. Five functioning modes are uncovered: (i) pest-free equilibrium; (ii) pest persisting at endemic equilibrium; (iii) forest-pest permanent oscillations; (iv) bistable behavior with the system converging either to pest-free equilibrium or endemic pest presence in accordance with initial conditions; (v) bistable behavior with convergence to endemic pest presence or permanent oscillations depending on initial conditions. Catastrophic bifurcations between the different behavior modes are possible, provided the abundance of predators is not too small. Numerical simulation shows that increasing acidic load can lead the forest to collapse in a short time period without important warning signals.

  19. Methodology for estimating crop loss from acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Crop losses affect the production, availability and cost of food, and therefore have important economic, social, and political implications especially during this period of rapid world population growth. The fact that air-borne pollutants affect vegetative growth has been known for more than a century. Recently, the acidic deposition phenomenon has gained increasing attention, especially when implicated as a factor potentially responsible for crop yield losses. Experimental approaches utilized in traditional pollution effects research include: field surveys, sensitivity classification, dose-response studies, and regional-impact evaluation. Acid rain is a unique pollutant having special problems associated with researching its effects. For example, the description of dose for this pollutant should include rain chemistry (not just pH), rainfall rate, duration of event, total deposition, droplet size, etc. These parameters must also be considered when simulating rain in controlled studies. Due to the potential for interactions with biotic and abiotic entities, factorial research designs and multivariate analyses may be necessary for investigations of acid-rain impacts on crops. Results from well-planned mechanistic studies and dose-response experiments may be used to predict effects (both positive and negative), assess economic impacts, and establish tolerance thresholds for this form of pollution.

  20. Acid rain and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants: ORNL studies the effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and atmospheric deposition may be involved in the decline of some forests and in the elevation of aluminum levels in streams. The research programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which are focussed on acid rain are described. Some of the areas currently under scrutiny are: soil buffering capacity, the quantitative relationships between wet and dry deposition, the effects of acid rain on forest growth, forest canopy interactions with acid precipitation, the effects of acid rain on aquatic ecosystems, and innovations in pollution control technology.

  1. Acid deposition: No such thing as a free launch

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews the acid deposition process and outlines the issues of atmospheric science that have made it such a difficult issue on which to achieve consensus. The geographical focus of this review is eastern North America, but the considerations presented here are applicable also to other regions. Acid deposition consists of delivery of acidic substances from the atmosphere to the earth's surface, principally sulfur and nitrogen oxides, acids, and salts. These compounds (mainly the oxides) are introduced into the atmosphere principally as by-products of fossil fuel combustion. Research on atmospheric processes examines the relations between the rates and spatial distributions of emissions of acidifying substances, the atmospheric concentrations and spatial distributions of these substances and of their atmospheric transformation products, and the rates and spatial distributions of deposition of these materials. The goal of this research is to determine how atmospheric concentrations and deposition fluxes would change in response to specified changes in emissions. Effects research is the study of the consequences of atmospheric concentrations and deposition rates of acidic and related substances on human health, on artificial structural and ornamental materials, on cultivated crops, and on natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The goal of this research is to determine standards for concentrations and deposition that are suitable for protecting human health and the general welfare from adverse effects of acid deposition. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Acidic lakes and streams in the United States: The role of acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Eilers, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A statistically designed survey of lakes and streams in acid-sensitive areas of the United States, the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), was used to identify the role of acidic deposition, relative to other factors, in causing acidic conditions in 1,181 lakes and 4,668 streams. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of acid anions in 75% of the acidic lakes and 47% of the acidic streams. Organic anions are dominant in one-fourth of the acidic lakes and streams; acidic mine drainage is the dominant acid source in 25% of the acidic streams. Other causes of acidic conditions are relatively unimportant on a regional scale. Nearly all the deposition-dominated acidic systems were found in six well-delineated subpopulations that represent about one-fourth of the NSWS lake population and one-third of the NSWS stream population.

  3. Evaluating risks to agricultural production from acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Oden, N.L.; Medeiros, W.H.; Coveney, E.A.

    1986-10-01

    Although it has been established that agricultural yields can be affected adversely by ozone and other air pollutants, the effects of existing levels of acid deposition on crops are less well understood. Evaluations of potential effects from growth chamber, greenhouse and field experiments have not identified any single crop as being consistently sensitive to acid deposition. Quantitative analysis of one crop (soybeans), which has demonstrated some sensitivity to acid deposition treatments in field settings, suggest that if current acid deposition levels are reduced by 50%, then US soybean production would increase by approximately 1%. These estimates are based on the fundamental assumption that estimated dose-response functions are homogeneous across biologic, geographic and temporal space; an assumption not supported by recently developed experimental data. As a result, confidence in this conclusion is weak.

  4. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface. PMID:25254114

  5. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  6. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  7. Geochemical investigations of selected Eastern United States watersheds affected by acid deposition.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, O.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of acid deposition on surface waters in eastern USA watersheds of similar size, physiography, climate and land-use are related to the composition of the underlying bedrock. Watersheds developed on greenstone, calcareous shale, sandstone, granite and schist differ in their ability to neutralize acid rain; consequently, stream acidity is similar to that of precipitation. Watersheds developed on granite and schist are intermediate in their capacity to neutralize acid deposition. Bedrock composition appears to be the major property controlling surface-water chemistry in these systems; hydrological flowpaths and the nature of surficial materials and vegetation also influence chemical responses to acid deposition in watersheds. 453This and the following 10 abstracts are for papers forming a thematic set on geochemical aspects of acid rain. -P.Br.

  8. Study of the acidic deposition phenomenon over Alexandria city.

    PubMed

    Noweir, Kamal H; El-Marakby, Fadia A; Zaki, Gihan R; Ibrahim, Alaa K

    2008-01-01

    Acid deposition commonly occurs due to conversion of primary acidic pollutants (SO2 & NO2) into secondary pollutants (H2SO4 & HNO3 and their salts). The main natural sources of acid deposition in Alexandria include lightening and microbial processes. Anthropogenic sources include traffic, industrial, fuel burning, and incineration activities. Acid deposition has ecological and economic effects in addition to health effects. The objective of this study is to assess acidity of dry and wet depositions in the atmosphere of Alexandria. Dry samples were collected as settled dust using plastic jar. Wet samples were collected as rain water using polyethylene bottle. All samples were analyzed for pH, sulfates, and nitrates. The relatively high pH values observed in depositions of Alexandria city (6.95+/-0.22) and (7.14+/-0.49) for settled dust and rain water respectively indicating the conversion of the formed acids (H2SO4 & HNO3) into their salts. This explanation was confirmed by the relatively high concentrations of sulfates and nitrates. The average values were (14.3+/-4.21 g/km2/month and 20.5+/-9.5mg/L for sulfates), and (22.6+/-10.6 g/km2/month and 0.5+/-0.32 mg/L for nitrates) for settled dust and rainwater samples respectively. It can be concluded that Alexandria is a lucky city regarding acidity of the atmosphere due to its geographic, topographic, and meteorological features. Building up acid deposition monitoring network that covers all Egyptian cities to be a nucleus for African network, using new technologies that reduce emission of acid deposition precursors and alternative sources of energy, implementing and enforcing regulations and standards for major pollutants, and increasing public awareness are recommended.

  9. Localized flow control with energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelgren, Russell Gene

    A series of experiments with energy deposition via laser-induced optical breakdown of air, i.e., a laser spark, have been performed. These experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using a laser spark for supersonic flow control. In the first of these experiments, Rayleigh scattering flow visualization was taken for energy deposition into quiescent air. A time sequence of images showed the post breakdown fluid motion created by the laser spark for different laser energy levels. Blast wave radius and wave speed measurements were made and correlated to five different laser energy deposition levels. Laser energy was deposited upstream of a sphere in Mach 3.45 flow. The energy was deposited one sphere diameter and 0.6 diameters upstream of the front of the sphere. The frontal surface pressure on the sphere was recorded as the laser spark perturbed region interacted with the flow about the sphere. Tests for three different energy levels and two different incident laser beam diameters were completed. It has been demonstrated that the peak surface pressure associated with the Edney IV interaction can be momentarily reduced by 30% by the interaction with the thermal spot created by the laser spark. The effects of laser energy deposition on another shock interaction phenomena were studied. Laser energy deposition was used to modify the shock structure formed by symmetric wedges at Mach 3.45 within the dual solution domain. It was demonstrated experimentally that the Mach reflection could be reduced by 80% momentarily. The numerical simulations show a transition from the stable Mach reflection to a stable regular reflection. Two energy deposition methods (electric arcing and laser energy deposition) were used to force and control compressible mixing layers of axisymmetric jets. The energy deposition forcing methods have been experimentally investigated with the schlieren technique, particle image velocimetry, Mie scattering, and static pressure probe diagnostic

  10. Study of deposition control using transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, J. F.; Kozlu, H.

    1984-10-01

    The introductory experimental phase of a study to determine the conditions under which transpiration may be used to avoid the deposition of small particles was undertaken. The application of this work is to control the deposition of small particles over a surface kept at a temperature below the melting point of compounds likely to exist in the combustion products. Laser beam attenuation methods were used to measure the distribution of glass beads, ranging in size from 1 to 37 microns in a wind tunnel's flow atmosphere. The method of laser beam attenuation measurements is sound and gives indications of its suitability for continued use in modeling applications of this nature.

  11. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  12. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  13. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1998-04-28

    An aspheric optical element is disclosed formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin ({approx}100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application. 4 figs.

  14. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

  15. Deposit control in ground water remediation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, B.; Soeder, K.

    1995-12-31

    Remedial actions at all types of hazardous waste sites require the implementation of various water treatment technologies. Though the many groundwater treatment technologies are constantly developing, some age-old problems associated with handling any water remains. These operating problems include deposition of naturally occurring inorganic solutes such as iron, manganese, calcium and fouling by indigenous micro-organisms. Fouling of air stripping towers is a common example of this phenomenon. Virtually all groundwater treatment systems experience some degree of operating impediment from this cause. Some systems may take years for deposits to become problems, but many systems become inoperable within weeks or months. Recently released studies by the American Petroleum Institute show that deposit control is the most common operation problem causing remediation system failure. Such failures result in greatly increased operation & maintenance costs and non compliance with regulatory mandates.

  16. Risk assessment and management of agricultural effects of acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Oden, N.L.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Conveney, E.A.

    1986-06-01

    Risk assessment models provide logical and consistent frameworks for evaluating effects of acid deposition on agricultural production. Although many crops are grown in areas having high deposition, available experimental evidence does not suggest that yields of studied corps are being affected significantly. Sensitivity of soybeans to simulated acid deposition has been studied by many investigators; experimental data suggests that some varieties respond in a statistically significant way. Application of these dose-response data in regional- and national-level assessments suggests that predicted changes in yield from changing natural acid deposition levels are not of practical significance. Because of limited data, the estimates should be viewed with caution since they are based on many simplifying assumptions.

  17. Temporal perspective on acid deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G R

    1980-02-20

    This statement presented to the Subcommittee on Natural Resources of the US House of Representatives gives a definition of acid rain, presents new data on the regional and temporal nature of the problem, and discusses research needs. (ACR)

  18. Acidic deposition: decline in mobilization of toxic aluminium.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sheila M; Driscoll, Charles T

    2002-05-16

    The mobilization of aluminium from acidic forest soils is arguably the most ecologically important consequence of acid deposition in the environment because of its adverse effects on soils, forest vegetation and surface water. Here we show that there has been a significant decline in the concentrations of aluminium species in soil solutions at medium-to-high elevations in a northern hardwood forest in the United States in response to decreasing acidic deposition. Streamwater aluminium concentrations have also fallen and, if this rate of recovery persists, will within 10 years no longer pose a threat to fish.

  19. Spectrometric control of coatings deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrin, D. K.; Lisenkov, A. A.; Uhov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that one of the most important technological tasks for the process of reactive magnetron sputtering is to control the composition of a gas mix. Possibility of determining the composition of a gas mix using spectrometric equipment on example of argon–oxygen mix during deposition of tantalum pentoxide films is demonstrated. Results of experiments show that it is possible to control concentration of oxygen not only by change of intensity of oxygen lines, but also by relative change of intensity of argon lines.

  20. Acid depositions and concrete attack: Main influences

    SciTech Connect

    Sersale, R.; Frigione, G.; Bonavita, L.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental research on the factors responsible to a greater extent for the action of simulated acid precipitations on cement concrete works, both in static and in dynamic conditions, are discussed. The influence of the cement type, the role of calcium hydroxide, the influence of water-cement ratio, and the retard effect on assault, owing to a surface treatment with a water repellent agent, are emphasized.

  1. [Calculating critical loads of acid deposition with different percentiles in China].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming; Zhou, Zhongping; Xie, Shaodong

    2002-09-01

    While mapping critical loads of acid deposition in China, the 1 degree (latitude) x 1 degree (longitude) resolution was always adopted in critical load calculation. However, the results of mapping can not show the difference of sensitivity of ecosystems to acid deposition within a 1 degree x 1 degree grid. For the convenience of policy-makers to formulate acid deposition control strategies based on critical loads, and to improve the representation and practicability of 1 degree x 1 degree results, a series of critical load maps with different percentiles were compiled, which may be accordance with a given economic or technological level, and allows some degree of damage. Based on the cumulative distribution function, the critical load exceedance maps with different percentiles and the maximum allowable deposition of each province was also derived.

  2. Examples of regional environmental assessment using acid deposition data

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Turner, R.S.; Allison, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated assessments of acid deposition impacts require data on pollutant emissions, pollutant deposition, air quality, aquatic resources, crops, forests, and manmade materials. These data must have common spatial and temporal attributes that can be readily accessed for statistical analysis, modeling, and display purposes. The Acid Deposition Assessment Staff of Task Group I established the Acid Deposition Data Network (ADDNET) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide accurate and reliable data to conduct assessment and policy analysis for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Although specific projects and task groups within NAPAP collect and analyze individual data files, ADDNET assembles selected files, verifies their contents, conducts quality assurance, maintains documentation, and makes data available to the NAPAP community. The ADDNET data base contains over 65 'certified' data sets that have been screened to ensure consistency across all areas of the assessment. Two applications of the ADDNET Data Base to assessment activities are described: estimation of the extent of sensitive lakes at risk to high atmospheric deposition and the mapping of regional soil properties according to hypothesized sensitivity criteria. Both examples cover New York and the New England states and show the integration of data from diverse sources for analyses. The data resources and the regional environmental assessment approach described here can be applied directly to other hazardous materials discussed at this symposium. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Deposition control using transpiration: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlu, H.; Louis, J.F.

    1986-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of deposition of small particles is presented to evaluate the concept of transpiration as a deposition control strategy. The application of this work is the control of the deposition of small particles (0.5 to 3 ..mu..m) in turbines burning fuels derived from coal. The study is carried out in a wind tunnel facility containing a flat porous transpired section. Similar flows and particle motions are achieved by choosing the proper Reynolds and Stokes numbers representative of the conditions found in industrial gas turbines. Measurements of the velocity profiles were conducted for high injection rates (1.5% < F < 3%). A theory developed for the transpired turbulent boundary layer, which is described by an ''outer boundary layer'' entraining the transpired flow for large injection rates, agrees well with the experimental data. Concentration profiles of glass particles of both very narrow and wide size distributions were conducted for different injection rates under isothermal conditions. The measurements indicate clearly the conditions under which transpiration can prevent the deposition of particles and they show the effect of particle size. The interaction between transpiration and the inertial impaction of particulates is determined in an experimental set-up using an identical inclined transpired plate. Using the experimental data, the effect of the density of particles on concentration profiles is predicted. Present study also provides a clear insight into the turbulent diffusion of particles for a Stokes number of between 1 and 3.5 (and a turbulent Schmidt number range of 2 to 6). The turbulent Schmidt numbers obtained from the measurements are in agreement with the theoretical prediction of Tchen. 26 refs., 25 figs.

  4. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Interim Assessment: the causes and effects of acidic deposition. Volume 3. Atmospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume on Atmospheric Processes and Deposition is the third in a four volume set which comprises the NAPAP Interim Assessment. It contains two chapters dealing with (4) Atmospheric Processes, and (5) Acidic Deposition and Air Quality. Volume II, Emissions and Controls, contains chapters on (1) Historical Emissions, (2) Emission Control Technologies, and (3) Future Emissions. Volume IV, Effects of Acidic Deposition, contains chapters on (6) Agricultural Crops, (7) Forests, (8) Aquatic Systems, (9) Materials, and (10) Human Health and Visibility. Each of these chapters describes the National Program's research orientation and major conclusions within each of the ten primary areas of substantive concern. In order to learn how these first-order conclusions relate to the issue of acidic deposition in an overall, or synoptic, sense the reader is directed to Volume I, Executive Summary and Major Conclusions, where the conclusions from each of the ten chapters are distilled in a manner that will allow interested parties to quickly reference the status of a variety of factors that pertain to the scientific understanding of acidic deposition.

  5. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition.

  6. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  7. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  8. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  9. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  10. Acid rain control II. The promise of new technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilleland, D.S.; Swisher, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on acid rain. Topics considered at the conference included the evolving science of acid deposition, natural acidity, the renovation of acid lakes and streams, the role of advanced coal cleaning technology in the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions, fluidized-bed combustion, desulfurization using limestone, the Kilngas project, current technology for sulfur dioxide emission control, and coal liquefaction.

  11. Acidic deposition: Effects on agricultural crops: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W. Jr.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Luxmoore, R.J.; McConathy, R.K.; McLaughlin, S.B.; Norby, R.J.; Abner, C.H.; Heagle, A.S.; Dubay, D.T.

    1987-04-01

    During the late 1970's there developed an increasing recognition that attempts to understand the impact of acidic precipitation on vegetation would be difficult to interpret without also being able to understand the relationship between acid precipitation and other, potentially interacting stresses. Important among these other stress factors are the mixture of gaseous pollutants to which vegetation is also exposed during the growing season. The research project described in this report was conceived and developed to address the role and importance of the contribution of wet deposition (acid rain) to crop vegetation growth and yield in the context of the ambient gaseous pollutant environment existing in an agricultural field situation.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  14. MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM (MADPRO): CLOUD DEPOSITION TO THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, 1994 THROUGH 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The two ma...

  15. Effects of acid deposition on portland cement concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    Presented are the results of a program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency, conducted to determine the state-of-the-art knowledge pertaining to the effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete structures (PCC). Information was collected from a computerized literature survey, interviews, and replies to mail and telephone inquiries addressed to cement and concrete researchers and to governmental agencies and private firms active in the maintenance and restoration of concrete structures. In general, the study revealed very little qualitative or quantitative information on the effects of acid deposition on PCC structures. The rate of deterioration of reinforced PCC structures in polluted areas, however, appears to be increasing, and available information makes it readily apparent that acids and acid waters significantly affect the durability of concrete, and that SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and HCl accelerate the corrosion of reinforcing steel. On the basis of this evidence, it was recommended that an experimental test program, consisting of both laboratory and field tests, be developed and implemented to quantitatively measure the effects of acid deposition on PCC structures. 51 refs.

  16. Emissions involved in acidic deposition processes: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.

    1990-01-01

    Data on the emissions involved in atmospheric acid-base chemistry are crucial to the assessment of acidic deposition and its effects. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the primary chemical compounds involved in acidic deposition processes. In addition, other emission species -- e.g., ammonia, alkaline dust particles, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride -- are involved in atmospheric acid-base chemistry, either by contributing acidic constituents or by neutralizing acidic species. Several emissions data bases have been developed under the auspices of the National Acid Precipitation Program (NAPAP). In addition to those developed by NAPAP, emissions data bases and emissions trends estimates also have been developed by organizations such as the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper briefly describes and compares the methods used in developing these emissions data bases and presents an overview of their emissions estimates. A more detailed discussion of these topics can be found in the State-of-Science Report on emissions recently released by NAPAP and in the references cited in that report. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The contribution from shipping emissions to air quality and acid deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Derwent, Richard G; Stevenson, David S; Doherty, Ruth M; Collins, William J; Sanderson, Michael G; Johnson, Colin E; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J

    2005-02-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO2, NOx, VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m(-2) yr(-1) over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met.

  18. Estimates of cloud water deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program sites in the Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Ralph E; Isil, Selma S; Lavery, Thomas F; Rogers, Christopher M; Mohnen, Volker A

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman's Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO4(2-) greater than 50 kg/ha and NO3(-) rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) on the order of 6-20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80-90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition.

  19. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  20. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  1. An overview of a 5-year research program on acid deposition in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; He, K.; Xu, X.; Zhang, P.; Bai, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Duan, L.; Li, W.; Chai, F.

    2011-12-01

    Despite concerted research and regulative control of sulfur dioxide in China, acid rain remained a serious environmental issue, due to a sharp increase in the combustion of fossil fuel in the 2000s. In 2005, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China funded a five-year comprehensive research program on acid deposition. This talk will give an overview of the activities and the key findings from this study, covering emission, atmospheric processes, and deposition, effects on soil and stream waters, and impact on typical trees/plants in China. The main results include (1) China still experiences acidic rainfalls in southern and eastern regions, although the situation has stabilized after 2006 due to stringent control of SO2 by the Chinese Government; (2) Sulfate is the dominant acidic compound, but the contribution of nitrate has increased; (3) cloud-water composition in eastern China is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions; (4) the persistent fall of acid rain in the 30 years has lead to acidification of some streams/rivers and soils in southern China; (5) the studied plants have shown varying response to acid rain; (6) some new insights have been obtained on atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric transport, soil chemistry, and ecological impacts, some of which will be discussed in this talk. Compared to the situation in North America and Europe, China's acid deposition is still serious, and continued control of sulfur and nitrogen emission is required. There is an urgent need to establish a long-term observation network/program to monitor the impact of acid deposition on soil, streams/rivers/lakes, and forests.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  3. Modeling soil response to acidic deposition in nonsulfate adsorbing soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, P.R.; Grigal, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A simple semiempirical model for the prediction of changes in soil pH and base saturation with acidic deposition was developed. In steady-state ecosystems acidic deposition results in losses of basic cations from exchange sites. In the model, depletion of exchangeable bases is calculated from the difference between input acidity and output of H/sup +/ and Al/sup 3 +/ in water percolating through the solum. A correction for the decrease in bicarbonate weathering is made but sulfate adsorption is not considered. Estimates including the effect of increased mineral weathering with decreased pH can be made if the natural weathering rate is known and if the order with respect to H/sup +/ is known for the rate expression for soil weathering. The model predicted laboratory data for the acidification of samples for three soil horizons. For a fourth horizon, that was formed in contact with bedrock and high in weatherable minerals, the model overestimated the effect of the acid. Model predictions using soil data showed a slow decrease in soil pH and base saturation until the pH region of Al buffering was attained and then a new steady-state was achieved. The pH and base saturation in the Al buffering region was similar to that found in very acid soils under forest vegetation.

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis of Acid Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seog-Yeon

    Atmospheric processes influencing acid deposition are investigated by using mathematical model and sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis techniques including Green's function analysis, constraint sensitivities, and lumped sensitivities are applied to temporal problems describing gas and liquid phase chemistry and to space-time problems describing pollutant transport and deposition. The sensitivity analysis techniques are used to; (1) investigate the chemical and physical processes related to acid depositions and (2) evaluate the linearity hypothesis, and source and receptor relationships. Results from analysis of the chemistry processes show that the relationship between SO(,2) concentration and the amount of sulfate produced is linear in gas phase but it may be nonlinear in liquid phase when there exists an excess amount of SO(,2) compared to H(,2)O(,2). Under the simulated conditions, the deviation of linearity between ambient sulfur present and the amount of sulfur deposited after 2 hours, is less than 10% in a convective storm situation when the liquid phase chemistry, gas phases chemistry, and cloud processes are considered simultaneously. Efficient ways of sensitivity analysis of time-space problems are also developed and used to evaluate the source and receptor relationships in an Eulerian transport, chemistry, removal model.

  5. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-07-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m-2 a-1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m-2 a-1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  6. Benefits of acid rain controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.G.

    1984-04-01

    The acid rain debate has been distorted by a mistaken political paradigm. This paradigm holds that acid rain controls will benefit only a few lakes and streams, mostly in the Adirondack Mountains in northeastern New York State. It holds that the costs of a control program will fall on the Midwest but that none of the benefits will occur there since no sensitive lakes and streams are found in that area. The author discussed this problem and pointed out that sulfur dioxide was responsible for several types of pollution damage and that all the states would benefit from the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions.

  7. Effects of acid deposition on painted wood substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Balik, C.M.; Fornes, R.E.; Gilbert, R.D.; Williams, R.S.

    1989-07-01

    This research program identifies early failure processes associated with acidic deposition on painted-wood-substrate systems. Effects observed during short-term accelerated exposure studies are as follows: FTIR, NMR, and Sol-gel analysis indicate that SO{sub 2} attacks the base terpolymer of latex polymeric coating in the presence of UV radiation. The polymer is stable upon exposure to SO{sub 2} alone, either gaseous or aqueous as sulfurous acid. Sulfurous acid diffuses through both oil-alkyd and latex coatings and can degrade lignin of the wood substrate. Field and laboratory studies indicate that CaCO{sub 3} and ZnO are removed from latex paints during exposures. The removal rate decreases with increasing pH. Discoloration or yellowing of CaCO{sub 3} containing paints on wood substrates was observed after three months field exposure. Based on the findings, it is recommended that research be continued to develop dose-response relationships for the effects of acid deposition on coated-wood-substrate systems.

  8. Mathematical modeling of acid deposition due to radiation fog

    SciTech Connect

    Pandis, S.N.; Seinfeld, J.H. )

    1989-09-20

    A Lagrangian model has been developed to study acidic deposition due to radiation fog. The model couples submodels describing the development and dissipation of radiation fog, the gas-phase chemistry and transfer, and the aqueous-phase chemistry. The model is applied to a radiation fog episode in Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley of California over the period January 4--5 1985. Model predictions for temperature profile, fog development, liquid water content, gas-phase concentrations of SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, and NH{sub 3}, {ital p}H, aqueous-phase concentrations of OS{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, and NO{sup {minus}}{sub 3}, and finally deposition rates of the above ions are compared with the observed values. The deposition rates of the major ions are predicted to increase significantly during the fog episode, the most notable being the increase of sulfate deposition. Pathways for sulfate production that are of secondary importance in a cloud environment may become signficant in a fog. Expressing the mean droplet settling velocity as a function of liquid water content is found to be quite influential in the model's predictions. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  9. Mitigation of acid deposition: Liming of surface waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshesky, J.; Price, R.; DeMuro, J.

    1989-05-01

    In recent years acid deposition has become a serious concern internationally. Scientific literature has documented the acidification of numerous lakes and streams in North America and Scandinavia resulting in the depletion or total loss of fisheries and other aquatic biota. Liming represents the only common corrective practice aimed specifically at remediating an affected acid receptor. This report reviews a range of liming technologies and liming materials, as well as the effect of surface-water liming on water quality and aquatic biota. As background to the liming discussion, the hydrologic cycle and the factors that make surface waters sensitive to acid deposition are also discussed. Finally, a brief review of some of the liming projects that have been conducted, or are currently in operation is presented, giving special emphasis to mitigation efforts in Maryland. Liming has been effectively used to counteract surface-water acidification in parts of Scandinavia, Canada, and the U.S. To date, liming has generally been shown to improve physical and chemical conditions and enhance the biological recovery of aquatic ecosystems affected by acidification.

  10. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions.

  11. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions. PMID:25732934

  12. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability.

  13. Quantifying the micrometorological controls on fog deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farlin, J. P.; Paw U, K. T.; Underwood, J.

    2014-12-01

    Fog deposition has been shown to be a significant water input into many arid ecosystems. However, deposition of fog onto foliage depends on many factors. Previously, characterizing fog droplet size distributions was labor intensive, but currently we can characterize changes in fog droplet composition in the 2-50 μm in 2 μm intervals in real time. Evaluating how droplet size and ambient micrometeorological conditions affect deposition rates will allowing tremendous new insight into fog formation and deposition processes. Previous work has characterized fog deposition as it alters with wind speed in natural systems, but extensively testing how droplet size, wind speed, angle of interception all co-vary would be impossible in a natural setting. We utilized a wind tunnel with artificial fog generating nebulizers to simulate fog events across micrometeorological conditions. Using a weighing lysimeter, we were able to quantify the differential rates of deposition on different theoretical leaf types as droplet size and micrometeorological conditions vary. We hope to inform fog collector designs with this information to ensure we are accurately quantifying the fluxes of fog-derived water into these systems.

  14. Atmospheric acid deposition damage to paints. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Haynie, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    Available data from laboratory and field studies of damage to paints by erosion were analyzed to develop an atmospheric acid-deposition damage function for exterior house paints containing calcium carbonate or silicate extenders. Regression-analysis coefficients associated with sulfur dioxide levels are consistent with the reaction between the SO/sub 2/ and calcium carbonate to form soluble calcium sulfate. The effect of sulfuric acid in rain on paint is expected to behave similarly. Observed actual household painting frequencies prior to 1970 are consistent with the damage functions calculated from the experimental erosion data obtained in the 1950's, 1960's and early 1970's. Changes in both environmental conditions and types of paints marketed make it necessary to make assumptions when using the damage functions to estimate costs associated with repainting.

  15. Using the regional acid deposition model to determine the nitrogen deposition airshed of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.L.

    1995-08-25

    The Regional Acid Deposition Model, RADM, an advanced Eulerian model, is used to develop an estimate of the primary airshed of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions that is contributing nitrogen deposition to the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A brief description of RADM together with a summary of the aggregation method used to develop annual average deposition is given. The evaluation background of RADM is summarized. The transport range of the nitrogen affecting deposition, principally the termination product nitric acid, is first established in the model. This range is compared to that determined for sulfur.

  16. Control of paraffin deposition in production operations

    SciTech Connect

    McClafin, G.G.; Whitfill, D.L.

    1984-11-01

    Significant operating costs are incurred from treatments designed to remove waxy deposits from production tubing or squeeze treatments designed to inhibit wax deposition. The costs are increased further by formation damage and loss of production that may result from these treatments. These studies show that paraffin deposition can be prevented or greatly retarded by using chemical surfactants called ''dispersants.'' Two specific surfactants were selected that proved very effective as paraffin dispersants. One is oil soluble and the other is water soluble. These dispersants can be injected continuously into the well or they can be added in larger quantities in a batch treatment at specific time intervals. The choice of using batch or continuous treatment is governed by the type and number of wells requiring treatment.

  17. Control of paraffin deposition in production operations

    SciTech Connect

    McClaflin, G.G.; Whitfill, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Significant operating costs are incurred from treatments designed to remove waxy deposits from production tubing or squeeze treatments designed to inhibit wax deposition. The costs are further increased by formation damage and loss of production that may result from these treatments. Studies have shown that paraffin deposition can be prevented or greatly retarded by using chemical surfactants known as dispersants. Two specific surfactants were selected that proved to be very effective paraffin dispersants. One is oil soluble and the other is water soluble. These dispersants can be injected continuously into the well or they can be added in larger quantities in a batch treatment at specific time intervals. The choice of whether to use batch or continuous treatment is governed by the type and number of wells requiring treatment.

  18. Control of paraffin deposition in production operations

    SciTech Connect

    McClaflin, G.G.; Whitfill, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    Significant operating costs are incurred from treatments designed to remove waxy deposits from production tubing or squeeze treatments designed to inhibit wax deposition. The costs are further increased by formation damage and loss of production that may result from these treatments. Studies show that paraffin deposition can be prevented or greatly retarded by using chemical surfactants known as dispersants. Two specific surfactants were selected that proved to be very effective paraffin dispersants. One is oil soluble and the other is water soluble. These dispersants can be continuously injected into the well or they can be added in larger quantities in a ''batch treatment'' at specific time intervals. The choice of whether to use batch or continuous treatment is governed by the type and number of wells requiring treatment.

  19. Distribution and effects of acidic deposition on wildlife and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Longcore, J.R.; Kaemar, Peter; Legath, J.

    1987-01-01

    Acidic deposition occurs over most of the United States and the deposition patterns and theoretical vulnerabilities of aquatic ecosystems to chemical changes can be delineated, but few data exist on concomitant biological effects. Hypothetical direct effects are limited primarily to toxicity of various heavy metals mobilized at reduced pH. Results of studies in Scandinavia suggest that aluminum interferes with avian reproduction near acidified lakes. Some amphibian populations located on acid-vulnerable substrates may be adversely affected by reduced pH in the vernal pools used for egg laying and larval growth. Indirect effects on populations are difficult to detect because few historical data exist for wildlife populations and trophic relationships in vulnerable areas. Current research in the U.S.A. focuses on measuring habitat characteristics, food availability, and avian use of vulnerable wetland habitats. Results of Scandinavian studies suggest that some species of waterfowl may prefer acidified, I fish-free habitats because invertebrates essential for meeting nutritional requirements are more easily obtained in the absence of competition from fish. However, avian species dependent on fish would be absent from these habitats. Alteration of either the vegetative structure or primary productivity of wetlands might indirectly affect avian populations by causing decreased invertebrate productivity and consequent food limitations for birds.

  20. Economic evaluation of materials damage associated with acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, R.L. Jr.; Lareau, T.J.; Lipfert, F.W.

    1987-06-01

    The assessment approach is based on the maintained hypothesis that a reduction of acid deposition from current levels to natural background would increase the interval of time before specific materials would be repaired or replaced. The lengthening of the maintenance interval implies that annualized maintenance expenditures would be reduced and that cost savings would be realized. These cost savings represent an approximation of the willingness of individuals to pay for a reduction in acid deposition. The strength of this assessment relative to previous studies of materials damage is the disaggregate nature of the data. Estimates of damage are computed for 5-km grid squares within selected urban areas in terms of material/use combinations and building types. Four materials (paint, zinc (galvanized steel), mortar and stone), seven uses (walls, roofs, chimneys, gutters, downspouts, fencing, window trim) and four building types (single and multiple family residences, commercial/industrial buildings, and tax exempt buildings) are examined. Detailed inventory data are available for sampled areas in four case study cities: Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, new Haven, and Portland. Statistical methods based on building counts are used to extrapolate to unsampled areas in the case study cities and to other urban areas in 17 northeastern states.

  1. Biomimetic formation of titania thin films: effect of amino acids on the deposition process.

    PubMed

    Durupthy, Olivier; Jeurgens, Lars P H; Bill, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    Different types of amino acids have been used as additives to control the aqueous deposition of titanium dioxide thin films on single-crystal Si wafers. Thin titania films can be obtained through a chemical bath deposition (CBD) process using TiCl₄ as a precursor in an aqueous solution at temperatures below 100 °C. The addition of amino acids to the deposition solution was shown to reduce the thickness and roughness of the films and to increase their density. These protein building blocks were employed to modify the deposition rate as well as the size of aggregates that form the film. The thickness, crystallinity, morphology and composition of the grown films were characterized by a variety of techniques, including XRD, XPS, AFM and SEM. The consequences of the type of the amino acid additive (and its concentration in the solution) on the microstructural evolutions of the deposed films are thus revealed and discussed on the basis of the organic-inorganic interactions in solution and at the film surface. PMID:21480641

  2. On the potential high acid deposition in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Dabberdt, Walter F.; Jie, Tang; Zhao, Zhuzi; An, Zhisheng; Shen, Zhenxing; Feng, Yinchang

    2013-05-01

    is an acid deposition conundrum in China: contrary to conventional wisdom, extremely high ambient sulfate concentrations in northeastern China are not always accompanied by correspondingly high acidities. To investigate this discrepancy, data from two independent sets of in situ field measurements were analyzed along with Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite observations and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemical transport model calculations. The field measurements included soluble aerosol ion concentrations and pH and particulate data from 11 cities, as well as pH measurement data from 74 sites in China. This study explores the basis for and the impacts of the large discrepancy in northeastern China between the major acidity precursors (SO2 and NOx) and measured acidity levels as indicated by pH values. There are extremely high SO2 emissions and ambient concentrations in northeastern China, while the corresponding acidity is unusually low (high pH) in this region. This is inconsistent with the usual situation where high-acidity precursor pollutants result in low pH (high acidity) values and acid rain conditions. In other regions, such as southern China and the United States, high SO2 concentrations are typically well correlated with high acidities. Using measured soluble particle measurements (including both positively and negatively charged ions), it is seen that there are high values of alkaline ions in northeastern China that play an important role in neutralizing acidity in this region. This result strongly suggests that the high alkaline concentrations, especially Ca2+, increase warm season pH values by about 0.5 in northern China, partially explaining the inconsistency between sulfate concentrations and acidity. This has a very important implication for acid rain mitigation—especially in northeastern China. However, there are additional issues pertaining to the precursor-acidity

  3. Acid deposition in Maryland. Summary of research and monitoring results compiled through 1991 and a discussion of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Report for 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.; Mountain, D.

    1992-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report submitted under Maryland legislative requirements. The report focuses on more than a decade of acid deposition research conducted in Maryland. In addition, the report discusses Title IV - Acid Deposition Control of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and its potential impacts on Maryland.

  4. Spatial gradient in nitrogen deposition affects plant species frequency in acidic grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pannek, A; Duprè, C; Gowing, D J G; Stevens, C J; Diekmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication impacts ecosystems worldwide. Here, we use a vegetation dataset from semi-natural grasslands on acidic soils sampled along a gradient in north-western Europe to examine the response of species frequency to nitrogen (N) deposition, controlling for the effects of other environmental variables. A second dataset of acidic grasslands from Germany and the Netherlands containing plots from different time periods was analysed to examine whether the results of the spatial gradient approach coincided with temporal changes in the abundance of species. Out of 44 studied species, 16 were affected by N deposition, 12 of them negatively. Soil pH and phosphorus (P) influenced 24 and 14 species, respectively, predominantly positively. Fewer species were related to the soil contents of NO3(-) or NH4(+), with no significant differences between the number of positive and negative effects. Whereas the temporal change of species was unrelated to their responses to pH, species responding negatively to N deposition, soil P and NO3(-) showed a significant decline over time in both countries. Species that were negatively affected by high N deposition and/or high soil P also showed a negative temporal trend and could be characterised by short stature and slow growth. The results confirm the negative role of N deposition for many plant species in semi-natural acidic grasslands. The negative temporal trends of species sensitive to high N deposition and soil P values clearly show a need for maintaining low soil nutrient status and for restoring the formerly infertile conditions in nutrient-enriched grasslands. PMID:25407619

  5. Spatial gradient in nitrogen deposition affects plant species frequency in acidic grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pannek, A; Duprè, C; Gowing, D J G; Stevens, C J; Diekmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication impacts ecosystems worldwide. Here, we use a vegetation dataset from semi-natural grasslands on acidic soils sampled along a gradient in north-western Europe to examine the response of species frequency to nitrogen (N) deposition, controlling for the effects of other environmental variables. A second dataset of acidic grasslands from Germany and the Netherlands containing plots from different time periods was analysed to examine whether the results of the spatial gradient approach coincided with temporal changes in the abundance of species. Out of 44 studied species, 16 were affected by N deposition, 12 of them negatively. Soil pH and phosphorus (P) influenced 24 and 14 species, respectively, predominantly positively. Fewer species were related to the soil contents of NO3(-) or NH4(+), with no significant differences between the number of positive and negative effects. Whereas the temporal change of species was unrelated to their responses to pH, species responding negatively to N deposition, soil P and NO3(-) showed a significant decline over time in both countries. Species that were negatively affected by high N deposition and/or high soil P also showed a negative temporal trend and could be characterised by short stature and slow growth. The results confirm the negative role of N deposition for many plant species in semi-natural acidic grasslands. The negative temporal trends of species sensitive to high N deposition and soil P values clearly show a need for maintaining low soil nutrient status and for restoring the formerly infertile conditions in nutrient-enriched grasslands.

  6. Liquid ink deposition from an atomic force microscope tip: deposition monitoring and control of feature size.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Cathal D; Higgins, Michael J; Marusic, David; Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-03-18

    The controlled deposition of attoliter volumes of liquid inks may engender novel applications such as targeted drug delivery to single cells and localized delivery of chemical reagents at nanoscale dimensions. Although the deposition of small organic molecules from an atomic force microscope tip, known as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), has been extensively studied, the deposition of liquid inks is little understood. In this work, we have used a set of model ink-substrate systems to develop an understanding of the deposition of viscous liquids using an unmodified AFM tip. First, the growth of dot size with increasing dwell time is characterized. The dynamics of deposition are found to vary for different ink-substrate systems, and the change in deposition rate over the course of an experiment limits our ability to quantify the ink-transfer dynamics in terms of liquid properties and substrate wettability. We find that the most critical parameter affecting the deposition rate is the volume of ink on the cantilever, an effect resulting in a 10-fold decrease in deposition rate (aL/s) over 2 h of printing time. We suggest that a driving force for deposition arises from the gradient in Laplace pressure set up when the tip touches the substrate. Second, the forces acting upon the AFM cantilever during ink deposition were measured in order to gain insight into the underlying ink-transfer mechanism. The force curve data and simple geometrical arguments were used to elucidate the shape of the ink meniscus at the instant of deposition, a methodology that may be used as an accurate and real-time means of monitoring the volume of deposited dots. Taken together, our results illustrate that liquid deposition involves a very different transfer mechanism than traditionally ascribed to DPN molecular transport. PMID:24548246

  7. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  8. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the . substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carver liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to The CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  9. Acid rain and acidification in China: the importance of base cation deposition.

    PubMed

    Larssen, T; Carmichael, G R

    2000-10-01

    Acid deposition has been recognized as a serious environmental problem in China. Most acid deposition studies have focused on sulfur deposition and the pH of precipitation. However, as high concentration of alkaline dust is an important feature of the atmosphere in large parts of China, base cation deposition must be taken into account when discussing possible effects on soils and vegetation from acid deposition. We estimate the deposition of sulfur as well as calcium, i.e. the dominating anion and cation, on a regional scale in China using data both from measurements and modeling. The ratio of sulfur/calcium in deposition is then used as an indicator for identifying areas where deposition acidity exceeds alkalinity, and where soils may be at risk to acidification. The dynamic soil acidification model MAGIC is applied with data from two sites receiving high deposition loads in southwest China. The model predictions indicate that considerable soil acidification has been going on for the last decades due to acid deposition inputs. Effects on the spatial distribution of acidic deposition in China, using different future deposition scenarios, are illustrated. As the size of the anthropogenic fraction of the base cation deposition is unknown, different possible future trends in calcium deposition were used. Soil response, according to the model, using different combinations of sulfur and calcium deposition scenarios is shown. Applying the most strict measures to reduce sulfur emission will almost eliminate the acid deposition problem; however, such a scenario is not economically feasible in the short term. A strict, but possibly realistic, future scenario for sulfur may be enough to keep the situation at the present level, assuming only moderate reductions in calcium deposition. With large decreases in base cation deposition, increased soil acidification can be expected even with considerable sulfur emission reductions.

  10. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  11. The effects of climate change on the nitrogen cycle and acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J. ); Graboske, B.C. )

    1990-09-01

    Increases in greenhouse gases are expected to lead to a number of changes to the atmosphere which may impact regional and global chemical cycles. With the increasing awareness of climate change and the possibility of global chemical changes to the atmosphere, it becomes important to ask whether these changes to global climate and chemical cycles might benefit or hinder control programs aimed at reducing acid deposition. In the following, we review several possible changes to climate that may be expected to impact the global cycle of reactive nitrogen. We then use our global model of the reactive nitrogen cycle to estimate the effects of several of the more important changes on the continental-scale deposition of nitric acid. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  12. [Correlation between acidic materials and acid deposition in Beijing during 1997-2011].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-yuan; Tian, He-zhong; Yang, Dong-yan; Zou, Ben-dong; Lu, Hai-feng; Lin, An-guo

    2013-05-01

    Based on the environment monitoring data and the ambient air quality data during the period of 1997-2011 from Beijing municipal environmental monitoring center, the correlations between primary pre-cursors of acid deposition, acidic materials and precipitation in Beijing area were analyzed in detail by taking economic development and energy mix into account. These results will be helpful for assessing the performance of environment quality improvement, as well as supplying scientific supporting information to make policies for national and local environment protection authorities. The main findings included as follows: there are significant correlations between the concentrations of NO2, NOx, and SO2 in the atmosphere, which indicated that both N and S in ambient air of Beijing came from fossil fuels combustion; acidic pollutants in the air are mainly discharged from local emission sources in Beijing, while there is no obvious correlation between S and N in wet deposition and concentrations of SO2, NO2 and NOx in the atmosphere, which demonstrated that concentrations of different ions in the acid deposition were influenced by both local sources as well as the inputs from other surrounding districts. Besides, the concentration of NO3- appeared to be correlative with the amount of motor vehicles, implying that the NOx from motor vehicles have contributed the increase of NO3- concentration of substantially.

  13. Regional trends in soil acidification and exchangeable metal concentrations in relation to acid deposition rates.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Carly J; Dise, Nancy B; Gowing, David J

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of high levels of reactive nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), or the legacy of that deposition, remain among the world's most important environmental problems. Although regional impacts of acid deposition in aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, quantitative evidence of wide-scale impacts on terrestrial ecosystems is not common. In this study we analysed surface and subsoil chemistry of 68 acid grassland sites across the UK along a gradient of acid deposition, and statistically related the concentrations of exchangeable soil metals (1 M KCl extraction) to a range of potential drivers. The deposition of N, S or acid deposition was the primary correlate for 8 of 13 exchangeable metals measured in the topsoil and 5 of 14 exchangeable metals in the subsoil. In particular, exchangeable aluminium and lead both show increased levels above a soil pH threshold of about 4.5, strongly related to the deposition flux of acid compounds.

  14. Materials damage due to acid deposition - A laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, F.; Jeanjaquet, S.L.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of laboratory tests is being carried out which supports a field study of materials damage due to acid deposition which is being carried out at present in California. Galvanized steel, nickel, two types of house paint and concrete are exposed in 28-day tests to humid air containing 1 ppm of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/, a mixture of these three pollutants or aerosols such as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or HNO/sub 3/. Also exposed in the test chamber are nickel and zinc atmospheric corrosion rate monitors (ACRMs) which supply a continuous record of the instantaneous corrosion rate and the time-of-wetness, t/sub w/. The results obtained so far show that the pollutants affect corrosion rates and t/sub w/ by varying degrees, with SO/sub 2/ having by far the largest effect.

  15. Application of a LRT model to acid rain control in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, J; Duan, L; Zhou, X; Fu, L

    2001-09-01

    For further control of acid rain and SO2 pollution in China, acid rain control zones and sulfur dioxide pollution control zones were designated where acid rain or serious SO2 pollution occurs or may occur. In this study, sulfur deposition in east China was computed through a policy-oriented, two-dimensional Eulerian model for long-range transport and deposition of SO2 and SO4(2-). The model predictions were in accordance with the wet deposition monitored. Results show that concentrations of SO2 and SO4(2-) are higher in north China than those in the south, and high deposition of sulfur occurs in most areas of North China, in the lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and around Chongqing and Guiyang in southwest China. Total emission of SO2 from the modeling region (from 19 degrees N to 42 degrees N, and from 104 degrees E to 124 degrees E) was about 20 million tons in 1995. The model predicts that 48% of this deposits within the region as dry deposition, 38% deposits as wet deposition, and only about 14% was transported out of the region. The modeling results of sulfur deposition were directly applied in designating acid rain control zones in China, and the emission-deposition relationship derived was also used to formulate middle- and long-range planning programs for regional acid rain control in China.

  16. A Mathematical Model for the Analysis of Acid Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei-Kao; Stewart, Douglas A.; Henderson, Donald

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes the use of a regional-scale air quality model as a diagnostic tool for analyzing problems associated with acid rain. The model, which is hybrid in nature, consists of a puff module and a grid module. The puff module computes the evolution of individual puffs, such as the horizontal and vertical standard deviations of the puff spreads and the location of the center of mass, emitted continuously from each major point source. It also determines the location at which the puff will be released to the grid module and the amount of oxidation and deposition along the trajectory. The grid module then follows the transport, diffusion, and chemical reactions of these aged puffs, as well as emissions from a variety of diffuse sources. Elaborate schemes for both dry and wet deposition have also been incorporated into the model. This model has been exercised for two real-time meteorological scenarios-a dry case and a two-day rainstorm episode in the Northern Great Plains. On the basis of model calculations, atmospheric budgets for SO2 and sulfate over the modeling region have been estimated.

  17. Stress control of silicon nitride films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-ling; Feng, Xiao-fei; Wen, Zhi-yu; Shang, Zheng-guo; She, Yin

    2016-07-01

    Stress controllable silicon nitride (SiNx) films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are reported. Low stress SiNx films were deposited in both high frequency (HF) mode and dual frequency (HF/LF) mode. By optimizing process parameters, stress free (-0.27 MPa) SiNx films were obtained with the deposition rate of 45.5 nm/min and the refractive index of 2.06. Furthermore, at HF/LF mode, the stress is significantly influenced by LF ratio and LF power, and can be controlled to be 10 MPa with the LF ratio of 17% and LF power of 150 W. However, LF power has a little effect on the deposition rate due to the interaction between HF power and LF power. The deposited SiNx films have good mechanical and optical properties, low deposition temperature and controllable stress, and can be widely used in integrated circuit (IC), micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and bio-MEMS.

  18. The stem-II regional scale acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model—IV. The impact of emission reductions on mesoscale acid deposition in the lower ohio river valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Rohit; Saylor, Rick D.; Peters, Leonard K.

    Assessment of the effect of reduction in emissions of primary sources on eventual levels of pollutants, pH of precipitation and total wet deposition is crucial in designing acid-rain control strategies. The STEM-II/ASM model is used to investigate the effect of reduction in emissions on the ultimate deposition patterns and amounts of major acidic pollutants in a mesoscale region. This work also investigates the effect of background levels of primary pollutant species on the eventual levels and deposition amounts of SO 4= and NO 3-. A series of mesoscale simulations were conducted in which emissions of primary sources of NO x and SO 2 were reduced and/or background concentrations of certain key species were changed. The results indicate that the dominant effect on the eventual deposition amounts of SO 4= and NO 3- is due to background concentrations of key precursor species such as SO x and NO x. With relatively high background concentrations, reducing SO 2 emissions by 50% and NO x emissions by 40% resulted in reductions of 2-3% for SO 4= wet deposition aand about 15% for NO 3- wet deposition. However, reducing the background concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4= by 50% and NO, NO 2 and HNO 3 by 40% resulted in substantial reductions in wet deposition; SO 4= deposition was reduced by 40-50% and NO 3- deposition was reduced by approximately 35%.

  19. Materials damage due to acid deposition - A field study in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, R.; Hillestad, R.; Jeanjaquet, S.L.; Mansfeld, F.

    1987-01-01

    The Kapiloff Acid Deposition Act of 1982 requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to assess the economic impact of acid deposition upon materials as part of a comprehensive research program to determine the nature, extent and potential effects of acid deposition in California. Prior to assessing the economic impact, major uncertainties must be resolved concerning the specific roles of acid deposition constituents in materials damage. Field exposure and laboratory chamber experiments to quantify these specific roles are being conducted in a joint project between Environmental Monitoring and Services, Inc. (EMSI), Rockwell International Science Center (RISC), and University of Southern California (USC).

  20. Decreased acid deposition and the chemical recovery of Killarney, Ontario, lakes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Wendel; Heneberry, Jocelyne H; Dixit, Sushil S

    2003-04-01

    Lakes in Killarney Park near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, have shown dramatic water quality changes including general increases in pH and alkalinity, and decreases in SO4(2-), base cations and metals. While some lakes have recovered to pH > 6.0, many are still highly acidic despite decades of improvement. Very high historical S deposition related to emissions from the Sudbury metal smelters dominated the acidification process in this region. However, since the implementation of substantial S emission controls (90%) at the smelters, the Sudbury emissions are no longer the major source of S deposition in the Sudbury area. Wet deposition of SO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in lakewaters at Killarney now approach values in the Dorset, Ontario, area, about 200 km from Sudbury. This suggests that the S deposition to the Killarney area is now primarily from long-range transport, not from local sources. Studies of Killarney lakes are revealing the complex nature of the chemical recovery process. As lake acidity decreases, other changes including decreased Ca2+ concentrations, increased transparency, and altered thermal regimes may potentially affect some of these ecosystems. It is clear that continuing assessments of the recovery of Killarney lakes, within a multiple-stressor framework, are needed.

  1. Do the paleolimnological reconstructions reflect the influence of acid deposition?

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, D.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The using possibility of paleolimnological analyses was considered with the documentation aim of acid-forming substances distant transfer on territory of Northern Fennoscandia. The Holocene and ancient interglacial lakes pH-and alkalinity trends, reconstructed by means of bottom sediments diatomic analyses, were studied. It has been made evident that the tendency to sharp changes of these data is revealed on final stages of interglacial periods. At that time the high amplitude of climatic changes with low periodicity is resulting in catastrophic changes of landscapes in the frames of water-catchments bodies. During the last millennium the climatic situation in the Northern Fennoscandia was changing repeatedly (Medieval Warm Epoch, Little Ice Age, the rise in temperature in 20-40`s of XXth century). In the Little Ice Age (XVI-XIX centuries) the decrease of average annual temperature and intensification of winds velocity have caused a rapid retreat of latitudinal and high-altitude forest boundaries, accompanied by sharp reconstruction of tundra-,forest-tundra-and northern taiga landscapes. These processes have accelerated due to the enforcement of economic activity which caused the destruction of vegetation cover (salt-working, and ship-building since the XIXth century, pasture of reindeer herds since the end of XIXth century). Acidifying of ground and surface waters in the current century could be caused by the increased entry of organic acids, as a result of plant residues decomposition. The decomposition process was activated in the end of XIXth - beginning of XXth century in connection with the rise of temperature and increase of precipitation. Thus, the trends in pH and alkalinity changes in this region can not be used as indicators of acid-forming substances atmospheric deposition increase.

  2. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability. PMID:26797956

  3. Electrokinetic control of bacterial deposition and transport.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinyi; Sun, Xiaohui; Liu, Yang; Berthold, Tom; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y

    2015-05-01

    Microbial biofilms can cause severe problems in technical installations where they may give rise to microbially influenced corrosion and clogging of filters and membranes or even threaten human health, e.g. when they infest water treatment processes. There is, hence, high interest in methods to prevent microbial adhesion as the initial step of biofilm formation. In environmental technology it might be desired to enhance bacterial transport through porous matrices. This motivated us to test the hypothesis that the attractive interaction energy allowing cells to adhere can be counteracted and overcome by the shear force induced by electroosmotic flow (EOF, i.e. the water flow over surfaces exposed to a weak direct current (DC) electric field). Applying EOF of varying strengths we quantified the deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens Lp6a in columns containing glass collectors and on a quartz crystal microbalance. We found that the presence of DC reduced the efficiency of initial adhesion and bacterial surface coverage by >85%. A model is presented which quantitatively explains the reduction of bacterial adhesion based on the extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (XDLVO) theory of colloid stability and the EOF-induced shear forces acting on a bacterium. We propose that DC fields may be used to electrokinetically regulate the interaction of bacteria with surfaces in order to delay initial adhesion and biofilm formation in technical installations or to enhance bacterial transport in environmental matrices.

  4. Acid deposition in Maryland: a report to the Governor and General Assembly (1986). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Power Plant Research Program coordinates Maryland's acid-deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition, its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy-conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  5. Acid deposition in Maryland: Summary of results through 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowman, M.; Maxwell, C.; Asante-Duah, D.; Meyers, S.

    1990-06-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Research and Monitoring Program coordinates Maryland's acid deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition, its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  6. Acid deposition in Maryland: the status of knowledge in 1987. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Power Plant Research Program coordinates Maryland's acid deposition research and reports research results annually. The report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy-conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  7. Acid deposition in Maryland: summary of results through 1988. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Research and Monitoring Program coordinates Maryland's acid-deposition research and reports research results annually. This report evaluates several major topic areas including transport and chemistry of acid deposition its potential impacts on the State's streams and fish, possible impacts on terrestrial resources such as crops and forests and on materials, the ability of energy conservation programs to reduce emissions of acid-forming pollutants, and mitigation techniques for neutralizing acid waters.

  8. Uncertainties in the estimation of materials damage due to acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W. )

    1987-01-01

    Damage to materials in the built environment is one of the effects of acid deposition leading to economic costs to society. Such effects are not new, having been recognized for over a century with respect to deterioration of stone work and probably 50 years with respect to accelerated corrosion of metals. As is the usual practice, acid deposition includes both dry deposition of gases and particles as well as wet deposition of acidic precipitation. This paper discusses the current status of knowledge and further information needs. In part, some of these needs are identified from critical reviews of the preliminary assessment efforts.

  9. Effects of Acid Deposition on Materials. Draft of a Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Dod, R.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Lipfert, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    This draft of a Research Plan on the Effects of Acid Deposition on Materials identifies and defines research needs and approaches that should result in a more accurate assessment of materials damage due to various forms of deposition of acidic, acidifying, and other atmospheric species.

  10. Spatial variation in acidic deposition in an appalachian forest

    SciTech Connect

    Tajchman, S.J.; Kosuri, S.R.; Zeleznik, J.D. . Division of Forestry)

    1993-03-01

    Precipitation is the main source of water for the forest. Gross precipitation reaching the forest canopy is partitioned among interception, stem flow, and through fall. While the intercepted fraction of precipitation evaporates into the atmosphere, stem flow and through fall reach the forest floor, but their chemistry is as a rule different from that of gross precipitation. This modification is due to the enrichment of stem flow and through fall with substances of dry deposition washed off from the vegetation surface. In addition, there is a mass exchange effect between the solutions of chemicals on the surface of vegetation and plant tissue; the balance of this exchange can be positive or negative. There is spatial variability in the amount and chemistry of through fall. This variability is mainly related to the distribution of leaf area and to the species composition. In the West Virginia University Forest, the coefficient of variation of the growing-season through fall means ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. The major components in acid rain are sulfates and nitrates, which affect plant growth and forest declines. The objective of this study was to obtain characteristic properties of through fall and stem flow of selected trees in the West Virginia University Forest.

  11. The influence of a small amount of maleic acid on crystal deposition phenomena of methacrylic acid in melt crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Tomomichi; Kato, Shinpei; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Crystal deposition phenomena were investigated in the suspension melt crystallization of an organic acid. Methacrylic acid was used as the target substance, a certain amount of methanol was used as the solvent, and the effect of a small amount of maleic acid by-produced in methacrylic acid synthesis was focused on. Batch crystallizations were carried out on a laboratory scale using various concentrations of maleic acid. In the presence of maleic acid, a certain deviation from equilibrium of the pure binary system was observed in the final composition of mother liquor. Moreover, nevertheless the final temperature in the crystallizer was same, the amount of crystal deposition in the presence of maleic acid was smaller than in the absence of maleic acid. It was suggested that the final amount of crystal deposition decreased in the presence of maleic acid. Additionally, it was observed that the obtained crystal size was smaller in the presence of maleic acid. Hence, a simplified kinetic analysis of crystal deposition rates was carried out to make the effect of maleic acid clear. Consequently, it was suggested that the cause of the above-mentioned phenomena was the existence of the maleic acid concentration dependent pseudo-liquidus line.

  12. California's program to assist economic impact of acidic deposition on materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, M.; Amar, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The effects of acidic deposition in California are potentially wide-ranging. Potential problems include adverse effects on human health, acidification of poorly buffered lakes and streams, direct or indirect damage to crops, and to forest, grassland and chaparral ecosystems, and damage to man-made materials and structures. In recognition of the potential problems posed by acidic deposition, the California legislature in 1982 adopted the Kapiloff Acid Deposition Act. The Kapiloff Act recognized that acidic deposition in several forms is occurring in California and established a five-year research and monitoring program. The goal of California's program, under the Kapiloff Act, was to investigate the causes and effects of, and possible strategies to reduce, acidic deposition in California.

  13. Effect of a Specialized Amino Acid Mixture on Human Collagen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeremy Z.; Abumrad, Naji; Barbul, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of arginine, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and glutamine supplementation on wound collagen accumulation in a double-blind, randomized study. Summary Background Data Control of wound collagen synthesis has been an elusive goal for clinicians and scientists alike. In many clinical instances, it is desired to increase collagen deposition as a means of enhancing wound strength and integrity. Arginine, a semiessential amino acid, has been shown to increase wound collagen accumulation in rodents and humans. HMB, a metabolite of leucine, regulates muscle proteolysis in animals and humans and increases collagen deposition in rodents. Methods Thirty-five healthy, nonsmoking human volunteers 70 years or older were enrolled and underwent subcutaneous implantation of two small, sterile polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes into the deltoid region under strict aseptic techniques. The tubes were 1 mm in diameter and 6 cm in length with pore size of 90 to 120 μm to allow optimal ingrowth of fibroblasts and the deposition of matrix. Eighteen volunteers (mean age 75.4 years; 2 men, 16 women) were randomized to receive daily supplementation of 14 g arginine, 3 g HMB, and 14 g glutamine (total nitrogen 3.59 g) in two divided doses. The control group (n = 17; mean age 75.3 years; 6 men, 11 women) received an isonitrogenous, isocaloric supplementation of nonessential amino acids. Catheters were removed at 7 and 14 days postimplantation and analyzed for hydroxyproline (OHP, nmol/cm catheter, an index of collagen accumulation) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN, mmol/cm, an index of total protein deposition). Results Supplements were well tolerated, without any reported side effects. Supplementation with the specialized amino acid mixture led to a significant rise in plasma arginine and ornithine levels. The specialized amino acid supplement led to a significant increase in collagen deposition (as reflected by OHP content) in the PTFE tubes without an

  14. Identification of research relating to the critical loads concept and its potential application to the regulation of acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.

    1993-12-01

    The overwhelming majority of strategies currently implemented to regulate acidic deposition have focused on source-based or emission-control techniques. In the past few years, however, the fact that such source-based. strategies may not be sufficient to prevent adverse ecological effects and may therefore need to be supplemented with other control options, such as receptor-based strategies, has become apparent. Partly in response to this insufficiency of regulatory controls, the US Congress has required the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to determine (1) what deposition levels are needed to prevent such ecological damage, (2) whether such safe deposition levels (i.e., critical loads) can realistically be identified, and (3) what the costs and benefits of attaining such deposition levels are. This report reviews and culls the existing research on these alternative control strategies, emphasizing the critical loads concept, to determine the advantages and limitations and the cost-benefit relationships associated with receptor-based control options. The results of this study indicate that in spite of the significant limitations associated with the critical loads concept, this strategy dominates all discussions of non-source-based control options and offers considerable advantages, including cost-effectiveness, over the more traditional source-based control methods. Summaries of 10 of the most relevant studies dealing with alternative control strategies and the costs and benefits associated with them are also presented in this report.

  15. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.

  16. Electrochemical control of brightener in acid copper sulfate plating solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.J. . Kansas City Div.); Hawley, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Electrochemical methods have been evaluated that attempt the indirect measurement of the effective concentration of a brighter additive in acid copper sulfate plating baths. The procedures all employed electrodeposition of copper on a platinum working electrode under carefully controlled conditions of mass transport, time, temperature, and potential, followed by the measurement of the charge that was required to strip the copper deposit from the working electrode. The amount of charge that was required to strip the copper deposit at a given concentration of additive varied significantly from fresh to production baths and from lot to lot of the additive. The feasibility of using electrochemical methods to control brightener additive in acid copper sulfate plating baths is discussed. 3 figs., 11 refs.

  17. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics.

  18. More on Effects Controlling Carboxylic Acidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1981-01-01

    Gas phase acidity data shown are offered to writers of elementary organic chemistry texts for replacement of the aqueous phase data that are universally used. Relative acidities in the gas phase are controlled virtually exclusively by enthalpic factors. Structural-energetic explanations of acidic trends can therefore be used. (SK)

  19. Atmospheric transport and deposition of acidic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Although general principles which govern atmospheric chemistry of sulfur are understood, a purely theoretical estimation of the magnitude of the processes is not likely to be useful. Furthermore, the data base necessary to make empirical estimates does not yet exist. The sulfur budget of the atmosphere appears to be dominated by man-associated sulfur. The important processes in deposition of man-associated sulfur are wet deposition of sulfate and dry deposition of SO/sub 2/. The relative importance of sulfate and SO/sub 2/ to sulfur deposition (input to watersheds) depends on the air concentrations, and either compound may be the greater contributor depending on conditions. (PSB)

  20. Discovering the causes, consequences, and implications of acid rain and atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cowling, E.B.

    1983-09-01

    Most forest industry personnel concerned with environmental issues are located at mill sites, where the major focus of their concern is with emissions and regulations rather than with deposition and its effects. The forest products industry needs to think of itself as a net receiver rather than a primary emitter of air pollution, acid rain, and atmospheric deposition. A shift in focus to include research on the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and both beneficial and detrimental effects on forest productivity and water quality is recommended. An attempt is made to summarize some important principles concerning air pollution, acid deposition, and atmospheric deposition and their effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The effects on water quality, agricultural crops, forests, and soils are examined. Recent federal coordinated research programs that have been developed on the biological and atmospheric aspects of the acid deposition problem are presented.

  1. Control of mineral scale deposition in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. A prominent challenge for the successful use of MWW for cooling is potentially severe mineral deposition (scaling) on pipe surfaces. In this study, theoretical, laboratory, and field work was conducted to evaluate the mineral deposition potential of MWW and its deposition control strategies under conditions relevant to power plant cooling systems. Polymaleic acid (PMA) was found to effectively reduce scale formation when the makeup water was concentrated four times in a recirculating cooling system. It was the most effective deposition inhibitor of those studied when applied at 10 mg/L dosing level in a synthetic MWW. However, the deposition inhibition by PMA was compromised by free chlorine added for biogrowth control. Ammonia present in the wastewater suppressed the reaction of the free chlorine with PMA through the formation of chloramines. Monochloramine, an alternative to free chlorine, was found to be less reactive with PMA than free chlorine. In pilot tests, scaling control was more challenging due to the occurrence of biofouling even with effective control of suspended bacteria. Phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors are not appropriate due to their significant loss through precipitation reactions with calcium. Chemical equilibrium modeling helped with interpretation of mineral precipitation behavior but must be used with caution for recirculating cooling systems, especially with use of MWW, where kinetic limitations and complex water chemistries often prevail. PMID:20851443

  2. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  3. Application of a Depositional Facies Model to an Acid Mine Drainage Site▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliana F.; Jones, Daniel S.; Mills, Daniel B.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with 60Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies. PMID:21097582

  4. Application of a depositional facies model to an acid mine drainage site.

    PubMed

    Brown, Juliana F; Jones, Daniel S; Mills, Daniel B; Macalady, Jennifer L; Burgos, William D

    2011-01-01

    Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with (60)Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies.

  5. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  6. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  7. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B; Passy, Sophia I

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification,' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  8. The emerging role of NO{sub x} in acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.A.; Birnbaum, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    The oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) have long been recognized as a principal precursor to acid deposition. Until recently, however, scientific knowledge about the nature and extent of NO{sub x}`s contribution to acidity in the atmosphere and to acid deposition damages on earth has been nascent; the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) and related research during the 1980s focused primarily on the linkage between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions with acid deposition. This paper summarizes an integrative assessment on the science of NO{sub x} and acid deposition and the multiple environmental benefits associated with decreases in NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired power plants. The Acid Rain Program performed this staff assessment to support the Phase II Acid Rain NO{sub x} Emission Reduction Rule, proposed on January 19, 1996 (61 FR 1442), and the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) Integrated NO{sub x} Strategy. Model projections from EPA`s Acid Deposition Standard Feasibility Study (October 1995) provided the initial indication of the important role of NO{sub x} in the future chronic acidification of certain sensitive watershed ecosystems. Corroborative findings from the Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation Experiment and other recent field studies are discussed. This paper also presents an overview discussion of the current state-of-knowledge with respect to NO{sub x}`s role in the acidification of forests, soils, and vegetation as well as acidic-related damage to materials and structures. Basic terms and processes such as {open_quotes}atmospheric nitrogen deposition,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}nitrogen saturation,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}chronic vs. episodic acidification,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}direct vs. soil-mediated acidification effects{close_quotes} are defined in context so as to facilitate understanding of the emerging role of NO{sub x} in acid deposition.

  9. Electrochemically Controlled Atom by Atom Deposition of Gold to Polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2010-08-17

    Plyaniline (PANI) has been shown to be an effective matrix for hosting metal nanoclusters. In the case of gold, the tetrachloroaurate anion (AuCl₄) has a high affinity for the imine sites of polyaniline. Upon contract with PANI, AuCl₄ is spontaneously reduced to metallic gold, but the size of the formed Au clusters can not be precisely controlled. Herein, we report on electrochemical method of controlled deposition of one atom by one atom of gold per one imine site of PANI. By controlling the potential, we keep PANI in an oxidized state while exposing it to a solution of AuCl₄ to form a PANI*AuCl₄ complex. The AuCl₄ is reduced to atomic gold by sweeping the potential negative. That frees up the imine sites of PANI again and makes them accessible for the next Au deposition cycle. The repeated deposition of Au atoms follows a cyclic pathway. The amount of gold deposited using this method is consistent for each repeated cycle.

  10. Controlled deposition of nanoparticle clusters by electrohydrodynamic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, S. N.; Edirisinghe, M. J.; Wang, D. Z.

    2004-11-01

    A suspension containing 20 nm silica particles in ethylene glycol was subjected to electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) in the stable cone-jet mode using a ring-shaped ground electrode. The droplets produced were sized by laser diffraction and were in the range 0.5-20 µm. Immediately after deposition, droplet relics were analysed by optical microscopy and were found to be in the size range 1-80 µm. Subsequently, using a pointed rod-electrode (rather than a ring), and by increasing the intensity of the electric field and by reducing the flow rate of suspension subjected to EHDA, relics of {\\sim }50~\\micmu {\\mathrm {m}} in size were deposited using a patterning device. In both of the above instances, the relics contained two distinct zones, an outer ring of ethylene glycol and a much smaller dense inner region of silica nanoparticles. These results show that, by using EHDA, a novel controlled deposition method of nanosuspensions has been developed.

  11. A Calculation of Spatial Range of Colloidal Silicic Acid Deposited Downstream from the Alkali Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niibori, Yuichi; Iijima, Kazuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Mimura, Hitoshi

    A high alkali domain spreads out due to the use of cement materials for the construction of the repository of radioactive wastes. Sudden change of pH at this alkali front produces colloidal silicic acid (polymeric silicic acid) in addition to the deposition of supersaturated monomeric silicic acid onto the fracture surface of flow-pathway. The colloidal silicic acid also deposits with relatively small rate-constant in the co-presence of solid phase. Once the flow-path surface is covered with the amorphous silica, the surface seriously degrades the sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs). Therefore, so far, the authors have examined the deposition rates of supersaturated silicic acid. This study summarized the deposition rate-constants defined by the first-order reaction equation under various conditions of co-presence of amorphous silica powder. Then, using the smallest rate-constant (1.0×10-12 m/s in the co-presence of calcium ions of 1 mM) and a simulation code, COLFRAC-MRL, the spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front was estimated. The results suggested the clogging caused by the deposition of colloidal silicic acid in flow-path. The altered spatial range in the flow-path was limited to around 30 m in fracture and to several centimeters in rock matrix.

  12. Acidic Deposition along the Appalachian Trail Corridor and its Effects on Acid-Sensitive Terrestrial and Aquatic Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Sullivan, T. J.; Burns, D. A.; Bailey, S. W.; Cosby, B. J., Jr.; Dovciak, M.; Ewing, H. A.; McDonnell, T. C.; Riemann, R.; Quant, J.; Rice, K. C.; Siemion, J.; Weathers, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) spans 3,500 km from Georgia to Maine. Over its length, the trail passes through a corridor with wide variations in climate, bedrock type, soils, and stream water quality. These factors create a diverse range of ecosystems. The health of these ecosystems is a cause for concern because the AT passes through the heavily populated eastern U.S. with its many sources of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions that produce acidic deposition. To address concerns about the health of the AT, a study was designed to evaluate the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition. Collections of stream water (265 sites), soil (60 sites), tree cores (15 sites) and atmospheric deposition samples (4 sites) were made along with understory and overstory vegetation measurements (30 sites) over the full trail length within a 40 km-wide corridor. Existing data on atmospheric deposition, geology, vegetation, stream chemistry, and soil chemistry were also used in the analysis. Mean acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was lowest in the streams in the North section, intermediate in the Central section and highest the South section, despite the South having the highest acid rain levels. At least 40% of the study streams exhibited pH and/or Ali measurements that indicated potential harm to biota. Approximately 70% of the soil sites had values of base saturation under 20%, the threshold below which acidic deposition can mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali), the form harmful to terrestrial and aquatic life. Compositional similarity of understory and canopy species was positively correlated with acidic deposition, suggesting that during past decades, species poorly adapted to acidic deposition were replaced with tolerant species. Target loads modeling indicated that exceedance of sulfur target loads to achieve stream ANC = 50 μeq/L by the year 2100occurred throughout the trail corridor.

  13. Student Knowledge of Scientific and Natural Resource Concepts Concerning Acidic Deposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed is the level of scientific and natural resource knowledge possessed by fourth-, eighth- and eleventh-grade students. Misconceptions are noted. Discussed are implications for teaching about acidic deposition. (CW)

  14. Characterization of thin-film deposition in a pulsed acrylic acid polymerizing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, Sergey A.; Bradley, James W.; Fotea, Catalin; Zelzer, Mischa; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2007-07-15

    In this study, thin-film deposition in a pulsed rf polymerizing discharge (13.56 MHz) struck in acrylic acid has been investigated by mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. The experiment was conducted at a fixed acrylic acid pressure of 1.3 Pa and 'on' pulse duration of 0.1 ms, whereas the 'off' time was varied between 0 and 20 ms. The rf input power in the 'on' time and gas flow rate were varied between 10 and 50 W and 1.5 and 4.8 sccm (sccm denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively. These changes of the discharge conditions resulted in large-scale progressive variations in film and gas-phase plasma composition. In particular, the -COOH functionality of the monomer was increasingly retained in the plasma-generated thin films as the duty cycle was lowered (i.e., with lowered time-averaged powers). The monomer retention reached its maximum value of 66% for 'off' times exceeding 5 ms, when the discharge was operating in the power-deficient regime. The results show that the film deposition rate is a strong function of the monomer flow rate, whereas -COOH retention is correlated to the amount of unfragmented monomer in the plasma, controlled by the applied power.

  15. Effects of acidic deposition on forest and aquatic ecosystems in New York State.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Charles T; Driscoll, Kimberley M; Mitchell, Myron J; Raynal, Dudley J

    2003-01-01

    Acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from atmospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia, respectively. Acidic deposition has altered soil through depletion of labile pools of nutrient cations (i.e. calcium, magnesium), accumulation of sulfur and nitrogen, and the mobilization of elevated concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum to soil solutions in acid-sensitive areas. Acidic deposition leaches essential calcium from needles of red spruce, making this species more susceptible to freezing injury. Mortality among sugar maples appears to result from deficiencies of nutrient cations, coupled with other stresses such as insect defoliation or drought. Acidic deposition has impaired surface water quality in the Adirondack and Catskill regions of New York by lowering pH levels, decreasing acid-neutralizing capacity, and increasing aluminum concentrations. Acidification has reduced the diversity and abundance of aquatic species in lakes and streams. There are also linkages between acidic deposition and fish mercury contamination and eutrophication of estuaries.

  16. Stable plasma-deposited acrylic acid surfaces for cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Detomaso, Loredana; Gristina, Roberto; Senesi, Giorgio S; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro

    2005-06-01

    Continuous and modulated glow discharges were used to deposit thin films from acrylic acid vapors. Different deposition regimes were investigated, and their effect on chemical composition, morphology and homogeneity of the coatings, as well as on their stability in water and resistance to sterilization. Stable films were utilized in cell adhesion experiments with human fibroblasts. PMID:15626431

  17. Impact of acid rain and deposition on aquatic biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined the biological effects of acid rain on aquatic ecosystems. Topics considered at the conference included acidic lakes, the effects of acidification on biomass, hydrology, the sensitivity of stream invertebrates to pH depression, automated biomonitoring, remote computer platforms with satellite data retrieval in acidified streams, toxicity test, and a simple method of measuring pH accurately in acid rain.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  19. Atmospheric dry plus wet deposition and wet-only deposition of dicarboxylic acids and inorganic compounds in a coastal suburban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Kuo, Su-Ching; Young, Li-Hao; Hsieh, Li-Ying; Chen, Pei-Ti

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the chemical properties and composition sources of dicarboxylic organic acids and inorganic salts in dry plus wet deposition (DWD) and wet-only deposition at a coastal suburban area in southern Taiwan in 2008. DWD is the accumulation of dry deposition and wet deposition from the beginning of each new rain event, while wet-only deposition is the wet deposition from the beginning of each new rain event only. A total of 60 samples were collected during the period of study. The wet-only deposition samples were slightly more acidic (pH 5.01-5.50) than the DWD samples (pH 5.51-6.00). The total volume-weighted mean (VWM) equivalent ionic concentration of 784.3 ± 431.1 μeq L-1 in DWD was higher than that of 682.2 ± 392.4 μeq L-1 in wet-only deposition. In both types of deposition the major cation species were Ca2+, Na+ and NH4+, and the major anion species were HCO3-, Cl- and non-sea salt (nss) nss-SO42-. Total dicarboxylic acids contributed only 0.60% and 0.45% of the total ionic equivalent concentration in DWD and wet-only deposition, respectively, and oxalic and malonic acids were the major dicarboxylic acid species. DWD to wet-only deposition species concentration ratios (DWD/W ratios) were always higher than 1.0. DWD contained more water-soluble inorganic salts and dicarboxylic acids than wet-only deposition, with DWD/W ratios of the dust-bound species K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ as large as 1.6-1.8 and those from photochemical species nss-SO42- and NH4+ of 1.36 and 1.29, respectively. These ratios show that the dry deposition flux of dust is greater than that of photochemical particles. In addition, the 1.81 ratio for oxalic acid shows that oxalic acid is easier to remove from the atmosphere via dry deposition than malonic and succinic acids. Probable deposition composition sources for both DWD and wet-only deposition, investigated using principal component analysis, were marine spray, photochemical inorganic products, and terrestrial origin and

  20. High frequency and large deposition of acid fog on high elevation forest.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Manabu; Matsumura, Ko; Okochi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We have collected and analyzed fogwater on the mountainside of Mt. Oyama (1252 m) in the Tanzawa Mountains of Japan and observed the fog event frequency from the base of the mountain with a video camera. The fog event frequency increased with elevation and was observed to be present 46% of the year at the summit. The water deposition via throughfall increased with elevation because of the increase in fogwater interception and was about twice that via rain at the summit, where the air pollutant deposition via throughfall was several times that via rainwater. The dry deposition and the deposition via fogwater were dominant factors in the total ion deposition at high elevation sites. In a fog event, nitric acid, the major acid component on the mountain, is formed during the transport of the air mass from the base of the mountain along the mountainside, where gases including nitric acid deposit and are scavenged by fogwater. Therefore, high acidity caused by nitric acid and relatively low ion strength are observed in the fogwater at high elevation sites.

  1. Acidification sensitivity and critical loads of acid deposition for surface waters in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuemei; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei; Zhou, Zhongping

    2002-04-22

    Although decades of severe acid deposition have not resulted in serious surface water acidification in China, at present, the risk of some freshwaters becoming acidified cannot be neglected. To know more clearly about the possible impact acid deposition would have on Chinese surface waters, it is necessary to study the sensitivity of those surface waters to acidification and their critical loads of acid deposition on a national scale. Here we assess the acidification sensitivity of Chinese surface waters using an approach based on geology, soils, land use and hydrological conditions. Critical loads of S, N and acidity were also evaluated by a first-order acidity balance (FAB) model. Results show that most surface waters in China have very high critical loads of S and acidity and are not susceptible to acidification. Surface waters can be divided into three groups according to both sensitivity classes and critical loads. The few most sensitive surface waters are located in the northern part of Daxinganling region, with critical loads of S deposition and acidity lower than 2 keq ha(-1) year(-1). Surface waters in the northeastern region draining dark brown forest soils and in southern China belong to the second class of acidification sensitivity and their critical loads of S and acidity are generally between 2 and 15 keq ha(-1) year(-1), indicating they are not likely to be acidified under any flow conditions. Surface waters in other parts of China will not be acidified to any degree, with critical loads much higher than 15 keq ha(-1) year(-1). The magnitude and spatial distribution pattern of acidification sensitivity have significant similarity to the critical loads of S and acidity for Chinese surface waters. Although most surface waters are not likely to be acidified, attention should still be paid to the possible adverse impact acid deposition would have, especially in northeastern China, where the surface waters are the most sensitive, and the southern region

  2. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. PMID:27092419

  3. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  4. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  5. Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films by pressure control

    DOEpatents

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; McCamy, James W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

  6. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane.

  7. [Current situation and impact factors of acid deposition in main cites of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qiao-xian; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Mu, Jin-bo; Zhang, De-zhi

    2006-12-01

    Based on the monitoring data for years in Shandong Province, current situation of acid rain in every city was assessed, and the temporal distribution of the dry, wet and total sulfur deposition in Jinan and Qingdao were studied. The results showed that Qingdao which had the largest precipitation acidity was the single city whose annul average precipitation pH was below 5. 60. The precipitation acidities in the main cities of Shandong Province were in a descent tendency. The total sulfur desposition in Jinan and Qingdao was basically stable or in a descent tendency, but also reached 10 t/(km(2)x a) or so. Among the total sulfur deposition flux, the dry deposition of sulfur had the greater contribution, and the contribution of SO2 dry deposition was higher than that of SO42- dry deposition. By analyzing the relation between the precipitation acidity and the SO2 discharge intensity, soil acidity and meteorological condition, the impact factors of acid precipitation in the cities of Shandong Province were revealed.

  8. Basal area growth of sugar maple in relation to acid deposition, stand health, and soil nutrients.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Ouimet, Rock; Houle, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown in noncalcareous soils that acid deposition may have increased soil leaching of basic cations above the input rate from soil weathering and atmospheric depositions. This phenomenon may have increased soil acidity levels, and, as a consequence, may have reduced the availability of these essential nutrients for forest growth. Fourteen plots of the Forest Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Network in Québec were used to examine the relation between post-industrial growth trends of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and acid deposition (N and S), stand decline rate, and soil exchangeable nutrient concentrations. Atmospheric N and S deposition and soil exchangeable acidity were positively associated with stand decline rate, and negatively with the average tree basal area increment trend. The growth rate reduction reached on average 17% in declining stands compared with healthy ones. The results showed a significant sugar maple growth rate reduction since 1960 on acid soils. The appearance of the forest decline phenomenon in Québec can be attributed, at least partially, to soil acidification and acid deposition levels.

  9. Study of deposition control using transpiration. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, J.F.; Kozlu, H.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the conditions under which transpiration may be actually used to avoid deposition of small particles. The application of this work is the control of the deposition of small particles over a surface kept at a temperature below the melting point of compounds likely to exist in the combustion products. A combined experimental and theoretical research program will be carried out to evaluate the concept of transpiration as a deposition control strategy. A first order theory will be refined by introducing an appropriate turbulence model. The experimental program is designed to evaluate and refine the theoretical model under conditions which provide the correct Reynolds and Stokes numbers. The experimental set up consists of a wind tunnel with a test section containing a flat porous transpired section. The measurements will determine the distribution of velocity and of particle concentration in the boundary layer. The experiments will be conducted for different particle sizes under conditions sumulating gas turbine conditions.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  11. Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, C.T.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bulger, A.J.; Butler, T.J.; Cronan, C.S.; Eagar, C.; Lambert, K.F.; Likens, G.E.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.

    2001-01-01

    North America and Europe are in the midst of a large-scale experiment. Sulfuric and nitric acids have acidified soils, lakes, and streams, thereby stressing or killing terrestrial and aquatic biota. It is therefore critical to measure and to understand the recovery of complex ecosystems in response to decreases in acidic deposition. Fortunately, the NADP, CASTNet, and AIRMoN-dry networks are in place to measure anticipated improvements in air quality and in atmospheric deposition. Unfortunately, networks to measure changes in water quality are sparse, and networks to monitor soil, vegetation, and fish responses are even more limited. There is an acute need to assess the response of these resources to decreases in acid loading. It would be particularly valuable to assess the recovery of aquatic biota - which respond directly to acid stress - to changes in surface water chemistry (Gunn and Mills 1998). We used long-term research from the HBEF and other sites across the northeastern United States to synthesize data on the effects of acidic deposition and to assess ecosystem responses to reductions in emissions. On the basis of existing data, it is clear that in the northeastern United States ??? reductions of SO2 emissions since 1970 have resulted in statistically significant decreases in SO42- in wet and bulk deposition and in surface waters ??? emissions of NOX and concentrations of NO3- in wet and bulk deposition and in surface waters have shown no increase or decrease since the 1980s ??? estimates of NH3 emissions are uncertain, although atmospheric deposition of NH4+ remains important for forest management and stream NO3- loss ??? acidic deposition has accelerated the leaching of base cations from soils, thus delaying the recovery of ANC in lakes and streams from decreased emissions of SO2 (at the HBEF the available soil Ca pool appears to have declined 50% over the past 50 years) ???sulfur and N from atmospheric deposition have accumulated in forest soils across

  12. [Trend in acid deposition at Tieshanping, Chonging during 2001-2010].

    PubMed

    Yu, De-Xiang; Xiao-Xiao, Ma; Tan, Bing-Quan; Zhao, Da-Wei; Zhang, Dong-Bao; Duan, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Although the total emission of sulphure dioxide (SO2) was reduced by more than 10% in the Eleventh Five-Year-Plan (2006-2010) in China, the total emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the same period kept increasing. In order to evaluate the effects of the emission changes on acid depostion, a ten-year monitoring on forest throughfall was carried out from 2001 to 2010 at Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China. The results indicated there was a significantly decreasing trend of sulphur deposition and an increasing trend of nitrogen deposition, which coincided well with the dicreasing trend of SO2 emission and increasing tread of NOx emission in Chongqing, respectively. As the net effect, acid deposition was reduced by the emission contol. However, the total deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in 2010 was estimated to be 9.9 keq x (hm2 x a)(-1) and 4.5 keq x (hm2 x a)(-1), respectively according to the throughfall data, with the former probably overestimated by 28% and the latter underestimated by 50%. Since both the sulphur deposition and nitrogen deposition are higher than the highest levels in the history in Europe and North America, acid deposition is still a serious issue in Chongqing.

  13. Electrostatic control of acid mist emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP is used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase I of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  14. Impact of acid rain and deposition on aquatic biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, B.; Dennis, S.; Bates, J.

    1986-01-01

    Since little information on acid rain effects on fish and other aquatic life exists, and what is available is often inconclusive, STP 928 presents quantitative and practical information. This volume is a collection of nine diverse, peer-reviewed papers. This book discusses lake/stream acidification processes and aquatic biological effects, such as stream and lake productivity, diversity, and measurement techniques.

  15. A model of annual orographic precipitation and acid deposition and its application to Snowdonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, A. J.; Mousavi-Baygi, M.; Smith, R. I.; Hall, J.; Fowler, D.; Choularton, T. W.

    A model of orographic rainfall has been used to estimate annual precipitation and acid wet deposition at a 1 km resolution for the Snowdonia mountains in North Wales. Comparison with measurements and existing rainfall maps of the UK showed that this approach was successful in reproducing the high annual precipitation peaks of up to 4000 mm annually that occur in this area. At 13 out of the 17 measurement sites, the modelled annual precipitation differed from long-term annual average measurements by no more than 25%. The process model was compared with a procedure used to map wet deposition of pollutants across the United Kingdom at a 5 km resolution. Significant differences between the two deposition data sets were apparent. With the mapping procedure, maximum wet deposition was correlated to areas of high precipitation in the northeast of the domain. With the process model, however, maximum deposition was observed over the smaller hills in the southwest of the domain, the first orographic barrier reached by the air mass in south-westerly flow. High exceedances of critical loads for acidic deposition to soils were calculated using the mapping procedure and found to be due to the high annual precipitation in Snowdonia. The seeder-feeder model represents a useful tool, which could be used for estimating annual wet deposition of pollutants and exceedance of critical loads in hill areas at a much finer resolution than the national transport models and deposition mapping routines that are commonly employed in the United Kingdom.

  16. Physical Vapor Deposition for the Controlled Synthesis of Magnetic Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonathan; van Buuren, Tony; Jeffries, Jason; Orme, Christine; McCall, Scott

    2014-03-01

    The ability to tailor the nanoscale architecture of magnetic materials provides an important pathway to enhancing their properties. For multicomponent systems, this necessitates precise control over the structure and composition of the nanoscale materials used in their manufacture. We report on the fabrication of a variety of nanoscale hard and soft magnetic materials using physical vapor deposition and will discuss characterization of their structure and physical properties, conducted with the aim of deriving structure-function relationships. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344

  17. Eustatic control of tertiary hydrocarbon deposits, Central California borderline basins

    SciTech Connect

    Cousminer, H.L. )

    1994-04-01

    In the central California borderland basins, the Vail-Haq Cenozoic Global Eustatic Cycle appears to have influenced depositional patterns that have fundamental significance in the present distribution of hydrocarbon source and reservoir beds. Coupled with tectonic events, traps were created that now control the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations. Seismic data combined with subsurface lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and log data from wells drilled on the central California outer continental shelf (OCS) were used to date and correlate Tertiary stratigraphic sequences in the Santa Maria, Bodega-La Honda, and Point Arena basins. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages also served to reconstruct each basin's paleobathymetric history. The west coast benthic foram stages, commerically used to solve subsurface stratigraphic problems for over 60 yr, occur with planktonic microfossil groups that now serve to calibrate the provincial stages with the absolute geologic time scale. The Miocene through Pliocene stratigraphic sequences in these three depocenters are markedly similar, and record a parallel marine onlap and offlap pattern that correlates closely with the Vail-Haq Cenozoic Global Eustatic Cycle. The highstand depositional cycles are generally dominated by organic-rich sediments of good to excellent are generally dominated by organic-rich sediments of good to excellent source-bed potential. Lowstand regressive to transgressive clastic deposits have good reservoir potential. The middle Miocene siliceous Monterey Formation was deposited during maximum Tertiary global sea levels and is present in all of these basins. In addition to being a prolific source bed, the Monterey is unique in that when diagnetically altered, it fractures and also becomes an excellent hydrocarbon reservoir.

  18. Amino acid geochemistry of fossil bones from the Rancho La Brea asphalt deposit, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMenamin, M.A.S.; Blunt, D.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Miller, S.E.; Marcus, L.F.; Pardi, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Low aspartic acid d:l ratios and modern collagenlike concentration values indicate that amino acids in bones from the Rancho La Brea asphalt deposit, Los Angeles, California are better preserved than amino acids in bones of equivalent age that have not been preserved in asphalt. Amino acids were recovered from 10 Rancho La Brea bone samples which range in age from less than 200 to greater than 36,000 yr. The calibrated rates of aspartic acid racemization range from 2.1 to 5.0 ?? 10-6yr-1. Although this wide range of rate constants decreases the level of confidence for age estimates, use of the larger rate constant of 5.0 ?? 10-6yr-1 provides minimum age estimates which fit the known stratigraphic and chronologic records of the Rancho La Brea deposits. ?? 1982.

  19. Growth of and mineral deposition in young rats fed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, A.; D'Souza, D. John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Male weanling rats were used in 4 week experiments to study effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on growth and mineral deposition in several organs (bone, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes). Minerals evaluated were calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc, and levels of these minerals in tests diets were appropriate for growing rats. Two levels of dietary fat were used, and fatty acids included in the study were butyric/capronic, palmitic/stearic, oleic, and linoleic/linolenic acids. Decreased weight gains were observed in rats fed saturated fatty acids or 10% fat, while increases in weight gains were associated with increases in polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratios. Copper, iron, or zinc levels tended to be higher in organs of rats fed saturated fatty acids. P/S ratios had no effect on copper or zinc deposition, but decreases in liver iron and increases in spleen iron were observed in rats fed the higher P/S ratios. Manganese levels were generally unaffected by fatty acid types, fat level, or P/S ratio, although liver manganese levels were higher in rats fed unsaturated fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids, fat level, or P/S ratios had no apparent effects on calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, or zinc deposition in femurs and tibias of rats.

  20. Climate dependency of tree growth suppressed by acid deposition effects on soils in northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Lapenis, Andrei G; Berggren, Dan; Aparin, Boris F; Smith, Kevin T; Shortle, Walter C; Bailey, Scott W; Varlyguin, Dmitry L; Babikov, Boris

    2005-04-01

    Increased tree growth in temperate and boreal forests has been proposed as a direct consequence of a warming climate. Acid deposition effects on nutrient availability may influence the climate dependency of tree growth, however. This study presents an analysis of archived soil samples that has enabled changes in soil chemistry to be tracked with patterns of tree growth through the 20th century. Soil samples collected in 1926, 1964, and 2001, near St. Petersburg, Russia, showed that acid deposition was likely to have decreased root-available concentrations of Ca (an essential element) and increased root-available concentrations of Al (an inhibitor of Ca uptake). These soil changes coincided with decreased diameter growth and a suppression of climate-tree growth relationships in Norway spruce. Expected increases in tree growth from climate warming may be limited by decreased soil fertility in regions of northern and eastern Europe, and eastern North America, where Ca availability has been reduced by acidic deposition.

  1. Matrix-assisted pulsed laser deposition of croconic acid, a diprotic organic ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, S. M.; Yi, Sun Yong; Jimenez, Richard; Corgan, Jeffrey; Borchert, James; Kuchmek, John; Papantonakis, M. R.; McGill, R. A.; Bubb, D. M.

    2011-11-01

    MAPLE has long been demonstrated as a successful tool for the deposition of relatively large polymerics and biomaterials. Less work has been done with small-mass organic compounds. In this work, MAPLE has been demonstrated as a viable materials processing technique for 4,5-dihydroxycyclopentenetrione, a diprotic hydroxylic acid, more commonly known as croconic acid ((C=O)3(COH)2). Croconic acid readily dissociates in solution, and, as prepared in the solvent matrices used in this study, was deposited in large part as the solvated croconate conjugate base. Various substrates were utilized and the deposited films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, atomic and piezo-force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and second harmonic generation measurements. This material has potential application in nonlinear optics and green computing as memory elements.

  2. Dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid to oak, elm and pine leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.M. )

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the deposition of SO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} was measured to three tree species, elm, oak and pine. Earlier work has shown that these three species cover of physical types (smooth oak leaves, rough elm leaves, and needles) and chemical types (acid and alkaline leaves) The total deposition is compared to the deposition measured through the stomata. After deposition, removal by revolatilization or extraction was determined. The data is used to estimate dry deposition fluxes of SO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} to forests that can then be combined with wet fluxes to determine total atmospheric inputs. Based on these results, a preliminary estimate is made of the possible detrimental effects to forests from atomspheric inputs.

  3. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  4. Influence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on the Transport and Deposition Behaviors of Bacteria in Quartz Sand.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-03-01

    The significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria (Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis) in quartz sand is examined in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions at pH 5.6 by comparing both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with PFOA in solutions versus those without PFOA. All test conditions are found to be highly unfavorable for cell deposition regardless of the presence of PFOA; however, 7%-46% cell deposition is observed depending on the conditions. The cell deposition may be attributed to micro- or nanoscale roughness and/or to chemical heterogeneity of the sand surface. The results show that, under all examined conditions, PFOA in suspensions increases cell transport and decreases cell deposition in porous media regardless of cell type, presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances, ionic strength, and ion valence. We find that the additional repulsion between bacteria and quartz sand caused by both acid-base interaction and steric repulsion as well as the competition for deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces by PFOA are responsible for the enhanced transport and decreased deposition of bacteria with PFOA in solutions.

  5. Changes in soil pH across England and Wales in response to decreased acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, G. J. D.; Bellamy, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    In our recent analysis of data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, we found widespread changes in soil pH across both countries between the two samplings of the Inventory. In general, soil pH increased - i.e. soils became less acid - under all land uses. The Inventory was first sampled in 1978-83 on a 5-km grid over the whole area. This yielded about 6,000 sites of which 5,662 could be sampled for soil. Roughly 40% of the sites were re-sampled at intervals from 12 to 25 years after the original sampling - in 1994/96 for agricultural land and in 2002/03 for non-agricultural. Exactly the same sampling and analytical protocols were used in the two samplings. In arable soils, the increase in pH was right across the range, whereas in grassland soils the main increase was at the acid end of the scale (pH < 5.5) with a small increase above pH 7. Some part of the change is likely to have been due to changes in land management. This includes better targeting of agricultural lime on acid soils; changes in nitrogen fertilizer use; deeper ploughing bringing up more calcareous subsoil on soils on calcareous materials; and so forth. However a major driver appears to have been decreased acid deposition to land. The total amounts of nitrogen compounds deposited were relatively unchanged over the survey period, but the amounts of acidifying sulphur compounds decreased by approximately 50%. We constructed a linear regression model to assess the relation between the rate of change in pH (normalised to an annual basis) and the rate of change in acid deposition, as modified by soil properties (pH, clay content, organic matter content), rainfall and past acid deposition. We used data on rainfall and acid deposition over the survey period on the same 5-km grid as the NSI data. We fitted the model separately for each land use category. The results for arable land showed a significant effect of the change in rate of acid deposition, though a significant part of the

  6. Geochemical characterization of acidic mine waters in Darrehzar copper deposit, Kerman province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Shahabpour, J.; Naseh, R.

    2009-04-01

    Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is located in the south of Sar Cheshmeh copper mine. There are varieties of geological factors which control the composition of mine drainage waters. Surface samples were collected from the Darrehzar locality for chemical measurements. The measured quantities are: Cl-, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO42-, Al. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Mo, HCO3-, EC, pH and Eh. Phyllic alteration has the highest influence on the production of acid mine drainage. Mineralogical studies and analysis of water samples indicate a good correlation between sulfide minerals and acid mine drainage. Analysis of water samples showed that samples with low pH values have high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals. Correlation coefficients between different quantities were calculated and binary diagram prepared. Heavy metals increase with a decrease in pH except for Mo. Sulfate and heavy metals are positively related in mine water. The high positive correlation between Fe and Mn with respect to heavy metals indicates their adsorption on Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides.

  7. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  8. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Vertucci, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of habitat acidification to the six species of amphibians that occur in the mountains of Colorado and Wyoming. Our evaluation included extrinsic environmental factors (habitat sensitivity and amount of acidic atmospheric deposition) and species-specific intrinsic factors (sensitivity to acid conditions, habitat preferences, and timing of breeding). Only one of 57 surveyed localities had both acid neutralizing capacity μeq/L and sulfate deposition >10 kg/ha/yr, extrinsic conditions with a possible risk of acidification. Amphibian breeding habitats in the Rocky Mountains do not appear to be sufficiently acidic to kill amphibian embryos. Some species breed in high-elevation vernal pools during snowmelt, and an acidic pulse during snowmelt may pose a risk to embryos of these species. However, the acidic pulse, if present, probably occurs before open water appears and before breeding begins. Although inherent variability of amphibian population size may make detection of declines from anthropogenic effects difficult, acidic deposition is unlikely to have caused the observed declines of Bufo boreas and Rana pipiens in Colorado and Wyoming. Amphibians in the Rocky Mountains are not likely to be at risk with acidification inputs at present levels.

  9. Projection of response of trees and forests to acidic deposition and associated pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kiester, A.R.; Ford, E.D.; Avery, A.; Gay, C.; Droessler, T.

    1990-09-01

    In 1986 the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) established the Forest Response Program (FRP) to assess the effects of acidic deposition and associated pollutants on forests. Modeling studies were developed in parallel with both field studies on the pattern and trends of forest condition and physiological studies of seedlings, saplings, and branches of mature trees. The goals of the modeling effort were to simulate the dynamics of the processes by which acidic deposition and ozone affect tree physiological processes and therefore lead to changes in growth. Results from models of the physiological function of leaves, branches, roots, xylem, and canopies are presented here. These models illustrate three aspects of the dynamics of these processes. First, growth and the effects of pollutants are stochastic processes; that is, they vary randomly over time. The models help to account for the large amount of variability seen in normal field conditions. Second, some physiological processes can compensate for the effects of acidic deposition or ozone. Third, pollutants may have more than one effect on tree growth, and these effects may be synergistic. The potential nonlinearities and the variabilities demonstrated by these models lead to the conclusions that forest health effects may be developing that are not yet apparent; and for regulation of acidic deposition and associated pollutants to have a detectable effect, regulatory changes will probably have to be of substantial magnitude.

  10. Factors controlling depositional patterns of Ebro turbidite systems, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1988-06-01

    Tectonic control by subsiding grabens parallel to the Ebro continental margin created a steep narrow slope and rise that resulted in development of coexisting aprons, channel-levee complexes, and a fan, all fed by the same Ebro River source. In unstable steep-slope terrain, mass movement of material caused wide gullied canyons and deposition of nonchannelized base-of-slope aprons that extend 50 km across the rise. Within stable continental-margin areas, channelized turbidity currents formed individual narrow canyons and channel-levee complexes from north to south, successively, at different low sea level stands. Tectonically induced steep gradients (1:25-1:130) across the continental rise and northeastward in Valencia Trough caused sediment to bypass 200 km down Valencia Valley and deposit on Valencia Fan at its end, thus preventing direct development of Ebro channel-levee complexes into fans. When a single source fed channel B for a relatively long period, however, (1) fan-valley sinuosity increased, (2) channel walls were modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays, and (3) channel bifurcation occurred, although lower fan lobes and a complete fan never developed. The dominance of local tectonic control thus aborted fan development in proximal regions on the continental margin near the Ebro River source and displaced fan formation to a distal site in the Valencia Trough basin. During low sea level stands, continued different local tectonic and sediment-source controls resulted in aprons, channel-levee complexes, and fans forming simultaneously from the same source and without evolving from one type of turbidite system to another. Complex ancient turbidite systems similar to those along the Ebro margin may be anticipated in the stratigraphic record of tectonically active settings like the alpine basins of Europe. 11 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition control parameters for selective deposition of tungsten oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, S; Umek, P; Blackman, C

    2011-09-01

    Tungsten oxide films were deposited via Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) from the single-source precursor W(OPh)6. Film morphology and optimum deposition temperatures for formation of quasi-one-dimensional structures is influenced by the solvent 'carrier' used for deposition of the films with bulk porous films and nanostructured needles, hollow tubes and fibres obtained dependent on the solvent used and the deposition temperature. This influence of solvent could be exploited for the synthesis of other nanomaterials, and so provide a new and versatile route to develop and integrate nanostructured materials for device applications. PMID:22097557

  12. Fundamental Study on Temperature Dependence of Deposition Rate of Silicic Acid - 13270

    SciTech Connect

    Shinmura, Hayata; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of the silicic acid is one of the key factors to estimate the condition of the repository system after the backfill. This study experimentally examined the temperature dependence of dynamic behavior of supersaturated silicic acid in the co-presence of solid phase, considering Na ions around the repository, and evaluated the deposition rate constant, k, of silicic acid by using the first-order reaction equation considering the specific surface area. The values of k were in the range of 1.0x10{sup -11} to 1.0x10{sup -9} m/s in the temperature range of 288 K to 323 K. The deposition rate became larger with increments of temperature under the Na ion free condition. Besides, in the case of Na ions 0.6 M, colloidal silicic acid decreased dramatically at a certain time. This means that the diameter of the colloidal silicic acid became larger than the pore size of filter (0.45 μm) due to bridging of colloidal silicic acid. Furthermore, this study estimated the range of altering area and the aperture of flow-path in various value of k corresponding to temperature by using advection-dispersion model. The concentration in the flow-path became lower with increments of temperature, and when the value of k is larger than 1.0x10{sup -11} m/s, the deposition range of supersaturated silicic acid was estimated to be less than 20 m around the repository. In addition, the deposition of supersaturated silicic acid led the decrement of flow-path aperture, which was remarkable under the condition of relatively high temperature. Such a clogging in flow paths is expected as a retardation effect of radionuclides. (authors)

  13. Materials damage, acid deposition, and the NAPAP assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    Estimating the value of materials damage and determining its relationship to changing circumstances is crucial for the development of efficient and equitable control strategies and policy choices. According to the NAPAP assessment the cost of the maintenance action is determined by estimating costs for the appropriate type of maintenance. The problems associated with this approach and suggestions for increasing confidence in the NAPAP methodology are discussed.

  14. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  15. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  16. 40 CFR 80.166 - Carburetor deposit control performance test and test fuel guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Port and throttle body fuel injector deposit control test data will also be considered to be adequate... for demonstration of carburetor deposit control, in addition to the fuel injector test procedure... Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposits in Vehicle Engines”, March 1, 1991, Section 2257, Title 13,...

  17. 40 CFR 80.166 - Carburetor deposit control performance test and test fuel guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Port and throttle body fuel injector deposit control test data will also be considered to be adequate... for demonstration of carburetor deposit control, in addition to the fuel injector test procedure... Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposits in Vehicle Engines”, March 1, 1991, Section 2257, Title 13,...

  18. 40 CFR 80.166 - Carburetor deposit control performance test and test fuel guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Port and throttle body fuel injector deposit control test data will also be considered to be adequate... for demonstration of carburetor deposit control, in addition to the fuel injector test procedure... Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposits in Vehicle Engines”, March 1, 1991, Section 2257, Title 13,...

  19. Chemical response of lakes in the Adirondack Region of New York to declines in acidic deposition.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Charles T; Driscoll, Kimberley M; Roy, Karen M; Mitchell, Myron J

    2003-05-15

    Long-term changes in the chemistry of wet deposition and lake water were investigated in the Adirondack Region of New York. Marked decreases in concentrations of SO4(2-) and H+ in wet deposition have occurred at two sites since the late 1970s. These decreases are consistent with long-term declines in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the eastern United States. Changes in wet NO3- deposition and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions have been minor over the same interval. Virtually all Adirondack Lakes have shown marked decreases in concentrations of SO4(2-), which coincide with decreases in atmospheric S deposition. Concentrations of NO3- have also decreased in several Adirondack lakes. As atmospheric N deposition has not changed over this period, the mechanism contributing to this apparent increase in lake/watershed N retention is not evident. Decreases in concentrations of SO4(2-) + NO3- have resulted in increases in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH and resulted in a shift in the speciation of monomeric Al from toxic inorganic species toward less toxic organic forms in some lakes. Nevertheless, many lakes continue to exhibit pH values and concentrations of inorganic monomeric Al that are critical to aquatic biota. Extrapolation of rates of ANC increase suggests that the time frame of chemical recovery of Adirondack Lakes will be several decades if current decreases in acidic deposition are maintained.

  20. Enhanced acid rain and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is known to be important mechanism reducing air pollution. In response to the growing concern on the potential effects of the deposited material entering terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as their subsequent health effects, since 2007 we have established a 10-site monitoring network in Northern China, where particularly susceptible to severe air pollution. Wet and dry deposition was collected using an automatic wet-dry sampler. The presentation will focus on the new results of atmospheric deposition flux for a number of chemical species, such as nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus), acidic matters (e.g. sulfur and proton), heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, etc. This is to our knowledge the first detailed element budget study in the atmosphere across Northern China. We find that: (1) Over the 3 year period, 26% of precipitation events in the target area were more acid than pH 5.60 and these acidic events occurred in summer and autumn. The annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH value of precipitation was lower than 5.60 at most sites, which indicated the acidification of precipitation was not optimistic. The primary ions in precipitation were NH4+, Ca2+, SO42- and NO3-, with 10-sites-average concentrations of 221, 216, 216 and 80 μeq L-1, respectively. The ratio of SO42- to NO3- was 2.7; suggesting SO42- was the dominant acid component. (2) The deposited particles were neutral in general and the pH value increased from rural area to industrial and coastal sites. It is not surprising to note that the annual VWM pH value of precipitation was higher than 5.60 at three urban sites (Beijing and Tianjin mega cities) and one coastal site near the Bohai Bay, considering the fact that high buffer capacity of alkaline component, gas NH3 and mineral aerosols, at these sites compared to other places. (3) The 10-sites annual total deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds were 60 and 65 kg N/S ha-1 yr-1

  1. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC <0 μeq L -1) decreased from 15.5% (284 lakes) to 8.3% (152 lakes) since the implementation of the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery

  2. Low-cost silica, calcite and metal sulfide scale control through on-site production of sulfurous acid from H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Kitz, K.

    1997-12-31

    UNOCAL Corporation currently utilizes brine pH modification technology to control scale deposition. Acids utilized in commercial operations include, sulfuric and hydrochloric. A new process reduces costs by producing acid on-site by burning hydrogen sulfide or elemental sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide in non-condensible gas emissions is reduced by oxidization to sulfurous acid. Brine or condensate is treated with sulfurous acid to control scale deposition, mitigate corrosion and improve gas partitioning in condensers.

  3. Preparation of waxes and humic acids from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova; A.V. Rokhin; A.P. Sorokin

    2007-06-15

    The comparative extraction of coal with organic solvents was performed. Humic acids were separated from solid residues. The yields, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions of the resulting products were analyzed. It was demonstrated that brown-coal wax and humic fertilizers can potentially be obtained using coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit.

  4. Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

  5. Precipitation-chemistry measurements from the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program, 1985-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Tonnessen, Kathy A.

    1993-01-01

    The configuration of the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (CADMP) precipitation network is described and quality assurance results summarized. Comparison of CADMP and the National Acid Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) data at four parallel sites indicated that mean depth-weighted differences were less than 3 μeq ℓ−1 for all ions, being statistically significant for ammonium, sulfate and hydrogen ion. These apparently small differences were 15–30% of the mean concentrations of ammonium, sulfate and hydrogen ion. Mean depth-weighted concentrations and mass deposition rates for the period 1985–1990 are summarized; the latter were highest either where concentrations or precipitation depths were relatively high.

  6. Stream ecosystem response to chronic deposition of N and acid at the Bear Brook Watershed, Maine.

    PubMed

    Simon, Kevin S; Chadwick, Michael A; Huryn, Alexander D; Valett, H Maurice

    2010-12-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a long-term, paired watershed experiment that addresses the effects of acid and nitrogen (N) deposition on whole watersheds. To examine stream response at BBWM, we synthesized data on organic matter dynamics, including leaf breakdown rates, organic matter inputs and standing stocks, macroinvertebrate secondary production, and nutrient uptake in treated and reference streams at the BBWM. While N concentrations in stream water and leaves have increased, the input, standing stocks, and breakdown rates of leaves, as well as macroinvertebrate production, were not responsive to acid and N deposition. Both chronic and acute increases of N availability have saturated uptake of nitrate in the streams. Recent experimental increases in phosphorus (P) availability enhanced stream capacity to take up nitrate and altered the character of N saturation. These results show how the interactive effects of multiple factors, including environmental flow regime, acidification, and P availability, may constrain stream response to chronic N deposition.

  7. Geology and geochemistry of Summitville, Colorado: an epithermal acid sulfate deposit in a volcanic dome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Coolbaugh, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic studies during recent open-pit mining at Summitville, Colorado, have provided new information on an epithermal acid sulfate Au-Ag-Cu deposit formed in a volcanic dome. Geologic mapping, geochemical studies of whole-rock samples from blast holes, and geologic and geochemical traverse studies refine the details of the evolution of the Summitville deposit. Six distinct events followed emplacement of the quartz latite volcanic dome and define the development of the Summitville deposit: 1) an early stage of acid sulfate alteration, 2) subsequent Cu sulfide and gold mineralization, 3) widespread hydrothermal brecciation, 4) volumetrically minor, base metal sulfide-bearing barite veining, 5) volumetrically minor, kaolinite matrix brecciation, and finally, 6) supergene oxidation. -from Authors

  8. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-11-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate.

  9. DNA methylation landscape of fat deposits and fatty acid composition in obese and lean pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Shen, Linyuan; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Qiong; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Obese and lean type pig breeds exhibit differences in their fat deposits and fatty acid composition. Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide DNA methylation on fatty acid metabolism between Landrace pigs (LP, leaner) and Rongchang pigs (RP, fatty). We found that LP backfat (LBF) had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content but a lower adipocyte volume than RP backfat (RBF). LBF exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels at the genome level than RBF. A total of 483 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located in promoter regions, mainly affecting olfactory and sensory activity and lipid metabolism. In LBF, the promoters of genes related to ATPase activity had significantly stronger methylation. This fact may suggest lower energy metabolism levels, which may result in less efficient lipid synthesis in LBF. Furthermore, we identified a DMR in the miR-4335 and miR-378 promoters and validated their methylation status by bisulfite sequencing PCR. The hypermethylation of the promoters of miR-4335 and miR-378 in LBF and the resulting silencing of the target genes may result in LBF’s low content in saturated fatty acids and fat deposition capacity. This study provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms affecting fat deposition and fatty acid composition. PMID:27721392

  10. Contemporaneous deposition of phyllosilicates and sulfates: Using Australian acidic saline lake deposits to describe geochemical variability on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldridge, A.M.; Hook, S.J.; Crowley, J.K.; Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Michalski, J.L.; Thomson, B.J.; de Souza, Filho C.R.; Bridges, N.T.; Brown, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the origin of the Martian sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits have led to the hypothesis that there was a marked, global-scale change in the Mars environment from circum-neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to Hesperian. However, terrestrial studies suggest that two different geochemical systems need not be invoked to explain such geochemical variation.Western Australian acidic playa lakes have large pH differences separated vertically and laterally by only a few tens of meters, demonstrating how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. We suggest diverse and variable Martian aqueous environments where the coetaneous formation of phyllosilicates and sulfates at the Australian sites are analogs for regions where phyllosilicates and sulfates coexist on Mars. In these systems, Fe and alkali earth phyllosilicates represent deep facies associated with upwelling neutral to alkaline groundwater, whereas aluminous phyllosilicates and sulfates represent near-surface evaporitic facies formed from more acidic brines. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. The deposition of conjugated linoleic acids in eggs of laying hens fed diets varying in fat level and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Huyghebaert, Gerard; De Smet, Stefaan; Nollet, Lode; Arnouts, Sven; Demeyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into eggs and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism when layers are fed diets with different fat sources and fat levels. Layers were fed either a low fat diet (LF) or one of three high fat diets based on soybean oil (SB), animal fat (AF) or flaxseed oil (FSO). CLA was added at a concentration of 1 g/100 g feed from two different CLA premixes with a different CLA profile. For the trial, 144 laying hens were allocated to 12 treatments (4 basal fat sources x 3 CLA treatments) with 3 replicates of 4 hens each. No significant differences were observed in feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion or laying rate between chickens fed control and CLA-supplemented diets. Differences in yolk fat, cholesterol or yolk color were not clearly related to the dietary CLA. However, the supplementation of CLA to the diets had clear effects on the fatty acid composition, i.e., a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content were essentially unaffected. The results suggest that CLA may influence the activity of the desaturases to a different extent in the synthesis of (n-6) and (n-3) long-chain fatty acids. These effects of CLA depend on the level of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids available in the feed. The apparent deposition rate (%) is clearly higher for the c9, t11 isomer than for the t10, c12 isomer. Adding CLA to layers diets rich in (n-3) fatty acids produces eggs that could promote the health of the consumer in terms of a higher intake of (n-3) fatty acids and CLA. PMID:11823576

  12. Amino-acid racemizarion in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; Clifton, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Extents of racemization ( d l ratios) of amino acids in fossil Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes) and Ostrea lurida Carpenter were measured on shell deposits exposed at 21 sites on the east side of Willapa Bay, Washington. Amino acids from Saxidomus show less variability in d Spl ratios and, therefore, are of greater use in correlation and age estimation than are amino acids from Ostrea. Shells of two different ages, about 120,000 ?? 40,000 yr old and about 190,000 ?? 40,000 yr old, are present. These ages correspond to Stages 5 and 7 of the marine isotope record defined by Shackleton and Opdyke in 1973 and hence the shell deposits likely formed during two different high stands of sea level. The stratigraphic record at Willapa Bay is consistent with this interpretation. ?? 1979.

  13. SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE METHOD TO MEASURE ACID DEPOSITION EFFECTS ON BUILDING STONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, Marguerite J.; Ager, Cathy M.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), the U. S. Geological Survey is cooperating with other agencies to test the effects of acid deposition on building stone. A 10-year test-site study has been organized for the purpose of correlating possible stone deterioration with environmental factors. In Summer 1984, slabs of building stone, 3 by 2 by 2 inches, were exposed to the atmosphere at four test sites where the pH of precipitation and other meteorological variables are continuously monitored. This paper examines the development of one experimental technique used in this study - the application of diffuse spectral reflectance methods for laboratory and in situ measurement of those properties of stone which may be affected by acid deposition.

  14. Effects of Folic Acid on Secretases Involved in Aβ Deposition in APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Bai, Dong; Li, Wen; Huang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Huan

    2016-09-09

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is identified as the core protein of neuritic plaques. Aβ is generated by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via the APP cleaving enzyme (α-secretase, or β-secretase) and γ-secretase. Previous studies indicated that folate deficiency elevated Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice, and this rise was prevented by folic acid. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether folic acid could influence the generation of Aβ by regulating α-, β-, and γ-secretase. Herein, we demonstrated that folic acid reduced the deposition of Aβ42 in APP/PS1 mice brain by decreasing the mRNA and protein expressions of β-secretase [beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)] and γ-secretase complex catalytic component-presenilin 1 (PS1)-in APP/PS1 mice brain. Meanwhile, folic acid increased the levels of ADAM9 and ADAM10, which are important α-secretases in ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family. However, folic acid has no impact on the protein expression of nicastrin (Nct), another component of γ-secretase complex. Moreover, folic acid regulated the expression of miR-126-3p and miR-339-5p, which target ADAM9 and BACE1, respectively. Taken together, the effect of folic acid on Aβ deposition may relate to making APP metabolism through non-amyloidogenic pathway by decreasing β-secretase and increasing α-secretase. MicroRNA (miRNA) may involve in the regulation mechanism of folic acid on secretase expression.

  15. Effects of Folic Acid on Secretases Involved in Aβ Deposition in APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Bai, Dong; Li, Wen; Huang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is identified as the core protein of neuritic plaques. Aβ is generated by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via the APP cleaving enzyme (α-secretase, or β-secretase) and γ-secretase. Previous studies indicated that folate deficiency elevated Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice, and this rise was prevented by folic acid. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether folic acid could influence the generation of Aβ by regulating α-, β-, and γ-secretase. Herein, we demonstrated that folic acid reduced the deposition of Aβ42 in APP/PS1 mice brain by decreasing the mRNA and protein expressions of β-secretase [beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)] and γ-secretase complex catalytic component-presenilin 1 (PS1)-in APP/PS1 mice brain. Meanwhile, folic acid increased the levels of ADAM9 and ADAM10, which are important α-secretases in ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family. However, folic acid has no impact on the protein expression of nicastrin (Nct), another component of γ-secretase complex. Moreover, folic acid regulated the expression of miR-126-3p and miR-339-5p, which target ADAM9 and BACE1, respectively. Taken together, the effect of folic acid on Aβ deposition may relate to making APP metabolism through non-amyloidogenic pathway by decreasing β-secretase and increasing α-secretase. MicroRNA (miRNA) may involve in the regulation mechanism of folic acid on secretase expression. PMID:27618097

  16. Effects of Folic Acid on Secretases Involved in Aβ Deposition in APP/PS1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Bai, Dong; Li, Wen; Huang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is identified as the core protein of neuritic plaques. Aβ is generated by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via the APP cleaving enzyme (α-secretase, or β-secretase) and γ-secretase. Previous studies indicated that folate deficiency elevated Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice, and this rise was prevented by folic acid. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether folic acid could influence the generation of Aβ by regulating α-, β-, and γ-secretase. Herein, we demonstrated that folic acid reduced the deposition of Aβ42 in APP/PS1 mice brain by decreasing the mRNA and protein expressions of β-secretase [beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)] and γ-secretase complex catalytic component—presenilin 1 (PS1)—in APP/PS1 mice brain. Meanwhile, folic acid increased the levels of ADAM9 and ADAM10, which are important α-secretases in ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family. However, folic acid has no impact on the protein expression of nicastrin (Nct), another component of γ-secretase complex. Moreover, folic acid regulated the expression of miR-126-3p and miR-339-5p, which target ADAM9 and BACE1, respectively. Taken together, the effect of folic acid on Aβ deposition may relate to making APP metabolism through non-amyloidogenic pathway by decreasing β-secretase and increasing α-secretase. MicroRNA (miRNA) may involve in the regulation mechanism of folic acid on secretase expression. PMID:27618097

  17. Microbial Controls on Hot Spring Travertine Depositional Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, S. E.; Fouke, B. W.; Miller, P. A.; Kandianis, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    In order to accurately identify and interpret the fossilization of bacteria in the geological record, a study of the three-dimensional crystalline architecture of CaCO3 (travertine) was completed at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS) in Yellowstone National Park. We have identified the Apron and Channel Facies (71-65o C) as a site of active travertine precipitation that is fundamentally controlled by microbial activity. Structural and gross morphological analyses of these aragonite (CaCO3) travertine deposits have been completed in the context of rapid precipitation (< 5 mm/day) in unidirectional advection-dominated turbulent sheet flow. Significant changes in travertine depositional fabric were observed along the 1 to 3 m-long and 1 to 2 cm-deep primary flow path of the Apron and Channel Facies. The high-temperature (71 - 69o C) upstream portion of the Apron Channel Facies, which lies a few meters downstream from the vent source, is composed of filamentous microbial strands. Using our 16S rRNA gene sequence clone libraries from the Apron and Channel Facies, filamentous Aquificales pBB bacteria have been identified as the dominant microbes composing the filamentous strands, of which are separated by thin sheets of extra-cellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) a distance of 1 to 3mm. The EPS exhibits distinctive elliptical to circular voids that may result from water turbulence, gas escape, or other mechanisms. The EPS also acts as a binding agent for the filaments and stabilizes them into patterns that parallel the direction of spring water flow. The extent of aragonite needle precipitation on the exterior of intertwining microbial filaments increases from the downstream end of each filament upwards toward the vent source. Based on these attributes, we have termed this the fettuccini travertine fabric. Travertine deposited in the low-temperature (68 - 65o C) downstream portion of the Apron Channel Facies exhibits a capellini-like morphology arranged in a uniform tightly

  18. Use of stream chemistry for monitoring acidic deposition effects in the Adirondack region of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Momen, B.; Roy, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH were measured weekly from October 1991 through September 2001 in three streams in the western Adirondack Mountain region of New York to identify trends in stream chemistry that might be related to changes in acidic deposition. A decreasing trend in atmospheric deposition of SO42- was observed within the region over the 10-yr period, although most of the decrease occurred between 1991 and 1995. Both ANC and pH were inversely related to flow in all streams; therefore, a trend analysis was conducted on (i) the measured values of ANC and pH and (ii) the residuals of the concentration-discharge relations. In Buck Creek, ANC increased significantly (p 0.10). In Bald Mountain Brook, ANC and residuals of ANC increased significantly (p < 0.01), although the trend was diatonic-a distinct decrease from 1991 to 1996 was followed by a distinct increase from 1996 to 2001. In Fly Pond outlet, ANC and residuals of ANC increased over the study period (p < 0.01), although the trend of the residuals resulted largely from an abrupt increase in 1997. In general, the trends observed in the three streams are similar to results presented for Adirondack lakes in a previous study, and are consistent with the declining trend in atmospheric deposition for this region, although the observed trends in ANC and pH in streams could not be directly attributed to the trends in acidic deposition.

  19. Deposition kinetics and characterization of stable ionomers from hexamethyldisiloxane and methacrylic acid by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urstöger, Georg; Resel, Roland; Koller, Georg; Coclite, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    A novel ionomer of hexamethyldisiloxane and methacrylic acid was synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The PECVD process, being solventless, allows mixing of monomers with very different solubilities, and for polymers formed at high deposition rates and with high structural stability (due to the high number of cross-links and covalent bonding to the substrate) to be obtained. A kinetic study over a large set of parameters was run with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for high stability and proton conductivity of the polymer layer. Copolymers with good stability over 6 months' time in air and water were obtained, as demonstrated by ellipsometry, X-Ray reflectivity, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Stable coatings showed also proton conductivity as high as 1.1 ± 0.1 mS cm-1. Chemical analysis showed that due to the high molecular weight of the chosen precursors, it was possible to keep the plasma energy-input-per-mass low. This allowed limited precursor fragmentation and the functional groups of both monomers to be retained during the plasma polymerization.

  20. Changing trends in sulfur emissions in Asia: implications for acid deposition, air pollution, and climate.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Calori, Giuseppe; Amann, Markus; Jacobson, Mark Z; Hansen, James; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2002-11-15

    In the early 1990s, it was projected that annual SO2 emissions in Asia might grow to 80-110 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. Based on new high-resolution estimates from 1975 to 2000, we calculate that SO2 emissions in Asia might grow only to 40-45 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. The main reason for this lower estimate is a decline of SO2 emissions from 1995 to 2000 in China, which emits about two-thirds of Asian SO2. The decline was due to a reduction in industrial coal use, a slowdown of the Chinese economy, and the closure of small and inefficient plants, among other reasons. One effect of the reduction in SO2 emissions in China has been a reduction in acid deposition not only in China but also in Japan. Reductions should also improve visibility and reduce health problems. SO2 emission reductions may increase global warming, but this warming effect could be partially offset by reductions in the emissions of black carbon. How SO2 emissions in the region change in the coming decades will depend on many competing factors (economic growth, pollution control laws, etc.). However a continuation of current trends would result in sulfur emissions lower than any IPCC forecasts.

  1. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry.

  2. Acid deposition sensitivity map of the Southern Appalachian Assessment area; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, John D.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Kress, Thomas H.; Collins, Thomas K.; Kappesser, Gary B.; Huber, Cindy M.; Webb, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Project Summary: The following digital product represents the Acid Deposition Sensitivity of the Southern Appalachian Assessment Area. Areas having various susceptibilities to acid deposition from air pollution are designated on a three tier ranking in the region of the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The assessment is being conducted by Federal agencies that are members of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (SAMAB) Cooperative. Sensitivities to acid deposition, ranked high, medium, and low are assigned on the basis of bedrock compositions and their associated soils, and their capacities to neutralize acid precipitation.

  3. Magnetically controlled deposition of metals using gas plasma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-02

    This is the first phase of a project that has the objective to develop a method of spraying materials on a substrate in a controlled manner to eliminate the waste and hazardous material generation inherent in present plating processes. The project is considering plasma spraying of metal on a substrate using magneto-hydrodynamics to control the plasma/metal stream. The process being developed is considering the use of commercially available plasma torches to generate the plasma/metal stream. The plasma stream is collimated, and directed using magnetic forces to the extent required for precise control of the deposition material. The project will be completed in phases. Phase one of the project, the subject of this grant, is the development of an analytical model that can be used to determine the feasibility of the process and to design a laboratory scale demonstration unit. The contracted time is complete, and the research is still continuing. This report provides the results obtained to date. As the model and calculations are completed those results will also be provided. This report contains the results of the computer code that have been completed to date. Results from a ASMEE Benchmark problem, flow over a backward step with heat transfer, Couette flow with magnetic forces, free jet flow are presented along with several other check calculations that are representative of the cases that were calculated in the course of the development process. The final cases that define a velocity field in the exit of a plasma spray torch with and without a magnetic field are in process. A separate program (SPRAY) has been developed that can track the plating material to the substrate and describe the distribution of the material on the substrate. When the jet calculations are complete SPRAY will be used to compare the distribution of material on the substrate with and without the effect of the magnetic focus.

  4. A Study of Effects of Acid Deposition on Pine Forest Ecosystem in Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, F.; Lv, Z.; Song, W.; Yang, S.

    2013-12-01

    We used a long-term soil acidification model (LTSAM) and a terrestrial biogeochemical model (CENTURY) coupled to simulate the effects of acid deposition on pine forest ecosystem in southwestern China, based on indoor experiment results of aluminum toxicity to individual plant growth. The results of indoor aluminum experiments show that high aluminum concentration may restrict the plant growth and the acidic condition may aggravate it. The behavior of restriction of plant growth includes decreases of pine seedling biomass, root elongation and the sorption of soil cations (e.g. Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+). The model simulation results about soil chemistry show that, as acid deposition increases more, the pH value decreases faster, the soil aluminum ion concentration increase more rapidly, and the nutrition ions in soil solution decrease more quickly. The increased acid deposition also has negative impacts on the forest ecosystem according to the biogeochemical model simulation, for example, decreases of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity (NPP) and net CO2 uptake. Furthermore, the decrease of plant biomass will result in the decrease of the soil organic carbon content for the limited decomposition material supply.

  5. Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.; Stoddard, J.L.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Porter, J.H.; Thompson, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a decreasing trend in acidic deposition rates over the past two to three decades, acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States have shown minimal changes. Depletion of soil Ca pools has been suggested as a cause, although changes in soil Ca pools have not been directly related to long-term records of stream chemistry. To investigate this problem, a comprehensive watershed study was conducted in the Neversink River Basin, in the Catskill Mountains of New York, during 1991-1996. Spatial variations of atmospheric deposition, soil chemistry, and stream chemistry were evaluated over an elevation range of 817-1234 m to determine whether these factors exhibited elevational patterns. An increase in atmospheric deposition of SO4 with increasing elevation corresponded with upslope decreases of exchangeable soil base concentrations and acid-neutralizing capacity of stream water. Exchangeable base concentrations in homogeneous soil incubated within the soil profile for one year also decreased with increasing elevation. An elevational gradient in precipitation was not observed, and effects of a temperature gradient on soil properties were not detected. Laboratory leaching experiments with soils from this watershed showed that (1) concentrations of Ca in leachate increased as the concentrations of acid anions in added solution increased, and (2) the slope of this relationship was positively correlated with base saturation. Field and laboratory soil analyses are consistent with the interpretation that decreasing trends in acid-neutralizing capacity in stream water in the Neversink Basin, dating back to 1984, are the result of decreases in soil base saturation caused by acidic deposition.

  6. Acid deposition: effects on geochemical cycling and biological availability of trace elements. Report for September 1982-January 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.C.; Galloway, J.N.; Stokes, P.

    1985-01-01

    Acid deposition is caused by emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from such high temperature processes as fossil-fuel combustion and ore smelting. The emissions also contain elements present in the environment in trace amounts, for example, silver (Ag), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), tin (Sn), tellurium (Te), thallium (Th), Vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). With the exception of mercury, these elements are not naturally present in the atmosphere owing to their characteristically low volatilities. The shift from natural to human control of deposition of trace elements significantly perturbs the biogeochemical cycles of these potentially toxic substances. This report addresses the following: Do elevated rates of their deposition cause changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. What are the interactions between their deposition and the concurrent acidification of ecosystems. The report focuses on elements generally classified as very toxic and relatively accessible in the environment, i.e. the 17 listed above plus aluminum (Al). A significant bibliography accompanies the report.

  7. Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Nijhuis, Arnold W G; Nejadnik, M Reza; Nudelman, Fabio; Walboomers, X Frank; te Riet, Joost; Habibovic, Pamela; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Li, Yubao; Bomans, Paul H H; Jansen, John A; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2014-02-01

    The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium concentration and conductivity of the aqueous solutions as a function of time, urease concentration and initial concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy was used to study the process of homogeneous CaP precipitation in solution, whereas CaP deposition on conventional acid-etched titanium and micropatterned polystyrene (PS) surfaces was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The data presented in this study confirm that the substrate-enzyme combination urea-urease offers strong control over the rate of pH increase by varying the concentrations of precursor salts and urease. Formation of biomimetic CaP coatings was shown to proceed via formation of ionic polymeric assemblies of prenucleation complexes. The process of deposition and corresponding coating morphology was strongly dependent on the concentration of calcium, phosphate and urease. Finally, it was shown that the substrate-enzyme combination urea-urease allowed for spatial distribution of CaP crystals along the grooves of micropatterned PS surfaces at low concentrations of calcium, phosphate and urease, stressing the sensitivity of the presented method.

  8. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  9. Depositional controls, distribution, and effectiveness of world's petroleum source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D.; Ulmishek, G.F.

    1989-03-01

    Six stratigraphic intervals representing one-third of Phanerozoic time contain source rocks that have provided more than 90% of the world's discovered oil and gas reserves (in barrels of oil equivalent). The six intervals include (1) Silurian (generated 9% of the world's reserves); (2) Upper Devonian-Tournaisian (8% of reserves); (3) Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian (8% of reserves); (4) Upper Jurassic (25% of reserves); (5) middle Cretaceous (29% of reserves); and (6) Oligocene-Miocene (12.5% of reserves). This uneven distribution of source rocks in time has no immediately obvious cyclicity, nor are the intervals exactly repeatable in the commonality of factors that controlled the formation of source rocks. In this study, source rocks of the six intervals have been mapped worldwide together with oil and gas reserves generated by these rocks. Analysis of the maps shows that the main factors affecting deposition of these source rocks and their spatial distribution and effectiveness in generating hydrocarbon reserves are geologic age, global and regional tectonics, paleogeography, climate, and biologic evolution. The effect of each of the factors on geologic setting and quality of source rocks has been analyzed. Compilation of data on maturation time for these source rocks demonstrated that the majority of discovered oil and gas is very young, more than 80% of the world's oil and gas reserves have been generated since Aptian time, and nearly half of the world's hydrocarbons have been generated and trapped since the Oligocene.

  10. Inkjet deposition of itraconazole onto poly(glycolic acid) microneedle arrays.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Jaipan, Panupong; Skoog, Shelby A; Stafslien, Shane; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Narayan, Roger J

    2016-03-11

    Poly(glycolic acid) microneedle arrays were fabricated using a drawing lithography process; these arrays were modified with a drug release agent and an antifungal agent by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Coatings containing poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride), a water-soluble drug release layer, and itraconazole (an antifungal agent), were applied to the microneedles by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Microscopic evaluation of the microneedles indicated that the modified microneedles contained the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited agents and that the surface coatings were released in porcine skin. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry aided in confirmation that the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited agents were successfully applied to the desired target areas of the microneedle surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of the component materials in the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited material. Itraconazole-modified microneedle arrays incubated with agar plates containing Candida albicans cultures showed zones of growth inhibition.

  11. Inkjet deposition of itraconazole onto poly(glycolic acid) microneedle arrays.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Jaipan, Panupong; Skoog, Shelby A; Stafslien, Shane; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Narayan, Roger J

    2016-03-01

    Poly(glycolic acid) microneedle arrays were fabricated using a drawing lithography process; these arrays were modified with a drug release agent and an antifungal agent by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Coatings containing poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride), a water-soluble drug release layer, and itraconazole (an antifungal agent), were applied to the microneedles by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Microscopic evaluation of the microneedles indicated that the modified microneedles contained the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited agents and that the surface coatings were released in porcine skin. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry aided in confirmation that the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited agents were successfully applied to the desired target areas of the microneedle surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of the component materials in the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited material. Itraconazole-modified microneedle arrays incubated with agar plates containing Candida albicans cultures showed zones of growth inhibition. PMID:26869165

  12. Interactive effects of cations on multi-decade trends in sulfate and acid deposition in North America and Europe: a new look at an old problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtha, K.; Jones, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial activities have profoundly altered both local and regional precipitation chemistry, with strong implications for soil and receiving water biogeochemistry. For example, increased N and S in precipitation have altered soil and water nutrient status and acidity, with mitigating effects from altered cation deposition. In 1995, Hedin et al. reported steep declines in atmospheric deposition of base cations in Europe and North America that offset the success of the 40-year history of regulation of acid precipitation, especially through sulfate control from urbanization and industrial activities. Using records from various sources including the North American LTER program, NADP, and the European EMAP data set, we extended the temporal extent of the analysis by 15 years to 2009 and expanded the analysis spatially by examining three contrasting site types with: (i) continuously high pollution and acidic deposition loads, (ii) historically high loads that experienced abrupt declines in atmospheric loading due to economic and industrial collapse (e.g. much of Eastern Europe), and (iii) relatively low and constant pollutant loading (e.g. western North America). Our goals were to (1) determine the spatial extent of the steep decline in cation deposition, (2) examine correlates, such as fossil fuel energy use and land management practices, to trends in cation deposition, and (3) determine more recent temporal trends in cation deposition in urbanized and rural sites. Our analysis suggests that for many sites that showed steep declines in base cation deposition in the earlier analysis, such as Sweden and New England, base cation deposition has stabilized at a lower rate, and sulfate and acidity in precipitation continue to decline. Other sites, particularly in Eastern Europe, are still experiencing steep declines in cation deposition with strong implications for the relationship between sulfate deposition and precipitation acidity. Other regions without

  13. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.

  14. An evaluation of critical loads of soil acidity in areas of high sea salt deposition.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, B

    2000-05-15

    The empirical and mass balance approaches to setting critical loads of acidity for mineral soils have been evaluated using field data from forest sites in Wales. Using the Simple Mass Balance Equation (SMBE) with Sitka spruce as the biological target, critical loads ranged between 2.3 and 9.8 keq H+ ha(-1) year(-1) compared to mapped empirical critical loads which ranged between 0.2 and 0.5 keq H+ ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites the empirical critical load was exceeded with respect to deposited sulfur acidity. There were no exceeded sites for the SMBE critical loads. The big differences between the two methods arise from the large ANC leaching term in the SMBE model which is determined by the relatively low (Ca + Mg + K)/Al(crit) ratio for Sitka spruce, compared to other conifers, and the influence of the large deposition of sea salt base cations. The low value of the (Ca + Mg + K)/Al(crit) ratio for Sitka spruce implies that it is tolerant of very acidic soil conditions, however, the ratio is based on the results of only one solution culture study and may thus be uncertain under field conditions. Large sea salt base cation deposition directly influences SMBE critical loads because the predicted soil water base cation concentrations permit large concentrations of hydrogen ions and aluminium (low ANC values) before the critical chemical limit is transgressed. Where weathering rates are low, critical ANC leaching (ANC(lecrit)) becomes the dominant term in the SMBE, with the counter intuitive result that the critical load becomes a linear function of sea salt base cation deposition. Thus the current formulation of the SMBE may not be appropriate for low weathering rate areas receiving large amounts of sea salt base cation deposition.

  15. Studies of acid deposition and its effects in two small catchments in Hunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Nandong; Seip, Hans Martin; Liao, Bohan; Vogt, Rolf D.

    Acid deposition and its effects were studied by analysing the chemistry in precipitation, stream water, soil water and soils in two catchments in Hunan. One site, Linkesuo (denoted LKS), is on the outskirts of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, the other (Bailutang, denoted BLT) on the outskirts of Chenzhou in southern Hunan. Volume-weighted average pH values and sulphate concentrations in wet deposition were 4.58 (BLT) and 4.90 (LKS) and 174 μmolc L-1 and 152 μmolc L-1, respectively. Wet deposition of sulphate has been estimated as 4.3 gS m-2yr-1 and 3.4 gS m-2yr-1 at BLT and LKS, respectively. Estimates of the corresponding total depositions (dry + wet) are 6.1 gS m-2yr-1 and 5.3 gS m-2yr-1. In precipitation and throughfall, sulphate was the major anion and calcium the major cation. In stream and soil water, nitrate was slightly higher than sulphate on an equivalent basis and magnesium (Mg) not much lower than calcium (Ca). Important soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) content, exchangeable acidic cations, exchangeable base cations, effective cation exchange capacity (CECe), base saturation (BS), and aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) pools, were determined for five forest soil profiles (consisting of four horizons) in each of the two catchments. The soils in BLT are generally more acid, have lower BS and higher Al and Fe pools than the LKS soils. The Al- and Fe-pools were generally higher in the topsoils (i.e. the O and A horizons) than in deeper soils (i.e. E and B horizons) especially at the most acidic site (BLT). There are significant correlations between Fe-pools and the corresponding Al-pools in both catchments except between the amorphous Feox and Alox. Considering the long-term high deposition of sulphate, there is a risk of future ecological damage due to acidification, especially in the BLT catchment, although vegetation damage has yet to be observed in the catchments. This condition appears to be representative of a large

  16. High Elevation Lakes of the Western US: Are we Studying Systems Recovering from Excess Atmospheric Deposition of Acids and Nutrients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickman, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    Instrumental records and monitoring of high elevation lakes began in most areas of the western US in the early 1980s. Much effort has been devoted to detecting changes in these aquatic ecosystems resulting from increased atmospheric deposition of acids and nutrients. However, there is growing evidence that thresholds for atmospheric pollutants were crossed much earlier in the 20th Century and that some of the subsequent hydrochemical and ecological changes observed in these lakes may be the result of recovery from earlier atmospheric forcing. We examine responses of high elevation lakes to atmospheric deposition on annual to century timescales using data from a 29-year study of Emerald Lake (Sequoia National Park) and paleolimnological analyses of other high elevation lakes incorporating diatom species analyses and geochemical proxies for fossil-fuel burning. At Emerald Lake, we have observed multiple transitions between nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton, the earliest of which occurred in the beginning of the 1980s and may be the result of reduction in N deposition due to the Clean Air Act. Critical loads analyses incorporating diatom species in lake sediments suggest that thresholds for N deposition were crossed in the period of 1950-1980 in the Rocky Mountains and likely much earlier, 1900-1920, in the Sierra Nevada. Diatom species composition is strongly controlled by acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the Sierra Nevada and we have observed a pronounced decline and recovery of ANC over the period of 1920-1980 in some Sierra Nevada lakes that coincides with the abundance of spheroidal carbonaceous particles (i.e., a diagnostic tracer of fossil fuel combustion) preserved in lake sediments; these patterns appear to be driven by increased emissions of oxidized N and S in the mid-20th Century and reductions in acid precursor levels caused by the Clean Air Act in the 1970s. Thus, when interpreting observational records from western high elevation

  17. [Acidic components of precipitation: humid deposition of S, N and Cl compounds].

    PubMed

    Fernández Patier, R; Esteban Lefler, M

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation samples have been gathered using recipients that differentiate the dry deposition of the humidity in three stations in Spain: one urban (Madrid) and two at base levels (San Pablo de los Montes and Granada). The study is centred on the components of an acid character, for which significant special variations of the sulphate and nitrate concentrations have been obtained. The levels, highest in Madrid and lowest in San Pablo, show the influence of the emitting focal points. A study of the seasonal variations in San Pablo show that the concentrations in summer are more than double than those in winter, probably due to the intervention of the photochemical formation processes of these contaminants. Also studies of humidity deposition are carried out, from which one can observe greater monthly values that are greater in Madrid than in other stations, in spite of having less rainfall. Likewise, episodes of "acid rain" and "red rain" are commented on.

  18. Arachidonic acid diet attenuates brain Aβ deposition in Tg2576 mice.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takashi; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Kontani, Masanori; Tokuda, Hisanori; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Michikawa, Makoto

    2015-07-10

    The amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is believed to play a causative role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a substrate of Aβ, and β-secretase and γ-secretase complex proteins, which process APP to generate Aβ, are all membrane proteins, it is possible to assume that alterations in brain lipid metabolism modulate APP and/or Aβ metabolism. However, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Aβ metabolism remains unknown. We report here that 9 months-treatment of Tg2576 mice with arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing (ARA+) diet prevented brain Aβ deposition in 17-month-old Tg2576 mice. APP processing to generate soluble APPα, CTF-β, and Aβ synthesis was attenuated in Tg2576 mice fed with the ARA+ diet. These findings suggest that ARA+ diet could prevent Aβ deposition through the alteration of APP processing in Tg2576 mice.

  19. Modeling the contribution of soil fauna to litter decomposition influenced by acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, B.; Loucks, O.L; Kuperman, R. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1993-06-01

    The effect of acidic deposition on soil pH and therefore on soil invertebrates and litter decomposition is being investigated in oak-hickory forests across a three-state, midwest, pollution gradient. The role of soil invertebrates has been assessed previously through the use of feeding, assimilation and respiratory rates. These energetic parameters depend strongly on the form of the allometric equations which have been improved here by incorporating uncertainties in body and population size. Results show that changes in reproduction and turnover dynamics of soil invertebrates (particularly of earthworms) due to acid-induced changes in soil pH explains observed patterns in litter depth.

  20. Valuation of damages to recreational trout fishing in the Upper Northeast due to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; Cameron, T.A.; Mendelsohn, R.E.; Parsons, G.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1991-04-01

    This report documents methods used to estimate economic models of changes in recreational fishing due to the acidic deposition. The analysis was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its subcontractors for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The primary data needed to estimate these models were collected in the 1989 Aquatic Based Recreation Survey (ABRS), which was jointly funded by the DOE and the EPA's Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation. 11 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Dry deposition and heavy acid loading in the vicinity of Masaya Volcano, a major sulfur and chlorine source in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Delmelle, P; Stix, J; Bourque, C P; Baxter, P J; Garcia-Alvarez, J; Barquero, J

    2001-04-01

    Certain volcanoes constitute the world's largest sources of SO2, HCl, and HF emissions and contribute significantly to regional acid deposition. However, the impact of volcanic acid emissions to nearby ecosystems remain poorly documented. In this paper, the spatial pattern of acid dry depositions was monitored within 44 km of Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, with a network of sulfation plates. Measured SO2 deposition rates were <2-791 mg m(-2) day(-1). The plates also collected the dry deposition of HCI at rates of <1-297 mg m(-2) day(-1). A similar deposition velocity Vd (gas transfer) of 1.6 +/- 0.8 cm/s was calculated for SO2 and HCl above the plate surfaces. Quantities of SO2 and HCI deposited daily within the area surveyed amounted to 1.5 x 10(8) g and 5.7 x 10(7) g, respectively, which correspond to about 10% of the total SO2 and HCl released by the volcano. These depositions may generate an equivalent hydrogen flux ranging from <1 to 30 mg m(-2) day(-1). Our results demonstrate that volcano emissions can dramatically affect acid deposition downwind and in turn cause extreme acid loading of the local ecosystems. This study opens exciting prospects for investigating the sensivity of volcanic ash soils to acid inputs.

  2. Dry deposition and heavy acid loading in the vicinity of Masaya Volcano, a major sulfur and chlorine source in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Delmelle, P; Stix, J; Bourque, C P; Baxter, P J; Garcia-Alvarez, J; Barquero, J

    2001-04-01

    Certain volcanoes constitute the world's largest sources of SO2, HCl, and HF emissions and contribute significantly to regional acid deposition. However, the impact of volcanic acid emissions to nearby ecosystems remain poorly documented. In this paper, the spatial pattern of acid dry depositions was monitored within 44 km of Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, with a network of sulfation plates. Measured SO2 deposition rates were <2-791 mg m(-2) day(-1). The plates also collected the dry deposition of HCI at rates of <1-297 mg m(-2) day(-1). A similar deposition velocity Vd (gas transfer) of 1.6 +/- 0.8 cm/s was calculated for SO2 and HCl above the plate surfaces. Quantities of SO2 and HCI deposited daily within the area surveyed amounted to 1.5 x 10(8) g and 5.7 x 10(7) g, respectively, which correspond to about 10% of the total SO2 and HCl released by the volcano. These depositions may generate an equivalent hydrogen flux ranging from <1 to 30 mg m(-2) day(-1). Our results demonstrate that volcano emissions can dramatically affect acid deposition downwind and in turn cause extreme acid loading of the local ecosystems. This study opens exciting prospects for investigating the sensivity of volcanic ash soils to acid inputs. PMID:11348058

  3. Modeling wet deposition of acid substances over the PRD region in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Fung, Jimmy Chi Hung; Wu, Dongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has suffered heavily from acid rain in the last 10 years due to the anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Several measurement-based studies about this issue have been conducted to analyze the chemical composition of precipitation in this area. However, no detailed, high resolution numerical simulation regarding this topic has ever been done in this region. In this study, the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was applied to simulate the wet deposition of acid substances (SO42- and NO3-) in the PRD region from 2009 to 2011 with a resolution of 3 km. The simulation output agreed well with the observation data. Our results showed that Guangzhou was the city most affected by acid rain in this region. The ratio of non-sea-salt sulfate to nitrate indicated that the acid rain in this region belonged to the sulfate-nitrate mixed type. The source apportionment result suggests that point source and super regional source are the ones that contribute the pollutants most in the rain water over PRD Region. The sulfate and nitrate input to some reservoirs via wet deposition was also estimated based on the model simulation. Our results suggest that further cross-city cooperation and emission reduction are needed to further curb acid rain in this region.

  4. Effect of acid deposition on quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter in soil-water.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Sara M; Kritzberg, Emma S; Kleja, Dan B; Larsson, Niklas; Nilsson, P Anders; Graneli, Wilhelm; Bergkvist, Bo

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how acid deposition may affect the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil-water. This was done by a small-scale acidification experiment during two years where 0.5 × 0.5 m(2) plots were artificially irrigated with water with different sulfuric acid content, and soil-water was sampled using zero-tension lysimeters under the O-horizon. The DOM was characterized using absorbance, fluorescence, and size exclusion chromatography analyses. Our results showed lower mobility of DOM in the high acid treatment. At the same time, there was a significant change in the DOM quality. Soil-water in the high acid treatment exhibited DOM that was less colored, less hydrophobic, less aromatic, and of lower molecular weight, compared to the low acid treatment. This supports the hypothesis that reduction in sulfur deposition is an important driver behind the ongoing brownification of surface waters in many regions.

  5. Trends in emissions and acid deposition over the northeastern US: Measurements and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehr, J. W.; Allen, D. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.; Piety, C. A.

    2006-05-01

    In recent years, two large emissions reduction programs have taken place in and upwind of the Northeastern United States: the Acid Rain Program and the NOx SIP (State Implementation Plan) call. Other programs have been directed toward reducing emissions from mobile sources, and new programs such as the CAIR rule (Clean Air Interstate Rule) are coming on line, pushing emissions down even further. Trends in the emissions data to date suggest that the benefits of these programs should already be measurable using existing monitoring data. A brief analysis of acid deposition data from several sites around the region indicates that the trends in sulfate are all downward, while the trends in nitrate deposition are less dramatic, with a promising recent downward trend. The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) model - a one-atmosphere urban/regional smog, aerosol, and deposition model - has been used to estimate future trends in deposition with the implementation of new programs expected to come on line in the next several years.

  6. Effects of acidic deposition and other energy emissions on wildlife: a compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1985-10-01

    Energy emissions, including acidic depositions, pose potential problems for wildlife populations. Historical and recent events show both direct, acute effects and indirect, chronic effects from a variety of airborne pollutants. Information on effects of selected gaseous and particulate energy emissions on domestic animals and livestock and on wildlife is compared. Our understanding of wildlife effects can be improved by the evaluation of veterinary toxicological information and research on the ecological equivalents of domestic and laboratory animals. 42 references.

  7. Effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete: state of knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-02-01

    Presented are the results of a program conducted to determine the state-of-the-art knowledge pertaining to the effects of acid deposition on the properties of portland cement concrete structures. Information was collected from a computerized literature survey, interviews, and replies to mail and telephone inquiries addressed to cement and concrete researchers and to governmental agencies and private firms active in the maintenance and restoration of concrete structures.

  8. Peptide-equipped tobacco mosaic virus templates for selective and controllable biomineral deposition

    PubMed Central

    Altintoprak, Klara; Seidenstücker, Axel; Welle, Alexander; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Stitz, Nina; Plettl, Alfred; Bill, Joachim; Gliemann, Hartmut; Jeske, Holger; Rothenstein, Dirk; Geiger, Fania

    2015-01-01

    Summary The coating of regular-shaped, readily available nanorod biotemplates with inorganic compounds has attracted increasing interest during recent years. The goal is an effective, bioinspired fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites and robust, miniaturized technical devices. Major challenges in the synthesis of applicable mineralized nanorods lie in selectivity and adjustability of the inorganic material deposited on the biological, rod-shaped backbones, with respect to thickness and surface profile of the resulting coating, as well as the avoidance of aggregation into extended superstructures. Nanotubular tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates have proved particularly suitable towards this goal: Their multivalent protein coating can be modified by high-surface-density conjugation of peptides, inducing and governing silica deposition from precursor solutions in vitro. In this study, TMV has been equipped with mineralization-directing peptides designed to yield silica coatings in a reliable and predictable manner via precipitation from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) precursors. Three peptide groups were compared regarding their influence on silica polymerization: (i) two peptide variants with alternating basic and acidic residues, i.e. lysine–aspartic acid (KD)x motifs expected to act as charge-relay systems promoting TEOS hydrolysis and silica polymerization; (ii) a tetrahistidine-exposing polypeptide (CA4H4) known to induce silicification due to the positive charge of its clustered imidazole side chains; and (iii) two peptides with high ZnO binding affinity. Differential effects on the mineralization of the TMV surface were demonstrated, where a (KD)x charge-relay peptide (designed in this study) led to the most reproducible and selective silica deposition. A homogenous coating of the biotemplate and tight control of shell thickness were achieved. PMID:26199844

  9. Peptide-equipped tobacco mosaic virus templates for selective and controllable biomineral deposition.

    PubMed

    Altintoprak, Klara; Seidenstücker, Axel; Welle, Alexander; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Stitz, Nina; Plettl, Alfred; Bill, Joachim; Gliemann, Hartmut; Jeske, Holger; Rothenstein, Dirk; Geiger, Fania; Wege, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The coating of regular-shaped, readily available nanorod biotemplates with inorganic compounds has attracted increasing interest during recent years. The goal is an effective, bioinspired fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites and robust, miniaturized technical devices. Major challenges in the synthesis of applicable mineralized nanorods lie in selectivity and adjustability of the inorganic material deposited on the biological, rod-shaped backbones, with respect to thickness and surface profile of the resulting coating, as well as the avoidance of aggregation into extended superstructures. Nanotubular tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates have proved particularly suitable towards this goal: Their multivalent protein coating can be modified by high-surface-density conjugation of peptides, inducing and governing silica deposition from precursor solutions in vitro. In this study, TMV has been equipped with mineralization-directing peptides designed to yield silica coatings in a reliable and predictable manner via precipitation from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) precursors. Three peptide groups were compared regarding their influence on silica polymerization: (i) two peptide variants with alternating basic and acidic residues, i.e. lysine-aspartic acid (KD) x motifs expected to act as charge-relay systems promoting TEOS hydrolysis and silica polymerization; (ii) a tetrahistidine-exposing polypeptide (CA4H4) known to induce silicification due to the positive charge of its clustered imidazole side chains; and (iii) two peptides with high ZnO binding affinity. Differential effects on the mineralization of the TMV surface were demonstrated, where a (KD) x charge-relay peptide (designed in this study) led to the most reproducible and selective silica deposition. A homogenous coating of the biotemplate and tight control of shell thickness were achieved. PMID:26199844

  10. Acid rain and nitrogen deposition in a sub-tropical watershed (Piracicaba): ecosystem consequences.

    PubMed

    Krusche, A V; de Camargo, P B; Cerri, C E; Ballester, M V; Lara, L B L S; Victoria, R L; Martinelli, L A

    2003-01-01

    High levels of wet N and acidic deposition were measured in southeast Brazil. In this study we addressed the sensitivity of water bodies and soils to acidification and N deposition in the Piracicaba River basin (12,400 km2). Average acid neutralization capacity (ANC) at 23 river sampling sites varied from 350 to 1800 microeq l(-1). Therefore, rivers and streams in the Piracicaba basin are well buffered, if the lower limit of 200 microeq l(-1) is assumed as an indication of poorly buffered waters. ANC is increased by untreated wastewaters discarded into rivers and streams of the region. Average NO3 concentrations varied from 20 to 70 microeq l(-1). At the most polluted river sites, NO3 concentration is not highest, however, probably due to NO3 reduction and denitrification. Most of the nitrogen in streams is also provided by wastewaters and not by wet deposition. The majority of the soils in the basin, however, are acidic with a low base cation content and high aluminum concentration. Therefore, soils in this basin are poorly buffered and, in areas of forest over sandy soils, acidification may be a problem.

  11. A 120-year record of the spatial and temporal distribution of gravestone decay and acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, Howard D.; Cota-Guertin, Avery R.; Regal, Ronald R.; Sames, Anthony R.; Dekan, Amanda J.; Henkels, Linnea M.

    2016-02-01

    This investigation examines the spatial and temporal variability of marble gravestone decay throughout West Midlands County and adjacent portions of Warwickshire, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire. Gravestone decay has been used effectively as a quantitative measure of acid deposition. Numerous techniques have been used to assess gravestone decay and each is subject to different sources of error. To minimize error we focus only on marble gravestones that use the flush lead lettering technique. Decay of the marble leaves the lead lettering raised above the surface, and the distance can be measured with the use of a digital micrometer. Gravestone decay can be used to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of acid deposition. Our gravestone decay database consists of 1417 individual measurements on 591 tombstones in 33 cemeteries and covers the period from 1860 to 2010. Sites range from industrial and residential areas to rural settings. These data allow us to establish the natural background rates of decay, the effects of urban/residential expansion, and the efficacy of environmental regulations. Decay rates vary from a minimum of 0.2 mm/century in remote rural areas to nearly 3.0 mm/century in the Birmingham City Center. The data are corrected for environmental variables, converted to acid deposition rates, and plotted at 10-year intervals from 1890 to 2010.

  12. Facile plasma-enhanced deposition of ultrathin crosslinked amino acid films for conformal biometallization.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle D; Slocik, Joseph M; McConney, Michael E; Enlow, Jesse O; Jakubiak, Rachel; Bunning, Timothy J; Naik, Rajesh R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2009-03-01

    A novel method for the facile fabrication of conformal, ultrathin, and uniform synthetic amino acid coatings on a variety of practical surfaces by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced. Tyrosine, which is utilized as an agent to reduce gold nanoparticles from solution, is sublimed into the plasma field and directly deposited on a variety of substrates to form a homogeneous, conformal, and robust polyamino acid coating in a one-step, solvent-free process. This approach is applicable to many practical surfaces and allows surface-induced biometallization while avoiding multiple wet-chemistry treatments that can damage many soft materials. Moreover, by placing a mask over the substrate during deposition, the tyrosine coating can be micropatterned. Upon its exposure to a solution of gold chloride, a network of gold nanoparticles forms on the surface, replicating the initial micropattern. This method of templated biometallization is adaptable to a variety of practical inorganic and organic substrates, such as silicon, glass, nitrocellulose, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, and woven silk fibers. No special pretreatment is necessary, and the technique results in a rapid, conformal amino acid coating that can be utilized for further biometallization.

  13. Climate dependency of tree growth suppressed by acid deposition effects on soils in Northwest Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lapenis, A.G.; Berggren, D.; Aparin, B.F.; Smith, K.T.; Shortle, W.C.; Bailey, S.W.; Varlyguin, D.L.; Babikov, B.

    2005-01-01

    Increased tree growth in temperate and boreal forests has been proposed as a direct consequence of a warming climate. Acid deposition effects on nutrient availability may influence the climate dependency of tree growth, however. This study presents an analysis of archived soil samples that has enabled changes in soil chemistry to be tracked with patterns of tree growth through the 20th century. Soil samples collected in 1926, 1964, and 2001, near St. Petersburg, Russia, showed that acid deposition was likely to have decreased root-available concentrations of Ca (an essential element) and increased root-available concentrations of Al (an inhibitor of Ca uptake). These soil changes coincided with decreased diameter growth and a suppression of climate-tree growth relationships in Norway spruce. Expected increases in tree growth from climate warming may be limited by decreased soil fertility in regions of northern and eastern Europe, and eastern North America, where Ca availability has been reduced by acidic deposition. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  14. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  15. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions.

  16. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Nanus, L; Williams, M W; Campbell, D H; Tonnessen, K A; Blett, T; Clow, D W

    2009-06-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration <100 microeq/L, and therefore sensitive to acidic deposition, are located in basins with elevations >3000 m, with <30% of the catchment having northeast aspect and with >80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world. PMID:19544737

  17. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Nanus, L; Williams, M W; Campbell, D H; Tonnessen, K A; Blett, T; Clow, D W

    2009-06-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration <100 microeq/L, and therefore sensitive to acidic deposition, are located in basins with elevations >3000 m, with <30% of the catchment having northeast aspect and with >80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.

  18. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  19. Electrowetting Controls the Deposit Patterns of Evaporated Salt Water Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K; Ritos, Konstantinos; Reese, Jason M

    2016-02-16

    So-called "coffee-ring" stains are the deposits remaining after complete evaporation of droplets containing nonvolatile solutes. In this paper we use molecular dynamics to simulate the evaporation of salt water nanodroplets in the presence of an applied electric field. We demonstrate, for the first time, that electrowetted nanodroplets can produce various deposit patterns, which vary substantially from the original ringlike deposit that occurs when there is no electric field. If a direct current (dc) electric field with strength greater than 0.03 V/Å is imposed parallel to the surface, after the water evaporates the salt crystals form a deposit on the substrate in a ribbon pattern along the field direction. However, when an alternating current (ac) electric field is applied the salt deposit patterns can be either ringlike or clump, depending on the strength and frequency of the applied ac field. We find that an ac field of high strength and low frequency facilitates the regulation of the deposit patterns: the threshold electric field strength for the transition from ringlike to clump is approximately 0.006 V/Å. These findings have potential application in fabricating nanostructures and surface coatings with desired patterns. PMID:26789075

  20. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas I. Contaminants and abiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-15

    Acid resins are residues characterised by elevated concentrations of hydrocarbons and trace elements, which were produced by mineral oil industries in Central Europe during the first half of the last century. Due to the lack of environmental legislation at that time, these wastes were dumped into excavated ponds in public areas without further protection. In this work, the long-term effects of such resin deposits on soil quality of two forest areas (Bayern, Germany) were assessed. We evaluated the distribution and accumulation of contaminants in the surroundings of the deposits, where the waste was disposed of about 60 years ago. General soil chemical properties such as pH, C, N and P content were also investigated. Chemical analysis of resin waste from the deposits revealed large amounts of potential contaminants such as hydrocarbons (93 g kg(-1)), As (63 mg kg(-1)), Cd (24 mg kg(-1)), Cu (1835 mg kg(-1)), Pb (8100 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (873 mg kg(-1)). Due to the location of the deposits on a hillside and the lack of adequate isolation, contaminants have been released downhill despite the solid nature of the waste. Five zones were investigated in each site: the deposit, three affected zones along the plume of contamination and a control zone. In affected zones, contaminants were 2 to 350 times higher than background levels depending on the site. In many cases, contaminants exceeded the German environmental guidelines for the soil-groundwater path and action levels based on extractable concentrations. Resin contamination yielded larger total C/total N ratios in affected zones, but no clear effect was observed on absolute C, N and P concentrations. In general, no major acidification effect was reported in affected zones.

  1. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Blett, T.; Clow, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.

  2. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 14. Methods for projecting future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, K.W.; Marmorek, D.; Ryan, P.F.; Heltcher, K.; Robinson, D.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the report are to: critically evaluate methods for projecting future effects of acidic deposition on surface water acid-base chemistry; review and evaluate techniques and procedures for analyzing projection uncertainty; review procedures for estimating regional lake and stream population attributes; review the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) methodology for projecting the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry; and present the models, uncertainty estimators, population estimators, and proposed approach selected to project the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry in the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment and discuss the selection rationale.

  3. Investigation of electroless tin deposition from acidic thiourea-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araźna, A.; Bieliński, J.

    2006-10-01

    The constant tendency of miniaturization in electronic products and developments in surface assembly techniques creates requirement to prepare new techniques and processes also in the range of metallic coatings. An additional factor which influences the evolution of preservatives coatings technology is the necessity to adapt Polish law to European directive. From 1 st July 2006 there will be an obligatory RoHS directive banning applying lead in electronics. Electroless tin deposition is one of an alternative for Sn/Pb lead free preservative films on copper surface in PCB technology. Electroless deposition of tin coatings on copper can be made in two ways: from an alkaline bath - the process disproportionation of Sn(II) compounds and from acidic bath contain complex compound such as thiourea - the displacement of copper by tin in Sn(II). Alkaline baths are not used in printed circuit board technology because it has destructive influence on resists. Besides acidic baths complex compounds contain additional stability solution composition which modify structure of obtained tin film. Quality and thickness tin layer are fundamental parameters which determine its protective character. The research test were done in thiourea-type electroless tin bath. The influence of different parameters on n rate of tin deposition and thickness of Sn coating were determined: temperature of the bath, Sn(II)-salt, thiourea and HCl concentration. Tin layers were depositioned on electrolytical copper foil. The thickness of Sn coating was determined by coulometry in 2M HCl. The rate deposition process depends mainly on the thiourea and HCl concentrations in solution. The temperature is also a very important parameter. The thickness of tin layer grows when the temperature increase. Although above 70°C appear undesirable thiourea decomposition. The results of the investigation show that further investigations are necessary for this solution.

  4. Use of stream chemistry for monitoring acidic deposition effects in the Adirondack region of New York.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Momen, Bahram; Roy, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH were measured weekly from October 1991 through September 2001 in three streams in the western Adirondack Mountain region of New York to identify trends in stream chemistry that might be related to changes in acidic deposition. A decreasing trend in atmospheric deposition of SO4/2- was observed within the region over the 10-yr period, although most of the decrease occurred between 1991 and 1995. Both ANC and pH were inversely related to flow in all streams; therefore, a trend analysis was conducted on (i) the measured values of ANC and pH and (ii) the residuals of the concentration-discharge relations. In Buck Creek, ANC increased significantly (p < 0.05) over the 10 yr, but the residuals of ANC showed no trend (p > 0.10). In Bald Mountain Brook, ANC and residuals of ANC increased significantly (p < 0.01), although the trend was diatonic-a distinct decrease from 1991 to 1996 was followed by a distinct increase from 1996 to 2001. In Fly Pond outlet, ANC and residuals of ANC increased over the study period (p < 0.01), although the trend of the residuals resulted largely from an abrupt increase in 1997. In general, the trends observed in the three streams are similar to results presented for Adirondack lakes in a previous study, and are consistent with the declining trend in atmospheric deposition for this region, although the observed trends in ANC and pH in streams could not be directly attributed to the trends in acidic deposition.

  5. Use of stream chemistry for monitoring acidic deposition effects in the Adirondack region of New York.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Momen, Bahram; Roy, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH were measured weekly from October 1991 through September 2001 in three streams in the western Adirondack Mountain region of New York to identify trends in stream chemistry that might be related to changes in acidic deposition. A decreasing trend in atmospheric deposition of SO4/2- was observed within the region over the 10-yr period, although most of the decrease occurred between 1991 and 1995. Both ANC and pH were inversely related to flow in all streams; therefore, a trend analysis was conducted on (i) the measured values of ANC and pH and (ii) the residuals of the concentration-discharge relations. In Buck Creek, ANC increased significantly (p < 0.05) over the 10 yr, but the residuals of ANC showed no trend (p > 0.10). In Bald Mountain Brook, ANC and residuals of ANC increased significantly (p < 0.01), although the trend was diatonic-a distinct decrease from 1991 to 1996 was followed by a distinct increase from 1996 to 2001. In Fly Pond outlet, ANC and residuals of ANC increased over the study period (p < 0.01), although the trend of the residuals resulted largely from an abrupt increase in 1997. In general, the trends observed in the three streams are similar to results presented for Adirondack lakes in a previous study, and are consistent with the declining trend in atmospheric deposition for this region, although the observed trends in ANC and pH in streams could not be directly attributed to the trends in acidic deposition. PMID:15224937

  6. RAINS-ASIA: An assessment model for acid deposition in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.J.; Ramankutty, R.; Shah, J.J.

    1997-08-31

    Asia`s rapid economic growth has fueled a growing appetite for commercial energy, which is satisfied by fossil fuels that emit pollutants. These pollutants are oxidized and transported into the atmosphere, creating acidic depositions known as acid rain that can damage foliage, soils, and surface waters. At current energy consumption growth rates, by the year 2000 sulfur dioxide emissions from Asia will surpass the emissions of North America and Europe combined. RAINS-ASIA is an assessment tool developed by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and donors to study the implications of alternative energy development strategies for air pollution and acid rain and to help identify cost-effective abatement methods. This report provides an overview of the model and some results of analyses that have been conducted as part of the RAINS-ASIA program.

  7. Chemical and biological recovery from acid deposition within the Honnedaga Lake watershed, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Daniel C; Robinson, Jason M; Chiotti, Justin; Jirka, Kurt J; Kraft, Clifford E

    2014-07-01

    Honnedaga Lake in the Adirondack region of New York has sustained a heritage brook trout population despite decades of atmospheric acid deposition. Detrimental impacts from acid deposition were observed from 1920 to 1960 with the sequential loss of acid-sensitive fishes, leaving only brook trout extant in the lake. Open-lake trap net catches of brook trout declined for two decades into the late 1970s, when brook trout were considered extirpated from the lake but persisted in tributary refuges. Amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1990 mandated reductions in sulfate and nitrogen oxide emissions. By 2000, brook trout had re-colonized the lake coincident with reductions in surface-water sulfate, nitrate, and inorganic monomeric aluminum. No changes have been observed in surface-water acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) or calcium concentration. Observed increases in chlorophyll a and decreases in water clarity reflect an increase in phytoplankton abundance. The zooplankton community exhibits low species richness, with a scarcity of acid-sensitive Daphnia and dominance by acid-tolerant copepods. Trap net surveys indicate that relative abundance of adult brook trout population has significantly increased since the 1970s. Brook trout are absent in 65 % of tributaries that are chronically acidified with ANC of <0 μeq/L and toxic aluminum levels (>2 μmol/L). Given the current conditions, a slow recovery of chemistry and biota is expected in Honnedaga Lake and its tributaries. We are exploring the potential to accelerate the recovery of brook trout abundance in Honnedaga Lake through lime applications to chronically and episodically acidified tributaries. PMID:24671614

  8. Tuning Acid-Base Properties Using Mg-Al Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David H K; O'Neill, Brandon J; Lee, Jechan; Huber, George W; Dumesic, James A; Kuech, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to coat γ-Al2O3 particles with oxide films of varying Mg/Al atomic ratios, which resulted in systematic variation of the acid and base site areal densities. Variation of Mg/Al also affected morphological features such as crystalline phase, pore size distribution, and base site proximity. Areal base site density increased with increasing Mg content, while acid site density went through a maximum with a similar number of Mg and Al atoms in the coating. This behavior leads to nonlinearity in the relationship between Mg/Al and acid/base site ratio. The physical and chemical properties were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 physisorption, and CO2 and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of samples grafted with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) was used for analysis of base site proximity. The degree of base site clustering was correlated to acid site density. Catalytic activity in the self-condensation of acetone was dependent on sample base site density and independent of acid site density. PMID:26168188

  9. Tuning Acid-Base Properties Using Mg-Al Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David H K; O'Neill, Brandon J; Lee, Jechan; Huber, George W; Dumesic, James A; Kuech, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to coat γ-Al2O3 particles with oxide films of varying Mg/Al atomic ratios, which resulted in systematic variation of the acid and base site areal densities. Variation of Mg/Al also affected morphological features such as crystalline phase, pore size distribution, and base site proximity. Areal base site density increased with increasing Mg content, while acid site density went through a maximum with a similar number of Mg and Al atoms in the coating. This behavior leads to nonlinearity in the relationship between Mg/Al and acid/base site ratio. The physical and chemical properties were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 physisorption, and CO2 and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of samples grafted with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) was used for analysis of base site proximity. The degree of base site clustering was correlated to acid site density. Catalytic activity in the self-condensation of acetone was dependent on sample base site density and independent of acid site density.

  10. Effects of temporal variations in the acidity of rain on crop response to acidic deposition (Task Force Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Irving, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The variation of rainfall pH from one event to another may have important biological consequences in several respects. A few rainfall events, or even only one, at low pH values may be more damaging than the same total hydrogen ion deposition spread out over a larger number of events with higher pH values. The variation of rainfall pH within events may also affect biological response. For example, during the early stages of an event, acid precipitation may be less effective in damaging vegetation since the water falling on the plant surfaces is continually being washed off by the subsequent rain. On the other hand, that rainwater which falls during the very last stages of an event remains on the vegetation until it evaporates. Since the concentration of contaminants remaining in solution on the leaves in these circumstances steadily increasing during evaporation, this particular rain may have a significantly greater effect. Of course, there is also a third hypothesis to the effect that it is primarily the total hydrogen ion deposition received by plant surfaces over a long period of time (conceivably, over an entire growing season) which is the most important parameter due to the cumulative stress imposed on the plant tissue over the entire period of exposure. The proposed experiments will determine which of these hypotheses best represents the response of a particular, economically-important crop species to the impact of more realistically programmed, acid rain simulant treatments. Design of the experiments is discussed.

  11. An Investigation of Solid-State Amidization and Imidization Reactions in Vapor Deposited Poly (amic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Anthamatten, M; Letts, S A; Day, K; Cook, R C; Gies, A P; Hamilton, T P; Nonidez, W K

    2004-06-28

    The condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) to form poly(amic acid) and the subsequent imidization reaction to form polyimide were investigated for films prepared using vapor deposition polymerization techniques. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of films at different temperatures indicate that additional solid-state polymerization occurs prior to imidization reactions. Experiments reveal that, upon vapor deposition, poly(amic acid) oligomers form that have a number-average molecular weight of about 1500 Daltons. Between 100 - 130 C these chains undergo additional condensation reaction to form slightly higher molecular weight oligomers. Calorimetry measurements show that this reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H {approx} -30 J/g) with an activation energy of about 120 kJ/mol. Experimental reaction enthalpies are compared to results from ab initio molecular modeling calculations to estimate the number of amide groups formed. At higher temperatures (150 - 300 C) imidization of amide linkages occurs as an endothermic reaction ({Delta}H {approx} +120 J/g) with an activation energy of about 130 kJ/mol. Solid-state kinetics were found to depend on reaction conversion as well as the processing conditions used to deposit films.

  12. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provine, J.; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-06-01

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiNx), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiNx films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiNx and evaluate the film's WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H2O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiNx film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiNx of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiNx from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  13. Method to control deposition rate instabilities—High power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition of TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoy, Anna E-mail: anna.kossoy@gmail.com; Magnusson, Rögnvaldur L.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi K.; Leosson, Kristjan; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-03-15

    The authors describe how changes in shutter state (open/closed) affect sputter plasma conditions and stability of the deposition rate of Ti and TiO{sub 2} films. The films were grown by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in pure Ar and in Ar/O{sub 2} mixture from a metallic Ti target. The shutter state was found to have an effect on the pulse waveform for both pure Ar and reactive sputtering of Ti also affecting stability of TiO{sub 2} deposition rate. When the shutter opened, the shape of pulse current changed from rectangular to peak-plateau and pulse energy decreased. The authors attribute it to the change in plasma impedance and gas rarefaction originating in geometry change in front of the magnetron. TiO{sub 2} deposition rate was initially found to be high, 1.45 Å/s, and then dropped by ∼40% during the first 5 min, while for Ti the change was less obvious. Instability of deposition rate poses significant challenge for growing multilayer heterostructures. In this work, the authors suggest a way to overcome this by monitoring the integrated average energy involved in the deposition process. It is possible to calibrate and control the film thickness by monitoring the integrated pulse energy and end growth when desired integrated pulse energy level has been reached.

  14. Superhydrophobic surfaces on diverse metals based on ultrafast sequential deposition of silver and stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junfei; Shi, Qingwen; Chen, Yiwei; Wang, Fajun; Xue, Mingshan; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of NaF, silver (Ag) was galvanically deposited onto aluminum (Al) substrate quickly (typically 10 s) from dilute aqueous AgNO3 solution. Subsequent immersion into ethanolic solution of stearic acid (SA, for 30 s) rendered Al superhydrophobic. The deposition and morphological evolution of Ag were investigated in detail. It was found that NaF was indispensable to initiate the Ag galvanic deposition by dissolving the barrier oxide layer. Moreover, as reaction time prolonging, surface morphology and surface wettability varied synchronously. This strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic surface (coded as SHS) was also applicable to many other metals, such as Fe, Co and Mo with oxide passivation layer (NaF was needed) or Mg, Zn, Sn, Pb, and Cu with no apparent oxide passivation layer (NaF was not needed). In summary, the strategy to fabricate SHS based on Ag deposition and SA modification was quite impressive for its time-saving benefits and wide substrate applicability.

  15. Streamwater acid-base chemistry and critical loads of atmospheric sulfur deposition in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T J; Cosby, B J; Webb, J R; Dennis, R L; Bulger, A J; Deviney, F A

    2008-02-01

    A modeling study was conducted to evaluate the acid-base chemistry of streams within Shenandoah National Park, Virginia and to project future responses to sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) atmospheric emissions controls. Many of the major stream systems in the park have acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) less than 20 microeq/L, levels at which chronic and/or episodic adverse impacts on native brook trout are possible. Model hindcasts suggested that none of these streams had ANC less than 50 microeq/L in 1900. Model projections, based on atmospheric emissions controls representative of laws already enacted as of 2003, suggested that the ANC of those streams simulated to have experienced the largest historical decreases in ANC will increase in the future. The levels of S deposition that were simulated to cause streamwater ANC to increase or decrease to three specified critical levels (0, 20, and 50 microeq/L) ranged from less than zero (ANC level not attainable) to several hundred kg/ha/year, depending on the selected site and its inherent acid-sensitivity, selected ANC endpoint criterion, and evaluation year for which the critical load was calculated. Several of the modeled streams situated on siliciclastic geology exhibited critical loads <0 kg/ha/year to achieve ANC >50 microeq/L in the year 2040, probably due at least in part to base cation losses from watershed soil. The median modeled siliciclastic stream had a calculated critical load to achieve ANC >50 microeq/L in 2100 that was about 3 kg/ha/year, or 77% lower than deposition in 1990, representing the time of model calibration.

  16. Streamwater acid-base chemistry and critical loads of atmospheric sulfur deposition in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T J; Cosby, B J; Webb, J R; Dennis, R L; Bulger, A J; Deviney, F A

    2008-02-01

    A modeling study was conducted to evaluate the acid-base chemistry of streams within Shenandoah National Park, Virginia and to project future responses to sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) atmospheric emissions controls. Many of the major stream systems in the park have acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) less than 20 microeq/L, levels at which chronic and/or episodic adverse impacts on native brook trout are possible. Model hindcasts suggested that none of these streams had ANC less than 50 microeq/L in 1900. Model projections, based on atmospheric emissions controls representative of laws already enacted as of 2003, suggested that the ANC of those streams simulated to have experienced the largest historical decreases in ANC will increase in the future. The levels of S deposition that were simulated to cause streamwater ANC to increase or decrease to three specified critical levels (0, 20, and 50 microeq/L) ranged from less than zero (ANC level not attainable) to several hundred kg/ha/year, depending on the selected site and its inherent acid-sensitivity, selected ANC endpoint criterion, and evaluation year for which the critical load was calculated. Several of the modeled streams situated on siliciclastic geology exhibited critical loads <0 kg/ha/year to achieve ANC >50 microeq/L in the year 2040, probably due at least in part to base cation losses from watershed soil. The median modeled siliciclastic stream had a calculated critical load to achieve ANC >50 microeq/L in 2100 that was about 3 kg/ha/year, or 77% lower than deposition in 1990, representing the time of model calibration. PMID:17492359

  17. Declining acidic deposition begins reversal of forest-soil acidification in the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W.; Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Antidormi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO42– deposition of 5.7–76%, over intervals of 8–24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO42– deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with exchangeable Al ratios (P < 0.05) in the O horizon. However, base saturation in the B horizon decreased at one-third of the sites, with no increases. These results are unique in showing that the effects of acidic deposition on North American soils have begun to reverse.

  18. Declining Acidic Deposition Begins Reversal of Forest-Soil Acidification in the Northeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Hazlett, Paul W; Fernandez, Ivan J; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W; Shortle, Walter C; Smith, Kevin T; Antidormi, Michael R

    2015-11-17

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO4(2-) deposition of 5.7-76%, over intervals of 8-24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO4(2-) deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with exchangeable Al ratios (P < 0.05) in the O horizon. However, base saturation in the B horizon decreased at one-third of the sites, with no increases. These results are unique in showing that the effects of acidic deposition on North American soils have begun to reverse.

  19. Evidence of sulphur and nitrogen deposition signals at the United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network sites.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D M

    2005-09-01

    Some recent studies of trends in sulphate in surface waters have alluded to possible lag effects imposed by catchment soils, resulting in discrepancies between trends in deposition and run-off. To assess the extent of these possible effects in the UK, sulphate concentration data from the United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) sites are compared with estimates of sulphur deposition at each site. From these data, input-output budgets are computed at an annual time scale. The estimated budgets suggest a close association between catchment sulphur inputs and outputs at an annual scale, with well-balanced annual budgets at most sites, indicative of only minor lag effects. A similar analysis of the AWMN site nitrogen budget shows little evidence of an association between nitrogen inputs and outputs at this time scale.

  20. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  1. Tectonic control of Eocene arkosic sediment deposition, Oregon and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.; Ulrich, A.R.

    1983-03-01

    Chronostratigraphic and geographic studies of Eocene arkosic sandstones suggest deposition during a volcanically quiet interval resulting from the westward jump of the Farallon-Kula plate subduction zone in Oregon and Washington. The Eocene arkosic sandstones were deposited as part of a broad fluvial plain-coastal plain-shelf margin basin complex extending throughout Oregon and Washington between uplands of Mesozoic rocks. Feldspathic-quartzose sediments were transported from the east by river systems draining granitic terrains perhaps as far away as the Idaho Batholith. Chronostratigraphic correlations suggest that the arkosic sandstones were deposited along the margins of the depositional system during the early Eocene, prograded westward during the middle Eocene, and then regressed during the latest Eocene and Oligocene simultaneously with the influx of abundant pyroclastic debris. During the early Eocene, a northwest-southeast seamount chain was extruded on the Farallon and Kula plates west of an eastward-dipping subduction zone. Subduction of the oceanic plates moved the seamount chain obliquely toward the subduction zone. In middle Eocene time-49 to 40 m.y.b.p-the seamount chain reached the subduction zone creating instability in the subduction system and resulting in the westward jump of the underthrust boundary between the Farallon-Kula and North American plates. Coincident with and continuing after the subduction zone jump and seamount accretion, eastwardly derived arkosic sediments prograded across Oregon and Washington spilling into the new fore-arc basin and enveloping the seamounts.

  2. Sensitivity of stream basins in Shenandoah National Park to acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, D.D.; Dise, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    Six synoptic surveys of 56 streams that drain the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, were conducted in cooperation with the University of Virginia to evaluate sensitivity of dilute headwater streams to acid deposition and to determine the degree of acidification of drainage basins. Flow-weighted alkalinity concentration of most streams is below 200 microequivalents per liter, which is considered the threshold of sensitivity. Streams draining resistant siliceous bedrocks have an extreme sensitivity (alkalinity below 20 microequivalents/L); those draining granite and granodiorite have a high degree of sensitivity (20 to 100 microequivalents/L); and streams draining metamorphosed volcanics have moderate to marginal sensitivity (100 to 200 microequivalents/L). A comparison of current stream water chemistry to that predicted by a model based on carbonic acid weathering reactions suggests that all basins in the Park shows signs of acidification by atmospheric deposition. Acidification is defined as a neutralization of stream water alkalinity and/or an increase in the base cation weathering rate. Acidification averages 50 microequivalents/L, which is fairly evenly distributed in the Park. However, the effects of acidification are most strongly felt in extremely sensitive basins, such as those underlain by the Antietam Formation, which have stream water pH values averaging 4.99 and a mineral acidity of 7 microequivalents/L. (USGS)

  3. Tissue deposition and residue depletion in rainbow trout following continuous voluntary feeding with various levels of melamine or a blend of melamine and cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Xue, Min; Wang, Jia; Qiu, Jing; Wu, Xiufeng; Zheng, Yinhua; Li, Junguo; Qin, Yuchang

    2014-11-01

    This study determined the deposition and depletion in rainbow trout after continuous administration of melamine (MEL) alone or a blend of MEL and cyanuric acid (CYA). The plasma, muscles, kidneys, liver and gills were sampled at 0, 3, 7, 13, 21, 28 and 42d. After the final sampling at 42d, fish from the MEL0.05, MEL20 and MCA groups were fed the control diet (MEL0) for the depletion test. Co-administration with cyanuric acid accelerated the deposition time to the Css for melamine; during the withdrawal phrase, the melamine and CYA concentrations in the tissues decreased exponentially. Compared to the t(½) for single oral administration, the t(½) for melamine and cyanuric acid after 42d continuous feeding was prolonged. The presence of trace CYA in the plasma and kidneys of trout was detected in the MEL20 group, indicating that MEL can convert into CYA in rainbow trout.

  4. Experimental study of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt and implications for sulfate deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Robbins, Mark; Moskowitz, Bruce; Berquó, Thelma S.; Jöns, Niels; Hynek, Brian M.

    2013-04-01

    Acid-sulfate alteration of basalt by SO2-bearing volcanic vapors has been proposed as one possible origin for sulfate-rich deposits on Mars. To better define mineralogical signatures of acid-sulfate alteration, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate alteration pathways and geochemical processes during reaction of basalt with sulfuric acid. Pyroclastic cinders composed of phenocrysts including plagioclase, olivine, and augite embedded in glass were reacted with sulfuric acid at 145 °C for up to 137 days at a range of fluid : rock ratios. During the experiments, the phenocrysts reacted rapidly to form secondary products, while the glass was unreactive. Major products included amorphous silica, anhydrite, and Fe-rich natroalunite, along with minor iron oxides/oxyhydroxides (probably hematite) and trace levels of other sulfates. At the lowest fluid : rock ratio, hexahydrite and an unidentified Fe-silicate phase also occurred as major products. Reaction-path models indicated that formation of the products required both slow dissolution of glass and kinetic inhibitions to precipitation of a number of minerals including phyllosilicates and other aluminosilicates as well as Al- and Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides. Similar models performed for Martian basalt compositions predict that the initial stages of acid-sulfate alteration of pyroclastic deposits on Mars should result in formation of amorphous silica, anhydrite, Fe-bearing natroalunite, and kieserite, along with relict basaltic glass. In addition, analysis of the experimental products indicates that Fe-bearing natroalunite produces a Mössbauer spectrum closely resembling that of jarosite, suggesting that it should be considered an alternative to the component in sulfate-rich bedrocks at Meridiani Planum that has previously been identified as jarosite.

  5. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.; Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical and foliar biochemical markers indicate perturbations in biological processes in healthy red spruce trees across the northeastern USA. Previous research on the dendrochemistry of red spruce stemwood indicated that under uniform environmental conditions, stemwood concentrations of Ca and Mg decreased with increasing radial distance from the pith. For nine forest locations, frequency analysis shows that 28 and 52% of samples of red spruce stemwood formed in the 1960s are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively, relative to wood formed prior to and after the 1960s. This enrichment in trees throughout the northeastern USA may be interpretable as a signal of increased availability of essential cations in forest soils. Such a temporary increase in the availability of Ca and Mg could be caused by cation mobilization, a consequence of increased acidic deposition. During cation mobilization, essential Ca and Mg as well as potentially harmful Al become more available for interaction with binding sites in the soil and absorbing roots. As conditions which favor cation mobilization continue, Ca and Mg can be leached or displaced from the soil. A measure of the interaction between Ca and Al is the Al/Ca binding ratio (molar charge ratio of exchangeable Al to exchangeable Ca). As the Al/Ca binding ratio in the root zone increased from 0.3 to 1.9, the foliar concentration of the biochemical stress marker putrescine also increased from 45 to 145 nm g-1. The correlation of the putrescine concentration to the Al/Ca binding ratio (adj. r2 = 0.68, P < 0.027) suggests that foliar stress may be linked to soil chemistry.

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid enhances collagen deposition and matrix thickening in engineered tissue.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Stéphane; Marcoux, Thomas-Louis; Deschênes-Rompré, Marie-Pier; Rousseau, Alexandre; Morissette, Amélie; Bouhout, Sara; Bernard, Geneviève; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    The time needed to produce engineered tissue is critical. A self-assembly approach provided excellent results regarding biological functions and cell differentiation because it closely respected the microenvironment of cells. Nevertheless, the technique was time consuming for producing tissue equivalents with enough extracellular matrix to allow manipulations. Unlike L-arginine supplementation that only increased accumulation of collagen in cell culture supernatant in our model, addition of lysophosphatidic acid, a natural bioactive lipid, did not modify the amount of accumulated collagen in the cell culture supernatant; however, it enhanced the matrix deposition rate without inducing fibroblast hyperproliferation and tissue fibrosis.

  7. Acidity, nutrients, and minerals in atmospheric precipitation over Florida: deposition patterns, mechanisms and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brezonik, P.L.; Hendry, C.D. Jr.; Edgerton, E.S.; Schulze, R.L.; Crisman, T.L.

    1983-06-01

    A monitoring network of 21 bulk and 4 wet/dry collectors located throughout Florida measured spatial and temporal trends during a one-year period from May 1978 to April 1979. The project summary notes that statewide deposition rates of nitrogen and phosphorus were below the loading rates associated with eutrophication, although nutrient concentrations were higher during the summer. Overall, pH appears to have relatively small effects (in the range 4.7-6.8) on community structure in soft-water Florida lakes. More dramatic effects could occur under more acidic conditions in the future. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Acid rain control: the costs of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Gilleland, D.S.; Swisher, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This document is the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Illinois Energy Resources Commission and the Coal Extraction and Utilization Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and held in Carbondale on March 18, 1984. Topics addressed include: the sources and impacts of acid rain, the problems inherent in modeling the impacts of acid rain legislation, the effects of acid rain legislation on the socio-economic sector, compliance costs, and the impact of acid rain legislation on related industries (railroads).

  9. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  10. Leaching of cell wall components caused by acid deposition on fir needles and trees.

    PubMed

    Shigihara, Ado; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Igawa, Manabu

    2008-07-15

    Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every week during January-December 2004 at Mt. Oyama to clarify the influence of acid fog on the decline of fir (Abies firma) needles. In relation to throughfall and stemflow, D-mannose, D-galactose, and D-glucose are the major neutral sugar components; only D-glucose is a major component of rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the total neutral sugars and uronic acid (as D-galacturonic acid), which is a key component of the cross-linking between pectic polysaccharides, was high except for rainfall. The leached amount of calcium ion, neutral sugars, uronic acid, and boron is related to the nitrate ion concentration in throughfall. Results of a laboratory exposure experiment using artificial fog water simulating the average composition of fog water observed at Mt. Oyama (simulated acid fog: SAF) on the fir seedling needles also shows a large leaching of these components from the cell walls of fir needles. The leaching amount increased concomitantly with decreasing pH of the SAF solution. We also observed that a dimeric rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complex (dRG-II-B) that exists in the cell wall as pectic polysaccharide was converted to monomeric RG-II (mRG-II) by the leaching of calcium ion and boron. Results not only of field observations but also those of laboratory experiments indicate a large effect of acid depositions on fir needles.

  11. Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Macdonald, Robie W; Johannessen, Sophia C; Stern, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    PCB concentrations, congener patterns, and fluxes were examined in 13 dated and organically characterized (C, N, delta(13)C, delta(15)N) marine sediment cores from Hudson Bay, Canada, to investigate the importance of organic matter (OM) supply and transport to PCB sequestration. Drawdown of PCBs, supported by marine primary production, is reflected in elevated summation operatorPCB concentrations and more highly chlorinated PCB signatures in surface sediments underlying eutrophic regions. Sediments in oligotrophic regions, which are dominated by "old" marine OM, have lower PCB concentrations and weathered signatures. For the surface of Hudson Bay, average atmospheric deposition appears to be very low (ca. 1.4 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)) compared to fluxes reported for nearby lakes (ca. 44 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)). (210)Pb fails to provide a means to normalize the fluxes, highlighting important differences in the biocycling of (210)Pb and PCBs. Unlike (210)Pb, atmospheric PCB exchange with the water's surface is partially forced by the aquatic organic carbon cycle. The extremely low atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the surface of Hudson Bay is likely a reflection of the Bay's exceptionally low productivity and vertical carbon fluxes. If future marine production and vertical flux of carbon increase due to loss of ice cover or change in river input as consequences of global warming, PCB deposition would also increase.

  12. Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Macdonald, Robie W; Johannessen, Sophia C; Stern, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    PCB concentrations, congener patterns, and fluxes were examined in 13 dated and organically characterized (C, N, delta(13)C, delta(15)N) marine sediment cores from Hudson Bay, Canada, to investigate the importance of organic matter (OM) supply and transport to PCB sequestration. Drawdown of PCBs, supported by marine primary production, is reflected in elevated summation operatorPCB concentrations and more highly chlorinated PCB signatures in surface sediments underlying eutrophic regions. Sediments in oligotrophic regions, which are dominated by "old" marine OM, have lower PCB concentrations and weathered signatures. For the surface of Hudson Bay, average atmospheric deposition appears to be very low (ca. 1.4 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)) compared to fluxes reported for nearby lakes (ca. 44 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)). (210)Pb fails to provide a means to normalize the fluxes, highlighting important differences in the biocycling of (210)Pb and PCBs. Unlike (210)Pb, atmospheric PCB exchange with the water's surface is partially forced by the aquatic organic carbon cycle. The extremely low atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the surface of Hudson Bay is likely a reflection of the Bay's exceptionally low productivity and vertical carbon fluxes. If future marine production and vertical flux of carbon increase due to loss of ice cover or change in river input as consequences of global warming, PCB deposition would also increase. PMID:20392087

  13. Thermal and trophic stability of deeper Maine lakes in granite waterhsheds implacted by acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Wittchen, B.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Acid deposition can lead to lake and watershed acidification, increases in lake transparency, and reduction in thermal stability and hypolimnetic oxygen deficits. On the basis of lake surveys during August-September 1985, we determined to what extent the deeper (maximum depth z{sub m}{gt}17 m) Maine lakes in acid-sensitive granitic watersheds have registered changes in temperature and oxygen stratification, as compared to 1938-1942, when G.P. Cooper performed the earliest scientific surveys of the state's lakes. After correcting for small but geographically consistent interannual differences in summer hypolimnetic temperatures related to spring turnover, and weather-dependent differences in mixed layer depth, there has been no significant change in thermal stratification in these Maine lakes over approximately 43 years. On the basis of specific historical contrasts in the late summer metalimnetic, hypolimnetic, and bathylimnetic oxygen concentrations there has been no significant change in lake trophic state or transparency.

  14. Assessing biogeographic patterns in the changes in soil invertebrate biodiversity due to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sugg, P.M.; Kuperman, R.G.; Loucks, O.L. |

    1995-09-01

    We are studying the response of soil faunal communities to a gradient in acidic deposition across midwestern hardwood forests. We have documented a pattern of population decrease and species loss for soil invertebrates along the acidification gradient. We now ask the following question: When confronted with apparent diversity changes along a region-wide pollution gradient, how can one assess the possibility of natural biogeographic gradients accounting for the pattern? As a first approximation, we use published range maps from taxonomic monographs to determine the percent of the regional fauna with ranges encompassing each site. For staphylinid beetles, range data show no sign of a biogeographic gradient. Yet for soil staphylinids, a large decrease is seen in alpha diversity (as species richness) from low to high acid dose sites (from 20 species to 8). Staphylinid species turnover is greatest in the transition from low to intermediate dose sites.

  15. HCl in rocket exhaust clouds - Atmospheric dispersion, acid aerosol characteristics, and acid rain deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Both measurements and model calculations of the temporal dispersion of peak HCl (g + aq) concentration in Titan III exhaust clouds are found to be well characterized by one-term power-law decay expressions. The respective coefficients and decay exponents, however, are found to vary widely with meteorology. The HCl (g), HCl (g + aq), dewpoint, and temperature-pressure-altitude data for Titan III exhaust clouds are consistent with accurately calculated HCl/H2O vapor-liquid compositions for a model quasi-equilibrated flat surface aqueous aerosol. Some cloud evolution characteristics are also defined. Rapid and extensive condensation of aqueous acid clearly occurs during the first three min of cloud rise. Condensation is found to be intensified by the initial entrainment of relatively moist ambient air from lower levels, that is, from levels below eventual cloud stabilization. It is pointed out that if subsequent dilution air at stabilization altitude is significantly drier, a state of maximum condensation soon occurs, followed by an aerosol evaporation phase.

  16. Acid fog deposition and the declining forest in Tanzawa mountains, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igawa, M.; Shigihara, A.; Goto, S.; Nanzai, B.

    2010-07-01

    Since 1988, we have investigated fog chemistry in Mt. Oyama, Tanzawa mountains, Japan, and acid fog has been frequently observed there. We have observed fog on Mt. Oyama by using a night view video camera placed at the base of the mountain, by using a visibility meter at the top of the mountain, and by an active fog sampler at the mountainside. We have reported the fog frequency at the top of Mt. Oyama to be 46% measured by the video camera, but it was overestimated. The visibility measured at the top of the mountain is the most reliable index, and the top of the mountain is covered with fog for about 30%. The frequency of about 15% was added for the case of the visibility of a few km when it was measured by a night view video camera placed at the base of the mountain (8.5 km far from the top). Fog-water deposition increases with the increasing altitude to be much larger than the rain-water deposition. The factors affecting on the occult precipitation intensity were investigated by the simultaneous measurement of the rainfall intensity under a canopy, the wind speed and direction, and the visibility at the top of the mountain. Air pollution has been improved recently in Japan, but acid fog is not improved and has been affecting the leaves of the trees. In Tanzawa mountains, many fir trees and beech trees are declining, while cedar trees show no decline symptoms. We have investigated the effect of acid fog on the trees of these species by exposing simulated acid fog on the seedlings of the species. Seedlings of fir and beech are much damaged by the long term exposure of pH 3 fog, while cedar seedlings are not affected by the acid fog. By the exposure of simulated acid fog, the epicuticle wax is eroded at first, then the cross linking polycation between sugar chains of cell wall is ion-exchanged with proton and the cell wall is swollen, and the membrane calcium is desorbed from the membrane, which lowers the tolerance of the trees to the climate change. Fir and beech

  17. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  18. Factors controlling water movement in acid spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelou, V.P.; Grove, J.H.; Phillips, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of water movement through toxic spoils plays a major role in reclamation. The toxic chemical constituents found in spoils need to be leached beyond the six inch depth (the usual depth of lime incorporation) since they can easily move upward during periods of high evapotranspiration. The rate of water infiltration plays a role in effective utilization of rain water, and conversely, the amount of surface runoff dictates the degree of surface erosion. Underground water quality may be affected by rates of water movement through a toxic spoil zone. Factors that control water movement through acid spoils were investigated through the use of a column one meter long and 8.0 cm in internal diameter. The maximum hydraulic conductivity was observed in the upper portion of the column where minimum salt buildup occurred. The hydraulic conductivity in this region was 0.5 cm/hr. In the middle portion of the column where a salty (14.0 mmhos/cm) solution was encountered, the hydraulic conductivity was 0.08 cm/hr. In the lower portion of the column where the maximum salt buildup took place (16.8 mmhos/cm), the hydraulic conductivity was found to be 0.03 cm/hr. Similar results were obtained with a small column experiment using calcite and dolomite as different lime sources. The hydraulic conductivity in the dolomitic small column remained relatively unchanged with time and salt depletion.

  19. Field comparison of methods for the measurement of gaseous and particulate contributors to acidic dry deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sickles, J.E.; Hodson, L.L.; McClenny, W.A.; Paur, R.J.; Ellestad, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare methods for sampling and analysis of atmospheric constituents that are important contributors to acidic dry deposition. Three multicomponent samplers were used: the Canadian filter pack (FP), the annular denuder system (ADS), and the transition flow reactor (TFR). A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) provided continuous reference measurements of NO2 and HNO3. Nitrogen dioxide was also monitored with continuous luminol-based chemiluminescence monitors and with passive sampling devices (PSDs). The study was designed to provide a database for statistical comparison of the various methods with emphasis on the multicomponent samplers under consideration for use in a national dry deposition network. The study was conducted at the EPA dry deposition station in Research Triangle Park, NC between 29 September and 12 October, 1986. Daily averaging and/or sampling times were employed for the 13-day study; weekly samples were also collected, but results from these samples are not compared in the paper. Different measurements of ambient concentrations of the following constituents are compared: total particulate and gaseous NO3(-), HNO3, NO2, total particulate NH4(-), NH3, total particulate SO4(-), and SO2.

  20. Imbalance in fatty-acid-chain length of gangliosides triggers Alzheimer amyloid deposition in the precuneus.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Naoto; Matsubara, Teruhiko; Fukuda, Ryoto; Yasumori, Hanaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Sato, Toshinori; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposition, a crucial event of Alzheimer's disease (AD), emerges in distinct brain regions. A key question is what triggers the assembly of the monomeric amyloid ß-protein (Aß) into fibrils in the regions. On the basis of our previous findings that gangliosides facilitate the initiation of Aß assembly at presynaptic neuritic terminals, we investigated how lipids, including gangliosides, cholesterol and sphingomyelin, extracted from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) isolated from autopsy brains were involved in the Aß assembly. We focused on two regions of the cerebral cortex; precuneus and calcarine cortex, one of the most vulnerable and one of the most resistant regions to amyloid deposition, respectively. Here, we show that lipids extracted from SPMs isolated from the amyloid-bearing precuneus, but neither the amyloid-free precuneus nor the calcarine cortex, markedly accelerate the Aß assembly in vitro. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the lipids, we identified an increase in the ratio of the level of GD1b-ganglioside containing C20:0 fatty acid to that containing C18:0 as a cause of the enhanced Aß assembly in the precuneus. Our results suggest that the local glycolipid environment play a critical role in the initiation of Alzheimer amyloid deposition.

  1. Imbalance in Fatty-Acid-Chain Length of Gangliosides Triggers Alzheimer Amyloid Deposition in the Precuneus

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Naoto; Matsubara, Teruhiko; Fukuda, Ryoto; Yasumori, Hanaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Sato, Toshinori; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposition, a crucial event of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), emerges in distinct brain regions. A key question is what triggers the assembly of the monomeric amyloid ß-protein (Aß) into fibrils in the regions. On the basis of our previous findings that gangliosides facilitate the initiation of Aß assembly at presynaptic neuritic terminals, we investigated how lipids, including gangliosides, cholesterol and sphingomyelin, extracted from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) isolated from autopsy brains were involved in the Aß assembly. We focused on two regions of the cerebral cortex; precuneus and calcarine cortex, one of the most vulnerable and one of the most resistant regions to amyloid deposition, respectively. Here, we show that lipids extracted from SPMs isolated from the amyloid-bearing precuneus, but neither the amyloid-free precuneus nor the calcarine cortex, markedly accelerate the Aß assembly in vitro. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the lipids, we identified an increase in the ratio of the level of GD1b-ganglioside containing C20:0 fatty acid to that containing C18:0 as a cause of the enhanced Aß assembly in the precuneus. Our results suggest that the local glycolipid environment play a critical role in the initiation of Alzheimer amyloid deposition. PMID:25798597

  2. Chemical recovery of surface waters across the northeastern united states from reduced inputs of acidic deposition: 1984-2001.

    PubMed

    Warby, Richard A F; Johnson, Chris E; Driscoll, Charles T

    2005-09-01

    Changes in lake water chemistry between 1984 and 2001 at 130 stratified random sites across the northeastern United States were studied to evaluate the population-level effects of decreases in acidic deposition. Surface-water S04(2-) concentrations decreased across the region at a median rate of -1.53 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). Calcium concentrations also decreased, with a median rate of -1.73 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). This decrease in Ca2+ retarded the recovery of surface water acid neutralizing capacity (Gran ANC), which increased at a median rate of 0.66 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). There were small increases in pH in all subregions except central New England and Maine, where the changes were not statistically significant. Median NO3- trends were not significant except in the Adirondacks, where NO3- concentrations increased at a rate of 0.53 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). A regionwide decrease in the concentration of total Al, especially in ponds with low ANC values (ANC < 25 microequiv L(-1)), was observed in the Adirondack subregion. These changes in Al were consistent with the general pattern of increasing pH and ANC. Despite the general pattern of chemical recovery, many ponds remain chronically acidic or are susceptible to episodic acidification. The continued chemical and biological recovery at sites in the northeastern United States will depend on further controls on S and N emissions.

  3. Use of Soil-Streamwater Relationships to Assess Regional Patterns of Recovery from Acidic Deposition Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, J.; Lawrence, G. B.; Murdoch, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Declines of acidic deposition levels by as much as 50% since 1990 have led to partial recovery of surface waters in the Northeastern United States, but continued depletion of soil calcium through this same period suggests a disconnection between soil and surface water chemistry. To investigate the role of soil-surface water interactions in recovery from acidification, the first regional survey to directly relate soil chemistry to stream chemistry during high flow was implemented in the Catskill region of New York, where acidic deposition levels are among the highest in the East. More than 40% of streams sampled in the southwestern Catskill Mountains were determined to be acidified with inorganic monomeric aluminum concentrations that exceeded a threshold that is toxic to aquatic biota and more than 80% likely to exceed this threshold during the highest flows, but less than 10% were acidified in the northwestern portion of the region. Median Oa horizon soil base saturation ranged from 50-80% across the region, but median base saturation in the upper 10cm of the B horizon was less than 20% across the region and was only 2% in the southwestern area. Therefore, aluminum is likely to be interfering with calcium uptake in the mineral horizon by trees in half the watersheds where soils were collected. These results indicate stream chemistry over the Catskill region does not reflect the calcuim depletion of the B horizon that our sampling suggests is ubiquitous throughout the region.

  4. nC60 deposition kinetics: the complex contribution of humic acid, ion concentration, and valence.

    PubMed

    McNew, Coy P; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2016-07-01

    The demonstrated toxicity coupled with inevitable environmental release of nC60 raise serious concerns about its environmental fate and transport, therefore it is crucial to understand how nC60 will interact with subsurface materials including attached phase soil and sediment organic matter (AP-SOM). This study investigated the attachment of nC60 onto a Harpeth humic acid (HHA) coated silica surface under various solution conditions using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The HHA coating greatly enhanced nC60 attachment at low ion concentrations while hindering attachment at high ion concentrations in the presence of both mono and divalent cations. At low ion concentrations, the HHA greatly reduced the surface potential of the silica, enhancing nC60 deposition through reduction in the electrostatic repulsion. At high ion concentrations however, the reduced surface potential became less important due to the near zero energy barrier to deposition and therefore non-DLVO forces dominated, induced by compaction of the HHA layer, and leading to hindered attachment. In this manner, observed contributions from the HHA layer were more complex than previously reported and by monitoring surface charge and calculated DLVO interaction energy alongside attachment experiments, this study advances the mechanistic understanding of the variable attachment contributions from the humic acid layer.

  5. Stretchability of Silver Films on Thin Acid-Etched Rough Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates Fabricated by Electrospray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, S. M.; Cho, K. H.; Kang, C. N.; Choi, K. H.

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the fabrication of Ag films through the electrospray deposition (ESD) technique on sub-millimeter-thick acid-etched rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates having both low and high modulus of elasticity. The main focus of the study is on the stretchable behavior of ESD-deposited Ag nanoparticles-based thin films on these substrates when subjected to axial strains. Experimental results suggest that the as-fabricated films on thin acid-etched rough low modulus PDMS has an average stretchability of 5.6% with an average increase in the resistance that is 23 times that of the initial resistance at electrical failure (complete rupture of the films). Comparatively, the stretchability of Ag films on the high modulus PDMS was found to be 3 times higher with 4.65 times increase in the resistance at electrical failure. Also, a high positive value of the piezoresistive coefficient for these films suggests that the resistivity changes during stretching, and thus deviation from the simplified models is inevitable. Based on these results, new models are presented that quantify the changes in resistance with strain.

  6. Sensitivity of high-elevation streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province to acidic deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Hudy, M.; Fowler, D.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Southern Blue Ridge Province, which encompasses parts of northern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina, has been predicted to be sensitive to impacts from acidic deposition, owing to the chemical composition of the bedrock geology and soils. This study confirms the predicted potential sensitivity, quantifies the level of total alkalinity and describes the chemical characteristics of 30 headwater streams of this area. Water chemistry was measured five times between April 1983 and June 1984 at first and third order reaches of each stream during baseflow conditions. Sensitivity based on total alkalinity and the Calcite Saturation Index indicates that the headwater streams of the Province are vulnerable to acidification. Total alkalinity and p11 were generally higher in third order reaches (mean, 72 ?eq/? and 6.7) than in first order reaches (64 ?eq/? and 6.4). Ionic concentrations were low, averaging 310 and 340 ?eq/? in first and third order reaches, respectively. A single sampling appears adequate for evaluating sensitivity based on total alkalinity, but large temporal variability requires multiple sampling for the detection of changes in pH and alkalinity over time. Monitoring of stream water should continue in order to detect any subtle effects of acidic deposition on these unique resource systems.

  7. nC60 deposition kinetics: the complex contribution of humic acid, ion concentration, and valence.

    PubMed

    McNew, Coy P; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2016-07-01

    The demonstrated toxicity coupled with inevitable environmental release of nC60 raise serious concerns about its environmental fate and transport, therefore it is crucial to understand how nC60 will interact with subsurface materials including attached phase soil and sediment organic matter (AP-SOM). This study investigated the attachment of nC60 onto a Harpeth humic acid (HHA) coated silica surface under various solution conditions using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The HHA coating greatly enhanced nC60 attachment at low ion concentrations while hindering attachment at high ion concentrations in the presence of both mono and divalent cations. At low ion concentrations, the HHA greatly reduced the surface potential of the silica, enhancing nC60 deposition through reduction in the electrostatic repulsion. At high ion concentrations however, the reduced surface potential became less important due to the near zero energy barrier to deposition and therefore non-DLVO forces dominated, induced by compaction of the HHA layer, and leading to hindered attachment. In this manner, observed contributions from the HHA layer were more complex than previously reported and by monitoring surface charge and calculated DLVO interaction energy alongside attachment experiments, this study advances the mechanistic understanding of the variable attachment contributions from the humic acid layer. PMID:27061365

  8. Growth characteristics of Ti-based fumaric acid hybrid thin films by molecular layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan-Qiang; Zhu, Lin; Li, Xin; Cao, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Ti-based fumaric acid hybrid thin films were successfully prepared using inorganic TiCl4 and organic fumaric acid as precursors by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The effect of deposition temperature from 180 °C to 350 °C on the growth rate, composition, chemical state, and topology of hybrid films has been investigated systematically by means of a series of analytical tools such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The MLD process of the Ti-fumaric acid shows self-limiting surface reaction with a reasonable growth rate of ∼0.93 Å per cycle and small surface roughness of ∼0.59 nm in root-mean-square value at 200 °C. A temperature-dependent growth characteristic has been observed in the hybrid films. On increasing the temperature from 180 °C to 300 °C, the growth rate decreases from 1.10 to 0.49 Å per cycle and the XPS composition of the film's C : O : Ti ratio changes from 8.35 : 7.49 : 1.00 to 4.66 : 4.80 : 1.00. FTIR spectra indicate that the hybrid films show bridging bonding mode at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C and bridging/bidentate mixed bonding mode at elevated deposition temperatures of 250 and 300 °C. The higher C and O amounts deviating from the ideal composition may be ascribed to increased organic incorporation into the hybrid films at lower deposition temperature and temperature-dependent density of reactive sites (-OH). The composition of hybrid films grown at 350 °C shows a dramatic decrease in C and O elemental composition (C : O : Ti = 1.97 : 2.76 : 1.00) due to the thermal decomposition of the fumaric acid precursor. The produced by-product H2O changes the structure of the hybrid films, resulting in the formation of more Ti-O bonds at high temperatures. The stability of the hybrid films against chemical and thermal treatment, and long-term storage by

  9. Hatching success in salamanders and chorus frogs at two sites in Colorado, USA: Effects of acidic deposition and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Campbell, D.H.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The snowpack in the vicinity of the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area is among the most acidic in the western United States. We analyzed water chemistry and examined hatching success in tiger salamanders and chorus frogs at ponds there and at nearby Rabbit Ears Pass (Dumont) to determine whether acid deposition affects amphibians or their breeding habitats at these potentially sensitive locations. We found a wide range of acid neutralizing capacity among ponds within sites; the minimum pH recorded during the experiment was 5.4 at one of 12 ponds with all others at pH ??? 5.7. At Dumont, hatching success for chorus frogs was greater in ponds with low acid neutralizing capacity; however, lowest pHs were >5.8. At current levels of acid deposition, weather and pond characteristics are likely more important than acidity in influencing hatching success in amphibian larvae at these sites.

  10. Accumulation of different sulfur fractions in Chinese forest soil under acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyi; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhangwei; Mulder, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Atmogenic sulfur (S) deposition loading by acid rain is one of the biggest environmental problems in China. It is important to know the accumulated S stored in soil, because eventually the size (and also the "desorption" rate) determines how rapidly the soil water pH responds to decrease in S deposition. The S fractions and the ratio of total carbon/total sulfur (C/S) of forest soil in 9 catchments were investigated by comparing soils at the rural and urban sites in China. The S fractions included water-soluble sulfate-S (SO(4)-S), adsorbed SO(4)-S, insoluble SO(4)-S and organic S. The ratio of C/S in soil at the rural site was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that at the urban site. C/S of soil in the A horizon was significantly (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the wet S-deposition rate. The ratio of C/S presents a better indicator for atmogenic S loading. Organic S was the dominant form in soils at rural sites; contributing more than 69% of the total S in the uppermost 30 cm soil. Organic S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were the main forms of S in soil at urban sites. High contents of water-soluble SO(4)-S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were found in uppermost 30 cm soils at urban sites but not at rural sites. Decades of acid rain have caused accumulation of inorganic SO(4)-S in Chinese forest soil especially at the urban sites. The soil at urban sites had been firstly acidified, and the impacts on the forest ecosystem in these areas should be noticed.

  11. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  12. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  13. Control of TTIP Solution for Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet and Deposition of TiO2 Micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiro; Parajulee, Shankar; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

    TiO2 deposition-methods are versatile and are expected to be more simple and easy, however, in recent years the industrial photocatalytic products have been developed enormously. In this work, photocatalytic TiO2 micro-particles are deposited using the atmospheric pressure plasma jet device. Here, deposition-method is carried out in two steps, at first, the hydrolysis reaction time has been able to control which will resolve the TTIP coagulating trouble during the transportation, by acidifying the solution with AA (Acetic acid) and DEA (Diethanolamine). An experiment was performed to measure the hydrolysis reaction time of TTIP (Titanium tetraisopropoxide) solution by He-Ne laser. Secondly, the deposition of TiO2 micro-particles was carried out using the atmospheric pressure plasma jet with the controlled TTIP solution in reaction time. Based on SEM and water contact angle measurement, it is found that the smaller the mixing ratios of TTIP and DEA the smaller the TiO2 particle size. Also, the smaller the TiO2 particles the smaller the contact angle under the UV irradiation which suffices the photocatalytic behavior.

  14. Scalable control program for multiprecursor flow-type atomic layer deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in LABVIEW environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.

  15. Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films

    DOEpatents

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; McCamy, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

  16. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  17. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  18. Responses of 20 lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to historical and potential future acidic deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingtao; Driscoll, Charles T; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2015-04-01

    Critical loads (CLs) and dynamic critical loads (DCLs) are important tools to guide the protection of ecosystems from air pollution. In order to quantify decreases in acidic deposition necessary to protect sensitive aquatic species, we calculated CLs and DCLs of sulfate (SO4(2-))+nitrate (NO3-) for 20 lake-watersheds from the Adirondack region of New York using the dynamic model, PnET-BGC. We evaluated lake water chemistry and fish and total zooplankton species richness in response to historical acidic deposition and under future deposition scenarios. The model performed well in simulating measured chemistry of Adirondack lakes. Current deposition of SO4(2-)+NO3-, calcium (Ca2+) weathering rate and lake acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in 1850 were related to the extent of historical acidification (1850-2008). Changes in lake Al3+ concentrations since the onset of acidic deposition were also related to Ca2+ weathering rate and ANC in 1850. Lake ANC and fish and total zooplankton species richness were projected to increase under hypothetical decreases in future deposition. However, model projections suggest that lake ecosystems will not achieve complete chemical and biological recovery in the future.

  19. Controlled Molten Metal Droplet Deposition for Net-Form Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, Melissa; Michaelis, Matthew; Smith, Robert

    2001-11-01

    Molten metal droplets generated from capillary stream breakup are employed as the deposition element in a droplet-based net-form manufacturing technique that is under development at UCI. The metallic droplets are electrostatically charged at the time of generation and are subsequently deflected onto a substrate by passing them through an electric field. As a showcase to this new technique, we have employed various combinations of electrostatic charging and substrate motion in order to net-form manufacture rectangular components with both thick (2.8 mm) and thin (0.6 mm) walls, tubular components with clover cross-sections, and intriguing metallic braids up to 3.0 meters in length.

  20. A biogeochemical comparison of two well-buffered catchments with contrasting histories of acid deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.; Kram, P.; Hruska, J.; Bullen, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the biogeochemical cycling research in catchments in the past 25 years has been driven by acid deposition research funding. This research has focused on vulnerable base-poor systems; catchments on alkaline lithologies have received little attention. In regions of high acid loadings, however, even well-buffered catchments are susceptible to forest decline and episodes of low alkalinity in streamwater. As part of a collaboration between the Czech and U.S. Geological Surveys, we compared biogeochemical patterns in two well-studied, well-buffered catchments: Pluhuv Bor in the western Czech Republic, which has received high loading of atmospheric acidity, and Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, U.S.A., where acid loading has been considerably less. Despite differences in lithology, wetness, forest type, and glacial history, the catchments displayed similar patterns of solute concentrations and flow. At both catchments, base cation and alkalinity diluted with increasing flow, whereas nitrate and dissolved organic carbon increased with increasing flow. Sulfate diluted with increasing flow at Sleepers River, while at Pluhuv Bor the sulfate-flow relation shifted from positive to negative as atmospheric sulfur (S) loadings decreased and soil S pools were depleted during the 1990s. At high flow, alkalinity decreased to near 100 ??eq L-1 at Pluhuv Bor compared to 400 ??eq L-1 at Sleepers River. Despite the large amounts of S flushed from Pluhuv Bor soils, these alkalinity declines were caused solely by dilution, which was greater at Pluhuv Bor relative to Sleepers River due to greater contributions from shallow flow paths at high flow. Although the historical high S loading at Pluhuv Bor has caused soil acidification and possible forest damage, it has had little effect on the acid/base status of streamwater in this well-buffered catchment. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  1. Chemical and biological status of lakes and streams in the upper midwest: assessment of acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiener, J.G.; Eilers, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Many lakes in three areas in the Upper Midwest - northeastern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan - have low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and may be susceptible to change by acidic deposition. Northcentral Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan together contain about 150-300 acidic lakes (ANC ≤ 0), whereas none have been found in Minnesota. These acidic lakes are precipitation-dominated, Clearwater seepage lakes having small surface area, shallow depth, and low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. The spatial distribution of these acidic lakes parallels a west to east gradient of increasing sulfate and hydrogen ion deposition. Several of these acidic lakes exhibit chemical characteristics and biological changes consistent with those observed elsewhere in waters reported to be acidified by acidic deposition. However, an hypothesis of recent lake acidification is not supported by analyses of either historical chemical data or diatom remains in lake sediments, and natural sources of acidity and alternative ecological processes have not been conclusively eliminated as causative factors. Streams in this three-state region have high ANC and appear to be insensitive to acidic deposition. The species richness and composition of lacustrine fish communities in the region are partly related to pH and associated chemical factors. Sport fishes considered acid-sensitive and of primary concern with regard to acidification include walleye, smallmouth bass, and black crappie. The fishery in at least one lake, Morgan Lake in Wisconsin (pH 4.6), may have declined because of acidification. Given the general lack of quantitative fishery data for acidic Wisconsin and Michigan lakes, however, more general conclusions concerning impacts or the absence of impacts of acidification on the region's fishery resources are not possible.

  2. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  3. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use.

  4. Controllable preparation of a nano-hydroxyapatite coating on carbon fibers by electrochemical deposition and chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Xueni; Wang, Wanying; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Li; He, Fuzhen; Yang, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    A nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) coating with appropriate thickness and morphology similar to that of human bone tissue was directly prepared onto the surfaces of carbon fibers (CFs). A mixed solution of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen peroxide (NHSH) was used in the preparation process. The coating was fabricated by combining NHSH treatment and electrochemical deposition (ECD). NHSH treatment is easy to operate, produces rapid reaction, and highly effective. This method was first used to induce the nucleation and growth of HA crystals on the CF surfaces. Numerous O-containing functional groups, such as hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups, were grafted onto the CF surfaces by NHSH treatment (NHSH-CFs); as such, the amounts of these groups on the functionalized CFs increased by nearly 8- and 12-fold, respectively, compared with those on untreated CFs. After treatment, the NHSH-CFs not only acquired larger specific surface areas but retained surfaces free from serious corrosion or breakage. Hence, NHSH-CFs are ideal depositional substrates of HA coating during ECD. ECD was successfully used to prepare a nano-rod-like HA coating on the NHSH-CF surfaces. The elemental composition, structure, and morphology of the HA coating were effectively controlled by adjusting various technological parameters, such as the current density, deposition time, and temperature. The average central diameter of HA crystals and the coating density increased with increasing deposition time. The average central diameter of most HA crystals on the NHSH-CFs varied from approximately 60 nm to 210 nm as the deposition time increased from 60 min to 180 min. Further studies on a possible deposition mechanism revealed that numerous O-containing functional groups on the NHSH-CF surfaces could associate with electrolyte ions (Ca(2+)) to form special chemical bonds. These bonds can induce HA coating deposition and improve the interfacial bonding strength between the HA

  5. Trends in visibility, PM{sub 2.5}, and deposition expected from the Acid Rain Provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.; Hanson, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) are designed to reduce the deposition of SO{sub 2} and sulfate and, to a lesser extent, the deposition of NO{sub x} and nitrate through reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. However, other important benefits are anticipated from the emission control strategies, including improvement of regional visibility and reductions in concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5). In this study, the authors coupled utility emissions forecasts with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model and the Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) to calculate and compare the relative improvements by 2010 in visual impairment, PM2.5 concentrations, and sulfate wet deposition at selected sites in the eastern United States.

  6. Analysis of southeastern Canada lake-water chemistry data in relation to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Cook, R.B.; Ross-Todd, B.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1990-05-01

    Lake-water chemistry data were obtained for lakes in southeastern Canada to study relationships between atmospheric deposition and acid-base chemistry as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program State of Science and Technology reports. Quality assurance checks were made to ensure that the data used were of sufficient quality and were comparable to data from the United States. Ninety-eight percent of the 8506 sampled lakes had pH, ANC, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2 {minus}} data and were used in our analyses. Of these, we created a subset of 4017 lakes having data for more variable (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, DOC, and conductivity) to analyze potential sources of lake-water acidity. The objectives of this work were to determine the geographical extent and number of potentially affected systems and to infer causes of acidification based on ion ratios. 35 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Granite weathering and the sensitivity of alpine lakes to acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.

    1990-07-01

    Lake chemical data from the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) were corrected for the effects of regional atmospheric deposition and then used to evaluate the role of weathering in supplying base cations, silica, sulfate, and alkalinity to surface waters in alpine vs. subalpine, and in glaciated vs. unglaciated granitic terrane of the western and southeastern US. Thermodynamic models, idealized reaction stoichiometry, and multivariate regression involving solutes and geographic variables indicate that irreversible weathering can largely account for lake chemistry. By contrast, relatively minor roles are played by reversible ion exchange in soils and sediments, terrestrial bioaccumulation, and transformation in lakes. The regional patterns in lake acidity components (NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}, DOC, CO{sub 2}), and statistical relationships between acidity and base cations demonstrate that rock weathering is limited by acid inputs in many alpine catchments prior to fall overturn. The empirical success of the Henriksen alkalinity model depends on a high Ca: Na weathering ration. The latter increase with increasing physical disturbance of the catchment (juvenility), hence under natural circumstances attains a maximum as a result of on-going or recent glaciation. The Henriksen model fails in geochemically old terrane, where cation losses accompanying silicate weathering attain steady state proportions.

  8. Acidification and recovery of a Spodosol BS horizon from acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.; McAvoy, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. A mechanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40, 100, or 160 micromol/L SO4(2-). Following 44 d of leaching, all treatments were decreased to the 40 micromol/L SO4(2-) level to examine recovery from acidification. Acidic additions were initially neutralized by release of basic cations and sulfate adsorption. Following attainment of steady state conditions for basic cations and SO4(2-) with respect to the soil adsorption complex, Al dissolution was the primary neutralization mechanism. Aqueous Al activities appeared to be regulated by equilibrium with an Al(OH)3 mineral phase. Following decreases in acid loadings, recovery was rapid resulting in retention of basic cations, reversible release of SO4(2-) and a marked reduction in the concentrations of soluble Al.

  9. Acidification and recovery of a spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.; McAvoy, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T. )

    1990-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. A mechanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40, 100, or 160 {mu}mol/L SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Following 44 days of leaching, all treatments were decreased to the 40 {mu}mol/L SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} level to examine recovery from acidification. Acid additions were initially neutralized by release of basic cations and sulfate adsorption. Following attainment of steady-state conditions for basic cations and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} with respect to the soil adsorption complex, Al dissolution was the primary neutralization mechanism. Aqueous Al activities appeared to be regulated by equilibrium with an Al(OH){sub 3} mineral phase. Following decreases in acid loadings, recovery was rapid resulting in retention of basic cations, reversible release of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, and a marked reduction in the concentrations of soluble Al.

  10. Is Erica tetralix abundance on wet heathlands controlled by nitrogen deposition or soil acidification?

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten; Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Nielsen, Knud Erik; Bak, Jesper L

    2014-01-01

    Erica tetralix is the key species on NW European wet heathlands, where it is often found to be the dominating plant species. Consequently, it is of considerable concern that the species has decreased significantly in cover from 28% to 18% over a six-year period. In order to understand the underlying causes, a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was applied on ecological data from 1130 wet heathland plots. Both atmospheric N deposition and soil acidification were included in the SEM. The most important causal effect revealed by the SEM was a significant negative effect of N deposition on the cover of E. tetralix, whereas soil acidity tended to have a negative effect of relatively less importance. There was no significant effect of N deposition on soil pH, which indicates that there are no major indirect effects of N deposition on the cover of E. tetralix mediated by soil acidification.

  11. Controllable nitrogen doping in as deposited TiO{sub 2} film and its effect on post deposition annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shaoren; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Devulder, Wouter; Dendooven, Jolien; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Lenaerts, Silvia; Martens, Johan A.; Van den Berghe, Sven

    2014-01-15

    In order to narrow the band gap of TiO{sub 2}, nitrogen doping by combining thermal atomic layer deposition (TALD) of TiO{sub 2} and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of TiN has been implemented. By altering the ratio between TALD TiO{sub 2} and PEALD TiN, the as synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films showed different band gaps (from 1.91 eV to 3.14 eV). In situ x-ray diffraction characterization showed that the crystallization behavior of these films changed after nitrogen doping. After annealing in helium, nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} films crystallized into rutile phase while for the samples annealed in air a preferential growth of the anatase TiO{sub 2} along (001) orientation was observed. Photocatalytic tests of the degradation of stearic acid were done to evaluate the effect of N doping on the photocatalytic activity.

  12. Sulfuric acid karst and its relationship to hydrocarbon reservoir porosity, native sulfur deposits, and the origin of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A. , Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-03-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico and West Texas contains hydrocarbons and native sulfur in the basin and sulfuric acid-formed caves and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits around the margins of the basin. Hydrocarbons reacting with sulfate evaporite rock produced hydrogen sulfide gas, which gas oxidized to native sulfur in the basin and which gas also migrated from basin to reef and accumulated there in structural and stratigraphic traps. In the reduced zone of the carbonate reef margin the H[sub 2]S combined with metal-chloride complexes to form MVTs, and in the oxidized zone later in time the H[sub 2]S formed sulfuric acid which dissolved out the famous caves of the region (e.g., Carlsbad Cavern, Lechuguilla Cave). Sulfuric acid karst can be recognized by the discontinuity, large size, and spongework nature of its cave passages, and by the presence of native sulfur, endellite, and large gypsum deposits within these caves. Sulfuric acid oilfield karst refers to cavernous porosity filled with hydrocarbons and can be produced by the mixing of waters of different H[sub 2]S content or by the oxidation of H[sub 2]S to sulfuric acid. Sulfur and carbon-oxygen isotopes have been used to establish and trace the sequence of related hydrocarbon, sulfur, MVT, and karst events in the Delaware Basin.

  13. Economic assessment of acid deposition and ozone damage on the San Joaquin Valley agriculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howitt, R.

    1993-02-01

    The California Agricultural Resources Model (CARM) was used to estimate the economic impact of acidic deposition and ozone on crops in the San Joaquin Valley. Data on ozone exposure-crop response and agricultural markets are used in the CARM to estimate the potential economic benefits of an improvement in air quality. The study focused on the economic impact of two ozone reduction scenarios in agricultural regions of California. The CARM projected that if growing season concentrations of ozone were reduced to 0.04 ppm, annual benefits to consumers (higher availability and lower prices) and producers (higher production and lower production costs) would be approximately $489 million. In comparison, the benefit projected if statewide levels of ozone were uniformly reduced to 0.025 ppm was approximately $1.5 billion. Although the 0.025 ppm scenario is unlikely, the economic benefits were estimated to be correspondingly large.

  14. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  15. Spectral Characterization of Suspected Acid Deposition Damage in Red Spruce (picea Rubens) Stands from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to demonstrate the utility of remote sensing systems to monitor sites of suspected acid rain deposition damage, intensive field activities, coupled with aircraft overflights, were centered on red spruce stands in Vermont during August and September of 1984. Remote sensing data were acquired using the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, Thematic Mapper Simulator, Barnes Model 12 to 1000 Modular Multiband Radiometer and Spectron Engineering Spectrometer (the former two flown on the NASA C-130; the latter two on A Bell UH-1B Iroquois Helicopter). Field spectral data were acquired during the week of the August overflights using a high spectral resolution spectrometer and two broad-band radiometers. Preliminary analyses of these data indicate a number of spectral differences in vegetation between high and low damage sites. Some of these differences are subtle, and are observable only with high spectral resolution sensors; others are less subtle and are observable using broad-band sensors.

  16. Physical Continuity and Vertical Alignment of Block Copolymer Domains by Kinetically Controlled Electrospray Deposition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanqiong; Choo, Youngwoo; Feng, Xunda; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of block copolymer (BCP) thin films is reported with vertically aligned cylindrical domains using continuous electrospray deposition onto bare wafer surfaces. The out-of-plane orientation of hexagonally packed styrene cylinders is achieved in the "fast-wet" deposition regime in which rapid evaporation of the solvent in deposited droplets of polymer solution drives the vertical alignment of the self-assembled structure. Thermally activated crosslinking of the polybutadiene matrix provides kinetic control of the morphology, freezing the vertical alignment and preventing relaxation of the system to its preferred parallel orientation on the nontreated substrate. Physically continuous vertically oriented domains can be achieved over several micrometers of film thickness. The ability of electrospray deposition to fabricate well-ordered and aligned BCP films on nontreated substrates, the low amount of material used relative to spin-coating, and the continuous nature of the deposition may open up new opportunities for BCP thin films. PMID:25959572

  17. Post-depositional migration and preservation of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, M.; Marchal, O.; Guo, W.; Das, S. B.; Evans, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Methanesulfonic acid (MSA; CH3SO3-) in ice cores is a unique, high-resolution proxy of regional sea ice behavior, marine primary productivity, and synoptic climatology. Significant uncertainties remain, however, in both our understanding of the production and transfer of MSA to the ice sheet, as well as its preservation over time, compromising the paleoclimatological utility of the proxy. Here we apply a numerical modeling approach to quantitatively investigate the post-depositional processes affecting MSA migration and preservation within the firn and ice column, building on recent observational and theoretical studies. Our model allows us to evaluate the timing and magnitude of the vertical movement of MSA in response to varying influences, including the competing effects of 1) concentration gradients of sea-salts typically deposited asynchronously to MSA, 2) snow accumulation and densification rates, and 3) in situ temperature gradients. We first test the model against a recently collected ice core from a high accumulation site in coastal West Antarctica, where monthly-resolved MSA records show an abrupt shift from a summer-to-winter maximum in MSA at ~23m depth (ρ ≈ 650 kg/m3), near the firn-ice transition. We find our model to be a robust predictor of the observed migrational features in this record, capturing both (i) the abrupt shift in summer-to-winter maximal concentrations of MSA (steady state ≈ 3.2 yrs), and (ii) the depression of the seasonal amplitude at depth. Further, our modeling results suggest post-depositional effects can lead to substantial interannual alteration of the MSA signal, contrary to previous assumptions that MSA migration is confined within annual layers at high accumulation sites. Using a broad range of polar MSA records and their associated, site-specific environmental conditions, we will evaluate the fidelity of subannual to interannual variability of MSA records and systematically determine the factors conducive to its

  18. Environmental factors affecting the low temperature isomerization of homohopanes in acidic peat deposits, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianyu; Meyers, Philip A.; Xue, Jiantao; Gong, Linfeng; Wang, Xinxin; Xie, Shucheng

    2015-04-01

    Progressively more evidence reveals the abundant occurrence of the C31 homohopane with a 17α, 21β-configuration (C31 αβ) in immature peats. This compound is commonly considered to be an indicator of thermal maturity in petroleum source rocks, but in peats it has also been interpreted to reflect the oxidation and subsequent decarboxylation reactions of bacteriohopanepolyols with microbially mediated epimerization at C-17 that is catalyzed by the acidic peat conditions. To learn more about the environmental factors that affect the low-temperature isomerization of homohopanes, we investigated the distribution patterns of homohopanes in a well-studied peat core from the Dajiuhu peatland, central China, together with data from modern surface peat samples from Dajiuhu and three other locations. From comparison with paleotemperature and paleohydrologic records in the peat core, we hypothesize that the ratio of C31 αβ hopane relative to the ββ isomer (C31 αβ/ββ) is mainly influenced on a centennial to millennial timescale by ambient temperature with a secondary effect from redox conditions that are defined by peatland water levels. The surface peat samples revealed that relatively high C31 αβ/ββ values occurred under pH < 6. These results suggest that pH is indeed an important factor in the low-temperature isomerization of C31 homohopanes, although the magnitude of the pH effect may be less than those of ambient temperature and redox conditions. In both surface peat and peat horizons from the Dajiuhu peatland, the amount of the C31 αβ compound with R configuration relative to that with S configuration (C31 R/S) varied closely with C31 αβ/ββ, suggesting that the epimerization at both C-17 and C-22 may happen synchronously and at similar rates. This study reveals that the isomerization of homohopanes has the potential to reflect paleoenvironmental changes in acidic peat deposits. In addition, acidic peat samples investigated in this and previous studies

  19. Simulation of acid mine drainage generation around Küre VMS Deposits, Northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Çelik Balci, Nurgül

    2015-04-01

    experiments with mixed acidophiles at higher temperatures. Further depleted Fe(III) values coinciding with decreasing pH may point to precipitation of secondary phases (i.e. jarosite). This study revealed that the metals (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) released during short term leaching of the ore (34 days) are generally caused by acid produced by dissolution reactions rather than oxidation. In the long term experiments a more complex biogeochemical reactions (oxidation and dissolution) take place in conjunction. Key words: Bioleaching, AMD, heavy metal release, environment, acidophilic bacteria, Küre copper ore deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

  20. Amino acid auxotrophy as a system of immunological control nodes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Cells of the immune system are auxotrophs for most amino acids, including several nonessential ones. Arginine and tryptophan are used within the regulatory immune networks to control proliferation and function through pathways that actively deplete the amino acid from the microenvironment or that create regulatory molecules such as nitric oxide or kynurenines. How immune cells integrate information about essential amino acid supplies and then transfer these signals to growth and activation pathways remains unclear but has potential for pathway discovery about amino sensing. In applied research, strategies to harness amino acid auxotrophy so as to block cancerous lymphocyte growth have been attempted for decades with limited success. Emerging insights about amino acid metabolism may lead to new strategies in clinical medicine whereby both amino acid auxotrophy and the immunoregulatory pathways controlled by amino acids can be manipulated.

  1. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.

    1997-05-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical and foliar biochemical markers indicate perturbations in biological processes in healthy red spruce trees across the northeastern USA. Previous research on the dendrochemistry of red spruce stemwood indicated that under uniform environmental conditions, stemwood concentrations of Ca and Mg decreased with increasing radial distance from the pith. For nine forest locations, frequency analysis shows that 28 and 52% of samples of red spruce stemwood formed in the 1960s are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively, relative to wood formed prior to and after the 1960s. This enrichment in trees throughout the northeastern USA may be interpretable as a signal of increased availability of essential cations in forest soils. Such a temporary increase in the availability of Ca and Mg could be caused by cation mobilization, a consequence of increased acidic deposition. During cation mobilization, essential and Ca and Mg as well as potentially harmful Al become more available for interaction with binding sites in the soil and absorbing roots. As conditions which favor cation mobilization continue, Ca and Mg can be leached or displaced from the soil. A measure of the interaction between Ca and Al is the Al/Ca binding ratio (molar charge ratio of exchangeable Al to exchangeable Ca). As the Al/Ca binding ratio in the root zone increased from 0.3 to 1.9, the foliar concentration of the biochemical stress marker putrescine also increased form 45 to 145 nm g{sup {minus}1}. The correlation of the putrescine concentration to the Al/Ca binding ratio (adj. r{sup 2} = 0.68, P <0.027) suggests that foliar stress may be linked to soil chemistry. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Heterogeneous response of central European streams to decreased acidic atmospheric deposition.

    PubMed

    Veseý, Josef; Majer, Vladimir; Norton, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between mountain streamwater chemistry and atmospheric pollution in an arca of 1611 km2 of the Czech Republic by comparing concentrations of SO4. NO3, Cl, Ca and the pH at 432 localities at the time of high (1984-1986) and relatively low (1996-2000) acidic atmospheric deposition. Medians of Cl. SO4, and NO3 decreased by 17, 96 and 60 microeq l(-1), or by 23, 17 and 49%, respectively, during 12 +/- 2 years. The decreased Cl corresponds to decreased emission of industrial Cl (as HCl). The decreased stream SO4 was proportionally lower than the 71% decrease in S-emissions due to leaching of previously accumulated SO4 from soils and non-zero background concentrations. Decreases of NO3 up to 60% in streamwaters with pH < or = 6 was greater than the decrease of N emission in central Europe, about 35%. Extensive regional decrease of NO3 is surprising and is probably described for the first time. The difference in NO3 concentrations between the two periods was probably enhanced by (a) an increase of mineralisation of forest floor in the mid-1980s and (b) by higher uptake of N in the late-1990s. The median pH of the 432 streams did not change but the pH of the sub-population with pH < 6 in the mid-1980s recovered substantially. The pH of circum-neutral streams (pH > 6.5) decreased even as acidic atmospheric deposition decreased.

  3. Controlled Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Pd Nanowires in Ion-Track Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jinglai; Lyu, Shuangbao; Yao, Huijun; Mo, Dan; Chen, Yonghui; Sun, Youmei; Maaz, K.; Maqbool, M.; Liu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and controlling structural properties of the materials are crucial in materials research. In this paper, we report that crystallinity and crystallographic orientation of Pd nanowires can be tailored by varying the fabrication conditions during electrochemical deposition in polycarbonate ion-track templates. By changing the deposition temperature during the fabrication process, the nanowires with both single- and poly-crystallinities were obtained. The wires with preferred crystallographic orientations along [111], [100], and [110] directions were achieved via adjusting the applied voltage and temperature during electrochemical deposition.

  4. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T J; Lawrence, G B; Bailey, S W; McDonnell, T C; Beier, C M; Weathers, K C; McPherson, G T; Bishop, D A

    2013-11-19

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid-base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid-base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  5. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T J; Lawrence, G B; Bailey, S W; McDonnell, T C; Beier, C M; Weathers, K C; McPherson, G T; Bishop, D A

    2013-11-19

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid-base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid-base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition. PMID:24102084

  6. Controls on overbank deposition in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.

    2003-12-01

    Floodplains contain valuable stratigraphic records of past floods, but these records do not always represent flood magnitudes in a straightforward manner. The depositional record generally reflects the magnitude, frequency, and duration of floods, but is also subject to storm-scale hysteresis effects, flood sequencing effects, and decade-scale trends in sediment load. Many of these effects are evident in the recent stratigraphic record of overbank floods along the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), where the floodplain has been aggrading for several thousand years. On low-lying floodplain surfaces in Iowa and Wisconsin, 137Cs profiles suggest average vertical accretion rates of about 10 mm/year since 1954. These rates are slightly less than rates that prevailed earlier in the 20th Century, when agricultural land disturbance was at a maximum, but they are still an order of magnitude greater than long-term average rates for the Holocene. As a result of soil conservation practices, accretion rates have decreased in recent decades despite an increase in the frequency of large floods. The stratigraphic record of the Upper Mississippi River floodplain is dominated by spring snowmelt events, because they are twice as frequent as rainfall floods, last almost twice as long, and are sometimes associated with very high sediment concentrations. The availability of sediment during floods is also influenced by a strong hysteresis effect. Peak sediment concentrations generally precede the peak discharges by 1-4 weeks, and concentrations are usually low (<50 mg/l) during the peak stages of most floods. The lag between peak concentration and peak discharge is especially large during spring floods, when much of the runoff is contributed by snowmelt in the far northern reaches of the valley. The great flood of 1993 on the Mississippi River focused attention on the geomorphic effectiveness and stratigraphic signature of large floods. At McGregor, where the peak discharge had a recurrence

  7. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of trichloroacetic acid in Scotland: results from a 2-year sampling campaign.

    PubMed

    Heal, M R; Reeves, N M; Cape, J N

    2003-06-15

    The first long-term concurrent measurements of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in rainwater, in cloudwater, and in air (both gas and particle phase) are reported. Measurements were made weekly between June 1998 and April 2000 at a rural forested upland site in SE Scotland. Rainwater TCA concentration did not differ significantly between two elevations (602 and 275 m asl), with precipitation-weighted mean values of 0.77 and 0.70 microg L(-1), respectively (n > 75). The precipitation-weighted mean concentration of TCA in cloudwater at the highest elevation was 0.92 microg L(-1), yielding an average cloudwater enrichment factor of 1.2, considerably lower than for other inorganic ions measured. Rainwater and cloudwater TCA concentrations did not vary systematically with season. Since wet precipitation depth also did not vary systematically with season, the wet deposition fluxes of TCA were likewise invariant (annual fluxes at the highest elevation of 880 and 130 microg m(-2), respectively, for rain and cloud interception to spruce forest). Weekly integrated concentrations of TCA in air (gas and particle) were very low (median 25 pg m(-3), range < LOD-110 pg m(-3)). The estimated upper limit for annual dry deposition of TCA at this site was approximately 20 microg m(-2), assuming a deposition velocity of 2 cm s(-1). Concentrations of TCA in air correlated reasonably strongly with concentrations in rainwater, with a partition ratio approximately equal to the Henry's law coefficient. On average, only about 23% of TCA measured in Edinburgh air was associated with the particle phase. These measurements are consistent with the observed high scavenging ratio of TCA (ratio of concentration in air to concentration in rainwater). Overall, these data confirm that the atmosphere is an important source of TCA to the environment and that precipitation is the dominant transfer mechanism. In line with previous work, the atmospheric deposition flux is greater than expected from the current

  8. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a commercial prototype

  9. Patterns of acid deposition variability in the Eastern United States, 1981-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.; Lanfear, K.J.; Schertz, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in pH and a decrease in sulfate concentration of precipitation were recorded at National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring sites in the Eastern United States between 1981 and 1984. The decline in acidity, however, was not spatially or temporally uniform. The range in acidity and sulfate concentrations decreased during the four-yr period. Variations in the area of constant pH surfaces take the general form of area reductions in both the lower (pH 4.01-4.40) and upper (pH 4.91-5.40) range of values with concomitant area increases in the middle (pH 4.41-4.90) range. The pattern for sulfate is simpler, with area increases occurring in the lower (1.0-1.9 mg/L) range, decreases in the upper (2.5-4.4 mg/L) range, with approximate stability in the middle (2.0-2.4 mg/L) range of values. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Acid deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region: a policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Colin J; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-12-01

    Industrial emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) to the atmosphere associated with the oil sands industry in north-eastern Alberta are of interest as they represent the largest localized source in Canada (with potential for future growth) and the region features acid-sensitive upland terrain. Existing emission management policy for the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo, where the industry is located, is based on a time-to-effect approach that relies on dynamic model simulations of temporal changes in chemistry and features highly protective chemical criteria. In practice, the policy is difficult to implement and it is unlikely that a scientifically defensible estimate of acidification risk can be put forward due to the limitations primarily associated with issues of scale, chemical endpoint designation (selection of chemical limit for ecosystem protection from acidification) and data availability. A more implementable approach would use a steady-state critical load (CL) assessment approach to identify at-risk areas. The CL assessment would consider areas of elevated acid deposition associated with oil sands emissions rather than targeted political jurisdictions. Dynamic models should only be (strategically) used where acidification risk is identified via CL analysis, in order to characterize the potential for acidification-induced changes that can be detrimental to sensitive biota within the lifespan of the industry. PMID:26607154

  11. Acid deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region: a policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Colin J; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-12-01

    Industrial emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) to the atmosphere associated with the oil sands industry in north-eastern Alberta are of interest as they represent the largest localized source in Canada (with potential for future growth) and the region features acid-sensitive upland terrain. Existing emission management policy for the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo, where the industry is located, is based on a time-to-effect approach that relies on dynamic model simulations of temporal changes in chemistry and features highly protective chemical criteria. In practice, the policy is difficult to implement and it is unlikely that a scientifically defensible estimate of acidification risk can be put forward due to the limitations primarily associated with issues of scale, chemical endpoint designation (selection of chemical limit for ecosystem protection from acidification) and data availability. A more implementable approach would use a steady-state critical load (CL) assessment approach to identify at-risk areas. The CL assessment would consider areas of elevated acid deposition associated with oil sands emissions rather than targeted political jurisdictions. Dynamic models should only be (strategically) used where acidification risk is identified via CL analysis, in order to characterize the potential for acidification-induced changes that can be detrimental to sensitive biota within the lifespan of the industry.

  12. 22 CFR 124.4 - Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 124.4 Section 124.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.4 Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. (a) The United States party to...

  13. 22 CFR 124.4 - Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 124.4 Section 124.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.4 Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. (a) The United States party to...

  14. Chemical recovery of surface waters across the Northeastern United States from reduced inputs of acidic deposition: 1984-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A.F. Warby; Chris E. Johnson; Charles T. Driscoll

    2005-09-01

    Changes in lake water chemistry between 1984 and 2001 at 130 stratified random sites across the northeastern United States were studied to evaluate the population-level effects of decreases in acidic deposition. Surface-water SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations decreased across the region at a median rate of -1.53 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. Calcium concentrations also decreased, with a median rate of -1.73 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. This decrease in Ca{sub 2+} retarded the recovery of surface water acid neutralizing capacity (Gran ANC), which increased at a median rate of 0.66 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. There were small increases in pH in all subregions except central New England and Maine, where the changes were not statistically significant. Median NO{sub 3}{sup -} trends were not significant except in the Adirondacks, where NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations increased at a rate of 0.53 equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. A regionwide decrease in the concentration of total Al, especially in ponds with low ANC values (ANC {lt} 25 {mu}equiv L{sup -1}), was observed in the Adirondack subregion. These changes in Al were consistent with the general pattern of increasing pH and ANC. Despite the general pattern of chemical recovery, many ponds remain chronically acidic or are susceptible to episodic acidification. The continued chemical and biological recovery at sites in the northeastern United States will depend on further controls on S and N emissions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange of anions and cations in two plantation forests under acid rain influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weijun; Ren, Huili; Darrel Jenerette, G.; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition as a widely concerned environmental problem in China has been less studied in plantation forests compared to urban and secondary forests, albeit they constitute 1/3 of the total forested areas of the country. We measured the rainwater amount and chemistry outside and beneath the canopies of two widely distributed plantations (Acacia mangium and Dimocarpus longan) in the severe acid rain influenced Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China for two years. Our results showed that the frequency of acid rain was 96% on the basis of pH value <5.6. The volume-weighted mean (vwm) pH was 4.62 and higher in the dry (Oct.-Mar.) than in the wet (Apr.-Sep.) seasons. The major acidic anion was sulfate with vwm concentration of 140 μeq l-1 and annual deposition flux of 110.3 kg ha-1 yr-1. The major neutralizing cations were calcium (94.8 μeq l-1 and 28 kg ha-1 yr-1) and ammonium (41.2 μeq l-1 and 11.7 kg ha-1 yr-1). Over 95% of these major acidic anions and neutralizing cations were derived from anthropogenic and terrestrial sources as a result of industrial, agricultural and forestry activities. Plantation canopy had marked impacts on rainwater chemistry, with the measured anion and cation concentrations being significantly enriched in throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) rainwater by 1.4 (for NO) to 20-fold (for K+) compared to those in bulk precipitation (BP). Dry deposition generally contributed about 13-22% of the total deposition while canopy leaching mainly occurred for K+ (>88%) and NH (10-38%). The two tree species showed distinct impacts on rainfall redistribution and rainwater chemistry due to their differences in canopy architecture and leaf/bark texture, suggesting that species-specific effects should not be overlooked while assessing the acid deposition in forested areas.

  16. Controlled deposition of plasma activated coatings on zirconium substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela

    2015-12-01

    Zirconium-based alloys are promising materials for orthopedic prostheses due to their low toxicity, superb corrosion resistivity, and favorable mechanical properties. The integration of such bio-implantable devices with local host tissues can strongly be improved by the development of a plasma polymerized acetylene and nitrogen (PPAN) that immobilizes bio-active molecules. The surface chemistry of PPAN is critically important as it plays a key role in affecting the surface free energy that alters the functionality of bio-active molecules at the surface. The cross-linking degree of PPAN is another key property that directly influences the water-permeability and thus also the stability of films in aqueous media. In this study we demonstrate that by simply tuning the zirconium bias voltage, control over the surface chemistry and cross-linking degree of PANN is achieved.

  17. Source-control techniques for acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.D.; Wilmoth, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    The potential for production of acidic discharges from mining activities is related to the pyritic concentration in the overburden and to the available alkalinity. Exposure of the pyritic material to weathering causes oxidation and the release of sulfuric acid. Source control techniques include pyrite segregation the selective burial, use of bacteriacides to retard bacterial catalysis, use of alkaline reagents to provide in-situ treatment, and the use of treatment systems to neutralize acidic drainages.

  18. Control of stability and structure of nucleic acids using cosolutes.

    PubMed

    Tateishi-Karimta, Hisae; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-05-15

    The stabilities, structures, and functions of nucleic acids are responsive to surrounding conditions. Living cells contain biomolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and other soluble and insoluble low-molecular weight components, that occupy a significant fraction of the cellular volume (up to 40%), resulting in a highly crowded intracellular environment. We have proven that conditions that mimic features of this intra-cellular environment alter the physical properties affect the stability, structure, and function of nucleic acids. The ability to control structure of nucleic acids by mimicking intra-cellular conditions will be useful in nanotechnology applications of nucleic acids. This paper describes methods that can be used to analyze quantitatively the intra-cellular environment effects caused by cosolutes on nucleic acid structures and to regulate properties of nucleic acids using cosolutes.

  19. Evaporative Deposition of Aluminum Coatings and Shapes with Grain Size Control

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2003-02-19

    The direct deposition of coatings with variable cross-section profiles presents a challenge for the use of physical vapor deposition technology. Coatings with constant and variable cross-section profiles are of interest for advancing the evaluation of material behavior under extreme loading conditions, as for example under high strain rate. The synthesis of a variable cross-section profile by design in the as-deposited condition requires process innovation. It is demonstrated that a thickness gradient in cross-section can be produced when the substrate is exposed to a highly collimated evaporation source. The exposure is governed using a variable position shutter as driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor. An example is shown for aluminum deposition in which the coating thickness varies linearly from one plateau to another forming a wedge shape. To deposit a controlled grain size in coatings as these wedge shapes, first requires an understanding of the affect of time at temperature. An examination of aluminum coatings with constant cross-section reveals that ideal-grain growth behavior is observed from the micron-to-millimeter scale for depositions at temperatures in excess of half the melt point.

  20. Depositional, diagenetic, and tectonic controls on Frontier Formation reservoir characteristics: Moxa Arch, southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Frontier Formation of the Moxa Arch in Southwestern Wyoming provides an excellent example of the interplay among sedimentation, diagenesis, and tectonics on reservoir quality and performance. During the Cretaceous, thrust uplift and crustal loading occurred in the Sevier Orogenic Belt to the west of the foreland basin. The thrust sheets provided ample sediment to the Moxa Arch area during Frontier time. These sediments accumulated in wave-dominated deltaic, strandplain, coastalplain, and incised valley-fill depositional environments. The tectonic activity in the Sevier Orogenic Belt caused recurrent differential movement of orthogonally-shaped basement blocks along the Moxa Arch. These Movements created fractured lineaments at block boundaries. In addition, the recurrent movements of basement blocks influenced paleostructuring, diagenetic fluid migration paths, and sediment dispersal patterns of the Frontier. The depositional facies of Frontier sediments control the primary porosity and permeability trends of Frontier reservoirs along the Moxa Arch. Post depositional fractures caused by recurrent differential movements along zones of weakness at basement block boundaries secondarily enhance permeability and performance characteristics of Frontier reservoirs. Both the depositional facies and post-depositional fracturing of the Frontier influence the diagenetic trends affecting secondary porosity and permeability characteristics of Frontier reservoirs along the Moxa Arch. It is this complicated interplay of depositional, tectonic, and diagenetic influences that control the characteristics of Frontier reservoirs along the Moxa Arch.

  1. Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang

    2014-01-15

    The origin of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) occurring in hydrosphere has long been a controversial issue. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ambient mixing ratios are continually growing. Here we present rainwater TFA monitored from April 2007 to March 2008 in urban Guangzhou, a central city in south China's highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta region. Rainwater TFA levels ranged 45.8-974 ng L(-1) with a median of 166 ng L(-1). TFA levels negatively correlated with rainfall amount, the yearly rainfall-weighted average for TFA was 152 ng L(-1). The annual TFA wet deposition flux was estimated to be 229 g km(-2) yr(-1), and the total wet deposition of TFA reached ~1.7 tyr(-1) in Guangzhou. The Two-Box model was applied to estimate attributions of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers to rainwater TFA assuming TFA generated was proportional to gross domestic product (GDP), gross industrial product (GIP) or number of private cars. The results revealed that the degradation of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers could explain 131.5-152.4 ng L(-1) rainwater TFA, quite near the observed rainfall-weighted annual mean of 152 ng L(-1), suggesting rainwater TFA in Guangzhou was predominantly originated from these anthropogenic precursors. HCFCs/HFCs accounted for 83.3-96.5% of rainwater TFA observed, while fluoropolymers' contributions were minor (~5%). HFC-134a alone could explain 55.9-90.0% of rainwater TFA, and its contribution would be greatly enhanced with its wide use in mobile air conditioning systems and rapid increase in ambient mixing ratios.

  2. Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang

    2014-01-15

    The origin of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) occurring in hydrosphere has long been a controversial issue. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ambient mixing ratios are continually growing. Here we present rainwater TFA monitored from April 2007 to March 2008 in urban Guangzhou, a central city in south China's highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta region. Rainwater TFA levels ranged 45.8-974 ng L(-1) with a median of 166 ng L(-1). TFA levels negatively correlated with rainfall amount, the yearly rainfall-weighted average for TFA was 152 ng L(-1). The annual TFA wet deposition flux was estimated to be 229 g km(-2) yr(-1), and the total wet deposition of TFA reached ~1.7 tyr(-1) in Guangzhou. The Two-Box model was applied to estimate attributions of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers to rainwater TFA assuming TFA generated was proportional to gross domestic product (GDP), gross industrial product (GIP) or number of private cars. The results revealed that the degradation of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers could explain 131.5-152.4 ng L(-1) rainwater TFA, quite near the observed rainfall-weighted annual mean of 152 ng L(-1), suggesting rainwater TFA in Guangzhou was predominantly originated from these anthropogenic precursors. HCFCs/HFCs accounted for 83.3-96.5% of rainwater TFA observed, while fluoropolymers' contributions were minor (~5%). HFC-134a alone could explain 55.9-90.0% of rainwater TFA, and its contribution would be greatly enhanced with its wide use in mobile air conditioning systems and rapid increase in ambient mixing ratios. PMID:24035981

  3. Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Nandita; Cross, Graham L. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report control of droplet-deposit uniformity of long silver nanowires suspended in solutions by microscopic influence of the liquid contact line. Substrates with microfabricated line patterns with a pitch far smaller than mean wire length lead to deposit thickness uniformity compared to unpatterned substrates. For high boiling-point solvents, two significant effects were observed: The substrate patterns suppressed coffee ring staining, and the wire deposits exhibited a common orientation lying perpendicular over top the lines. The latter result is completely distinct from previously reported substrate groove channeling effects. This work shows that microscopic influence of the droplet contact line geometry including the contact angle by altered substrate wetting allows significant and advantageous influence of deposition patterns of wire-like solutes as the drop dries.

  4. Electron flux controlled switching between electron beam induced etching and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Milos; Lobo, Charlene J.; Hartigan, Gavin; Ralph Knowles, W.

    2007-03-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) and etching (EBIE) are promising methods for the fabrication of three-dimensional nanodevices, wiring of nanostructures, and repair of photolithographic masks. Here, we study simultaneous EBID and EBIE, and demonstrate an athermal electron flux controlled transition between material deposition and etching. The switching is observed when one of the processes has both a higher efficiency and a lower precursor partial pressure than the other. This is demonstrated in two technologically important systems: during XeF2-mediated etching of chrome on a photolithographic mask and during deposition and etching of carbonaceous films on a semiconductor surface. Simultaneous EBID and EBIE can be used to enhance the spatial localization of etch profiles. It plays a key role in reducing contamination buildup rates during low vacuum electron imaging and deposition of high purity nanostructures in the presence of oxygen-containing gases.

  5. Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning.

    PubMed

    Basu, Nandita; Cross, Graham L W

    2015-12-01

    We report control of droplet-deposit uniformity of long silver nanowires suspended in solutions by microscopic influence of the liquid contact line. Substrates with microfabricated line patterns with a pitch far smaller than mean wire length lead to deposit thickness uniformity compared to unpatterned substrates. For high boiling-point solvents, two significant effects were observed: The substrate patterns suppressed coffee ring staining, and the wire deposits exhibited a common orientation lying perpendicular over top the lines. The latter result is completely distinct from previously reported substrate groove channeling effects. This work shows that microscopic influence of the droplet contact line geometry including the contact angle by altered substrate wetting allows significant and advantageous influence of deposition patterns of wire-like solutes as the drop dries. PMID:26559042

  6. Control of instability in nitric acid evaporators for plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Improved control of the nitric acid process evaporators requires the detection of spontaneously unstable operating conditions. This process reduces the volume of contaminated liquid by evaporating nitric acid and concentrating salt residues. If a instability is identified quickly, prompt response can avert distillate contamination. An algorithm applied to the runtime data was evaluated to detect this situation. A snapshot of data from a histogram in the old process control software was captured during the unstable conditions and modeled.

  7. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    DOEpatents

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  8. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, A.J.; Pregitzer, K.S. ); Reed, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63{degree} to 41{degree}. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} for all species and 192 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production.

  9. Nitric acid dry deposition to conifer forests: Niwot Ridge spruce-fir-pine study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievering, H.; Kelly, T.; McConville, G.; Seibold, C.; Turnipseed, A.

    2001-01-01

    The dry deposition velocity of nitric acid, Vd(HNO3), over a 12-m (mean height) spruce-fir forest at Niwot Ridge, Colorado was estimated during 13 daytime periods using the flux-gradient approach. Turbulence intensity at this site is high (mean u* of 0.65ms-1 with u of 2.9ms-1) and contributed to the large observed Vd(HNO3). The overriding contributor is identified to be the small aerodynamic needle width of the conifer trees. Two cases had inflated Vd(HNO3) due to height-differentiated nitric acid loss to soil-derived particle surfaces. Not considering these cases, the mean Vd(HNO3) was 7.6cms-1. The mean laminar boundary layer resistance (Rb) was found to be 7.8sm-1 (of similar magnitude to that of the aerodynamic resistance, 8.5sm-1). The data-determined Rb is bracketed by two theoretical estimates of the mean Rb, 5.9 and 8.6sm-1, that include consideration of the small canopy length scale (aerodynamic needle width), 1mm or less, at this conifer forest. However, the poor correlation of data-determined Rb values with both sets of theoretical estimates indicates that measurement error needs to be reduced and/or improved formulations of theoretical Rb values are in order. The large observed Vd(HNO3) at this conifer forest site is attributed to high turbulence intensity, and, especially, to small aerodynamic needle width. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. An Assessment of Student Knowledge in Fourth, Eighth and Eleventh Grades of Science and Natural Resource Concepts Related to Acidic Deposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael; And Others

    This study assessed the level of scientific and natural resource knowledge that 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Maine possessed concerning acidic deposition. A representative sample of public school students (n=175) was interviewed on 12 concept principles considered critical to a full understanding of the acidic deposition problem. These…

  11. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  12. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  13. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  14. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Chemical controls on alteration and mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Large bulk-tonnage high-sulfidation gold deposits, such as Yanacocha, Peru, are the surface expression of structurally-controlled lode gold deposits, such as El Indio, Chile. Both formed in active andesite-dacite volcanic terranes. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and geologic data show that lode deposits formed within 1500. m of the paleo-surface as a consequence of the expansion of low-salinity, low-density magmatic vapor with very limited, if any, groundwater mixing. They are characterized by an initial 'Sulfate' Stage of advanced argillic wallrock alteration ?? alunite commonly with intense silicification followed by a 'Sulfide' Stage - a succession of discrete sulfide-sulfosalt veins that may be ore grade in gold and silver. Fluid inclusions in quartz formed during wallrock alteration have homogenization temperatures between 100 and over 500 ??C and preserve a record of a vapor-rich environment. Recent data for El Indio and similar deposits show that at the commencement of the Sulfide Stage, 'condensation' of Cu-As-S sulfosalt melts with trace concentrations of Sb, Te, Bi, Ag and Au occurred at > 600 ??C following pyrite deposition. Euhedral quartz crystals were simultaneously deposited from the vapor phase during crystallization of the vapor-saturated melt occurs to Fe-tennantite with progressive non-equilibrium fractionation of heavy metals between melt-vapor and solid. Vugs containing a range of sulfides, sulfosalts and gold record the changing composition of the vapor. Published fluid inclusion and mineralogical data are reviewed in the context of geological relationships to establish boundary conditions through which to trace the expansion of magmatic vapor from source to surface and consequent alteration and mineralization. Initially heat loss from the vapor is high resulting in the formation of acid condensate permeating through the wallrock. This Sulfate Stage alteration effectively isolates the expansion of magmatic vapor in subsurface fracture arrays

  15. The effects of acid deposition on sulfate reduction and methane production in peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Georgia L.; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Peatlands, as fens and bods, make up a large percentage of northern latitude terrestrial environments. They are organic rich and support an active community of anaerobic bacteria, such as methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The end products of these microbial activities, methane and hydrogen sulfide, are important components in the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur. Since these two bacterial groups compete for nutritional substrates, increases in sulfate deposition due to acid rain potentially can disrupt the balance between these processes leading to a decrease in methane production and emission. This is significant because methane is a potent greenhouse gas that effects the global heat balance. A section of Mire 239 in the Experimental Lakes Area, in Northwestern Ontario, was artificially acidified and rates of sulfate reduction and methane production were measured with depth. Preliminary results suggested that methane production was not affected immediately after acidification. However, concentrations of dissolved methane decreased and dissolved sulfide increased greatly after acidification and both took several days to recover. The exact mechanism for the decrease in methane was not determined. Analyses are under way which will be used to determine rates of sulfate reduction. These results will be available by Spring and will be discussed.

  16. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of antibiotic loaded PHBV microsphere-alginate composite coating with controlled delivery potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Wei; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Ding, Yaping; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-06-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has been developed for the fabrication of antibiotic-loaded PHBV microsphere (MS)-alginate antibacterial coatings. The composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different MS concentrations were produced in order to demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method for achieving functional coatings with tailored drug loading and release profiles. Linearly increased deposit mass with increasing MS concentrations was obtained, and MS were found to be homogeneously stabilized in the alginate matrix. Chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, laser profilometer and water contact angle instruments, respectively. The co-deposition mechanism was described by two separate processes according to the results of relevant measurements: (i) the deposition of alginate-adsorbed MS and (ii) the non-adsorbed alginate. Qualitative antibacterial tests indicated that MS containing coatings exhibit excellent inhibition effects against E. coli (gram-negative bacteria) after 1h of incubation. The proposed coating system combined with the simplicity of the EPD technique can be considered a promising surface modification approach for the controlled in situ delivery of drug or other biomolecules.

  18. Distribution of soil selenium in China is potentially controlled by deposition and volatilization?

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Meharg, Andrew A; Li, Gang; Chen, Zheng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Song-Can; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the environmental drivers of selenium (Se) spatial distribution in soils at a continental scale is essential to better understand it's biogeochemical cycling to improve Se transfer into diets. Through modelling Se biogeochemistry in China we found that deposition and volatilization are key factors controlling distribution in surface soil, rather than bedrock-derived Se (<0.1 mg/kg). Wet deposition associated with the East Asian summer monsoon, and dry deposition associated with the East Asian winter monsoon, are responsible for dominant Se inputs into northwest and southeast China, respectively. In Central China the rate of soil Se volatilization is similar to that of Se deposition, suggesting that Se volatilization offsets it's deposition, resulting in negligible net Se input in soil. Selenium in surface soil at Central China is roughly equal to low petrogenic Se, which is the main reason for the presence of the Se poor belt. We suggest that both deposition and volatilization of Se could play a key role in Se balance in other terrestrial environments worldwide. PMID:26883576

  19. Distribution of soil selenium in China is potentially controlled by deposition and volatilization?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Meharg, Andrew A.; Li, Gang; Chen, Zheng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Song-Can; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the environmental drivers of selenium (Se) spatial distribution in soils at a continental scale is essential to better understand it’s biogeochemical cycling to improve Se transfer into diets. Through modelling Se biogeochemistry in China we found that deposition and volatilization are key factors controlling distribution in surface soil, rather than bedrock-derived Se (<0.1 mg/kg). Wet deposition associated with the East Asian summer monsoon, and dry deposition associated with the East Asian winter monsoon, are responsible for dominant Se inputs into northwest and southeast China, respectively. In Central China the rate of soil Se volatilization is similar to that of Se deposition, suggesting that Se volatilization offsets it’s deposition, resulting in negligible net Se input in soil. Selenium in surface soil at Central China is roughly equal to low petrogenic Se, which is the main reason for the presence of the Se poor belt. We suggest that both deposition and volatilization of Se could play a key role in Se balance in other terrestrial environments worldwide. PMID:26883576

  20. Distribution of soil selenium in China is potentially controlled by deposition and volatilization?

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Meharg, Andrew A; Li, Gang; Chen, Zheng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Song-Can; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the environmental drivers of selenium (Se) spatial distribution in soils at a continental scale is essential to better understand it's biogeochemical cycling to improve Se transfer into diets. Through modelling Se biogeochemistry in China we found that deposition and volatilization are key factors controlling distribution in surface soil, rather than bedrock-derived Se (<0.1 mg/kg). Wet deposition associated with the East Asian summer monsoon, and dry deposition associated with the East Asian winter monsoon, are responsible for dominant Se inputs into northwest and southeast China, respectively. In Central China the rate of soil Se volatilization is similar to that of Se deposition, suggesting that Se volatilization offsets it's deposition, resulting in negligible net Se input in soil. Selenium in surface soil at Central China is roughly equal to low petrogenic Se, which is the main reason for the presence of the Se poor belt. We suggest that both deposition and volatilization of Se could play a key role in Se balance in other terrestrial environments worldwide.

  1. Distribution of soil selenium in China is potentially controlled by deposition and volatilization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Meharg, Andrew A.; Li, Gang; Chen, Zheng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Song-Can; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-02-01

    Elucidating the environmental drivers of selenium (Se) spatial distribution in soils at a continental scale is essential to better understand it’s biogeochemical cycling to improve Se transfer into diets. Through modelling Se biogeochemistry in China we found that deposition and volatilization are key factors controlling distribution in surface soil, rather than bedrock-derived Se (<0.1 mg/kg). Wet deposition associated with the East Asian summer monsoon, and dry deposition associated with the East Asian winter monsoon, are responsible for dominant Se inputs into northwest and southeast China, respectively. In Central China the rate of soil Se volatilization is similar to that of Se deposition, suggesting that Se volatilization offsets it’s deposition, resulting in negligible net Se input in soil. Selenium in surface soil at Central China is roughly equal to low petrogenic Se, which is the main reason for the presence of the Se poor belt. We suggest that both deposition and volatilization of Se could play a key role in Se balance in other terrestrial environments worldwide.

  2. Tectonic control of Cretaceous gravity deposits and submarine Valleys in the subalpine basin, French western Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe, J.; Beaudoin, B.; Fries, G.; Parize, O.

    1988-08-01

    The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous series of the French subalpine basin is characterized by alternating limestones and marls with numerous, thick gravity-flow deposits (carbonate debris flows and slumps, siliciclastic grain flows, turbidites). These gravity deposits originate from platforms and slopes and come through the basin via several parallel canyons and submarine valleys. Some carbonate (Berriasian) and siliciclastic (Aptian) deep-sea fans are built at the canyon mouth during intense activity of the canyons and reworking of the sediments. The tectonic control of the gravity deposits is demonstrated by the position and filling of the submarine valleys all along the Cretaceous. The submarine valleys correspond systematically to the lower part of extensional tilted blocks; the gravity deposits come along the main syn-sedimentary normal faults delimiting these tilted blocks. The gravity deposits go from one tilted block to another through some synsedimentary passes which are induced by slight folding, perhaps related to an early diapirism at some nodes of extensional faults. The canyon-like valleys are due to very strong erosion when a submarine valley cuts of the higher part of a tilted block. The gravity deposits are stacked atop each other and progressively fill the valleys. Thus the cutting and filling of the submarine valleys and canyons on occasions during the Early Cretaceous are explained by a permanent synsedimentary activity. These Jurassic and Cretaceous extensional structures are later reactivated by inversion during Tertiary compressional movements.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of antibiotic loaded PHBV microsphere-alginate composite coating with controlled delivery potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Wei; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Ding, Yaping; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-06-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has been developed for the fabrication of antibiotic-loaded PHBV microsphere (MS)-alginate antibacterial coatings. The composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different MS concentrations were produced in order to demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method for achieving functional coatings with tailored drug loading and release profiles. Linearly increased deposit mass with increasing MS concentrations was obtained, and MS were found to be homogeneously stabilized in the alginate matrix. Chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, laser profilometer and water contact angle instruments, respectively. The co-deposition mechanism was described by two separate processes according to the results of relevant measurements: (i) the deposition of alginate-adsorbed MS and (ii) the non-adsorbed alginate. Qualitative antibacterial tests indicated that MS containing coatings exhibit excellent inhibition effects against E. coli (gram-negative bacteria) after 1h of incubation. The proposed coating system combined with the simplicity of the EPD technique can be considered a promising surface modification approach for the controlled in situ delivery of drug or other biomolecules. PMID:25921640

  4. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  5. A novel role of PR2 in abscisic acid (ABA) mediated, pathogen-induced callose deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oide, Shinichi; Bejai, Sarosh; Staal, Jens; Guan, Na; Kaliff, Maria; Dixelius, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein 2 (PR2) is known to play a major role in plant defense and general stress responses. Resistance against the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans in Arabidopsis requires abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes the deposition of callose, a β-1,3-glucan polymer. Here, we examined the role of PR2 in callose deposition in relation to ABA treatment and challenge with L. maculans and Pseudomonas syringae. Characterization of PR2-overexpressing plants and the knockout line indicated that PR2 negatively affects callose deposition. Recombinant PR2 purified from Pichia pastoris showed callose-degrading activity, and a considerable reduction in the callose-degrading activity was observed in the leaf extract of the PR2 knockout line compared with the wild-type. ABA pretreatment before challenge with L. maculans concomitantly repressed PR2 and enhanced callose accumulation. Likewise, overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene NCED3 resulted in reduced PR2 expression and increased callose deposition. We propose that ABA promotes callose deposition through the transcriptional repression of PR2 in Arabidopsis challenged by L. maculans and P. syringae. Callose by itself is likely to act antagonistically on salicylic acid (SA) defense signaling, suggesting that PR2 may function as a modulator of callose- and SA-dependent defense responses.

  6. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Beier, Colin M.; Weathers, K.C.; McPherson, G.T.; Bishop, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid–base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid–base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  7. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 9. Current status of surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Brakke, D.F.; Herlihy, A.T.; Eilers, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The report is based largely upon the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), augmented by numerous smaller state and university surveys and many detailed watershed studies. In describing the current status of surface waters, the authors go far beyond the description of population statistics, although some of this is necessary, and direct their attention to the interpretation of these data. They address the question of the sources of acidity to surface waters in order to determine the relative importance of acidic deposition compared with other sources, such as naturally produced organic acids and acid mine drainage. They also examine in some detail what they call 'high interest' populations-the specific groups of lakes and streams most likely to be impacted by acidic deposition. The authors then turn to the general question of uncertainty, and finally examine low alkalinity surface waters in several other parts of the world to develop further inferences about the acid-base status of surface waters in the United States.

  8. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Tome, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    The influence of protein and amino acid on the control of food intake and the specific control of protein and amino acid intakes remains incompletely understood. The most commonly accepted conclusions are: (1) the existence of an aversive response to diets deficient in or devoid of protein or deficient in at least one essential amino acid; (2) the existence of a mechanism that enables attainment of the minimum requirement for N and essential amino acids by increasing intake of a low-protein diet; (3) a decrease in the intake of a high-protein diet is associated with different processes, including the high satiating effect of protein. Ingested proteins are believed to generate pre- and post-absorptive signals that contribute to the control of gastric kinetics, pancreatic secretion and food intake. At the brain level, two major afferent pathways are involved in protein and amino acid monitoring: the indirect neuro-mediated (mainly vagus-mediated) pathway and the direct blood pathway. The neuro-mediated pathway transfers pre-absorptive and visceral information. This information is for the main part transferred through the vagus nerve that innervates part of the oro-sensory zone: the stomach, the duodenum and the liver. Other information is directly monitored in the blood. It is likely that the system responds precisely when protein and essential amino acid intake is inadequate, but in contrast allows a large range of adaptive capacities through amino acid degradation and substrate interconversion.

  9. Acid fog Deposition of Crusts on Basaltic Tephra Deposits in the Sand Wash Region of Kilauea Volcano: A Possible Mechanism for Siliceous-Sulfatic Crusts on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Marks, N.; Bishop, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Although the presence of sulfate minerals in martian outcrops may imply the prior existence of standing bodies of surface water, in terrestrial volcanic settings, sulfatic alteration may also occur above the water table within the vadose zone. On the summit of Kilauea volcano, sulfur dioxide, which is continuously emitted from Halemaumau crater and rapidly sequestered into sulfuric acid-rich aerosol entrained in the prevailing trade winds, is subsequently precipitated as acid-fog immediately downwind from the caldera in the Kau Desert. The characteristic pH of surface tephra deposits is < 4.0 in Sand Wash, a region of continuous, acidic aerosol fall-out immediately SW of the caldera. The upper portion of the Keanakakoi Ash tephra in Sand Wash, deposited in the late 18th century, has a ubiquitous, 0.1-0.2 mm-thick coating of amorphous silica. Conversely, vertical walls of unconsolidated tephra, exposed within small, dry gullies eroded into the ca. 3-4 m-thick Keanakakoi section at Sand Wash, are coated with ca. 0.5-1.0 mm-thick, mixed amorphous silica and jarosite-bearing crusts. Since these crusts are denuded from their outcrops during ephemeral, but probably annual flooding events in Sand Wash, we believe that they must accumulate rapidly. These crusts are apparently formed via an evaporative mechanism whereby acidic pore fluids, circulating in the upper few m's within the highly porous tephra, are wicked towards the walls of the gullies. Geochemical modeling of the crust-forming process implies that the sulfate formation via evaporation occurs subsequent to minimal interaction of acidic pore fluids with the basaltic tephra. This also suggests that the cycle from acid-fog fall-out to precipitation of the siliceous-sulfatic crusts must occur quite rapidly. Production of siliceous-sulfatic crusts via acid-fog alteration may also be occurring on Mars. The occurrence of evaporitic sulfate and silica at Sand Wash in Kilauea may serve as an example of how the jarosite

  10. Interactions between lead-zirconate titanate, polyacrylic acid, and polyvinyl butyral in ethanol and their influence on electrophoretic deposition behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuscer, Danjela; Bakarič, Tina; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Kosec, Marija

    2013-02-14

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for the fabrication of a few tens of micrometer-thick piezoelectric layers on complex-shape substrates that are used for manufacturing high-frequency transducers. Niobium-doped lead-zirconate titanate (PZT Nb) particles were stabilized in ethanol using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). With Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we found that the deprotonated carboxylic group from the PAA is coordinated with the metal in the perovskite PZT Nb structure, resulting in a stable ethanol-based suspension. The hydroxyl group from the polyvinyl butyral added into the suspension to prevent the formation of cracks in the as-deposited layer did not interact with the PAA-covered PZT Nb particles. PVB acts as a free polymer in ethanol-based suspensions. The electrophoretic deposition of micro- and nanometer-sized PZT Nb particles from ethanol-based suspensions onto electroded alumina substrates was attempted in order to obtain uniform, crack-free deposits. The interactions between the PZT Nb particles, the PAA, and the PVB in ethanol will be discussed and related to the properties of the suspensions, the deposition yield and the morphology of the as-deposited PZT Nb thick film.

  11. Control of Thin Liquid Film Morphology During Solvent-Assisted Film Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko, G.; Stripe, B; Dutta, P

    2010-01-01

    Liquid films of different silicate esters were deposited from volatile solvents on hydroxylated and hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces. We show that adsorption of silicate ester molecules and the resulting structural morphology of the liquid films not only are determined by attractive van der Waals forces with contributions from electrostatic interactions between the silicone ester moieties and oxide surface sites but also can be tuned by modifying the substrate surface or by changing the liquid-solvent interactions. Our results also show the importance of the conformational properties of liquid molecules and their rearrangements at the liquid/solid interface for controlled solvent-assisted film deposition.

  12. Effects of dietary combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids on the deposition of linoleic and arachidonic acid in broiler chicken meats.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Choi, S H; Go, G; Park, J H; Narciso-Gaytán, C; Morgan, C A; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2012-04-01

    To minimize the amount of n-6 fatty acids in broiler chicken meat, 120 Cobb × Ross male broilers were divided into 6 different groups and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fat from 5 different lipid sources: 1) a commercial mix of animal and vegetable oil, 2) soybean oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 3) flaxseed oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 4) flaxseed oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FEO), 5) flaxseed oil, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FDO), and 6) fish oil and olive oil (2.5% each; FHO). At 6 and 9 wk, one bird per pen (4 pens per treatment) was processed, and liver, breast, and thigh samples were collected and used for fatty acid profiles or Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase mRNA gene expression levels. The deposition of linoleic acid (C18:2; n-6) or arachidonic acid (C20:4; n-6) was decreased in breast and thigh muscles of chickens fed n-3 fatty acids for 9 wk compared with chickens fed animal and vegetable oil and soybean oil and olive oil diets (P < 0.05). The addition of EPA to the diet (FEO; P > 0.05) did not reduce the deposition of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid as much as DHA (FDO; P < 0.05), and it suppressed the expression of Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase. When EPA and DHA were blended (FHO) and supplied to broiler chickens for 9 wk, EPA and DHA combination effects were observed on the deposition of LA and arachidonic acid in breast and thigh muscles. Thereby, the addition of a mixed EPA and DHA to a broiler chicken diet may be recommendable to reduce arachidonic acid accumulation in both broiler chicken breast and thigh meats, providing a functional broiler chicken meat to consumers.

  13. Trace elements in tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites: Geochemical controls and exploration applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, W.L.; Slack, J.F.; Ramsden, A.R.; Win, T.T.; Ryan, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element contents of tourmalines from massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites have been determined in situ by proton microprobe; >390 analyses were acquired from 32 polished thin sections. Concentrations of trace elements in the tourmalines vary widely, from <40 to 3,770 ppm Mn, <4 to 1,800 ppm Ni, <2 to 1,430 ppm Cu, <9 to 4,160 ppm Zn, 3 to 305 ppm Ga, <6 to 1,345 ppm Sr, <10 to 745 ppm Sn, <49 to 510 ppm Ba, and <3 to 4,115 ppm Pb. Individual grains and growth zones are relatively homogeneous, suggesting that these trace elements are contained within the crystal structure of the tourmaline, and are not present in inclusions. The highest base metal contents are in ore-related tourmaline samples from Kidd Creek (Ontario), Broken Hill (Australia), and Sazare (Japan). Tourmaline data from these and many other massive sulfide deposits cluster by sample and display broadly linear trends on Zn vs. Fe plots, suggesting chemical control by temperature and hydrothermal and/or metamorphic fluid-mineral equilibria. Significant Ni occurs only in samples from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, which is associated with a large footwall ultramafic body. An overall antithetic relationship between Zn and Ni probably reflects fluid source controls. Mn is correlated with Fe in tourmalines from barren associations, and possibly in some tourmalines associated with sulfide vein deposits. Sn increases systematically with Fe content irrespective of association; the highest values are found in schorls from granites. Other trace elements are generally uncorrelated with major element concentrations (e.g., Sr-Ca). Base metal proportions in the tourmalines show systematic patterns on ternary Cu-Pb-Zn diagrams that correlate well with the major commodity metals in the associated massive sulfide deposits. For example, data for tourmalines from Cu-Zn deposits (e.g., Ming mine, Newfoundland) fall mainly on the Cu-Zn join, whereas those from Pb-Zn deposits (e.g., Broken Hill, Australia

  14. Controlling the work function of molybdenum disulfide by in situ metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Xiongfei; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qingqing; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-08-01

    Control of the work function of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) under ultrathin metal was investigated using in situ metal deposition and direct ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement in an ultra-high vacuum system. When the metal thickness turned from two dimensional into bulk, the work function was also raised up at the nickel‑MoS2 interface, barely changed at the titanium‑MoS2 interface and lowered at the hafnium‑MoS2 interface. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of charge transfer and band alignment with metal deposition were also discussed. The Schottky barrier at metal‑MoS2 interfaces could be tailored by both types and thicknesses of deposited metal. The low work function metal was a good indicator for MoS2 contact electrodes. It paved the way towards future high performance MoS2 device applications.

  15. Controlling the work function of molybdenum disulfide by in situ metal deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Xiongfei; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qingqing; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-08-26

    Control of the work function of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) under ultrathin metal was investigated using in situ metal deposition and direct ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement in an ultra-high vacuum system. When the metal thickness turned from two dimensional into bulk, the work function was also raised up at the nickel-MoS2 interface, barely changed at the titanium-MoS2 interface and lowered at the hafnium-MoS2 interface. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of charge transfer and band alignment with metal deposition were also discussed. The Schottky barrier at metal-MoS2 interfaces could be tailored by both types and thicknesses of deposited metal. The low work function metal was a good indicator for MoS2 contact electrodes. It paved the way towards future high performance MoS2 device applications. PMID:27419644

  16. Controlling the work function of molybdenum disulfide by in situ metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Xiongfei; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qingqing; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-08-01

    Control of the work function of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) under ultrathin metal was investigated using in situ metal deposition and direct ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement in an ultra-high vacuum system. When the metal thickness turned from two dimensional into bulk, the work function was also raised up at the nickel-MoS2 interface, barely changed at the titanium-MoS2 interface and lowered at the hafnium-MoS2 interface. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of charge transfer and band alignment with metal deposition were also discussed. The Schottky barrier at metal-MoS2 interfaces could be tailored by both types and thicknesses of deposited metal. The low work function metal was a good indicator for MoS2 contact electrodes. It paved the way towards future high performance MoS2 device applications.

  17. Enzymatically controlled material design with casein--from defined films to localized deposition of particles.

    PubMed

    Strube, Oliver I; Rüdiger, Arne A; Bremser, Wolfgang

    2015-05-10

    A new concept for deposition and material design of coatings from biological compounds is presented. An enzymatic reaction triggers the specific coagulation of particles on a support surface. The first examined model system is casein and is based on the natural rennet reaction as applied in the process of cheese-making. The aspartic protease chymosin is immobilized on a support surface and cleaves the hydrophilic parts of the casein micelles, inducing deposition. The concept allows for a high level of control over film characteristics and enables the formation of site-specific film structures. The variability rages from formation of casein films with several micrometers film thickness to the targeted deposition of casein micelles. PMID:25456052

  18. Numerical Laser Energy Deposition on Supersonic Cavity Flow and Sensor Placement Strategies to Control the Flow

    PubMed Central

    Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100 mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7 dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

  19. Research Update: Stoichiometry controlled oxide thin film growth by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Groenen, Rik; Smit, Jasper; Orsel, Kasper; Vailionis, Arturas; Bastiaens, Bert; Huijben, Mark; Boller, Klaus; Rijnders, Guus; Koster, Gertjan

    2015-07-01

    The oxidation of species in the plasma plume during pulsed laser deposition controls both the stoichiometry as well as the growth kinetics of the deposited SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, instead of the commonly assumed mass distribution in the plasma plume and the kinetic energy of the arriving species. It was observed by X-ray diffraction that SrTiO{sub 3} stoichiometry depends on the composition of the background gas during deposition, where in a relative small pressure range between 10{sup −2} mbars and 10{sup −1} mbars oxygen partial pressure, the resulting film becomes fully stoichiometric. Furthermore, upon increasing the oxygen (partial) pressure, the growth mode changes from 3D island growth to a 2D layer-by-layer growth mode as observed by reflection high energy electron diffraction.

  20. Numerical laser energy deposition on supersonic cavity flow and sensor placement strategies to control the flow.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100 mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7 dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

  1. Engineering of pulsed laser deposited calcium phosphate biomaterials in controlled atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukteinis, Saulius E.

    Synthetic calcium phosphates (CAP) such as hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used as regenerative bone graft materials and also as thin films to improve the integration of biomedical implant devices within skeletal tissue. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) can deposit crystalline HA with significant adhesion on titanium biomaterials. However, there are PLD processing constraints due to the complex physical and chemical interactions occurring simultaneously during PLD, which influence ablation plume formation and development. In this investigation PLD CAP films were engineered with a focus on novel decoupling of partial pressure of H2O (g) ( PH2O ) from total background pressure, in combination with substrate heat treatment and laser energy density control. Characterization of these films was performed with X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Optical Profilometry. In vitro cellular adhesion testing was also performed using osteoblast (MC3T3) cell lines to evaluate adhesion of bone-forming cells on processed PLD CAP samples. Preferred a-axis orientation films were deposited in H2O (g) saturated atmospheres with reduced laser fluence (< 4 J/cm2). Crystalline HA/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) films were deposited in H2O ( g)-deficient atmospheres with higher laser fluence (> 3 J/cm 2). Varied PH2O resulted in control of biphasic HA/TTCP composition with increasing TTCP at lower PH2O . These were dense continuous films composed of micron-scale particles. Cellular adhesion assays did not demonstrate a significant difference between osteoblast adhesion density on HA films compared with biphasic HA/TTCP films. Room temperature PLD at varied PH2O combined with furnace heat treatment resulted in controlled variation in surface amplitude parameters including surface roughness (S a), root mean square (Sq), peak to valley height (St), and ten-point height ( Sz). These discontinuous films were

  2. Phenological controls on inter-annual variability in ozone dry deposition velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, Olivia; Fiore, Arlene; Munger, J. William; Shevliakova, Elena; Horowitz, Larry; Malyshev, Sergey; Griffin, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of ozone removal by northern mid-latitude temperate deciduous forests is largely based on short-term observational studies, and thus year-to-year variations of this sink have received little attention. The specific pathways for ozone dry deposition include stomatal uptake and other non-stomatal processes that are poorly understood. Given the importance of ozone dry deposition to model accurately the tropospheric ozone budget and regional air quality, an improved mechanistic understanding of this ozone sink is needed. We investigate here the physical and biological controls on inter-annual variations in seasonal and diurnal cycles of ozone dry deposition velocity using nine years of hourly observations of eddy covariance ozone flux and concentration measurements at Harvard Forest, a northern mid-latitude temperate deciduous forest. We also use coincident eddy covariance water vapor flux and sensible heat flux and other micrometeorological measurements to infer stomatal conductance in order to separate the impacts of stomatal versus non-stomatal pathways on ozone deposition. There is a difference of approximately a factor of two between minimum and maximum monthly daytime mean ozone dry deposition velocities at Harvard Forest. The highest summertime mean ozone dry deposition velocities occur during 1998 and 1999 (0.72 cm/s), and similar seasonal and diurnal cycles occur in both years. The similar dry deposition velocities during these two years, however, may reflect compensation between different processes as mean daytime summertime stomatal conductance during 1998 is roughly 1.5 times higher than for 1999, suggesting large year-to-year variations in non-stomatal as well as stomatal uptake of ozone. We partition the onset and decline of the growing season each year into different periods using spring and fall phenology observations at Harvard Forest. Combining the dry deposition velocities across years during each phenological period, we find that

  3. Technologies for the control of fat and lean deposition in livestock.

    PubMed

    Sillence, M N

    2004-05-01

    by the poor level of control over gene expression, and faces an uphill battle over consumer acceptance. There are several alternatives to HGPs and transgenics, that are more likely to gain world-wide acceptance. Genetic selection can be enhanced by using markers for polymorphic genes that control fat and lean, such as thyroglobulin, or the callipyge gene. Feed additives of natural origin, such as betaine, chromium and conjugated linoleic acid, can improve the fat:lean ratio under specific circumstances. Additionally, 'production vaccines' have been developed, which alter the neuro-endocrine system by causing an auto-immune response. Thus, antibodies have been used to neutralise growth-limiting factors, prolong the half-life of anabolic hormones, or activate hormone receptors directly. Unfortunately, none of these technologies is sufficiently well advanced yet to rival the use of exogenous HGPs in terms of efficacy and reliability. Therefore, further research is needed to find ways to control fat and lean deposition with due consideration of industry needs, animal welfare and consumer requirements.

  4. Control of sediment deposition rates in two mid-Atlantic Coast tidal freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darke, A. K.; Megonigal, J. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eustatic sea level rise and rapidly increasing coastal development threaten tidal freshwater wetlands. Sediment deposition is one process that affects their ability to maintain surface elevations relative to adjacent rivers. Sediment dynamics in salt marshes have been studied extensively, but little is known about the factors that control sediment deposition rates in tidal freshwater wetlands. We examined geomorphic, hydrological, and biotic factors that may influence sedimentation in two tidal freshwater wetlands that fell at opposite ends of the riverine-estuarine continuum. Our data demonstrate that sediment dynamics are highly variable among tidal freshwater wetlands, and are influenced by the location of the wetland on the continuum. Sediment deposition was up to 10 times higher during the growing season at the downstream site than the upstream site. Plant density and height were highly correlated with sediment deposition rates at the downstream site ( r≥0.92, p≤0.009) but not at the upstream site. Elevation, flood depth, and flood duration were correlated with deposition rates only when each site/season combination was considered separately. River suspended sediment and surficial floodwater suspended sediment concentrations were significantly higher at the downstream site ( p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). These data suggest that vegetation is important in determining sediment deposition rates when river suspended sediment is not limiting, which is not always the case. Longer flood duration increased sediment deposition, but was of secondary importance. Land use and proximity to the turbidity maximum (near the forward extent of the salt water intrusion) appear to be critically important in determining river suspended sediment availability in the tidal freshwater zone of the Mattaponi River, VA.

  5. The case for immediate controls on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Einbender, G.; Bakalian, A.; Wall, T.; Hoagland, P.; Kamlet, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Acid rain is a serious environmental and human health problem affecting all parts of the United States, but particularly the East. Scientists have been researching the phenomenon of acid rain--its causes and effects--for the past two decades in Europe and North America. Their studies provide a strong scientific basis for concluding that legislative action to control the sources of acid rain is needed now. The growing magnitude of the problem and impact on human health, the environment, and the economy do not permit further delays.

  6. Nanomanufacturing of titania interfaces with controlled structural and functional properties by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestà, Alessandro; Borghi, Francesca; Indrieri, Marco; Bovio, Simone; Piazzoni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Great emphasis is placed on the development of integrated approaches for the synthesis and the characterization of ad hoc nanostructured platforms, to be used as templates with controlled morphology and chemical properties for the investigation of specific phenomena of great relevance in interdisciplinary fields such as biotechnology, medicine, and advanced materials. Here, we discuss the crucial role and the advantages of thin film deposition strategies based on cluster-assembling from supersonic cluster beams. We select cluster-assembled nanostructured titania (ns-TiO2) as a case study to demonstrate that accurate control over morphological parameters can be routinely achieved, and consequently, over several relevant interfacial properties and phenomena, like surface charging in a liquid electrolyte, and proteins and nanoparticles adsorption. In particular, we show that the very good control of nanoscale morphology is obtained by taking advantage of simple scaling laws governing the ballistic deposition regime of low-energy, mass-dispersed clusters with reduced surface mobility.

  7. Method for controlling energy density for reliable pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dowden, P. C. E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov; Bi, Z.; Jia, Q. X. E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov

    2014-02-15

    We have established a methodology to stabilize the laser energy density on a target surface in pulsed laser deposition of thin films. To control the focused laser spot on a target, we have imaged a defined aperture in the beamline (so called image-focus) instead of focusing the beam on a target based on a simple “lens-focus.” To control the laser energy density on a target, we have introduced a continuously variable attenuator between the output of the laser and the imaged aperture to manipulate the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a “constant voltage” mode to eliminate changes in the lasers’ beam dimensions. This methodology leads to much better controllability/reproducibility for reliable pulsed laser deposition of high performance electronic thin films.

  8. Simple evaporation controller for thin-film deposition from a resistively heated boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, John H.; Bajuk, Lou; Mohler, William

    1990-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive circuit is described for switching the current through a resistively heated evaporation boat during thin-film deposition. The circuit uses a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) to switch the 0-15-A current in the primary of a 2-kV A step-down transformer that supplies the 0-200-A current to an evaporation boat. The circuit is controlled by a 0-10 V-dc signal similar to that furnished by an Inficon XTC deposition-rate controller. This circuit may be assembled from a handful of parts for a cost of about $400, nearly one-tenth the cost of similar commercial units. Minimum construction is required, since the circuit is built around an off-the-shelf, self-contained SCR unit.

  9. Simple evaporation controller for thin-film deposition from a resistively heated boat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, John H.; Bajuk, Lou; Mohler, William

    1990-07-01

    A simple, inexpensive circuit is described for switching the current through a resistively heated evaporation boat during thin-film deposition. The circuit uses a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) to switch the 0-15-A current in the primary of a 2-kV A step-down transformer that supplies the 0-200-A current to an evaporation boat. The circuit is controlled by a 0-10 V-dc signal similar to that furnished by an Inficon XTC deposition-rate controller. This circuit may be assembled from a handful of parts for a cost of about $400, nearly one-tenth the cost of similar commercial units. Minimum construction is required, since the circuit is built around an off-the-shelf, self-contained SCR unit.

  10. Nanomanufacturing of titania interfaces with controlled structural and functional properties by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Podestà, Alessandro E-mail: pmilani@mi.infn.it; Borghi, Francesca; Indrieri, Marco; Bovio, Simone; Piazzoni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo E-mail: pmilani@mi.infn.it

    2015-12-21

    Great emphasis is placed on the development of integrated approaches for the synthesis and the characterization of ad hoc nanostructured platforms, to be used as templates with controlled morphology and chemical properties for the investigation of specific phenomena of great relevance in interdisciplinary fields such as biotechnology, medicine, and advanced materials. Here, we discuss the crucial role and the advantages of thin film deposition strategies based on cluster-assembling from supersonic cluster beams. We select cluster-assembled nanostructured titania (ns-TiO{sub 2}) as a case study to demonstrate that accurate control over morphological parameters can be routinely achieved, and consequently, over several relevant interfacial properties and phenomena, like surface charging in a liquid electrolyte, and proteins and nanoparticles adsorption. In particular, we show that the very good control of nanoscale morphology is obtained by taking advantage of simple scaling laws governing the ballistic deposition regime of low-energy, mass-dispersed clusters with reduced surface mobility.

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  12. Vertical Continuity and Alignment of Block Copolymer Domains by Kinetically Controlled Electrospray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hanqiong; Woo, Youngwoo; Feng, Xunda; Osuji, Chinedum; Osuji Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of vertically aligned cylindrical block copolymer (BCP) domains using continuous electrospray deposition (ESD) onto bare wafer surfaces. The out-of-plane orientation of hexagonally packed styrene cylinders was achieved in a ``fast-wet'' deposition regime where rapid evaporation of solvent in droplets of polymer solution drove the vertical alignment of SBS domains. The deposition conditions were optimized such that thermally activated crosslinking of the polybutadiene matrix provided kinetic control of the morphology, locking in the vertical alignment and preventing relaxation of the system to its preferred parallel orientation on the non-treated substrate. Physically continuous and vertically oriented domains is achieved over several microns of film thickness. We describe the effects of flow rate, collection distance and substrate temperature on thin film morphology and demonstrate selective etching capabilities. The ability of ESD to fabricate well-ordered and aligned BCP films on non-treated substrates, the low utilization of material relative to spin-coating and the continuous nature of the deposition may open up new opportunities for BCP thin films. We are exploring ESD as a new platform for sequential deposition of BCPs with different functionalities.

  13. The Gas Hills uranium district and some probable controls for ore deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, Howard Davis

    1957-01-01

    Uranium deposits occur in the upper coarse-grained facies of the Wind River formation of Eocene age in the Gas Hills district of the southern part of the Wind River Basin. Some of the principal deposits lie below the water table in the unoxidized zone and consist of uraninite and coffinite occurring as interstitial fillings in irregular blanket-like bodies. In the near-surface deposits that lie above the water table, the common yellow uranium minerals consist of uranium phosphates, silicates, and hydrous oxides. The black unoxidized uraninite -coffinite ores show enrichment of molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium when compared to the barren sandstone. Probable geologic controls for ore deposits include: 1) permeable sediments that allowed passage of ore-bearing solutions; 2) numerous faults that acted as impermeable barriers impounding the ore -bearing solutions; 3) locally abundant pyrite, carbonaceous material, and natuial gas containing hydrogen sulfide that might provide a favorable environment for precipitation of uranium. Field and laboratory evidence indicate that the uranium deposits in the Gas Hills district are very young and related to the post-Miocene to Pleistocene regional tilting to the south associated with the collapse of the Granite Mountains fault block. This may have stopped or reversed ground water movement from a northward (basinward) direction and alkaline ground water rich in carbonate could have carried the uranium into the favorable environment that induced precipitation.

  14. An Investigation of the Solid-State Condensation Polymerization Reaction in Vapor-Deposited Poly(amic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Letts, Stephan A.; Day, Katherine; Cook, Robert C.; Gies, Anthony P.; Nonidez, William K.

    2004-03-01

    The condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) to form poly(amic acid) and the subsequent imidization reaction to form polyimide were investigated for films prepared using vapor deposition polymerization techniques. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of films prepared at different temperatures indicate that additional solid-state polymerization occurs prior to imidization reactions. Experiments suggest that poly(amic acid) oligomers form upon vapor-deposition and have a number-average molecular weights of about 1500 Daltons. Between 100-130 °C these chains undergo additional condensation reactions to form slightly higher molecular weight oligomers. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  15. Comparison among model estimates of critical loads of acidic deposition using different sources and scales of input data.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, T C; Cosby, B J; Sullivan, T J; McNulty, S G; Cohen, E C

    2010-09-01

    The critical load (CL) of acidic atmospheric deposition represents the load of acidity deposited from the atmosphere to the earth's surface at which harmful acidification effects on sensitive biological receptors are thought to occur. In this study, the CL for forest soils was estimated for 27 watersheds throughout the United States using a steady-state mass balance approach based on both national and site-specific data and using different approaches for estimating base cation weathering. Results suggested that the scale and source of input data can have large effects on the calculated CL and that the most important parameter in the steady-state model used to estimate CL is base cation weathering. These results suggest that the data and approach used to estimate weathering must be robust if the calculated CL is to be useful for its intended purpose.

  16. Comparison among model estimates of critical loads of acidic deposition using different sources and scales of input data.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, T C; Cosby, B J; Sullivan, T J; McNulty, S G; Cohen, E C

    2010-09-01

    The critical load (CL) of acidic atmospheric deposition represents the load of acidity deposited from the atmosphere to the earth's surface at which harmful acidification effects on sensitive biological receptors are thought to occur. In this study, the CL for forest soils was estimated for 27 watersheds throughout the United States using a steady-state mass balance approach based on both national and site-specific data and using different approaches for estimating base cation weathering. Results suggested that the scale and source of input data can have large effects on the calculated CL and that the most important parameter in the steady-state model used to estimate CL is base cation weathering. These results suggest that the data and approach used to estimate weathering must be robust if the calculated CL is to be useful for its intended purpose. PMID:20609503

  17. Stress assessment and spectral characterization of suspected acid deposition damage in red spruce (Picea Rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of acid deposition on Picea rubens are studied. The Picea rubens located at Camels Hump Mt., Mt. Ascutney, and Ripton, VT were analyzed using stress level evaluations, in situ spectral data, pressure bomb analysis, and aircraft sensors. Spruce stress per circular plot and percent spruce mortality are calculated. The relation between stress levels and elevation and exposure and weather patterns is examined. It is observed that variations in the reflectance curves of the foliage and branches are related to cellular health, the type of cellular arrangement, and the degree of leaf tissue hydration; the leaf and twig specimens from high stress sites are more reflective in the red portion of the visible and less reflective in the NIR portion of the spectrum. The pressure bomb data reveal that the xylem water tension is higher in specimens from high stress sites. It is noted that remote sensing permits discrimination and mapping of suspected acid deposition damage.

  18. Graphene decorated microelectrodes for simultaneous detection of ascorbic, dopamine, and folic acids by means of chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namdar, N.; Hassanpour Amiri, M.; Dehghan Nayeri, F.; Gholizadeh, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, high quality and large area graphene layers were synthesized using thermal chemical vapour deposition on copper foil substrates. We use graphene incorporated electrodes to measure simultaneously ascorbic acid, dopamine and folic acid. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry methods were used to evaluate electrochemical behaviour of the grown graphene layers. The graphene-modified electrode shows large electrochemical potential difference compared to bare gold electrodes with higher current responses. Also our fabricated electrodes configuration can be used easily for microfluidic analysis.

  19. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Gu, Bao-jing; Ge, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, De-an; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Jie

    2009-08-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hangchowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on P(n), soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  20. Validation of acid washes as critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems.

    PubMed

    Dormedy, E S; Brashears, M M; Cutter, C N; Burson, D E

    2000-12-01

    A 2% lactic acid wash used in a large meat-processing facility was validated as an effective critical control point (CCP) in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan. We examined the microbial profiles of beef carcasses before the acid wash, beef carcasses immediately after the acid wash, beef carcasses 24 h after the acid wash, beef subprimal cuts from the acid-washed carcasses, and on ground beef made from acid-washed carcasses. Total mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and acid-tolerant microorganisms were enumerated on all samples. The presence of Salmonella spp. was also determined. Acid washing significantly reduced all counts except for pseudomonads that were present at very low numbers before acid washing. All other counts continued to stay significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those on pre-acid-washed carcasses throughout all processing steps. Total bacteria, coliforms, and generic E. coli enumerated on ground beef samples were more than 1 log cycle lower than those reported in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Baseline data. This study suggests that acid washes may be effective CCPs in HACCP plans and can significantly reduce the total number of microorganisms present on the carcass and during further processing. PMID:11131890

  1. The regional costs and benefits of acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Congress recently enacted acid rain control legislation as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments following a decade-long debate among disparate regional interests. Although Congress succeeded in drafting a law acceptable to all regions, the regional costs and benefits of the legislation remain uncertain. The research presented here attempts to estimate the regional costs and benefits and the economic impacts of acid rain controls. These estimates are made using a modeling system composed of econometric, linear programming and input-output models. The econometric and linear programming components describe markets for electricity and coal. The outputs of these components including capital investment, electricity demand, and coal production are taken as exogenous inputs by a multiregional input-output model. The input-output model produces estimates of changes in final demand, gross output, and employment. The utility linear programming model also predicts sulfur dioxide emissions (an acid-rain precursor). According to model simulations, the costs of acid rain control exceed the benefits for many regions including several regions customarily thought to be the major beneficiaries of acid rain control such as New England.

  2. 3D-nanoarchitectured Pd/Ni catalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition for the electrooxidation of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Assaud, Loïc; Monyoncho, Evans; Pitzschel, Kristina; Allagui, Anis; Petit, Matthieu; Hanbücken, Margrit; Baranova, Elena A; Santinacci, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensionally (3D) nanoarchitectured palladium/nickel (Pd/Ni) catalysts, which were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on high-aspect-ratio nanoporous alumina templates are investigated with regard to the electrooxidation of formic acid in an acidic medium (0.5 M H2SO4). Both deposition processes, Ni and Pd, with various mass content ratios have been continuously monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology of the Pd/Ni systems has been studied by electron microscopy and shows a homogeneous deposition of granularly structured Pd onto the Ni substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on Ni and NiO substrates revealed an amorphous structure, while the Pd coating crystallized into a fcc lattice with a preferential orientation along the [220]-direction. Surface chemistry analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed both metallic and oxide contributions for the Ni and Pd deposits. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pd/Ni nanocatalysts revealed that the electrooxidation of HCOOH proceeds through the direct dehydrogenation mechanism with the formation of active intermediates. High catalytic activities are measured for low masses of Pd coatings that were generated by a low number of ALD cycles, probably because of the cluster size effect, electronic interactions between Pd and Ni, or diffusion effects.

  3. 3D-nanoarchitectured Pd/Ni catalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition for the electrooxidation of formic acid

    PubMed Central

    Assaud, Loïc; Monyoncho, Evans; Pitzschel, Kristina; Allagui, Anis; Petit, Matthieu; Hanbücken, Margrit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three-dimensionally (3D) nanoarchitectured palladium/nickel (Pd/Ni) catalysts, which were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on high-aspect-ratio nanoporous alumina templates are investigated with regard to the electrooxidation of formic acid in an acidic medium (0.5 M H2SO4). Both deposition processes, Ni and Pd, with various mass content ratios have been continuously monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology of the Pd/Ni systems has been studied by electron microscopy and shows a homogeneous deposition of granularly structured Pd onto the Ni substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on Ni and NiO substrates revealed an amorphous structure, while the Pd coating crystallized into a fcc lattice with a preferential orientation along the [220]-direction. Surface chemistry analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed both metallic and oxide contributions for the Ni and Pd deposits. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pd/Ni nanocatalysts revealed that the electrooxidation of HCOOH proceeds through the direct dehydrogenation mechanism with the formation of active intermediates. High catalytic activities are measured for low masses of Pd coatings that were generated by a low number of ALD cycles, probably because of the cluster size effect, electronic interactions between Pd and Ni, or diffusion effects. PMID:24605281

  4. 3D-nanoarchitectured Pd/Ni catalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition for the electrooxidation of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Assaud, Loïc; Monyoncho, Evans; Pitzschel, Kristina; Allagui, Anis; Petit, Matthieu; Hanbücken, Margrit; Baranova, Elena A; Santinacci, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensionally (3D) nanoarchitectured palladium/nickel (Pd/Ni) catalysts, which were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on high-aspect-ratio nanoporous alumina templates are investigated with regard to the electrooxidation of formic acid in an acidic medium (0.5 M H2SO4). Both deposition processes, Ni and Pd, with various mass content ratios have been continuously monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology of the Pd/Ni systems has been studied by electron microscopy and shows a homogeneous deposition of granularly structured Pd onto the Ni substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on Ni and NiO substrates revealed an amorphous structure, while the Pd coating crystallized into a fcc lattice with a preferential orientation along the [220]-direction. Surface chemistry analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed both metallic and oxide contributions for the Ni and Pd deposits. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pd/Ni nanocatalysts revealed that the electrooxidation of HCOOH proceeds through the direct dehydrogenation mechanism with the formation of active intermediates. High catalytic activities are measured for low masses of Pd coatings that were generated by a low number of ALD cycles, probably because of the cluster size effect, electronic interactions between Pd and Ni, or diffusion effects. PMID:24605281

  5. Model reduction and temperature uniformity control for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoropoulou, Artemis-Georgia

    The consideration of Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) in semiconductor manufacturing has recently been increasing. As a result, control of RTP systems has become of great importance since it is expected to help in addressing uniformity problems that, so far, have been obstructing the acceptance of the method. The spatial distribution appearing in RTP models necessitates the use of model reduction in order to obtain models of a size suitable for use in control algorithms. This dissertation addresses model reduction as well as control issues for RTP systems. A model of a three-zone Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) system is developed to study the effects of spatial wafer temperature patterns on polysilicon deposition uniformity. A sequence of simulated runs is performed, varying the lamp power profiles so that different wafer temperature modes are excited. The dominant spatial wafer thermal modes are extracted via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and subsequently used as a set of trial functions to represent both the wafer temperature and deposition thickness. A collocation formulation of Galerkin's method is used to discretize the original modeling equations, giving a low-order model which loses little of the original, high-order model's fidelity. We make use of the excellent predictive capabilities of the reduced model to optimize power inputs to the lamp banks to achieve a desired polysilicon deposition thickness at the end of a run with minimal deposition spatial nonuniformity. Since the results illustrate that the optimization procedure benefits from the use of the reduced-order model, we further utilize the reduced order model for real time Model Based Control. The feedback controller is designed using the Internal Model Control (IMC) structure especially modified to handle systems described by ordinary differential and algebraic equations. The IMC controller is obtained using optimal control theory on singular arcs extended for multi input systems

  6. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOEpatents

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A.; Hogle, Richard E.

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  7. Characterization of a controlled electroless deposition of copper thin film on germanium and silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, Louis; Fasasi, Ayuba; Griffiths, Peter R.

    2011-02-01

    Nanofilms of copper were deposited on silicon and, for the first time, on polycrystalline germanium substrates by electroless deposition. Germanium or silicon disks were immersed in a 10 mM copper sulfate solution containing dilute hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. This simple one-step deposition does not require the use of laborious operations or expensive equipment, that the reaction medium be degassed, or that the film be annealed. The copper film grows in a few minutes, producing a film on both Ge and Si that covers a very large area of the substrate in contrast to other metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Pd for which deposition on Ge and Si produces islands or dendrites. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used to characterize the microstructure and confirmed the formation of elemental copper nanofilms. The AFM micrographs reveal a Stranski-Krastanov type of film growth (layers + islands) that varies with the length of time the Ge or Si substrate is immersed in the CuSO4 solution. Thicker films were observed on the Ge than on the Si substrate resulting in larger particles and rougher surface than on Si. XPS analysis shows that the elemental copper is deposited on both Ge and Si substrates and that the films oxidize over a period of weeks with air exposure at room temperature. Finally, PXRD data reveal two preferential orientations (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) for the copper crystallites grown on both Ge and Si. The same intensity of the (1 1 1)-texture was measured on both Ge and Si substrate which is an important result because it has been shown that the (1 1 1) texture reduces stress-induced voiding and increases resistance to electromigration in metal interconnects.

  8. Long term response of acid-sensitive Vermont Lakes to sulfate deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric deposition of sulfur can negatively affect the health of lakes and streams, particularly in poorly buffered catchments. In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments, wet deposition of sulfate decreased more than 35% in Vermont between 1990 and 2008. However, most of ...

  9. Initial results from the Pawnee eddy correlation system for acid deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, K.; Massman, W.; Stocker, D.; Fox, D.G.; Stellman, D.; Hazlett, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Pawnee grassland eddy correlation dry deposition project is described. Instrumentation, methods of analysis, and initial data and research findings are presented. Data from this eddy correlation system show agreement with previous observations of deposition velocities for atmospheric ozone, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}; micrometeorological theory; and micrometeorological site characteristics.

  10. Brooktrout Lake case study: biotic recovery from acid deposition 20 years after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, James W; Acker, Frank W; Bloomfield, Jay A; Boylen, Charles W; Charles, Donald F; Daniels, Robert A; Eichler, Lawrence W; Farrell, Jeremy L; Feranec, Robert S; Hare, Matthew P; Kanfoush, Sharon L; Preall, Richard J; Quinn, Scott O; Rowell, H Chandler; Schoch, William F; Shaw, William H; Siegfried, Clifford A; Sullivan, Timothy J; Winkler, David A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2015-03-01

    The Adirondack Mountain region is an extensive geographic area (26,305 km(2)) in upstate New York where acid deposition has negatively affected water resources for decades and caused the extirpation of local fish populations. The water quality decline and loss of an established brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchill]) population in Brooktrout Lake were reconstructed from historical information dating back to the late 1880s. Water quality and biotic recovery were documented in Brooktrout Lake in response to reductions of S deposition during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s and provided a unique scientific opportunity to re-introduce fish in 2005 and examine their critical role in the recovery of food webs affected by acid deposition. Using C and N isotope analysis of fish collagen and state hatchery feed as well as Bayesian assignment tests of microsatellite genotypes, we document in situ brook trout reproduction, which is the initial phase in the restoration of a preacidification food web structure in Brooktrout Lake. Combined with sulfur dioxide emissions reductions promulgated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, our results suggest that other acid-affected Adirondack waters could benefit from careful fish re-introduction protocols to initiate the ecosystem reconstruction of important components of food web dimensionality and functionality.

  11. Brooktrout Lake case study: biotic recovery from acid deposition 20 years after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, James W; Acker, Frank W; Bloomfield, Jay A; Boylen, Charles W; Charles, Donald F; Daniels, Robert A; Eichler, Lawrence W; Farrell, Jeremy L; Feranec, Robert S; Hare, Matthew P; Kanfoush, Sharon L; Preall, Richard J; Quinn, Scott O; Rowell, H Chandler; Schoch, William F; Shaw, William H; Siegfried, Clifford A; Sullivan, Timothy J; Winkler, David A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2015-03-01

    The Adirondack Mountain region is an extensive geographic area (26,305 km(2)) in upstate New York where acid deposition has negatively affected water resources for decades and caused the extirpation of local fish populations. The water quality decline and loss of an established brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchill]) population in Brooktrout Lake were reconstructed from historical information dating back to the late 1880s. Water quality and biotic recovery were documented in Brooktrout Lake in response to reductions of S deposition during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s and provided a unique scientific opportunity to re-introduce fish in 2005 and examine their critical role in the recovery of food webs affected by acid deposition. Using C and N isotope analysis of fish collagen and state hatchery feed as well as Bayesian assignment tests of microsatellite genotypes, we document in situ brook trout reproduction, which is the initial phase in the restoration of a preacidification food web structure in Brooktrout Lake. Combined with sulfur dioxide emissions reductions promulgated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, our results suggest that other acid-affected Adirondack waters could benefit from careful fish re-introduction protocols to initiate the ecosystem reconstruction of important components of food web dimensionality and functionality. PMID:25621941

  12. Dietary gallate esters of tea catechins reduce deposition of visceral fat, hepatic triacylglycerol, and activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ikuo; Hamamoto, Reina; Uzu, Kazunori; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Suzuki, Yuko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kakuda, Takami

    2005-05-01

    Tea catechins, rich in (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate, or heat-treated tea catechins in which about 50% of the (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate in tea catechins was epimerized to (-)-gallocatechin gallate and (-)-catechin gallate, were fed to rats at 1% level for 23 d. Visceral fat deposition and the concentration of hepatic triacylglycerol were significantly lower in the tea catechin and heat-treated tea catechin groups than in the control group. The activities of fatty acid synthase and the malic enzyme in the liver cytosol were significantly lower in the two catechin groups than in the control group. In contrast, the activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase and acyl-CoA oxidase in the liver homogenate were not significantly different among the three groups. These results suggest that the reduction in activities of enzymes related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis by the feeding of tea catechins or heat-treated tea catechins can cause reductions of hepatic triacylglycerol and possibly of visceral fat deposition.

  13. Influence of alkyl chain length on calcium phosphate deposition onto titanium surfaces modified with alkylphosphonic acid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Hirata, Isao; Zhao, Xianghui; Gao, Bo; Okazaki, Masayuki; Kato, Koichi

    2013-08-01

    Much attention has been paid to the modification of a titanium surface with an alkylphosphonic acid (PA)-based self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to accelerate hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition on the surface. In order to further accelerate the rate of HA deposition, we examined here the effect of alkyl chain length of SAMs on the formation of a HA layer. PAs with three different alkyl chain lengths (3, 6, and 16 methylene units) were used for the preparation of a SAM on titanium. The titanium specimens with monolayers were soaked in a simulated body fluid under physiological conditions for 4 weeks. The deposited substances were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses revealed that the formation of PA SAMs accelerate the deposition of poorly crystallized HA, in an alkyl chain length-dependent manner. Among PAs studied here, PA containing a 16-carbon alkyl chain gave rise to the titanium surface most effective for the deposition of HA.

  14. Responses of microbial populations in the rhizosphere to deposition of simulated acidic rain onto foliage and/or soil.

    PubMed

    Shafer, S R

    1992-01-01

    Air pollutants or some chemicals applied to plant foliage can alter the ecology of the rhizosphere. Experiments were conducted to distinguish among possible foliage-mediated versus soil- or root-mediated effects of acid deposition on microorganism in the rhizosphere. Seedlings of a sorghum x sudangrass hybrid in pots of non-sterile soil-sand mix in a greenhouse were exposed to simulated rain solution adjusted with H2SO4 + HNO3 to pH 4.9, 4.2, 3.5 or 2.8. Solutions were applied as simulated rain to foliage and soil, foliage only (soil covered by plastic, and deionized water applied directly to the soil), or soil only (solution applied directly to the soil). Solutions were applied on 16 days during a 6-week period (1.5 cm deposition in 1 h per application). Plant shoot and root dry weights and population densities of selected types of bacteria, filamentous actinomycetes and fungi in the rhizosphere were quantified after exposures were completed. Deposition of simulated acidic rain onto foliage alone had no effect on plant biomass or microbial population densities in the rhizosphere (colony-forming units per gram of rhizosphere soil). However, plant growth was stimulated and all microbial populations in the rhizosphere increased 3- to 8-fold with increased solution acidity (relative to pH 4.9 solution) when solution penetrated the soil. Statistical analyses indicated that the acid dose-population response relationships for soil-only and foliage-and-soil applications were not different. Thus, no foliage-mediated effect of simulated acidic rain on rhizosphere ecology was detected.

  15. Particle-Scale Controls on Entrainment and Deposition due to Debris Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Maki, L.; Kaitna, R.

    2013-12-01

    When a debris flow - a large flow of boulders, gravels, sands, and mud - course down mountains, it can entrain materials many times the initial mass of the debris flow. The material is deposited at lower slopes. The amount of material they entrain and deposit can influence both the potential damage they do to habitat and communities in their paths and the landscape along the way. There is little quantitative understanding of the controls of entrainment and deposition along a debris flow path. We present experiments in a novel laboratory flume developed at the University of Minnesota to study particle-scale controls on entrainment and deposition due to debris flows. We control particle size distribution and water content in the flow itself and in an erodible bed over which the mixture flows, independently. Particle velocities, pore pressures, and local particle size distributions can be monitored, as can total erosion and deposition. Here, we first demonstrate how subtle differences in the bed structure or 'fabric' induced by the bed preparation can have dramatic differences on the entrainment rate of bed particles by the flowing mixture. Then we demonstrate the dependence of entrainment on particle size distribution in the flow and in the bed itself as it varies with angle of inclination of the bed. In all cases, we find that the erosion increases (or at lower angles, deposition decreases) with increasing angle of inclination of the bed. When the particles in the flow are uniform and the same size as those in the bed, we find the dependence of erosion on angle of inclination is linear. We find that single-sized systems exhibit more erosion and less deposition under the same conditions as their mixed counterparts. When the flow has a larger or smaller average particle size than that in the bed, the dependence of erosion on angle is somewhat more complicated. We model the variability by considering granular temperature in the flow, average stress on the bed, and the

  16. Particle-Scale Controls on Entrainment and Deposition due to Debris Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, M. D.; Mudd, S. M.; Walcott, R.; Attal, M.; Yoo, K.; Weinman, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    When a debris flow - a large flow of boulders, gravels, sands, and mud - course down mountains, it can entrain materials many times the initial mass of the debris flow. The material is deposited at lower slopes. The amount of material they entrain and deposit can influence both the potential damage they do to habitat and communities in their paths and the landscape along the way. There is little quantitative understanding of the controls of entrainment and deposition along a debris flow path. We present experiments in a novel laboratory flume developed at the University of Minnesota to study particle-scale controls on entrainment and deposition due to debris flows. We control particle size distribution and water content in the flow itself and in an erodible bed over which the mixture flows, independently. Particle velocities, pore pressures, and local particle size distributions can be monitored, as can total erosion and deposition. Here, we first demonstrate how subtle differences in the bed structure or 'fabric' induced by the bed preparation can have dramatic differences on the entrainment rate of bed particles by the flowing mixture. Then we demonstrate the dependence of entrainment on particle size distribution in the flow and in the bed itself as it varies with angle of inclination of the bed. In all cases, we find that the erosion increases (or at lower angles, deposition decreases) with increasing angle of inclination of the bed. When the particles in the flow are uniform and the same size as those in the bed, we find the dependence of erosion on angle of inclination is linear. We find that single-sized systems exhibit more erosion and less deposition under the same conditions as their mixed counterparts. When the flow has a larger or smaller average particle size than that in the bed, the dependence of erosion on angle is somewhat more complicated. We model the variability by considering granular temperature in the flow, average stress on the bed, and the

  17. Atomic layer controlled deposition of Al 2O 3 films using binary reaction sequence chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, A. W.; McCarley, K. C.; Klaus, J. W.; Way, J. D.; George, S. M.

    1996-11-01

    Al 2O 3 films with precise thicknesses and high conformality were deposited using sequential surface chemical reactions. To achieve this controlled deposition, a binary reaction for Al 2O 3 chemical vapor deposition (2Al(CH 3) 3 + 3H 2O → Al 2O 3 + 6CH 4) was separated into two half-reactions: (A) AlOH ∗ + Al(CH 3) 3 → AlOAl(CH 3) 2∗ + CH 4, (B) AlCH 3∗ + H 2O → AlOH ∗ + CH 4, where the asterisks designate the surface species. Trimethylaluminum (Al(CH 3) 3) (TMA) and H 2O reactants were employed alternately in an ABAB … binary reaction sequence to deposit Al 2O 3 films on single-crystal Si(100) and porous alumina membranes with pore diameters of ˜ 220 Å. Ellipsometric measurements obtained a growth rate of 1.1 Å/AB cycle on the Si(100) substrate at the optimal reaction conditions. The Al 2O 3 films had an index of refraction of n = 1.65 that is consistent with a film density of ϱ = 3.50 g/cm 3. Atomic force microscope images revealed that the Al 2O 3 films were exceptionally flat with a surface roughness of only ±3 Å ( rms) after the deposition of ˜ 270 Å using 250 AB reaction cycles. Al 2O 3 films were also deposited inside the pores of Anodisc alumina membranes. Gas flux measurements for H 2 and N 2 were consistent with a progressive pore reduction versus number of AB reaction cycles. Porosimetry measurements also showed that the original pore diameter of ˜ 220 Å was reduced to ˜ 130 Å after 120 AB reaction cycles.

  18. Environmental controls of the seasonal variation in oxygen uptake in sulfidic tailings deposited in a permafrost-affected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elberling, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen consumption, sulfide oxidation, and acid mine drainage (AMD) of pyritic mine tailings were investigated at Nanisivik Mine, which is located in an area with continuous permafrost on Baffin Island in northern Canada. Tailings of varying age and water content have been deposited under alkaline conditions. One area consisting of tailings deposited on land in 1992 was selected for detailed measurements of in situ oxygen uptake rates at the tailing surface in the summers 1998 and 1999 and periodically during autumn and winter in 1998. Measurements included oxygen gas, water content, and temperature in profiles, as well as chemical analyses of pore solution and solids. Additional oxygen consumption rates were measured under controlled temperature conditions on columns filled with partly oxidized tailings. On the basis of temperature dependency of pyrite oxidation observed in the laboratory, an Arrhenius diffusion equation with soil temperature as input was used to simulate the observed temporal variation in oxygen uptake. Field data reveal that the ongoing sulfide oxidation of well-drained tailings primarily takes place in the upper 30 cm and that oxidation has resulted in a depletion of pyrite, carbonates, and metals from this reaction zone. The model provides a reasonable fit to the observed trend in oxygen consumption and documents that oxidation of sulfide minerals in tailings is not reduced to neglectable levels at O°C. The AMD generation rate has been quantified based on the changes in concentration of oxidation products in the pore water and oxidation rates based on in situ measurements of oxygen consumption. The two rate descriptions provide comparable estimates of seasonal AMD generation and provide detailed information on weather-related controls of AMD generation, i.e., ground temperature, freezing, water content, and snow cover. These environmental controls are crucial for the design of frozen cover schemes in permafrost regions, where the aim is to

  19. STREAMWATER ACID-BASED CHEMISTRY AND CRITICAL LOADS OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DEPOSITION IN SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study was conducted to evaluate the acid-base chemistry of streams within Shenandoah National Park, Virginia and to project future responses to sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) atmospheric emissions controls. Many of the major stream systems in the Park have acid neutraliz...

  20. Seasonal and rainfall-type variations in inorganic ions and dicarboxylic acids and acidity of wet deposition samples collected from subtropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Hsieh, Li-Ying; Kuo, Su-Ching; Chen, Chien-Lung; Wu, Pei-Ling

    2011-07-01

    Rainfall samples were collected over a period of 3 years and 8 months in subtropical East Asia. They are categorized into different rainfall types and analyzed to assess the ionic composition and its effect on the acidity of wet deposition in southern Taiwan. Only 4% of samples had a pH of <5.0, indicating that the study area is not impacted significantly by acid rain. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH by rainfall type was Spring Rain 5.74, Typhoon Rain 5.56, Summer Rain 5.46, Typhoon Outer Circulation (TOC) Rain 5.45, Plum Rain 5.32 and Autumn-Winter Rain 5.29. Dilution effects were important to the equivalent ionic concentration of different rainfall types. HCO 3-, SO 42- and Cl - were detected as major anions whereas NH 4+, Na + and Ca 2+ were major cations. CO 2-derived HCO 3- was the major ionic species in all but Typhoon Rain and Spring Rain, in which the major species were Na + and Cl - and Ca 2+, respectively. Excluding HCO 3-, the major species were NH 4+, Na + and Ca 2+ in Plum Rain, the secondary photochemical products SO 42-, NO 3- and NH 4+ in TOC Rain and Summer Rain, and Na + and Ca 2+ in Autumn-Winter Rain. Calculation of arithmetic means showed that dicarboxylic acids contributed between 0.25% and 0.53% of the total ionic concentration and of these, oxalic acid contributed the least (81.3% of the dicarboxylic acid) to TOC Rain and the most (96.1% of the dicarboxylic acid) to Spring Rain, suggestive of long-range transport in the latter. Differences in wet deposition composition were shown to be a result of differences in local emissions and long-range transport (hence of prevailing wind direction) during the period of rainfall and of the frequency and volume of rain that typifies each rainfall type. Principal component analysis (PCA) further revealed that traffic-related and industrial organic and inorganic pollutants, their secondary photochemical products, sea salts, and dust are important contributors to wet deposition. Moreover, the ratio of

  1. Control of acid mist emissions from FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    Improved control of acid mist emissions can be achieved by replacing or augmenting the conventional mist eliminators with a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This paper describes a two-phased study performed to determine the degree of control that can be achieved with this approach. Phase I was a study of the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  2. Patterns of wet deposition of acidic matter in Maryland: January-June 1984. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, C.; Bartoshesky, J.; Pfeffer, N.; Campbell, S.

    1987-03-03

    A data base containing precipitation-chemistry data collected by multiple monitoring programs in and around Maryland for the January through June 1984 time period was compiled. Isopleth maps were constructed showing the spatial variation in the precipitation concentrations and depositions of hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium. For each parameter, the concentration pattern was very similar to its deposition pattern. The patterns suggest the occurrence of a ridge of high sulfate, nitrate, and hydrogen ion concentrations and depositions extending from south-central Pennsylvania, south into Maryland along the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay.

  3. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Bruce K; O'Hara, Matthew J; Casella, Andrew M; Carter, Jennifer C; Addleman, R Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other U compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within a fixed reactor geometry to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of U deposits that range between approximately 0.01 and 500ngcm(-2). The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogramcm(-2) level. The isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the U source materials and we demonstrate a layering technique whereby two U solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two U sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics. Further, the method allows access to very low atomic or molecular coverages of surfaces.

  4. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Bruce K; O'Hara, Matthew J; Casella, Andrew M; Carter, Jennifer C; Addleman, R Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other U compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within a fixed reactor geometry to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of U deposits that range between approximately 0.01 and 500ngcm(-2). The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogramcm(-2) level. The isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the U source materials and we demonstrate a layering technique whereby two U solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two U sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics. Further, the method allows access to very low atomic or molecular coverages of surfaces. PMID:27154668

  5. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  6. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  7. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: Acidic deposition: An inventory of non-Federal research, monitoring, and assessment information

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Acid Precipitation Act of 1990 (Title VII of the Energy Security Act of 1980, P.L. 96-294) established the Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation to develop and implement the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The information included in the document was provided to NAPAP's Task Group Leaders and State-of-Science and State-of-Technology authors in July 1989. The early release was intended to assure that the authors would be aware of the information at an early phase in the assessment production process.

  8. Use of beam deflection to control an electron beam wire deposition process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for controlling an electron beam process wherein a wire is melted and deposited on a substrate as a molten pool comprises generating the electron beam with a complex raster pattern, and directing the beam onto an outer surface of the wire to thereby control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool. Directing the beam selectively heats the outer surface of the wire and maintains the position of the wire with respect to the molten pool. An apparatus for controlling an electron beam process includes a beam gun adapted for generating the electron beam, and a controller adapted for providing the electron beam with a complex raster pattern and for directing the electron beam onto an outer surface of the wire to control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool.

  9. Acidic deposition: effects on agricultural crops. Final report, April 1980-31 December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W. Jr.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Luxmoore, R.J.; McConathy, R.K.; McLaughlin, S.B.; Heagle, A.S.; Norby, R.J.; Takemoto, B.K.; Dubay, D.T.

    1985-05-01

    The report presents the results of research on soybean response to simulated wet and dry deposition, and field studies of growth, yield, and physiological response to a characterized air quality. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  10. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  11. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  12. Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Conformal Coating, Subnanometer Thickness Control, and Smart Positioning.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-22

    Transistors have already been made three-dimensional (3D), with device channels (i.e., fins in trigate field-effect transistor (FinFET) technology) that are taller, thinner, and closer together in order to enhance device performance and lower active power consumption. As device scaling continues, these transistors will require more advanced, fabrication-enabling technologies for the conformal deposition of high-κ dielectric layers on their 3D channels with accurate position alignment and thickness control down to the subnanometer scale. Among many competing techniques, area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) is a promising method that is well suited to the requirements without the use of complicated, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-incompatible processes. However, further progress is limited by poor area selectivity for thicker films formed via a higher number of ALD cycles as well as the prolonged processing time. In this issue of ACS Nano, Professor Stacy Bent and her research group demonstrate a straightforward self-correcting ALD approach, combining selective deposition with a postprocess mild chemical etching, which enables selective deposition of dielectric films with thicknesses and processing times at least 10 times larger and 48 times shorter, respectively, than those obtained by conventional AS-ALD processes. These advances present an important technological breakthrough that may drive the AS-ALD technique a step closer toward industrial applications in electronics, catalysis, and photonics, etc. where more efficient device fabrication processes are needed. PMID:26351731

  13. Fabrication and morphology control of BaWO{sub 4} thin films by microwave assisted chemical bath deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Rui; Liu Chen; Zeng Jia; Li KunWei; Wang Hao

    2009-04-15

    Highly crystallized barium tungstate (BaWO{sub 4}) thin films with dumbbell-like, kernel-like, bowknot-like and cauliflower-like microstructure were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing barium nitrate, ethylenediamine tetraacetate acid disodium and sodium tungstate, via mild microwave assisted chemical bath deposition process. The resulting BaWO{sub 4} films with different morphologies were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectrum, scanning electron microscope, Raman and photoluminescence spectra. The results indicate that the morphologies of final products significantly depend on the reaction conditions including the reaction time, the initial concentration of precursor reagent and the physicochemical characteristics of the substrates. Furthermore, the oriented aggregation mechanism is proposed as a possible formation mechanism of the films with specific morphologies. - Graphical abstract: Highly crystallized BaWO{sub 4} thin films with controllable morphologies have been synthesized via mild microwave assisted chemical bath deposition. The oriented aggregation mechanism has been proposed as the possible formation mechanism of specific films.

  14. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  15. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from space shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy space center, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-07-01

    Observations of damage to vegetation, acute reductions in surface water pH, and kills of small fish prompted the Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the John F. Kennedy Space Center to initiate intensive environmental evaluations of possible acute and long-term chronic impacts that may be produced by repeated launches of the space shuttle. An important step in this evaluation was the identification of deposition patterns and the quantification of ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents from the solid rocket motors (SRMs) in the area of the launch pad. These constituents are primarily aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). During three launches of the space transportation system (STS-11, 13, and 14) up to 100 bulk deposition collectors, 83 mm in diameter containing 100 ml of deionized water, were deployed in a grid pattern covering 12.6 ha north of launch pad 39-A. Estimates of HCl and particulate deposition levels were made based on laboratory measurements of items entrained in the collectors. Captured particulates consisted of a variety of items including Al2O3, sand grains, sea shell fragments, paint chips, and other debris ablated from the launch pad surface by the initial thrust of the SRMs. Estimated ranges of HCl and particulate deposition in the study area were 0-127 g/m2 and 0-246 g/m2, respectively. Deposition patterns were highly influenced by wind speed and direction. These measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, up to 7.1 × 103 kg of particulates and 3.4 × 103 kg of HCl can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence.

  16. Acid deposition coverage in five North American newspapers, 1979-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffeld, J.A.; Fortner, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Daily newspapers in some areas receiving acid rain, in some areas reported to be producing acid rain, and in some areas apparently ''neutral'' in the issue were content analyzed for their coverage of acid rain between 1979 and 1982. Of the five papers, the greatest amount of coverage was in the Cleveland Plain Dealer and the Toronto Globe and Mail. Coverage of acid rain effects was greatest in the Washington Post, as was the number of items suggesting remedies for the problem. Articles from papers in areas receiving acid rain contained more indications of urgency than those from areas blamed for the problem.

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  18. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  19. Development of a controlled release of salicylic acid loaded stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles in cream for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Woo, J O; Misran, M; Lee, P F; Tan, L P

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  1. Seizure control by decanoic acid through direct AMPA receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Augustin, Katrin; Boddum, Kim; Williams, Sophie; Sun, Min; Terschak, John A; Hardege, Jörg D; Chen, Philip E; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-02-01

    The medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet is an established treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy that increases plasma levels of decanoic acid and ketones. Recently, decanoic acid has been shown to provide seizure control in vivo, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we show that decanoic acid, but not the ketones β-hydroxybutryate or acetone, shows antiseizure activity in two acute ex vivo rat hippocampal slice models of epileptiform activity. To search for a mechanism of decanoic acid, we show it has a strong inhibitory effect on excitatory, but not inhibitory, neurotransmission in hippocampal slices. Using heterologous expression of excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA subunits in Xenopus oocytes, we show that this effect is through direct AMPA receptor inhibition, a target shared by a recently introduced epilepsy treatment perampanel. Decanoic acid acts as a non-competitive antagonist at therapeutically relevant concentrations, in a voltage- and subunit-dependent manner, and this is sufficient to explain its antiseizure effects. This inhibitory effect is likely to be caused by binding to sites on the M3 helix of the AMPA-GluA2 transmembrane domain; independent from the binding site of perampanel. Together our results indicate that the direct inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission by decanoic acid in the brain contributes to the anti-convulsant effect of the medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet. PMID:26608744

  2. Control of acid gases using a fluidized bed adsorber.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bo-Chin; Wey, Ming-Yen; Yeh, Chia-Lin

    2003-08-01

    During incineration, secondary pollutants such as acid gases, organic compounds, heavy metals and particulates are generated. Among these pollutants, the acid gases, including sulfur oxides (SO(x)) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), can cause corrosion of the incinerator piping and can generate acid rain after being emitted to the atmosphere. To address this problem, the present study used a novel combination of air pollution control devices (APCDs), composed of a fluidized bed adsorber integrated with a fabric filter. The major objective of the work is to demonstrate the performance of a fluidized bed adsorber for removal of acid gases from flue gas of an incinerator. The adsorbents added in the fluidized bed adsorber were mainly granular activated carbon (AC; with or without chemical treatment) and with calcium oxide used as an additive. The advantages of a fluidized bed reactor for high mass transfer and high gas-solid contact can enhance the removal of acid gases when using a dry method. On the other hand, because the fluidized bed can filter particles, fine particles prior to and after passing through the fluidized bed adsorber were investigated. The competing adsorption on activated carbon between different characteristics of pollutants was also given preliminary discussion. The results indicate that the removal efficiencies of the investigated acid gases, SO(2) and HCl, are higher than 94 and 87%, respectively. Thus, a fluidized bed adsorber integrated with a fabric filter has the potential to replace conventional APCDs, even when there are other pollutants at the same time.

  3. Lactic acid aided electrochemical deposition of c -axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide thin films: Structural and morphological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Thou-Jen; Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Tsai, Jia-Ming; Lee, Shyan-Jer

    2011-09-01

    Compact and homogeneous c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide (ZnO) films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass have been prepared electrochemically at -1.2 V vs. Ag|AgCl in a weak acidic condition from 0.06 M Zn(NO 3) 2 with 3 mM lactic acid (LA) added. LA was found having strong influence on the electrodeposition of c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide films. Other experimental variables such as deposition temperature, potential, and precursor concentration were also conducted in this article. Among these variables, it was found that precursor concentration of zinc nitrate influenced significantly on growth direction and crystal diameter of zinc oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to observe the electrochemistry of the deposition. Crystallinities of the films were examined by X-ray diffractometer. The morphologies of zinc oxide films were observed with a field emitting scanning electron microscope. Optical characteristics of zinc oxide layers were measured with UV-vis spectrophotometer. The band gap of the deposited zinc oxide thin films was evaluated from the Tauc relationship of ( αhν) 2 vs. hν, which was found to be 3.31 eV.

  4. Application of Controlled Radical Polymerization for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    CHU, DAVID S.H.; SCHELLINGER, JOAN G.; SHI, JULIE; CONVERTINE, ANTHONY J.; STAYTON, PATRICK S.; PUN, SUZIE H.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Nucleic acid-based therapeutics can potentially address otherwise untreatable genetic disorders and have significant potential for a wide range of diseases. Therapeutic gene delivery can restore protein function by replacing defunct genes to restore cellular health while RNA interference (RNAi) can mask mutated and harmful genes. Cationic polymers have been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications due to their self-assembly with nucleic acids into virus-sized nanoparticles and high transfection efficiency in vitro, but toxicity and particle stability have limited their clinical applications. The advent of controlled radical polymerization has improved the quality, control and reproducibility of synthesized materials. Controlled radical polymerization yields well-defined, narrowly disperse materials of designable architectures and molecular weight, allowing study of the effects of polymer architecture and molecular weight on transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity for improved design of next-generation vectors. Robust methods such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reverse addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and ring-opening metastasis polymerization (ROMP) have been used to engineer materials that specifically enhance extracellular stability, cellular specificity, and decrease toxicity. This Account reviews findings from structure-function studies that have elucidated key design motifs necessary for the development of effective nucleic acid vectors. In addition, polymers that are biodegradable, form supramolecular structures, target specific cells, or facilitate endosomal release are also discussed. Finally, promising materials with in vivo applications ranging from pulmonary gene delivery to DNA vaccines are described. PMID:22242774

  5. Interface control by homoepitaxial growth in pulsed laser deposited iron chalcogenide thin films

    PubMed Central

    Molatta, Sebastian; Haindl, Silvia; Trommler, Sascha; Schulze, Michael; Wurmehl, Sabine; Hühne, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Thin film growth of iron chalcogenides by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is still a delicate issue in terms of simultaneous control of stoichiometry, texture, substrate/film interface properties, and superconducting properties. The high volatility of the constituents sharply limits optimal deposition temperatures to a narrow window and mainly challenges reproducibility for vacuum based methods. In this work we demonstrate the beneficial introduction of a semiconducting FeSe1−xTex seed layer for subsequent homoepitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1−xTex thin film on MgO substrates. MgO is one of the most favorable substrates used in superconducting thin film applications, but the controlled growth of iron chalcogenide thin films on MgO has not yet been optimized and is the least understood. The large mismatch between the lattice constants of MgO and FeSe1−xTex of about 11% results in thin films with a mixed texture, that prevents further accurate investigations of a correlation between structural and electrical properties of FeSe1−xTex. Here we present an effective way to significantly improve epitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1−xTex thin films with reproducible high critical temperatures (≥17 K) at reduced deposition temperatures (200 °C–320 °C) on MgO using PLD. This offers a broad scope of various applications. PMID:26548645

  6. Interface control by homoepitaxial growth in pulsed laser deposited iron chalcogenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molatta, Sebastian; Haindl, Silvia; Trommler, Sascha; Schulze, Michael; Wurmehl, Sabine; Hühne, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Thin film growth of iron chalcogenides by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is still a delicate issue in terms of simultaneous control of stoichiometry, texture, substrate/film interface properties, and superconducting properties. The high volatility of the constituents sharply limits optimal deposition temperatures to a narrow window and mainly challenges reproducibility for vacuum based methods. In this work we demonstrate the beneficial introduction of a semiconducting FeSe1-xTex seed layer for subsequent homoepitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1-xTex thin film on MgO substrates. MgO is one of the most favorable substrates used in superconducting thin film applications, but the controlled growth of iron chalcogenide thin films on MgO has not yet been optimized and is the least understood. The large mismatch between the lattice constants of MgO and FeSe1-xTex of about 11% results in thin films with a mixed texture, that prevents further accurate investigations of a correlation between structural and electrical properties of FeSe1-xTex. Here we present an effective way to significantly improve epitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1-xTex thin films with reproducible high critical temperatures (≥17 K) at reduced deposition temperatures (200 °C-320 °C) on MgO using PLD. This offers a broad scope of various applications.

  7. Controlled Synthesis of Pd/Pt Core Shell Nanoparticles Using Area-selective Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Kun; Zhu, Qianqian; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    We report an atomic scale controllable synthesis of Pd/Pt core shell nanoparticles (NPs) via area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a modified surface. The method involves utilizing octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify the surface. Take the usage of pinholes on SAMs as active sites for the initial core nucleation, and subsequent selective deposition of the second metal as the shell layer. Since new nucleation sites can be effectively blocked by surface ODTS SAMs in the second deposition stage, we demonstrate the successful growth of Pd/Pt and Pt/Pd NPs with uniform core shell structures and narrow size distribution. The size, shell thickness and composition of the NPs can be controlled precisely by varying the ALD cycles. Such core shell structures can be realized by using regular ALD recipes without special adjustment. This SAMs assisted area-selective ALD method of core shell structure fabrication greatly expands the applicability of ALD in fabricating novel structures and can be readily applied to the growth of NPs with other compositions. PMID:25683469

  8. Acid dew and the role of chemistry in the dry deposition of reactive gases to wetted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A formalism is developed to describe the dry deposition of soluble reactive gases to wetted surfaces in terms of the relevant meteorological conditions, the surface roughness, the total amount of liquid water present on the surface, the rate of accumulation of this water, and the species' solubility and reactivity in the surface water. This formulation is then incorporated into a model designed to simulate the generation of acidic dew from the deposition of HNO3, SO2, S(IV) oxidants, H2O2, and O3. Similar to the observations of dew in the continental U.S., the model generates a dewdrop pH of about 4 by the end of the night; the pH can rapidly fall to toxic levels due to rapid evaporation after sunrise. Relatively low deposition velocities are predicted for the SO2 and O3 because of their lower solubilities and hence larger surface resistances than those of the other oxidants. Because the chemical lifetime of the SO2 in the dew is influenced by the atmospheric levels of H2O2, O3, and SO2, the SO2 deposition velocity is a strong function of these species' atmospheric abundances.

  9. Impact of sunlight and humic acid on the deposition kinetics of aqueous fullerene nanoparticles (nC60).

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2012-12-18

    Nanoparticle transport in natural settings is complex due to interactions with the surrounding environment. In this study, the impact of UVA irradiation and humic acid (HA) on deposition of aqueous fullerene nanoparticles (nC₆₀) on a silica surface as a surrogate for natural sediments was studied using packed column experiments and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring under various solution conditions. Surface oxidation of nC₆₀ induced by UVA irradiation greatly retarded its deposition due to the increased negative surface charge and hydrophilicity. Dissolved HA, once adsorbed onto the nC₆₀ surface, also hindered its deposition mainly through steric hindrance forces. The extent of this effect depended on the properties and the amount of HA adsorbed, which is a function of ionic strength and HA concentration. HA has limited adsorption on UVA-irradiated nC₆₀ and is expected to play a less important role in its stability. HA immobilized onto the silica surface had a variable effect on nC₆₀ deposition, depending on the complex interplay of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO interactions such as electrostatic interaction, steric hindrance, and hydrogen bonding as well as HA molecular conformation. These results highlight the importance of environment-induced changes in nC₆₀ surface chemistry in its fate and transport in aquatic environments.

  10. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic controls on Quaternary deposits and landforms, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Arvidson, R.; Becker, R.; Shanabrook, A.; Luo, W.; Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N.; Lotfy, Z.; Mahmood, A.M.; El Alfy, Z.

    1994-06-10

    The degree to which local climatic variations, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and tectonic uplift have influenced the development of Quaternary marine and fluvial landforms and deposits along the Red Sea coast, Eastern Desert, Egypt was investigated using a combination of remote sensing and field data, age determinations of corals, and numerical simulations. False color composites generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT image data, digital elevation models derived from stereophotogrammetric analysis of SPOT data, and field observations document that a {approximately}10-km-wide swath inland from the coast is covered in many places with coalescing alluvial fans of Quaternary age. Wadis cutting through the fans exhibit several pairs of fluvial terraces, and wadi walls expose alluvium interbedded with coralline limestone deposits. Further, three distinct coral terraces are evident along the coastline. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic uplift controls on the overall system were simulated using a cellular automata algorithm with the following characteristics: (1) uplift as a function of position and time, as defined by the elevations and ages of corals; (2) climatic variations driven by insolation changes associated with Milankovitch cycles; (3) sea level fluctuations based on U/Th ages of coral terraces and eustatic data; and (4) parameterized fluvial erosion and deposition. Results imply that the fans and coralline limestones were generated in a setting in which the tectonic uplift rate decreased over the Quaternary to negligible values at present. During lowstands, wadis cut into sedimentary deposits; coupled with continuing uplift, fans were dissected, leaving remnant surfaces, and wadi-related terraces were generated by down cutting. Only landforms from the past three to four eustatic sea level cycles (i.e., {approximately} 300 to 400 kyr) are likely to have survived erosion and deposition associated with fluvial processes. 33 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Benthic biofilm structure controls the deposition-resuspension dynamics of fine clay particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, W. R.; Roche, K. R.; Drummond, J. D.; Boano, F.; Packman, A. I.; Battin, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In fluvial ecosystems the alternation of deposition and resuspension of particles represents an important pathway for the downstream translocation of microbes and organic matter. Such particles can originate from algae and microbes, the spontaneous auto-aggregation of organic macromolecules (e.g., "river sown"), terrestrial detritus (traditionally classified as "particulate organic matter"), and erosive mineral and organo-mineral particles. The transport and retention of particles in headwater streams is associated with biofilms, which are surface-attached microbial communities. Whilst biofilm-particle interactions have been studied in bulk, a mechanistic understanding of these processes is lacking. Parallel macroscale/microscale observations are required to unravel the complex feedbacks between biofilm structure, coverage and the dynamics of deposition and resuspension. We used recirculating flume mesocosms to test how changes in biofilm structure affected the deposition and resuspension of clay-sized (< 10 μm) particles. Biofilms were grown in replicate 3-m-long recirculating flumes over variable lengths of time (0, 14, 21, 28, and 35) days. Fixed doses of fluorescent clay-sized particles were introduced to each flume and their deposition was traced over 30 minutes. A flood event was then simulated via a step increase in flowrate to quantify particle resuspension. 3D Optical Coherence Tomography was used to determine roughness, areal coverage and height of biofilms in each flume. From these measurements we characterised particle deposition and resuspension rates, using continuous time random walk modelling techniques, which we then tested as responses to changes in biofilm coverage and structure under both base-flow and flood-flow scenarios. Our results suggest that biofilm structural complexity is a primary control upon the retention and downstream transport of fine particles in stream mesocosms.

  12. Climatic, eustatic, and tectnoic controls on Quarternary deposits and landforms, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond; Becker, Richard; Shanabrook, Amy; Luo, Wei; Sturchio, Neil; Sultan, Mohamed; Lofty, Zakaria; Mahmood, Abdel Moneim; El Alfy, Zeinhom

    1994-01-01

    The degree to which local climatic variations, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and tectonic uplift have influenced the development of Quaternary marine and fluvial landforms and deposits along the Red Sea coast, Eastern Desert, was investigated using a combination of remote sensing and field data, age determinations of corals, and numerical simulations. False color composites generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT image data, digital elevation models derived from sterophotogrammetric analysis of SPOT data, and field observations document that a approximately 10-km wide swath inland from the coast is covered in many places with coalescing alluvial fans of Quaternary age. Wadis cutting through the fans exhibit several pairs of fluvial terraces, and wadi walls expose alluvium interbedded with corraline limestone deposits Further, three distinct coral terraces are evident along the coatline. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic uplift controls on the overall system were simulated using a cellular automata algorithm with the following characteristics: (1) uplift as a function of position and time, as defined by the elevations and ages of corals; (2) climatic variations driven by insolation changes associated with Milankovitch cycles; (3) sea level fluctuations based on U/Th ages of coral terraces and eustatic data; and (4) parametrized fluvial erosion and deposition. Results imply that the fans and coralline limestones were generated in a setting in which the tectonic uplift rate decreased over the Quarternary to negligible values at present. Coralline limestones formed furing eustatic highstands when alluvium was trapped uspstream and wadis filled with debris. During lowstands, wadis cut into sedimentary deposits; coupled with continuing uplift, fans were dissected, leaving remnant surfaces, and wadi-related terraces were generated by down cutting. Only landforms from the past three to four eustatic sea level cycles (i.e., approximately 300 to 400 kyr) are likely

  13. Transport and deposition of Suwannee River Humic Acid/Natural Organic Matter formed silver nanoparticles on silica matrices: the influence of solution pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Akaighe, Nelson; Depner, Sean W; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sohn, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The transport and deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed from Ag(+) reduction by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (SRNOM) utilizing a silica matrix is reported. The morphology and stability of the AgNPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The percentage conversion of the initial [Ag(+)] to [AgNPs] was determined from a combination of atomic absorption (AAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and centrifugation techniques. The results indicate higher AgNP transport and consequently low deposition in the porous media at basic pH conditions and low ionic strength. However, at low acidic pH and high ionic strength, especially with the divalent metallic cations, the mobility of the AgNPs in the porous media was very low, most likely due to NP aggregation. Overall, the results suggest the potential for AgNP contamination of subsurface soils and groundwater aquifers is mostly dependent on their aggregation state, controlled by the soil water and sediment ionic strength and pH.

  14. Stearic acids at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG are more efficient at limiting fat deposition than palmitic and oleic acids in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou-Wah; Cheng, Sit-Foon; Ong, Augustine Soon-Hock; Chuah, Cheng-Hock

    2014-04-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  16. Dynamically controlled deposition of colloidal nanoparticle suspension in evaporating drops using laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Ta, V D; Carter, R M; Esenturk, E; Connaughton, C; Wasley, T J; Li, J; Kay, R W; Stringer, J; Smith, P J; Shephard, J D

    2016-05-18

    Dynamic control of the distribution of polystyrene suspended nanoparticles in evaporating droplets is investigated using a 2.9 μm high power laser. Under laser radiation a droplet is locally heated and fluid flows are induced that overcome the capillary flow, and thus a reversal of the coffee-stain effect is observed. Suspension particles are accumulated in a localised area, one order of magnitude smaller than the original droplet size. By scanning the laser beam over the droplet, particles can be deposited in an arbitrary pattern. This finding raises the possibility for direct laser writing of suspended particles through a liquid layer. Furthermore, a highly uniform coating is possible by manipulating the laser beam diameter and exposure time. The effect is expected to be universally applicable to aqueous solutions independent of solutes (either particles or molecules) and deposited substrates.

  17. Dynamically controlled deposition of colloidal nanoparticle suspension in evaporating drops using laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Ta, V D; Carter, R M; Esenturk, E; Connaughton, C; Wasley, T J; Li, J; Kay, R W; Stringer, J; Smith, P J; Shephard, J D

    2016-05-18

    Dynamic control of the distribution of polystyrene suspended nanoparticles in evaporating droplets is investigated using a 2.9 μm high power laser. Under laser radiation a droplet is locally heated and fluid flows are induced that overcome the capillary flow, and thus a reversal of the coffee-stain effect is observed. Suspension particles are accumulated in a localised area, one order of magnitude smaller than the original droplet size. By scanning the laser beam over the droplet, particles can be deposited in an arbitrary pattern. This finding raises the possibility for direct laser writing of suspended particles through a liquid layer. Furthermore, a highly uniform coating is possible by manipulating the laser beam diameter and exposure time. The effect is expected to be universally applicable to aqueous solutions independent of solutes (either particles or molecules) and deposited substrates. PMID:27094902

  18. Structural control of oil and gas deposits in southwest Gissar and Tadzhik depression

    SciTech Connect

    Chitalin, A.F.; Irinarkhova, N.V.; Stor, M.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Computer analysis of the space image (scale 1:1,000,000) has been done for the Surkhandar'ya part of the Tadzhik depression and southwest Gissar region using a program of automatic apportionment and statistical analysis of lineaments. The lineaments correspond to faults in the Paleozoic basement of the depression and to faults and joint systems in the overlying deformed Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover. Oil and gas deposits occur both in the crests of folds in the cover and in subthrust structures which occur at the intersection of different trends of lineaments. The deposits are localized in the zones of intersecting trends. We suggest that the migration of hydrocarbons from basement rocks toward the anticlinal culminations was controlled by the fault zones and joint systems. The most prospective areas are the zones of west-northwest and northwest extension which trend at right angles to the fold axes.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on graphene through controlled ion beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Seok; Oh, Il-Kwon; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Hyungjun; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2016-05-01

    The polymer residue generated during the graphene transfer process to the substrate tends to cause problems (e.g., a decrease in electron mobility, unwanted doping, and non-uniform deposition of the dielectric material). In this study, by using a controllable low-energy Ar+ ion beam, we cleaned the polymer residue without damaging the graphene network. HfO2 grown by atomic layer deposition on graphene cleaned using an Ar+ ion beam showed a dense uniform structure, whereas that grown on the transferred graphene (before Ar+ ion cleaning) showed a non-uniform structure. A graphene-HfO2-metal capacitor fabricated by growing 20-nm thick HfO2 on graphene exhibited a very low leakage current (<10-11 A/cm2) for Ar+ ion-cleaned graphene, whereas a similar capacitor grown using the transferred graphene showed high leakage current.

  20. Optically monitored spray coating system for the controlled deposition of the photoactive layer in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vak, Doojin; van Embden, Joel; Wong, Wallace W. H.; Watkins, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A spray deposition process equipped with an in situ optical thickness monitoring system has been developed to fabricate the photoactive layer of solar cells. Film thickness is monitored by a photodiode-LED couple after each deposition cycle. Using optimized conditions, the thickness of the spray deposited photoactive films can be tuned to increase linearly with the number of deposition cycles over a wide range of deposition conditions. After instrument calibration, optimization of the active layer thickness can be accomplished by simply setting the desired absorbance of the film. The simple process outlined here may be used for the rapid optimization of thin film photovoltaic devices. As proof of this, we fabricate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as well as a P3HT and indene-C60 bis-adduct organic solar cells, which achieve a champion power conversion efficiency of 4.2%.

  1. Solvent Control of Surface Plasmon-Mediated Chemical Deposition of Au Nanoparticles from Alkylgold Phosphine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Muhich, Christopher L; Qiu, Jingjing; Holder, Aaron M; Wu, Yung-Chien; Weimer, Alan W; Wei, Wei David; McElwee-White, Lisa; Musgrave, Charles B

    2015-06-24

    Bottom-up approaches to nanofabrication are of great interest because they can enable structural control while minimizing material waste and fabrication time. One new bottom-up nanofabrication method involves excitation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a Ag surface to drive deposition of sub-15 nm Au nanoparticles from MeAuPPh3. In this work we used density functional theory to investigate the role of the PPh3 ligands of the Au precursor and the effect of adsorbed solvent on the deposition process, and to elucidate the mechanism of Au nanoparticle deposition. In the absence of solvent, the calculated barrier to MeAuPPh3 dissociation on the bare surface is <20 kcal/mol, making it facile at room temperature. Once adsorbed on the surface, neighboring MeAu fragments undergo ethane elimination to produce Au adatoms that cluster into Au nanoparticles. However, if the sample is immersed in benzene, we predict that the monolayer of adsorbed solvent blocks the adsorption of MeAuPPh3 onto the Ag surface because the PPh3 ligand is large compared to the size of the exposed surface between adsorbed benzenes. Instead, the Au-P bond of MeAuPPh3 dissociates in solution (Ea = 38.5 kcal/mol) in the plasmon heated near-surface region followed by the adsorption of the MeAu fragment on Ag in the interstitial space of the benzene monolayer. The adsorbed benzene forces the Au precursor to react through the higher energy path of dissociation in solution rather than dissociatively adsorbing onto the bare surface. This requires a higher temperature if the reaction is to proceed at a reasonable rate and enables the control of deposition by the light induced SPR heating of the surface and nearby solution.

  2. Analysis of WC/Ni-Based Coatings Deposited by Controlled Short-Circuit MIG Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespa, P.; Pinard, P. T.; Gauvin, R.; Brochu, M.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the recently developed controlled short-circuit metal inert gas (CSC-MIG) welding system for depositing WC/Ni-based claddings on carbon steel substrates. WC/Ni-based coatings deposited by CSC-MIG were analyzed by optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) capabilities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness measurements of depositions are also reported. The CSC-MIG welding system provides a significant amount of user control over the current waveform during welding and has lower heat input when compared with traditional MIG welding. Heat input for the analyzed coatings ranged from 10.1 to 108.7 J/mm. Metallurgically bonded coatings free from spatter and with 0.75% average porosity were produced. It was found that the detrimental decarburization of the WC particles seen in thermal spray systems does not occur when welding with the CSC-MIG. Precipitation of a reaction layer around the reinforcing phase was identified as WC; the average thickness of which increases from 3.8 to 7.2 μm for the low and high heat input condition, respectively. Precipitation of newly formed WC particles was observed; their size distribution increased from D 50 of 2.4 μm in the low heat input weldment to 6.75 μm in the high heat input weldment. The level of dilution of the reinforcing phase increases significantly with heat input. The hardness of the deposited coatings decreases from 587 HV10 to 410 HV10 when the energy input was increased from 10.1 to 108.7 J/mm.

  3. Acidic deposition effects on vegetation: a review and analysis of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain has recently been implicated as an agent which may potentially impact (both positively and negatively) vegetative growth. Although numerous hypotheses have been published regarding long-term acid rain damage to forests and croplands, there are few research results to directly support conclusive estimations of impact. A description and analysis of the approach and techniques used by researchers examining the vegetative impacts of acid rain is presented. 26 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  4. Trajectory analysis of acid deposition data from the new jersey pine barrens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, William W.

    This research provides an example of the application of a simple method for evaluating regional interrelationships using air parcel trajectory analysis. An assessment of trajectories associated with storms affecting McDonald's Branch watershed (39°50'N, 74°30'W) is presented. A simple classification system is used to examine regional contributions of acid precursors. The results of the work suggest that major regional sources of acid precursor emissions dominated precipitation acidity for the Pine Barrens region from 1978 to 1981. An incremental approach to acid precipitation policy is suggested.

  5. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  6. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  7. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  8. Controlled growth of few-layer hexagonal boron nitride on copper foils using ion beam sputtering deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haolin; Zhang, Xingwang; Meng, Junhua; Yin, Zhigang; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Yajuan; Zhang, Liuqi

    2015-04-01

    Ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) is used to synthesize high quality few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on copper foils. Compared to the conventional chemical vapor deposition, the IBSD technique avoids the use of unconventional precursors and is much easier to control, which should be very useful for the large-scale production of h-BN in the future.

  9. Decorporation of aged americium deposits by oral administration of lipophilic polyamino carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Kuswik-Rabiega, G; Miller, S C

    1992-01-01

    Several new powerful chelating agents, suitable for the removal of a variety of certain heavy-metal ions from the body by oral application, have been synthesized and tested. Structurally, these compounds are partially lipophilic polyamino carboxylic acids (PACA). They were synthesized in nonaqueous media from triethylenetetramine (TT) by monoalkylation of a primary amino group, followed by exhaustive carboxymethylation of the remaining amino groups using ethyl bromoacetate and subsequent alkaline hydrolysis of the ester. Compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. Synthesis and testing of two of these compounds, C12- and C22-triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acid (CnTT), is described in detail. Gel permeation chromatography of a mixture of the PACA and actinide elements have shown these substances to be strong chelating agents similar to EDTA or DTPA. They were capable of removing plutonium from contaminated liver cytosol in vitro. In contrast to their nonlipophilic counterparts EDTA and DTPA, the model substances exhibited appreciable absorption from the intestine and, therefore, can be administered orally. With increasing length of the alkyl chain, the chelons can be directed primarily to the liver, one of the target organs for actinide contamination. In vivo, absorption from the ligated duodenum and jejunum of rats after 2 h was 27% of the amount introduced. Compared to untreated controls, daily feeding of 200 mumol of the chelons (C12TT or C22TT)/kg of body weight to rats for 10 days reduced the whole body Am by 29% and 44%, respectively. Am was eliminated most efficiently from the liver, with a reduction of 71% and 89% (p less than 0.001). However, the skeletal retention also was reduced by 17% and 32% from the femora (p less than 0.001) and 20% and 37% from the carcass for the C12TT and C22TT compounds, respectively. No weight loss or other obvious signs of blood, kidney, liver, or intestinal toxicity were observed after the

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  11. Large-Area Deposition of MoS2 by Pulsed Laser Deposition with In Situ Thickness Control.

    PubMed

    Serna, Martha I; Yoo, Seong H; Moreno, Salvador; Xi, Yang; Oviedo, Juan Pablo; Choi, Hyunjoo; Alshareef, Husam N; Kim, Moon J; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A

    2016-06-28

    A scalable and catalyst-free method to deposit stoichiometric molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films over large areas is reported, with the maximum area limited by the size of the substrate holder. The method allows deposition of MoS2 layers on a wide range of substrates without any additional surface preparation, including single-crystal (sapphire and quartz), polycrystalline (HfO2), and amorphous (SiO2) substrates. The films are deposited using carefully designed MoS2 targets fabricated with excess sulfur and variable MoS2 and sulfur particle size. Uniform and layered MoS2 films as thin as two monolayers, with an electrical resistivity of 1.54 × 10(4) Ω cm(-1), were achieved. The MoS2 stoichiometry was confirmed by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. With the method reported here, in situ graded MoS2 films ranging from ∼1 to 10 monolayers can be deposited. PMID:27219117

  12. Large-Area Deposition of MoS2 by Pulsed Laser Deposition with In Situ Thickness Control.

    PubMed

    Serna, Martha I; Yoo, Seong H; Moreno, Salvador; Xi, Yang; Oviedo, Juan Pablo; Choi, Hyunjoo; Alshareef, Husam N; Kim, Moon J; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A

    2016-06-28

    A scalable and catalyst-free method to deposit stoichiometric molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films over large areas is reported, with the maximum area limited by the size of the substrate holder. The method allows deposition of MoS2 layers on a wide range of substrates without any additional surface preparation, including single-crystal (sapphire and quartz), polycrystalline (HfO2), and amorphous (SiO2) substrates. The films are deposited using carefully designed MoS2 targets fabricated with excess sulfur and variable MoS2 and sulfur particle size. Uniform and layered MoS2 films as thin as two monolayers, with an electrical resistivity of 1.54 × 10(4) Ω cm(-1), were achieved. The MoS2 stoichiometry was confirmed by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. With the method reported here, in situ graded MoS2 films ranging from ∼1 to 10 monolayers can be deposited.

  13. Dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium, and nitrate to alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, G.; Sievering, H.

    2001-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70ngNm-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200ngNm-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20ngNm-3. Large deposition velocities (>2cms-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70 ng N m-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200 ng N m-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to

  14. Runoff of acidic substances that originated from atmospheric deposition on Yakushima Island, a world natural heritage site.

    PubMed

    Nagafuchi, O; Kakimoto, H; Ebise, S; Inoue, T; Koga, M

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present monitoring data of stream waters that may reflect acidic impacts on the island as well as the rainwater qualities. The pH ranges of the river water in the Kawara streams in the western part of the island and the Yodogo stream in the central part of the island were 5.71-6.35 and 5.85-6.12 during 1992-1999, respectively. The concentrations of SO4(2-) and NO3- in the river water were lower than those in the rainwater. Many differences were observed among the sampling sites. Higher concentrations of acid substances are found in the stream waters of the western area compared to the other areas. On the other hand, sulfuric acid is the major acid in the rainwater, snow and rime ice. No differences were observed in the ion constituents of the rainwater collected in the areas. These results suggested that the densely growing canopy may play a role in holding air pollutants, and acidic substances deposited on the canopy would be discharged as a through-fall and a stem flow. Furthermore, the water mass containing high ionic substances in the western area has been held in the groundwater layer, continuously supplying the stream waters during dry weather days. On the other hand, part of the basic runoff will be diluted with a surface runoff during the rainy days. As a result, the concentrations of the ionic substances in the stream waters during rainy days decreased.

  15. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  16. Deposition and rainwater concentrations of trifluoroacetic acid in the United States from the use of HFO-1234yf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the most common refrigerant in automobile air conditioners. This high global warming potential substance (100 year GWP of 1370) will likely be phased out and replaced with HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) that has a 100 year GWP of 4. HFO-1234yf will be oxidized to produce trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in clouds. TFA, a mildly toxic substance with detrimental effects on some aquatic organisms at high concentrations (≥100μgL-1), would be transported by rain to the surface and enter bodies of water. We investigated the dry and wet deposition of TFA from HFO-1234yf over the contiguous USA using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model (ARW) with interactive chemical, aerosol, and cloud processes (WRF/Chem) model. Special focus was placed on emissions from three continental USA regions with different meteorological characteristics. WRF/Chem simulated meteorology, cloud processes, gas and aqueous phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition between May and September 2006. The model reproduced well the multimonth total sulfate wet deposition (4% bias) and its spatial variability (r = 0.86) observed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. HFO-1234yf emissions were obtained by assuming the number of automobile air conditioners to remain unchanged, and substituting HFO-1234yf, mole-per-mole for HFC-134a. Our estimates of current HFC-134a emissions were in agreement with field data. Average TFA rainwater concentration was 0.89μgL-1, with peak values of 7.8μgL-1, for the May-September 2006 period over the contiguous USA. TFA rainwater concentrations over the dry western USA were often significantly higher, but wet-deposited TFA amounts remained relatively low at such locations.

  17. Uric acid deposits and estivation in the invasive apple-snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Abud, María A; Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The physiological ability to estivate is relevant for the maintenance of population size in the invasive Pomacea canaliculata. However, tissue reoxygenation during arousal from estivation poses the problem of acute oxidative stress. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant in several systems and it is stored in specialized tissues of P. canaliculata. Changes in tissue concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and allantoin were measured during estivation and arousal in P. canaliculata. Both TBARS and uric acid increased two-fold during 45 days estivation, probably as a consequence of concomitant oxyradical production during uric acid synthesis by xanthine oxidase. However,