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Sample records for acid detergent insoluble

  1. DIRECT VERSES SEQUENTIAL ANALYSIS OF ACID-DETERGENT INSOLUBLE NITROGEN IN FORAGE LEGUME HAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acid-detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) is thought to represent nitrogen that is not degraded during ruminal and post-ruminal digestion of forages by cattle. Forage ADIN can be determined following direct acid detergent extraction or following sequential extraction with neutral and acid detergents....

  2. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results Forage DMI was affected by diet (P = 0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P < 0.05) than from L. Apparent DMD tended (P = 0.08) to differ among diets while FO (P = 0.20) was not affected by diet treatments. Average ADL recovery (1.16) was greater (P < 0.05) than that of ADIA (1.03) and APL (1.06), but ADIA and APL did not differ (P = 0.42). Estimates of FO and DMD derived using APL and ADIA were not different (P ≥ 0.05) from total fecal collection while those using ADL differed (P < 0.05). There was no diet by marker interaction (P ≥ 0.22) for either FO or DMD. Conclusion Acid-detergent insoluble ash and APL accurately predicted FO and DMD of cattle fed bermudagrass hay of varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of

  3. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  4. Ligand-induced association of surface immunoglobulin with the detergent insoluble cytoskeleton may involve an 89K protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.K.; Woda, B.

    1986-03-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin of B-lymphocytes is thought to play an important role in antigen recognition and cellular activation. Binding of cross-linking ligands to surface immunoglobulin (SIg) on intact cells converts it to a detergent insoluble state, and this conversion is associated with the transmission of a mitogenic signal. Insolubilized membrane proteins may be solubilized by incubating the detergent insoluble cytoskeletons in buffers which convert F-actin to G-actin ((Buffer 1), 0.34M sucrose, 0.5mM ATP, 0.5mM Dithiothrietol and lmM EDTA). Immunoprecipitation of SIg from the detergent soluble fraction of /sup 35/S-methionine labeled non ligand treated rat B-cells results in the co-isolation of an 89K protein and a 44K protein, presumably actin. The 89K protein is not associated with the fraction of endogenous detergent insoluble SIg. On treatment of rat B cells with cross-linking ligand (anti-Ig) the 89K protein becomes detergent insoluble along with most of the SIg and co-isolates with SIg on immunoprecipitation of the detergent insoluble, buffer l solubilized fraction. The migration of the SIg-associated 89K protein from the detergent soluble fraction to the detergent insoluble fraction after ligand treatment, suggests that this protein might be involved in linking SIg to the underlying cytoskeleton and could be involved in the transmission of a mitogenic signal.

  5. Characterisation of detergent-insoluble membranes in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Alessandra; Gagliardi, Assunta; Maneta-Peyret, Lilly; Bini, Luca; Stroppa, Nadia; Onelli, Elisabetta; Landi, Claudia; Scali, Monica; Idilli, Aurora Irene; Moreau, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pollen tubes are the vehicle for sperm cell delivery to the embryo sac during fertilisation of Angiosperms. They provide an intriguing model for unravelling mechanisms of growing to extremes. The asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins in the pollen tube plasma membrane modulates ion fluxes and actin dynamics and is maintained by a delicate equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis. The structural constraints regulating polarised secretion and asymmetric protein distribution on the plasma membrane are mostly unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether ordered membrane microdomains, namely membrane rafts, might contribute to sperm cell delivery. Detergent insoluble membranes, rich in sterols and sphingolipids, were isolated from tobacco pollen tubes. MALDI TOF/MS analysis revealed that actin, prohibitins and proteins involved in methylation reactions and in phosphoinositide pattern regulation are specifically present in pollen tube detergent insoluble membranes. Tubulins, voltage-dependent anion channels and proteins involved in membrane trafficking and signalling were also present. This paper reports the first evidence of membrane rafts in Angiosperm pollen tubes, opening new perspectives on the coordination of signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and polarised secretion. PMID:25701665

  6. Technical note: improved methodology for analyses of acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin.

    PubMed

    Raffrenato, E; Van Amburgh, M E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the methodology of the acid detergent lignin (ADL) assay in an effort to evaluate particle loss, improve repeatability, and decrease variation within and among samples. The original ADL method relied on asbestos as a filtering aid, but that was removed in 1989 with the mandate from the Environmental Protection Agency to eliminate asbestos in the environment. Furthermore, recent work on fiber methodology indicated that pore size in the Gooch sintered glass crucible (40-60 μm) was too large to trap all of the small particles associated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Thus, any loss of ADF could potentially result in a loss of ADL. Sixty forages including conventional and brown midrib corn silages, alfalfa silages and hays, mature grasses, early vegetative grasses, and 9 feces samples, were analyzed sequentially for ADF and ADL as outlined in the 1973 procedure of Van Soest except for the use of the asbestos fiber. A glass microfiber filter with a 1.5-μm pore size was chosen as a filtering aid because it met the criteria required by the assay: glass, heat resistant, acid resistant, chemically inert, and hydrophobic. To compare with the current ADF and ADL assays, the assays were conducted with either no filter or the glass filter inserted into crucibles, rinsed with acetone, and then according to the 1973 procedure of Van Soest. The samples analyzed covered a range from 18.11 to 55.79% ADF and from 0.96 to 9.94% ADL on a dry matter (DM) basis. With the use of the filter, the mean ADF values increased 4.2% and mean ADL values increased 18.9%. Overall, both ADF and ADL values were greater with the use of the glass microfiber filter than without, indicating that as the type of sample analyzed changed, use of the Gooch crucible without the filtering aid results in particle loss. The adoption of the use of a small pore size (1.5 μm) glass microfiber filter to improve filtration and recovery

  7. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  8. STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF DEHYDROTRIFERULIC AND DEHYDROTETRAFERULIC ACIDS ISOLATED FROM INSOLUBLE MAIZE FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new dehydrotriferulic acids and two dehydrotetraferulic acids were isolated from saponified maize bran insoluble fiber using size exclusion chromatography on BioBeads S-X3 followed by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and semi-preparative Phenyl-Hexyl-RP-HPLC. Based on UV-spectroscopy, mass spectros...

  9. Ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of nitrogen and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen from common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R K; Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Turner, J E; Scarbrough, D A; Jennings, J A; Richardson, M D

    2006-03-01

    Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11 and August 22, 2001 and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of N and neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN) for these forages. A secondary objective was to compare these kinetic estimates for crabgrass with those of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and or-chardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) as control hays. All kinetic evaluations were conducted with 5 ruminally cannulated Gelbvieh x Angus x Brangus steers (383 +/- 22.7 kg). Concentrations of N for crabgrass decreased linearly (P < or = 0.002) across sampling dates for leaf, stem, and whole-plant tissues. Conversely, percentages of the total N pool within NDIN and ADIN fractions generally increased over sampling dates in mostly linear patterns. For crabgrass, the immediately soluble portion of the total N pool (fraction A; overall mean = 54.6% of N) was greater (P < 0.001) than for all control hays. Crabgrass exhibited a more rapid N disappearance rate (overall mean = 0.093/h; expressed as a proportion disappearing/h) than that of bermudagrass (0.046/h; P < 0.001), but the disappearance rate for alfalfa N (0.223/h) was considerably faster (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass. The effective ruminal disappearance of N was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall mean = 85.4%) than for the alfalfa (83.3%), bermudagrass (72.3%), or orchardgrass (76.0%) control hays. For alfalfa, the ruminal disappearance rate of NDIN (0.150/h) was more rapid (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass (overall mean = 0.110/h); however, the disappearance rate for crabgrass was faster than that for bermudagrass (0.072/h; P < 0.001) or for orchardgrass (0.098/h; P = 0.010). Effective ruminal

  10. XPS and STEM studies of Allende acid insoluble residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Clarke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on Allende acid residues obtained both before and after etching with hot HNO3 are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectra show predominantly carbonaceous material plus Fe-deficient chromite in both cases. The HNO3 oxidizes the carbonaceous material to some extent. The small chromites in these residues have a wide range of compositions somewhat paralleling those observed in larger Allende chromites and in Murchison chromites, especially in the high Al contents; however, they are deficient in divalent cations, which makes them metastable and indicates that they must have formed at relatively low temperatures. It is suggested that they formed by precipitation of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) from olivine at low temperature or during rapid cooling.

  11. Pharmacology of bile acid receptors: Evolution of bile acids from simple detergents to complex signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Copple, Bryan L; Li, Tiangang

    2016-02-01

    For many years, bile acids were thought to only function as detergents which solubilize fats and facilitate the uptake of fat-soluble vitamins in the intestine. Many early observations; however, demonstrated that bile acids regulate more complex processes, such as bile acids synthesis and immune cell function through activation of signal transduction pathways. These studies were the first to suggest that receptors may exist for bile acids. Ultimately, seminal studies by many investigators led to the discovery of several bile acid-activated receptors including the farnesoid X receptor, the vitamin D receptor, the pregnane X receptor, TGR5, α5 β1 integrin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2. Several of these receptors are expressed outside of the gastrointestinal system, indicating that bile acids may have diverse functions throughout the body. Characterization of the functions of these receptors over the last two decades has identified many important roles for these receptors in regulation of bile acid synthesis, transport, and detoxification; regulation of glucose utilization; regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation; regulation of immune cell function; regulation of energy expenditure; and regulation of neural processes such as gastric motility. Through these many functions, bile acids regulate many aspects of digestion ranging from uptake of essential vitamins to proper utilization of nutrients. Accordingly, within a short time period, bile acids moved beyond simple detergents and into the realm of complex signaling molecules. Because of the important processes that bile acids regulate through activation of receptors, drugs that target these receptors are under development for the treatment of several diseases, including cholestatic liver disease and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will describe the various bile acid receptors, the signal transduction pathways activated by these receptors, and briefly discuss the physiological processes that

  12. Organic acids as cloud condensation nuclei: Laboratory studies of highly soluble and insoluble species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep Kumar, P.; Broekhuizen, K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2003-05-01

    The ability of sub-micron-sized organic acid particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been examined at room temperature using a newly constructed continuous-flow, thermal-gradient diffusion chamber (TGDC). The organic acids studied were: oxalic, malonic, glutaric, oleic and stearic. The CCN properties of the highly soluble acids - oxalic, malonic and glutaric - match very closely Köhler theory predictions which assume full dissolution of the dry particle and a surface tension of the growing droplet equal to that of water. In particular, for supersaturations between 0.3 and 0.6, agreement between the dry particle diameter which gives 50% activation and that calculated from Köhler theory is to within 3nm on average. In the course of the experiments, considerable instability of glutaric acid particles was observed as a function of time and there is evidence that they fragment to some degree to smaller particles. Stearic acid and oleic acid, which are both highly insoluble in water, did not activate at supersaturations of 0.6% with dry diameters up to 140nm. Finally, to validate the performance of the TGDC, we present results for the activation of ammonium sulfate particles that demonstrate good agreement with Köhler theory if solution non-ideality is considered. Our findings support earlier studies in the literature that showed highly soluble organics to be CCN active but insoluble species to be largely inactive.

  13. Microbial degradation of chelating agents used in detergents with special reference to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA).

    PubMed

    Egli, T; Bally, M; Uetz, T

    1990-01-01

    The extensive use of phosphate-based detergents and agricultural fertilizers is one of the main causes of the world-wide eutrophication of rivers and lakes. To ameliorate such problems partial or total substitution of phosphates in laundry detergents by synthetic, non-phosphorus containing complexing agents is practiced in several countries. The physiological, biochemical and ecological aspects of the microbial degradation of the complexing agents most frequently used, such as polyphosphates, aminopolycarboxylates (especially of nitrilotriacetic acid), and phosphonates are reviewed. PMID:1368145

  14. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  15. Detergents and Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, E. J.; Friend, C. L.; Roski, J. P.

    Lubricant detergents are metal salts of organic surfactants giving corrosion protection, deposit prevention and other formulation performance enhancements. Overbased detergents incorporate colloidal basic inorganic components which neutralize acidic contaminants. Degrees of overbasing, size and form of component affect detergent performance. Sulphonate-, phenate- and salicylate-type detergents incorporating calcium carbonate are the most widely used. Choices of detergent type and level are highly dependent on specific applications, and combinations are needed to optimize performance and cost.

  16. Detergent-assisted self assembly of fatty acid layers on mica in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Sean; Yang, Jie

    1997-03-01

    Fatty acids are well known for their ability to form monolayers at air-water interfaces. The conventional method to coat a solid surface with mono or multi layers of fatty acids uses a Langmuir trough, via X- or Y- type coatings. The major advantage of the Langmuir trough is the ability to control the monolayer pressure. The limiting factors are, however, the restricted size of the substrate, the physical size of the Langmuir trough, and the coating procedure. To circumvent some of these drawbacks, we have developed a method to cover a solid mica substrate with fatty acids by detergent assisted self assembly in aqueous solutions. It has been found that a molecular layer of fatty acids, possibly complexed with some detergent, are self-assembled on the mica surface. Thickness measurements of these self-assembled layers suggest that the layer is composed of two monolayers of fatty acids in a bilayer arrangement. The presence of cations in the solution has some effect on the assembly of the molecular layer, and may alter the orientation of individual fatty acids in the layer. Structural characteristics of such self assembled molecular layers are studied with atomic force microscopy. Details of the method of the detergent assisted self assembly and some structural features of the assembled molecular layers will be presented.

  17. The effect of bile, bile acids and detergents on calcium absorption in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Webling, D. D'A.; Holdsworth, E. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. Bile from rachitic or normal chicks causes an immediate increase in the intestinal absorption of soluble calcium in rachitic and vitamin D3-treated chicks as tested in vivo by intestinal-loop and oral-dosing methods. 2. This effect is apparently solely due to the taurine-conjugated bile acids present in the bile and is independent of the action of vitamin D. 3. Chick bile and bile acids can increase the solubility and the absorption of calcium presented as sparingly soluble calcium hydrogen phosphate. 4. In addition, bile is necessary to some extent at least for the intestinal absorption of vitamin D3 in the chick and this would indirectly enhance the absorption of calcium. 5. Thus bile is capable of a threefold action in the absorption of calcium in the chick. It is suggested that the direct action on sparingly soluble forms of calcium is of considerable physiological importance since most of the calcium in the normal bird's diet would be in this form. 6. Bile acids enhance the absorption of calcium in all regions of the small intestine of the chick. 7. Of a range of bile acids and detergents tested for enhancement of calcium absorption, various taurine-conjugated bile acids and sodium lauryl sulphate, an anionic detergent, are effective. A non-ionic detergent (Tween 80) and a cationic detergent (Zephiran) are without effect. 8. The ability of a substance to increase directly the intestinal absorption of soluble calcium appears to depend to some extent on an anionic detergent action, i.e. the ability to form a salt or complex soluble to some extent in both aqueous and lipid phases. 9. In chicks the immediate deposition of calcium (45Ca) in the bones closely reflects any increase in plasma calcium radioactivity regardless of the cause of the increase and regardless of the vitamin D3 status. Although sodium lauryl sulphate can increase markedly the calcium absorption from the gut and the immediate deposition in the bones it has no significant effect on rickets

  18. Mixture tetracycline citric acid and detergent – A root canal irrigant. A review

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, G.P.V.; Sekhar, K.S.; Nischith, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Root canal irrigants play an indispensable role for the complete disinfection of the root canal system, in particular those areas of the root canal that are not accessible for instrumentation. Sodium hypochlorite, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine are the most commonly used root canal irrigants in endodontic practice, but they do not satisfy all the properties of an ideal root canal irrigant. Mixture tetracycline, citric acid and detergent, a root canal irrigant, is commercially available as BioPure MTAD (Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK). Methodology The literature was searched for root canal irrigants used in the last 3 decades in PubMed. Data showed 83 relevant articles, of which 24 were found most suitable on the basis of description of properties, advantages and disadvantages of MTAD, hence were included. The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of MTAD for its antibacterial efficiency, biocompatibility, chelating action with removal of endodontic smear layer and compare it with other commonly used root canal irrigants like sodium hypochlorite, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine. Results MTAD was found to be highly effective intracanal irrigant compared to other commonly used root canal irrigants with excellent disinfection of the entire root canal system. Conclusion MTAD is biocompatible with superior antimicrobial efficiency compared to other commonly used root canal irrigants. PMID:25737877

  19. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  20. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  1. Trace metal occurrences in acid-insoluble residues of the Ordovician Galena Group, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, R.S.; Mossler, J.H.; Morey, G.B. ); Hauck, S.A. . Natural Resources Research Inst.)

    1993-03-01

    Regional geochemical, studies on insoluble residues from Paleozoic carbonate rocks have become an integral part of the search for new Upper Mississippi Valley-type mineral deposits in the northern Midcontinent. The authors have extended these studies to southeastern Minnesota, an area well to the north of known lead-zinc deposits of commercial size and grade. In this region, a thin sequence of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician strata unconformably overlies a complex Precambrian basement. More than 500 samples of limestone and dolomite from 40 drill holes and outcrops were analyzed for 29 related trace elements. Preliminary interpretations are based on the analysis of 380 samples of the Ordovician Galena Group from 37 localities. Results indicate that anomalous concentrations of Pb, Cu, zn, As, Cd, and Ni are confined to the southern half of the Galena subgroup area and extend less than 30 miles north of the Iowa border. The anomalous areas, as well as saddles between the, have a distinct northwest trend, coincident with structural features previously recognized in the Precambrian basement. The spatial relationships of the anomalies and the lack of direct correlation imply deposition from fluids moving north out of the main lead-zinc district along structural pathways. The lack of significant anomalies in the northern part of the subcrop area implies northwest weakening of the forces driving the metal-bearing fluids, as well as a decrease over distance in the absolute metal content of the migrating fluids.

  2. Hydrocarbon fuel detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.R.; Lyons, W.R.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon fuel composition comprising: a hydrocarbon fuel; and a detergent amount of a detergent comprising an alkenylsuccinimide prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride with a mixture of amines, wherein at least 90 weight percent of the alkenyl substituent is derived from an olefin having a carbon chain of from 10 to 30 carbons or mixtures thereof, and wherein the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride is reacted with the mixture of amines at a mole ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 moles of the amines per mole of the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride.

  3. Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria which produce water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextrans and related glucans produced from sucrose by lactic acid bacteria have been studied for many years and are used in numerous commercial applications and products. Most of these glucans are water-soluble, except for a few notable exceptions from cariogenic Streptococcus spp. and a very small ...

  4. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness. PMID:26365517

  5. Insoluble Fe-humic acid complex as a solid-phase electron mediator for microbial reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Zhiling; Akatsuka, Tetsuji; Yang, Suyin; Suzuki, Daisuke; Katayama, Arata

    2014-06-01

    We report that the insoluble Fe-HA complex, which was synthesized with both commercial Aldrich humic acid (HA) and natural HA, functions as a solid-phase electron mediator (EM) for the anaerobic microbial dechlorination of pentachlorophenol. Spectroscopic characterizations and sequential Fe extraction demonstrated that the Fe-HA complex was predominated with Na4P2O7-labile Fe (represented as the organically bound Fe fraction) and poorly ordered Fe fraction (the fraction left in the residue after the sequential extraction), which were associated with different possible binding processes with carboxylate and phenolic groups. The change in the electron-mediating activity caused by Fe extraction indicated that the electron-mediating function of the Fe-HA complex is attributable to the Na4P2O7-labile Fe fraction. The Fe-HA complex also accelerated the microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxide, which suggested the presence of multiple electron-mediating functions in the complex. The electron shuttle assay showed that the Fe-HA complex had an electron-accepting capacity of 0.82 mequiv g(-1) dry Fe-HA complex. The presence of redox-active moieties in the Fe-HA complex was verified by cyclic voltammetry analysis of the sample after electrical reduction, with a redox potential estimated at 0.02 V (vs a standard hydrogen electrode). PMID:24758743

  6. Potent inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the presence of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10% (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol significantly inhibited the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5 in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. However, the inhibitory effect of acid production by D-tagatose was significantly stronger than that of xylitol in presence of sucrose. PMID:25899632

  7. Experimenting with Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

  8. Soaps and detergents: understanding their composition and effect.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Froelich, C W

    1998-03-01

    Soaps have been used for thousands of years as part of religious ceremonies and daily life. Derived from fatty acids or triglycerides (fats or oils) into their alkali derivatives through a process called saponification, soaps are important for healthcare professionals in preventing the spread of disease. Partly due to their alkaline nature, soaps are limited by their irritancy to the skin and their tendency to form insoluble and inactive salts when combined with either hard water or sea water. Therefore, soap alternatives or synthetic detergents have been developed. Detergents are classified into four groups: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. These four groups are based on the hydrophilic qualities and surfactants they possess. Each group has characteristics that pertain to its main uses, irritancy, and toxicity. Understanding soaps and detergents may assist clinicians in making intelligent choices when using these agents on their patients as either skin cleansers or wound cleansers. Understanding the characteristics of soaps and detergents is especially important when dealing with at-risk patients such as the elderly. PMID:9625999

  9. Incorporation of glycine-2-C-14 in acid-insoluble proteins of rat bones and teeth during hypokinesia and administration of thyrocalcitonine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stekolnikov, L. I.; Uglova, N. N.; Potkin, V. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A forced limitation of the motor activity in rats (from 5 to 60 days) results in reduced incorporation of glycine 2-C14 in the total acid insoluble proteins of limb bones and its increase in the teeth and mandibular-maxillary bones. Daily administration of five micrograms of thyrocalcitonine together with polyvinylpyrrolidone normalizes the protein metabolism in the bone tissues during the 40 days of experimentation.

  10. [Analysis of alkaline CuO degradation products of acid detergent fiber from tobacco leaves by using liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Leijun; Wu, Shun; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Peipei

    2015-07-01

    The acid detergent fiber (ADF) from tobacco leaves was obtained by treating the sample with petroleum ether-ethanol (6:4, v/v), 30 g/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid containing 20 g/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide successively. The ADF was degraded by the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure. In this work, six samples of ADF degradation products from tobacco leaves were prepared. The samples were analyzed by using gradient liquid chromatography (LC) where an Ultimate XB C18 column was used as stationary phase, with a mixture of methanol and water as mobile phase, at a column temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Dual wavelengths of 280 nm and 320 nm were chosen for the detection. It was found that there were four characteristic peaks for the ADF degradation products. By taking these peaks as research object, the optimum time for the degradation was found to be 5 h and the sample solution could be kept stable within 7 days. The established method may provide a new approach for the studies of the differences between lignin composition in different tobacco leaves and the relationship between lignin content and the smoking quality of tobacco leaves. PMID:26672209

  11. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  12. Catalyst Of A Metal Heteropoly Acid Salt That Is Insoluble In A Polar Solvent On A Non-Metallic Porous Support And Method Of Making

    DOEpatents

    Wang. Yong; Peden. Charles H. F.; Choi. Saemin

    2004-11-09

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  13. Combined effect of a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent, and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis and Actinomyces viscosus biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Hanan A.; Shakoor, Zahid A.; Kanfar, Maha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the combined effect of a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent (MTAD) and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Actinomyces viscosus (A. viscosus) biofilms. Methods: This study was conducted between June and December 2013 in collaboration with Dental Caries Research Chair, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Single-species biofilms (n=9/species/observation period) were generated on membrane filter discs and subjected to 5, 10, or 15 minute incubation with MTADN (MTAD with 3% Nisin), 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or normal saline. The colony forming units were counted using the Dark field colony counter. Results: A 100% bactericidal effect of 5.25% NaOCl was noted during the 3 observation periods; a significant reduction (p=0.000) in mean survival rates of E. faecalis (77.3+13.6) and A. viscosus (39.6+12.6) was noted after 5 minutes exposure to MTADN compared with normal saline (78000000+5291503) declining to almost no growth after 10 and 15 minutes. The survival rates of the E. faecalis and A. viscosus biofilm were no different after treatment with MTADN and 5.25% NaOCl at the 3 observation periods (p=1.000). Conclusion: A combination of MTAD and Nisin was as effective as NaOCl against E. faecalis and A. viscosus biofilms. PMID:25719587

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Jian, Hongju; Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  16. Debris and smear layer removal efficacy and changes in morphology of dentinal tubules after using citric acid, tetracycline-hydrochloride and mixture of tetracycline and acid and detergent

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Ahmad Moghare; Farhad, Shirin Zahra; Farhad, Alireza; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Mafi, Morvarid; Abooie, Mohammad Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background: In periodontal diseases, contamination of roots with bacteria and their active biologic agents and smear layer formation following periodontal treatments, prevents reattachment of periodontal cells. As a matter of fact biomodification of root surface and removal of smear layer and debris is critical for regeneration of periodontal structures. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by citric acid, tetracycline-hydrochloride (TTC-HCL) and mixture of tetracycline and acid and detergent (MTAD). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro and experimental study, 12 impacted third molars were sectioned from cervical enamel junction (CEJ) to mid-root area into four dentinal specimens (n = 48). Three groups were conditioned by citric acid 3%, TTC-HCL 50 mg/mL and MTAD by means of cotton pellets, which were changed every 30 s for 3 min. The control group was conditioned by distilled water. Images from scanning electron microscope (SEM) were examined by two different analyzers. Data was analyzed by Kroskal Wallis and Mann–Whitney statistical analysis. Results: The mean of dentinal tubules diameter was the most in MTAD group and the least in TTC-HCL and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.05). Conclusion: According to the present study, TTC-HCL could remove debris and smear layer but citric acid and MTAD had better debris and smear layer removal efficacy and demineralization effect in comparison with TTC-HCL. PMID:23946742

  17. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  18. Acid detergent lignin, lodging resistance index, and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in brown midrib-12 sudangrass

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Guibo; Li, Jun; You, Yongliang; Zhao, Haiming; Liang, Huan; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between acid detergent lignin (ADL) and lodging resistance index (LRI) is essential for breeding new varieties of brown midrib (bmr) sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.). In this study, bmr-12 near isogenic lines and their wild-types obtained by back cross breeding were used to compare relevant forage yield and quality traits, and to analyze expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene using quantitative real time-PCR. The research showed that the mean ADL content of bmr-12 mutants (20.94 g kg−1) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than measured in N-12 lines (43.45 g kg−1), whereas the LRI of bmr-12 mutants (0.29) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in N-12 lines (0.22). There was no significant correlation between the two indexes in bmr-12 materials (r = −0.44, P > 0.05). Sequence comparison of the COMT gene revealed two point mutations present in bmr-12 but not in the wild-type, the second mutation changed amino acid 129 of the protein from Gln (CAG) to a stop codon (UAG). The relative expression level of COMT gene was significantly reduced, which likely led to the decreased ADL content observed in the bmr-12 mutant. PMID:26366111

  19. Exploring Detergent Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the ecological dangers of certain types of detergents, and the action taken by government agencies and detergent manufacturers to alleviate the problem. Describes classroom activities and instructional procedures designed to illustrate detergent characteristics and the effects of detergent pollution. (MLH)

  20. Mechanism of solubilization in detergent solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaeiwitz, J.A.; Chan, A.F.C.; Cussler, E.L.; Evans, D.F.

    1981-11-01

    The kinetics of the solubilization of lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and monopalmitin have been studied in detergent solutions as a function of concentration, temperature, and fluid flow. The detergents used were sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic surfactant), decyltrimethylammonium bromide (a cationic surfactant), sodium taurocholate (a trihydroxy bile salt), sodium taurodeoxycholate (a dihydroxy bile salt), and triton X-100 (a nonionic surfactant). At low temperature, solubilization can be described by a five-step mechanism is which micelle desorption and diffusion are rate controlling. At temperatures above the fatty acid penetration temperature, solubilization is governed by formation of a liquid crystalline phase at the fatty acid-detergent solution interface.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of a New Endodontic Irrigant - Mixture of a Tetracycline Isomer, an Acid, and a Detergent to Remove the Intracanal Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Poonam K; Mahajan, Uma Patil; Gupta, Kapil; Sheela, N V

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most important and demanding aspect of endodontic therapy is considered to be cleaning and shaping. Irrigation is considered a vital adjunct to instrumentation of the root canal for canal debridement. Until date, there is no single solution that simultaneously removes the smear layer and disinfects the entire root canal system. Thus, this in vitro study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new irrigation solution mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD) (BioPure, Dentsply) containing a mixture of tetracycline (doxycycline hydrochloride), an acid (citric acid) and a detergent (Tween 80) in comparison with normal saline, 5% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to remove intracanal smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single rooted teeth were irrigated with Saline (Group A), 5% NaOCl (Group B), 17% EDTA (Group C) and MTDA (Group D). The extent of removal of smear layer and erosion was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Results: Irrigation with 5% NaOCl and MTAD as a final flush produced the cleanest surface with all the dentinal tubules open. No conjugation or erosion of dentinal tubules was noted (P > 0.05). Conclusion: MTAD flush was the most effective debridement regimen in all the three thirds of the canal showing its ability to reach the apex with no conjugation and erosion of dentinal tubules. PMID:25954062

  2. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively. PMID:25461009

  3. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  4. Estimating pasture intake and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs fed a concentrate-forage diet by n-alkane and acid-insoluble ash markers.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Jean Serge; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Makgothi, Onkabetswe Gogakgamatsamang; Baloyi, Joseph Jimu

    2012-10-01

    A study was carried out to determine voluntary forage intake and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed a mixed forage and concentrate diet. Twenty-five 8-week-old Large White × Landrace crossbred male pigs (27 ± 3.8 kg) were blocked by weight into five groups, and each was randomly allocated to four indoor treatments (A, B, C, and D), which received 100, 90, 80, and 70 % of ad lib concentrated intake and an outdoor treatment (E) that received 80 % of ad lib concentrate. Indoor treatments were either fed the concentrate only (A) or also received freshly cut Kikuyu grass (Pennissetum clandestinum) ad libitum (B, C, and D), while pigs on treatment E were reared outdoors in Kikuyu grass paddocks. There was a significant correlation between the amount of concentrate offered and its intake (P < 0.01). The intake of Kikuyu was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Mean acid-insoluble ash digestibility estimates of organic and dry matter were superior to C(32) estimates (P < 0.05). Kikuyu intake was higher (P < 0.05) than the estimated intake by 0.076 ± 0.03 kg. It was concluded that Kikuyu intake was not affected by the reduction of the concentrate allowance, and this should be taken into consideration when feeding pigs on pasture. PMID:22467043

  5. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  6. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents. PMID:25579194

  7. Fibrin solubilizing properties of certain anionic and cationic detergents.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, S

    1989-08-15

    The fibrinolytic (fibrin dissolving) properties of several anionic, cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic detergents were assessed in an in vitro fibrin agarose assay. Of the 4 anionic detergents tested, only sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was found to be fibrinolytic. SDS was fibrinolytic either in the absence or presence of factor XIII. Four other cationic detergents were found to possess similar fibrinolytic properties. These cationic detergents were cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), mix alkyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (MTAB), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) and cetylpyridium chloride (CPC). The nonionic (digitonin, triton X-100/tween 20) and zeitterionic (CHAPS, zeittergent 3-08) detergents were not fibrinolytic. Detergents mediated fibrinolysis, unlike that of tissue type plasminogen activator and urokinase, was independent of the presence of plasminogen. Non-detergents such as polyethylene glycol and highly charged compounds such as poly-1-lysine and poly-1-glutamic acid were not fibrinolytic. Fibrinolytic activity was observed for SDS and the cationic detergents at concentrations ranging from 0.1-10 percent. The effects of these fibrinolytic detergents (SDS, CTAB, MTAB, HTAB and CPC) on clot formation and on pre-formed clots were then assessed, using freshly drawn human venous blood. Incorporation of these detergents into blood inhibited the formation of clots in a concentration dependent manner. The detergents were also able to dissolve pre-formed clots in a similar fashion. SDS was found to be most potent in these properties. PMID:2510356

  8. Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, and on hindgut degradability of fiber and growth performance of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of corn co-products in swine diets increases the concentration of dietary fiber, raising concerns about energy and nutrient digestibility, and ultimately on pig performance. A metabolism trial was conducted to determine the effect of increasing levels of insoluble-low fermentable fiber...

  9. Detergent-Fearing Milk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that demonstrates among the following: diffusion; cohesion and adhesion; properties of surface tension which include wicking, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic molecular behaviors; and break up of fat clusters by liquid dishwashing detergent. (DDR)

  10. Physicochemical and physiological properties of cholylsarcosine. A potential replacement detergent for bile acid deficiency states in the small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Lillienau, J; Schteingart, C D; Hofmann, A F

    1992-01-01

    The properties of cholylsarcosine (the synthetic N-acyl conjugate of cholic acid with sarcosine [N-methylglycine]) were examined to determine its suitability as a bile acid replacement agent for conditions of bile acid deficiency in the small intestine, which causes fat malabsorption. Previous studies in rodents had shown that the compound was well transported by the liver and ileum and underwent neither deconjugation nor dehydroxylation during enterohepatic cycling. By 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, cholylsarcosine was found to exist in dilute aqueous solution as an almost equimolar mixture of two geometric isomers--cis and trans (around the amide bond)--in contrast to cholylglycine, which was present entirely in the trans form. The critical micellization concentration was 11 mmol/liter, similar to that of cholylglycine (10 mmol/liter). By nonaqueous titrimetry, the pKa' of cholylsarcosine was 3.7, only slightly lower than that of cholylglycine (3.9). Cholylsarcosine was poorly soluble below pH 3.7, but highly soluble above pH 4. In vitro, cholylsarcosine behaved as cholylglycine with respect to promoting lipolysis by lipase/colipase. There was little difference between cholylsarcosine and cholylglycine in their solubilization of an equimolar mixture of oleic acid, oleate, and monoolein (designed to simulate digestive products of triglyceride) or in their solubilization of monooleyl-glycerol alone. When a [3H]triolein emulsion with either cholylsarcosine or cholyltaurine was infused intraduodenally in biliary fistula rats, recovery of 3H in lymph was 52 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD) for cholylsarcosine and 52 +/- 11% for cholyltaurine. When perfused into the colon of the anesthetized rabbit, cholylsarcosine (5 mmol/liter) did not influence water absorption or permeability to erythritol, in contrast to chenodeoxycholate, which induced vigorous water secretion and caused erythritol loss. We conclude that cholylsarcosine possesses the physicochemical and physiological

  11. In-depth proteomic analysis of a mollusc shell: acid-soluble and acid-insoluble matrix of the limpet Lottia gigantea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invertebrate biominerals are characterized by their extraordinary functionality and physical properties, such as strength, stiffness and toughness that by far exceed those of the pure mineral component of such composites. This is attributed to the organic matrix, secreted by specialized cells, which pervades and envelops the mineral crystals. Despite the obvious importance of the protein fraction of the organic matrix, only few in-depth proteomic studies have been performed due to the lack of comprehensive protein sequence databases. The recent public release of the gastropod Lottia gigantea genome sequence and the associated protein sequence database provides for the first time the opportunity to do a state-of-the-art proteomic in-depth analysis of the organic matrix of a mollusc shell. Results Using three different sodium hypochlorite washing protocols before shell demineralization, a total of 569 proteins were identified in Lottia gigantea shell matrix. Of these, 311 were assembled in a consensus proteome comprising identifications contained in all proteomes irrespective of shell cleaning procedure. Some of these proteins were similar in amino acid sequence, amino acid composition, or domain structure to proteins identified previously in different bivalve or gastropod shells, such as BMSP, dermatopontin, nacrein, perlustrin, perlucin, or Pif. In addition there were dozens of previously uncharacterized proteins, many containing repeated short linear motifs or homorepeats. Such proteins may play a role in shell matrix construction or control of mineralization processes. Conclusions The organic matrix of Lottia gigantea shells is a complex mixture of proteins comprising possible homologs of some previously characterized mollusc shell proteins, but also many novel proteins with a possible function in biomineralization as framework building blocks or as regulatory components. We hope that this data set, the most comprehensive available at present, will

  12. Crystallization in detergent performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoes, D.; Van Landschoot, R. C.; Van Rosmalen, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various polymeric additives on the crystallization of CaCO 3 in simple soda-based detergent formulations were investigated. The adherence of CaCO 3 on cotton, a great disadvantage of soda-based detergents, was significantly diminished by copolymers of polystyrene sulfonates. A mechanism in which these additives promote the nucleation of CaCO 3 is proposed. Polyacrylates cause an increasing adherence of CaCO 3 on cotton, because the chains adsorb on cotton and CaCO 3

  13. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted. PMID:25129040

  14. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  15. Detergent interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes for protein reconstitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broccio, Matteo; Zan Goh, Haw; Loesche, Mathias

    2009-03-01

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are self-assembled biomimetic structures in which the membrane is separated from a solid substrate by a nm-thick hydrated submembrane space. These model systems are being used in binding studies of peripheral proteins and exotoxins. Here we aim at their application for the reconstitution of water-insoluble integral membrane proteins. As an alternative to fusion of preformed proteoliposomes we study the direct reconstitution of such proteins for applications in biosensing and pharmaceutical screening. For reconstitution, highly insulating tBLMs (R˜10^5-10^6 φ) were temporarily incubated with a detergent to screen for conditions that keep the detergent-saturated membranestable and ready to incorporate detergent-solubilized proteins. We assess the electrical characteristics, i.e. specific resistance and capacitance, by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under timed incubation with decylmaltoside and dodecylmaltoside detergents in a regime around their critical micelle concentration, 1.8 mM and 0.17 mM respectively and demonstrate the restoration of the tBLM upon detergent removal. Thereby a range of concentration and incubation times was identified, that represents optimal conditions for the subsequent membrane protein reconstitution.

  16. Measurement of xylanase activity with insoluble xylan substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Nummi, M; Perrin, J M; Niku-Paavola, M L; Enari, T M

    1985-01-01

    Insoluble xylan was prepared from ground birch (Betula pubescens) pulp by alkali extraction and precipitation with ethanol. The only sugar detected after acid hydrolysis of the preparation was xylose. The insoluble xylan was used as substrate in a nephelometric assay to determine the xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8, 1,4-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolase and EC 3.2.1.37, 1,4-beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase) activities of Aspergillus and Trichoderma enzymes. The nephelometric method is reliable in evaluating xylanase hydrolysis of insoluble xylan. PMID:3922355

  17. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( III ) , insoluble salts ; CASRN 16065 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid induce changes in the physical properties of a lipid bilayer model membrane.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Morishita, Mariko; Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Tokiwa, Shinji; Takayama, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA, 18:0), oleic acid (OA, 18:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer by determining the phase transition temperature, fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), and detergent insolubility. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acid broadened and shifted the phase transitions of the DPPC bilayer to a lower temperature. The phase transition temperature and the value of fluorescence anisotropy of DPH at 37 degrees C decreased progressively with increasing treatment amounts of unsaturated fatty acid. A large amount of the DPPC bilayer treated with unsaturated fatty acid was dissolved in Triton X-100, obtaining a low level of detergent insolubility. These modifications of the bilayer physical properties were most pronounced with DHA and EPA treatment. These data show that unsaturated fatty acids, particularly DHA and EPA, induce a marked change in the lipid bilayer structure. The composition of fatty acids in the DPPC bilayer was similar after treatment with various unsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the different actions of unsaturated fatty acids are attributed to change in the molecular structure (e.g., kinked conformation by double bonds). We further explored the change in physical properties induced by fatty acids dispersed in a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion and found that unsaturated fatty acids acted efficiently on the DPPC bilayer, even when incorporated in emulsion form. PMID:16394552

  19. Transmission of Soluble and Insoluble α-Synuclein to Mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl Rhys; Delenclos, Marion; Baine, AnnMarie T; DeTure, Michael; Murray, Melissa E; Dickson, Dennis W; McLean, Pamela J

    2015-12-01

    The neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which include Parkinson disease, multiple-system atrophy, and Lewy body disease, are characterized by the presence of abundant neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. These disorders remain incurable, and a greater understanding of the pathologic processes is needed for effective treatment strategies to be developed. Recent data suggest that pathogenic misfolding of the presynaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), and subsequent aggregation and accumulation are fundamental to the disease process. It is hypothesized that the misfolded isoform is able to induce misfolding of normal endogenous α-syn, much like what occurs in the prion diseases. Recent work highlighting the seeding effect of pathogenic α-syn has largely focused on the detergent-insoluble species of the protein. In this study, we performed intracerebral inoculations of the sarkosyl-insoluble or sarkosyl-soluble fractions of human Lewy body disease brain homogenate and show that both fractions induce CNS pathology in mice at 4 months after injection. Disease-associated deposits accumulated both near and distal to the site of the injection, suggesting a cell-to-cell spread via recruitment of α-syn. These results provide further insight into the prion-like mechanisms of α-syn and suggest that disease-associated α-syn is not homogeneous within a single patient but might exist in both soluble and insoluble isoforms. PMID:26574670

  20. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E.; Privé, Gilbert G.; Pomès, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein’s hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation. PMID:23466535

  1. Detergent-Free Membrane Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are localized within a lipid bilayer; in order to purify them for functional and structural studies the first step must involve solubilizing or extracting the protein from these lipids. To date this has been achieved using detergents which disrupt the bilayer and bind to the protein in the transmembrane region. However finding conditions for optimal extraction, without destabilizing protein structure, is time consuming and expensive. Here we present a recently-developed method using a styrene-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer instead of detergents. The SMA co-polymer extracts membrane proteins in a small disc of lipid bilayer which can be used for affinity chromatography purification, thus enabling the purification of membrane proteins while maintaining their native lipid bilayer environment. PMID:27485341

  2. Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

    2009-01-01

    There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

  3. Solubilization and characterization of the anthrax toxin pore in detergent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Vernier, Gregory; Wang, Jie; Jennings, Laura D; Sun, Jianjun; Fischer, Audrey; Song, Likai; Collier, R John

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytically activated Protective Antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin self-associates to form a heptameric ring-shaped oligomer (the prepore). Acidic pH within the endosome converts the prepore to a pore that serves as a passageway for the toxin's enzymatic moieties to cross the endosomal membrane. Prepore is stable in solution under mildly basic conditions, and lowering the pH promotes a conformational transition to an insoluble pore-like state. N-tetradecylphosphocholine (FOS14) was the only detergent among 110 tested that prevented aggregation without dissociating the multimer into its constituent subunits. FOS14 maintained the heptamers as monodisperse, insertion-competent 440-kDa particles, which formed channels in planar phospholipid bilayers with the same unitary conductance and ability to translocate a model substrate protein as channels formed in the absence of detergent. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis detected pore-like conformational changes within PA on solubilization with FOS14, and electron micrograph images of FOS14-solubilized pore showed an extended, mushroom-shaped structure. Circular dichroïsm measurements revealed an increase in α helix and a decrease in β structure in pore formation. Spectral changes caused by a deletion mutation support the hypothesis that the 2β2-2β3 loop transforms into the transmembrane segment of the β-barrel stem of the pore. Changes caused by selected point mutations indicate that the transition to α structure is dependent on residues of the luminal 2β11-2β12 loop that are known to affect pore formation. Stabilizing the PA pore in solution with FOS14 may facilitate further structural analysis and a more detailed understanding of the folding pathway by which the pore is formed. PMID:19609933

  4. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  10. Shell may expand detergent alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-23

    Shell Chemical is studying plans to expand detergent alcohols capacity in the US, CW has learned. The company is considering adding capacity for about 80 million lbs/year. If the project is approved, it would be implemented at the company`s Geismar, LA site. Shell will make a final decision on whether to proceed with the project within six months. It has been rumored to be considering a capacity addition as a result of tightening supply of natural and synthetic detergent alcohols.

  11. MEASURING DETERGENT FIBRE AND INSOLUBLE PROTEIN IN CORN SILAGE USING CRUCIBLES OR FILTER BAGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different methods exist for the determination of fibre concentration in feeds. To determine whether fibre recovery and the contamination of NDF by nitrogenous compounds are altered, we measured fibre concentrations in a diverse set of corn silages using three method modifications and two extraction/...

  12. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    MedlinePlus

    ... laundry detergent packets," said lead researcher Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research and ... in 2015 there was another 7 percent increase," Smith said. Laundry detergent packets are more toxic than ...

  13. Soaps and Detergents--A 'Social' Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how social aspects of science can be incorporated into teaching soap and detergents in British secondary chemistry and general science courses. Historical background to the use and production of soap and the development of detergents are also presented. (HM)

  14. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... Insoluble wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with...

  15. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... Insoluble wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with...

  16. Plant and soil intake by organic broilers reared in tree- or grass-covered plots as determined by means of n-alkanes and of acid-insoluble ash.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Germain, K; Juin, H; Jondreville, C

    2015-05-01

    Free-range birds such as organic broilers may ingest soil and plants during exploration. The estimation of such intakes is of great interest to quantify possible nutritional supplies and also to evaluate the risk of exposure to parasites or to environmental contaminants. Marker-based techniques are now available and would allow to quantify plant and, especially, soil intake in free-range birds, and this quantification was the aim of this study. Methodologically, the proportion of plants in diet intake was determined first using a method based on n-alkanes. Subsequently, the fraction of soil in the total intake was estimated with a second marker, acid-insoluble ash. This approach was carried out to estimate ingested amounts of plants and soil for five successive flocks of organic broilers, exploring grass-covered yards or those under trees, at two time points for each yard: 51 and 64 days of age. Each factor combination (yard type×period=flock number×age) was repeated on two different yards of 750 broilers each. The birds' plant intake varied widely, especially on grass-covered yards. The proportion of plant intake was significantly higher on grass-covered plots than under trees and was also affected, but to a lesser extent, by age or flock number. The ingestion of plants would generally not exceed 11 g of DM daily, except two extreme outliers of nearly 30 g. The daily plant intake under trees tended to be lower and never exceeded 7 g of DM. The amount of ingested plants increased significantly for spring flocks. It increased slightly but significantly with age. The proportion of ingested soil was significantly higher under trees than on grass-covered yards. Dry soil intake was generally low with not more than 3 g per day. Only in adverse conditions - that is, older birds exploring yards under trees in winter - soil intake reached the extreme value of nearly 5 g. Broilers on yards under trees ingested significantly more soil than on grass-covered yards with least

  17. Characterization of insoluble fractions of TNT transformed by composting

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Williams, R.T.; Griest, W.H. )

    1994-05-01

    Soil contaminated with explosives was supplemented with carbon-14 labelled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene ([sup 14]C-TNT) and was composted in a field static pile composting experiment. After 90 d of composting, the distribution of carbon-14 ([sup 14]C) activity in fractions from acetonitrile extraction ([open quotes]free[close quotes] fraction, 1.2% of the initial [sup 14]C-activity) and filtration ([open quotes]insoluble-particle[close quotes] fraction, 17.9%), alkaline hydrolysis ([open quotes]insoluble-hydrolyzable[close quotes] fraction, 56.8%), and combustion of the residue ([open quotes]insoluble-nonhydrolyzable[close quotes] fraction, 4.7%) showed that the bulk of the [sup 14]C-activity, and presumably transformed product(s) of the [sup 14]C-TNT, accumulated in a nonextractable, but hydrolyzable fraction. Repetitive aqueous leaching of the compost and also ultraviolet light irradiation followed by leaching suggest that the insoluble fraction of transformed TNT should not be released appreciably by the action of acid rain or sunlight. 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Combination of acid labile detergent and C18 Empore™ disks for improved identification and sequence coverage of in-gel digested proteins.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Henning; Lau, Benjamin; Clerens, Stefan; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Dyer, Jolon M; Ramli, Umi Salamah; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2011-04-01

    A protocol for improved extraction of peptides from in-gel protein digests, using a combination of the acid labile surfactant, sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and C18 Empore™ membranes, is presented. This approach results in better mass spectrum quality, higher numbers of identified peptide peaks and improved identification scores compared to standard tryptic digestion protocols, or protocols using only SDC or only C18 Empore™ disks. The advantages of the new protocol are demonstrated for two different types of samples: Merino wool intermediate filament proteins and Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) mesocarp proteins. PMID:21327873

  19. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  20. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  1. Effect of detergent on alveolar particle clearance due to large tidal ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    John, J.; Wollmer, P.; Dahlbäck, M.; Jonson, B.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--It has recently been shown that large tidal volume ventilation accelerates the alveolar clearance of insoluble particles and this may be related to accelerated surfactant evacuation from the alveolus into the airway. The aim of this study was to investigate if the effect of large tidal volume ventilation is modified in an experimental model of surfactant dysfunction. METHODS--Fluorescent latex particles of 0.63 microns diameter were administered in aerosol form to 30 rabbits during anaesthesia with thiopentone and mechanical ventilation. Six animals were killed immediately after aerosol administration in order to show the initial deposition of particles. Twenty four animals were divided into two groups and ventilated for three hours with either large tidal volume (mean tidal volume 30 ml/kg) or conventional ventilation (mean tidal volume 12.5 ml/kg). Six rabbits in each of the two groups were administered either the synthetic detergent dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate in aerosol form or aerosolised vehicle. After the period of experimental ventilation the lungs were removed and dried in the expanded state. Particles in the alveolar region were counted with fluorescent microscopy in sections of the lung. RESULTS--Compared with the baseline group (mean (SD) 24.8 (9.9)) the count of residual alveolar particles was lower after large tidal volume ventilation in the absence of detergent aerosol (13.2 (6.5)). Particle count after large tidal volume ventilation and detergent treatment (23.3 (6.4)) was similar to that in the baseline group and to that in the groups exposed to conventional ventilation. CONCLUSIONS--The increase in alveolar clearance of insoluble particles caused by large tidal volume ventilation is inhibited by detergent aerosol. This might be due to reduced stability of the surfactant film after detergent aerosol. PMID:7510424

  2. Fluorescent whitening agents in detergents.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, C; von Rütte, R

    1975-01-01

    Washing is a form of textile care which is characterized by its repetitive nature. Washing methods vary enormously in different parts of the world. The main types of detergents and fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are described. Washing slows down the deterioration in use of white goods, and yellowing is counteracted by FWAs. FWAs also enhance the freshness and brightness of most pale shades. Cost calculations show clearly the economic advantages of using FWAs in washing: the useful life of textiles can be prolonged considerably for a very small additional cost. PMID:1064549

  3. Detergents in Membrane Protein Purification and Crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Anandhi; Vrielink, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Detergents play a significant role in structural and functional characterisation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). IMPs reside in the biological membranes and exhibit a great variation in their structural and physical properties. For in vitro biophysical studies, structural and functional analyses, IMPs need to be extracted from the membrane lipid bilayer environment in which they are found and purified to homogeneity while maintaining a folded and functionally active state. Detergents are capable of successfully solubilising and extracting the IMPs from the membrane bilayers. A number of detergents with varying structure and physicochemical properties are commercially available and can be applied for this purpose. Nevertheless, it is important to choose a detergent that is not only able to extract the membrane protein but also provide an optimal environment while retaining the correct structural and physical properties of the protein molecule. Choosing the best detergent for this task can be made possible by understanding the physical and chemical properties of the different detergents and their interaction with the IMPs. In addition, understanding the mechanism of membrane solubilisation and protein extraction along with crystallisation requirements, if crystallographic studies are going to be undertaken, can help in choosing the best detergent for the purpose. This chapter aims to present the fundamental properties of detergents and highlight information relevant to IMP crystallisation. The first section of the chapter reviews the physicochemical properties of detergents and parameters essential for predicting their behaviour in solution. The second section covers the interaction of detergents with the biologic membranes and proteins followed by their role in membrane protein crystallisation. The last section will briefly cover the types of detergent and their properties focusing on custom designed detergents for membrane protein studies. PMID:27553232

  4. Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupa, Janine; Misner, Steve; Sachdev, Amit; Smith, George A.

    The origin of the word "soap" is traced to sacrificial Mount Sapo of ancient Roman legend. The mixture of fat and wood ashes that reacted to form soap was carried by rain to the banks of the Tiber River and was found as a clay deposit useful for cleaning clothes.1

  5. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  6. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  7. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  8. Screening for amyloid aggregation by Semi-Denaturing Detergent-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Randal; Lindquist, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid aggregation is associated with numerous protein misfolding pathologies and underlies the infectious properties of prions, which are conformationally self-templating proteins that are thought to have beneficial roles in lower organisms. Amyloids have been notoriously difficult to study due to their insolubility and structural heterogeneity. However, resolution of amyloid polymers based on size and detergent insolubility has been made possible by Semi-Denaturing Detergent-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (SDD-AGE). This technique is finding widespread use for the detection and characterization of amyloid conformational variants. Here, we demonstrate an adaptation of this technique that facilitates its use in large-scale applications, such as screens for novel prions and other amyloidogenic proteins. The new SDD-AGE method uses capillary transfer for greater reliability and ease of use, and allows any sized gel to be accomodated. Thus, a large number of samples, prepared from cells or purified proteins, can be processed simultaneously for the presence of SDS-insoluble conformers of tagged proteins. PMID:19066511

  9. CHALLENGES IN MEASURING INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this review are to define the criteria needed to evaluate insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) methods, discuss their relevance in meeting nutritional needs, describe problems with empirical IDF methods, and assess their relative merits. The challenge for the researcher, nutritionist, and...

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Bodies: Solving the Insoluble

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cells produce and accumulate insoluble triglycerides, proteins and rubber that are assembled into inert ER-derived organelles broadly termed ER-bodies. ER-bodies appear to originate from tubular ER domains that are maintained by cytoskeletal interactions and integral ER proteins. ER-bodies seq...

  11. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.12... ocean environment may be generally approved for ocean dumping provided they are insoluble above...

  12. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE... wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with the...

  13. CELL WALL HYDROXYCINNAMATES IN WILD RICE (ZIZANIA AQUATICA L.) INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contents of ester-linked phenolic acids in wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) dietary fibre were quantified by HPLC analysis, and oligosaccharide hydroxycinnamates were isolated and identified to investigate the linkages of hydroxycinnamic acids to cell wall polymers. In wild rice insoluble dietary...

  14. Insoluble protein purification with sarkosyl: facts and precautions.

    PubMed

    Chisnall, Ben; Johnson, Courtney; Kulaberoglu, Yavuz; Chen, Yu Wai

    2014-01-01

    When eukaryotic proteins are overexpressed in Escherichia coli hosts, they often form inclusion bodies. Natively folded proteins can be extracted from inclusion bodies using mild detergents such as sarkosyl. One common problem is the sequestration of nucleic acid contaminants with the protein of interest. Here we describe methods for monitoring the presence of co-precipitated nucleic acids, and their removal. These procedures are simple to implement and can be easily adapted to a high-throughput format. While sarkosyl is a common chemical, some information such as its UV absorption spectrum and micellar size are absent in the literature or poorly referenced. We review and summarize the properties that are the most relevant to structural biology. PMID:24203332

  15. Sequential Extraction of Soluble and Insoluble Alpha-Synuclein from Parkinsonian Brains

    PubMed Central

    Bandopadhyay, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) protein is abundantly expressed mainly within neurons, and exists in a number of different forms - monomers, tetramers, oligomers and fibrils. During disease, α-syn undergoes conformational changes to form oligomers and high molecular weight aggregates that tend to make the protein more insoluble. Abnormally aggregated α-syn is a neuropathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Biochemical characterization and analysis of insoluble α-syn using buffers with increasing detergent strength and high-speed ultracentrifugation provides a powerful tool to determine the development of α-syn pathology associated with disease progression. This protocol describes the isolation of increasingly insoluble/aggregated α-syn from post-mortem human brain tissue. This methodology can be adapted with modifications to studies of normal and abnormal α-syn biology in transgenic animal models harbouring different α-syn mutations as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases that feature aberrant fibrillar deposits of proteins related to their respective pathologies. PMID:26780369

  16. Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At the time of expiration of the contract, a partial set of preliminary screens had been developed. This work has since been extended under non-NASA sponsorship, leading to near completion of a set of 20 to 30 different and unique detergent- specific 96-condition screens.

  17. Detergent water use eliminates VOC concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article describes an electronics manufacturer`s use of detergent water and mechanical equipment (heated pressure washers and floor scrubbers) to replace volatile organic compounds. The cleaning formula development and detergent recovery system are emphasized. Detailed chemical analyses of the waste detergent water and spent filters are provided. The rationale for using detergent water; a process flow diagram for cleaning, recovery and storage; and cost considerations are summarized. At a cost of $300,000, the system removed a significant source of air emissions and enabled the plant to eliminate 30 tons of liquid hazardous waste, improve cleaning effectiveness, and save $99,000 per year in cleaning-related costs. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    MedlinePlus

    ... to laundry detergent packets," said lead researcher Dr. Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research ... on the products' packages, the group said. SOURCES: Gary Smith, M.D., Dr.PH, director, Center for ...

  19. Systematic analysis of protein–detergent complexes applying dynamic light scattering to optimize solutions for crystallization trials

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Arne; Hussein, Rana; Brognaro, Hevila

    2015-01-01

    Application of in situ dynamic light scattering to solutions of protein–detergent complexes permits characterization of these complexes in samples as small as 2 µl in volume. Detergents are widely used for the isolation and solubilization of membrane proteins to support crystallization and structure determination. Detergents are amphiphilic molecules that form micelles once the characteristic critical micelle concentration (CMC) is achieved and can solubilize membrane proteins by the formation of micelles around them. The results are presented of a study of micelle formation observed by in situ dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analyses performed on selected detergent solutions using a newly designed advanced hardware device. DLS was initially applied in situ to detergent samples with a total volume of approximately 2 µl. When measured with DLS, pure detergents show a monodisperse radial distribution in water at concentrations exceeding the CMC. A series of all-transn-alkyl-β-d-maltopyranosides, from n-hexyl to n-tetradecyl, were used in the investigations. The results obtained verify that the application of DLS in situ is capable of distinguishing differences in the hydrodynamic radii of micelles formed by detergents differing in length by only a single CH{sub 2} group in their aliphatic tails. Subsequently, DLS was applied to investigate the distribution of hydrodynamic radii of membrane proteins and selected water-insoluble proteins in presence of detergent micelles. The results confirm that stable protein–detergent complexes were prepared for (i) bacteriorhodopsin and (ii) FetA in complex with a ligand as examples of transmembrane proteins. A fusion of maltose-binding protein and the Duck hepatitis B virus X protein was added to this investigation as an example of a non-membrane-associated protein with low water solubility. The increased solubility of this protein in the presence of detergent could be monitored, as well as the progress of proteolytic

  20. Synthesis of basic and overbasic sulfonate detergent additives

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El Naga, H.H.; Abd El-Azim, W.M.; Bendary, S.A.; Awad, N.G.

    1993-12-01

    Heavy alkylbenzene, which accumulates as a by-product from linear alkylbenzene synthesis, is evaluated as a starting material for preparation of basic and over basic sulfonate detergent additives. Chemical structure analysis showed that this by-product contains several components in different proportions. Most of these components, as traced via mass spectrometry, showed the presence of paraffinic side chains within the carbon range C{sub 11}--C{sub 22}. Accordingly, sulfonation conditions for it were adjusted to optimize the reaction yield and sulfonic quality. Neutralization of the sulfonic acid was carried out by adding CaO in the presence of methanol as a promoter. Preparation of over basic sulfonate was run via a carbonation process at 55--60 C. Evaluations of synthesized basic calcium sulfonate in comparison to a commercial additive is supported by its efficiency as a detergent additive. The synthesized product has a higher total base number and Ca content than those for the commercial one. On the other hand, evaluation of the synthesized overbasic calcium sulfonate compared with overbasic commercial additives with medium and high alkalinity indicated that the synthesized product can be classified as overbasic calcium sulfonate with medium alkalinity, good dispersive power, and detergent efficiency.

  1. Antimicrobial characteristic of insoluble alkylpyridinium iodide.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Y; Yamano, Y; Tawaratani, T; Kourai, H; Horie, T; Shibasaki, I

    1982-01-01

    Insoluble and soluble alkylpyridinium iodides (C8 to C18) were synthesized. The insoluble agents were quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymers. The insoluble agent [C12(50)] that contained 50% divinylbenzene and had a C12 alkyl chain was selected as the most suitable insoluble agent. C12(50) showed poor durability of the antibacterial activity, but C12(50), which had lost the activity, was refreshed by washing with ethanol. This washing became ineffective after a few cycles of antibacterial treatment and refreshment. Such C12(50) recovered the activity upon 1.0 N NaOH treatment. The antibacterial activity of C12(50) depended on its surface area. It showed high antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and also showed activity against gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. But the activities of C12(50) and laurylpyridinium iodide solution were different against some microbes. The antibacterial activities of the agents were investigated against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus under various conditions. The activity of C12(50) was higher at a higher temperature or at a lower cell concentration. The activity of C12(50) decreased on addition of NaCl, glucose, or bovine albumin to the cell suspension or in 0.01 M sodium-potassium phosphate buffer. C12(50) showed less activity when cells were mixed with dead cells or the supernatant of dead cells killed in an autoclave. The mode of action of the laurylpyridinium iodide solution against E. coli and M. luteus was similar to that of C12(50) except for the influence of E. coli cell concentration. PMID:6808918

  2. Detergent binding as a sensor of hydrophobicity and polar interactions in the binding cavities of proteins.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Véronique; Lair, Virginie; André, Virginie; le Maire, Guerric; Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper V

    2005-09-13

    To evaluate the role of hydrophobic and electrostatic or other polar interactions for protein-ligand binding, we studied the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) and beta-lactoglobulin with various aliphatic (C10-C14) cationic and zwitterionic detergents. We find that cationic detergents, at levels that do not cause unfolding, interact with a single site on beta-lactoglobulin and with two primary and five to six secondary sites on HSA with an affinity that is approximately the same as that with which zwitterionic (dimethylamineoxide) detergents interact, suggesting the absence of significant electrostatic interactions in the high-affinity binding of these compounds. The binding affinity for all of the groups of compounds was dependent upon hydrocarbon chain length, suggesting the predominant role of hydrophobic forces, supported by polar interactions at the protein surface. A distinct correlation between the binding energy and the propensity for micelle formation within the group of cationic or noncharged (nonionic and zwitterionic) detergents indicated that the critical micellar concentration (CMC) for each of these detergent groups, rather than the absolute length of the hydrocarbon chain, can be used to compare their hydrophobicities during their interaction with protein. Intrinsic fluorescence data suggest that the two primary binding sites on serum albumin for the zwitterionic and cationic compounds are located in the C-terminal part of the albumin molecule, possibly in the Sudlow II binding region. Comparisons with previous binding data on anionic amphiphiles emphasize the important contribution of ion bond formation and other polar interactions in the binding of fatty acids and dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by HSA but not by beta-lactoglobulin. Electrostatic interactions by cationic detergents played a significant role in destabilizing the protein structure at high binding levels, with beta-lactoglobulin being more susceptible to unfolding than HSA. Zwitterionic

  3. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of high fructose corn syrup described in §...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production...

  6. Nanoparticles Containing Insoluble Drug for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shutao; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle drug formulations have been extensively researched and developed in the field of drug delivery as a means to efficiently deliver insoluble drugs to tumor cells. By mechanisms of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, nanoparticle drug formulations are capable of greatly enhancing the safety, pharmacokinetic profiles and bioavailability of the administered treatment. Here, the progress of various nanoparticle formulations in both research and clinical applications is detailed with a focus on the development of drug/gene delivery systems. Specifically, the unique advantages and disadvanges of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals and lipid-coated nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery will be investigated in detail. PMID:24113214

  7. Effects of mutations on the insoluble glucan synthesized by Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1118 glucansucrase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve different amino acids were each substituted for Threonine-654 in a cloned glucansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1118 (DSR-I). The native enzyme produces a water-insoluble glucan containing approximately 44 mol% 1,3-disubstituted a-D-glucopyranosyl units and 29 mol% 1,6-disubstit...

  8. Enhancing Textile Fiber Identification with Detergent Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Campiglia, Andres D

    2015-12-01

    Discovering common origins of trace evidential textile fibers can be a challenging task when fiber structure or dye composition does not provide exclusive identifying information. Introduction of new chemical species after mass production and distribution of a textile may be exploited to trace its history and identify the origin of its fibers. In this article, fluorescence microscopy is used to examine the alteration in the fluorescence spectral fingerprint of single fibers resulting from exposure to commonly used detergents that contain fluorescent whitening agents. Dyed acrylic, cotton, and nylon fibers were laundered and the spectral contribution of the detergent on single fibers was quantified and shown to reach a maximum after five sequential washes; some detergents showed statistically meaningful differences to fiber spectra after only a single wash. Principal component cluster analysis was used to determine that the spectra of laundered fibers are distinct from the spectra of dyed, unwashed cotton or nylon, but not acrylic, fibers. PMID:26647148

  9. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  10. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75). PMID:27481804

  11. Membrane proteins: always an insoluble problem?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Andrea E

    2016-06-15

    Membrane proteins play crucial roles in cellular processes and are often important pharmacological drug targets. The hydrophobic properties of these proteins make full structural and functional characterization challenging because of the need to use detergents or other solubilizing agents when extracting them from their native lipid membranes. To aid membrane protein research, new methodologies are required to allow these proteins to be expressed and purified cheaply, easily, in high yield and to provide water soluble proteins for subsequent study. This mini review focuses on the relatively new area of water soluble membrane proteins and in particular two innovative approaches: the redesign of membrane proteins to yield water soluble variants and how adding solubilizing fusion proteins can help to overcome these challenges. This review also looks at naturally occurring membrane proteins, which are able to exist as stable, functional, water soluble assemblies with no alteration to their native sequence. PMID:27284043

  12. Membrane proteins: always an insoluble problem?

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Andrea E.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play crucial roles in cellular processes and are often important pharmacological drug targets. The hydrophobic properties of these proteins make full structural and functional characterization challenging because of the need to use detergents or other solubilizing agents when extracting them from their native lipid membranes. To aid membrane protein research, new methodologies are required to allow these proteins to be expressed and purified cheaply, easily, in high yield and to provide water soluble proteins for subsequent study. This mini review focuses on the relatively new area of water soluble membrane proteins and in particular two innovative approaches: the redesign of membrane proteins to yield water soluble variants and how adding solubilizing fusion proteins can help to overcome these challenges. This review also looks at naturally occurring membrane proteins, which are able to exist as stable, functional, water soluble assemblies with no alteration to their native sequence. PMID:27284043

  13. Active, soluble recombinant melittin purified by extracting insoluble lysate of Escherichia coli without denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Buhrman, Jason S.; Cook, Laura C.; Rayahin, Jamie E.; Federle, Michael J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell lytic peptides are a class of drugs that can be used to selectively kill invading organisms or diseased cells. Several of these peptides have been identified as potential therapeutics. Herein, we report a novel process for purifying recombinant melittin, a cell lytic peptide that inserts into the membranes of cells causing cell lysis, from Escherichia coli. The process involves surfactant and low pH to solubilize melittin fusion proteins from the insoluble fraction of bacterial lysates. We are able to significantly improve purity of the final product and confirm the activity of the peptide. The process yields recombinant melittin that is effective when used to treat U-87 MG glioma cells and inhibits growth of the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. We demonstrate a method of repeated extraction of the insoluble protein fraction with mild detergent at a low pH that is able to generate a yield of pure, soluble melittin of approximately 0.5 to 1 mg/L of E. coli culture. PMID:23926061

  14. Movement and fate of detergents in groundwater: a field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Barber, L.B., Jr.; LeBlanc, D.

    1986-01-01

    The major cations, anions, and detergents in a plume of contaminated groundwater at Otis Air Base on Cape Cod (Mass., U.S.A.) have moved approximately 3.5 km down gradient from the disposal beds. We hypothesize that the detergents form two distinct plumes, which consist of alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) detergents and linear alkyl sulfonates (LAS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaLS) detergents. The ABS detergents were deposited from approximately 1940 through 1965, when ABS detergents were banned. From 1965 to the present, LAS and NaLS detergents were in the sewage. The ABS detergents appear to be transported in the aquifer at the same rate as the specific conductance (major cations and anions) and boron, which are currently used as conservative tracers of the plume of contaminated groundwater. There appears to be little or no biological degradation of the ABS detergents in the aquifer, based on their concentration in the plume. On the other hand, the LAS and NaLS detergents have degraded rapidly and have been detected only 0.6 km down gradient. The roleof the detergents in the transport of other organic compounds in the plume is nuclear. There is a separation of the ABS detergent plume and the volatile organic compound plume; however, the time of entry of the detergents and the volatile organic compounds is unknown. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude on the interaction of these two classes of compounds. ?? 1986.

  15. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. PMID:26011283

  16. A cell surface integral membrane glycoprotein of 85,000 mol wt (gp85) associated with triton X-100-insoluble cell skeleton.

    PubMed

    Tarone, G; Ferracini, R; Galetto, G; Comoglio, P

    1984-08-01

    The Triton X-100-insoluble skeleton of baby hamster kidney BHK cells consists of the nucleus, intermediate-size filaments, and actin fibers. By transmission electron microscopy, membrane fragments were found to be associated with these insoluble structures. When radioiodinated or [3H]glucosamine-labeled cells were extracted with 0.5% Triton, most plasma membrane glycoproteins were solubilized except for a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 85,000 (gp85) that remained associated with the insoluble skeletons. Immunoprecipitation with a specific antiserum indicated that the gp85 is not a proteolytic degradation product of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein insoluble in detergent. A monoclonal antibody of BHK cells specific for gp85 was produced. Immunofluorescence analysis with this monoclonal antibody indicated that gp85 is not associated with the extracellular matrix, but is confined to the cell membrane. Both in fixed and unfixed intact cells, fluorescence was concentrated in dots preferentially aligned in streaks on the cell surface. Gp85 was found to behave as an integral membrane protein interacting with the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer since it was extracted from membrane preparations by ionic detergents such as SDS, but not by 0.1 N NaOH (pH 12) in the absence of detergents, a condition known to release peripheral molecules. Association of gp85 with the cell skeleton was unaffected by increasing the Triton concentration up to 5%, but it was affected when actin filaments were dissociated or when a protein-denaturing agent (6 M urea) was used in the presence of Triton, suggesting that protein-protein interactions are involved in the association of gp85 with the cell skeleton. We conclude that gp85 is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that might have a role in cell surface-cytoskeleton interaction. PMID:6378925

  17. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Using NMR chemical shift imaging to monitor swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid): methodology and effects of polymer (in)solubility.

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Topgaard, Daniel; Wahlgren, Marie; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2013-11-12

    A new technique has been developed using NMR chemical shift imaging (CSI) to monitor water penetration and molecular transport in initially dry polymer tablets that also contain small low-molecular weight compounds to be released from the tablets. Concentration profiles of components contained in the swelling tablets could be extracted via the intensities and chemical shift changes of peaks corresponding to protons of the components. The studied tablets contained hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) as the polymer component and griseofulvin and ethanol as hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively, low-molecular weight model compounds. The water solubility of HMPAA could be altered by titration with NaOH. In the pure acid form, HMPAA tablets only underwent a finite swelling until the maximum water content of the polymer-rich phase, as confirmed by independent phase studies, had been reached. By contrast, after partial neutralization with NaOH, the polyacid became fully miscible with water. The solubility of the polymer affected the water penetration, the polymer release, and the releases of both ethanol and griseofulvin. The detailed NMR CSI concentration profiles obtained highlighted the clear differences in the disintegration/dissolution/release behavior for the two types of tablet and provided insights into their molecular origin. The study illustrates the potential of the NMR CSI technique to give information of importance for the development of pharmaceutical tablets and, more broadly, for the general understanding of any operation that involves the immersion and ultimate disintegration of a dry polymer matrix in a solvent. PMID:24106807

  19. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  20. Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes. PMID:23089958

  1. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall contain no ethanol or other oxygenate. A detergent certified under this suboption is eligible to... certification test fuel shall contain an oxygenate compound other than ethanol. A detergent certified under this... contain no ethanol or other oxygenate. A detergent certified under this suboption is eligible to be...

  2. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall contain no ethanol or other oxygenate. A detergent certified under this suboption is eligible to... certification test fuel shall contain an oxygenate compound other than ethanol. A detergent certified under this... contain no ethanol or other oxygenate. A detergent certified under this suboption is eligible to be...

  3. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80.141 Section 80.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline program. (a) Effective dates...

  4. Lysosomal glycosidases in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro with soluble and insoluble glycans.

    PubMed

    Bøgwald, J; Johnson, E; Hoffman, J; Seljelid, R

    1984-04-01

    Mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with insoluble glycans in vitro release high amounts of acid hydrolases, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-D-glucuronidase, and beta-D-galactosidase. The most potent of the stimulatory glycans is a beta-1,3-D-glucan isolated from yeast cell walls. Up to 50% of total enzyme activity was found in the medium after stimulation with this glycan for three days. Agarose, another insoluble glycan containing an alternating sequence of the disaccharide beta-1,3-D-galactose-alpha-1,4-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose units was less potent. The soluble beta-1,3-D-glucan laminaran, which also contains small amounts of mannitol, was not able to induce release of acid glycosidases from macrophages. The release was independent of serum since macrophages cultured under serum-free conditions showed nearly the same pattern of enzyme activities, both in the cells and media. There was no increased release of the acid hydrolase alpha-D-mannosidase after stimulation with the insoluble beta-1,3-D-glucan for three days. The release of the lysosomal glycosidases was not due to cell death, since only small amounts of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were found in the culture media. Insoluble polystyrene latex particles were not able to stimulate mouse macrophages to release lysosomal glycosidases. Tritiated glycans (amylose, dextran, laminaran, the insoluble beta-1,3-D-glucan, and agarose) and the p-nitrophenyl-glycopyranoside derivatives were used as substrates to investigate whether the macrophages contained or released glucanases capable of degrading alpha-1,4-D-glucans, alpha-1-6-D-glucans, beta-1,3-D-glucans, and agarose respectively. We conclude that the glycans were not degraded in macrophage cultures during the time period tested nor were the enzymes induced in macrophages by the glycans during in vitro culture for seven days. PMID:6584526

  5. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy. PMID:27418568

  6. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Peshkova, Tatyana V; Minkov, Ivan L; Tsekov, Roumen; Slavchov, Radomir I

    2016-09-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3-30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na(+) is specifically adsorbed, while Cl(-) remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na(+) seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer. PMID:27529571

  7. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  10. Novel detergent for whole organ tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takanori; Kirita, Yuhei; Kami, Daisuke; Kitani, Tomoya; Ozaki, Chisa; Itakura, Yoko; Toyoda, Masashi; Gojo, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Whole organ tissue engineering for various organs, including the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, has demonstrated promising results for end-stage organ failure. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based protocol for standard decellularization has drawbacks such as clot formation in vascularized transplantation and poor cell engraftment in recellularization procedures. Preservation of the surface milieu of extracellular matrices (ECMs) might be crucial for organ generation based on decellularization/recellularization engineering. We examined a novel detergent, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), to determine whether it could overcome the drawbacks associated with SDS using rat heart and kidney. Both organs were perfused in an antegrade fashion with either SLES or SDS. Although immunohistochemistry for collagen I, IV, laminin, and fibronectin showed similar preservation in both detergents, morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and an assay of glycosaminoglycan content on ECMs showed that SLES-treated tissues had better-preserved ECMs than SDS-treated tissues. Mesenteric transplantation revealed SLES did not induce significant inflammation, as opposed to SDS. Platelet adhesion to decellularized tissues was significantly reduced with SLES. Overall, SLES could replace older detergents such as SDS in the decellularization process for generation of transplantable recellularized organs. PMID:25850947

  11. One-step extraction of functional recombinant aquaporin Z from inclusion bodies with optimal detergent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Hu; Li, Zhengjun; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Xin Shan; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are integral membrane channel proteins found in all kingdoms of life. The Escherichia coli aquaporin Z (AqpZ) has been shown to solely conduct water at high permeability. Functional AqpZ is generally purified from the membrane fraction. However, the quantity of the purified protein is limited. In this study, a new method is developed to achieve high yield of bioactive AqpZ protein. A mild detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) was used to solubilize the over-expressed insoluble AqpZ from inclusion bodies without a refolding process. The recovered AqpZ protein showed high water permeability comparable with AqpZ obtained from the membrane fraction. In this way, the total yield of bioactive AqpZ has been increased greatly, which will facilitate the structural and functional characterization and future applications of AqpZ. PMID:26278820

  12. Efficacy of detergents and fresh produce disinfectants against microorganisms associated with mixed raw vegetables.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Nasrin; Abadian, Neda; Bakhtiari, Donya; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein

    2009-07-01

    Efficacy of commercial detergent and disinfectants to eliminate microorganisms associated with fresh vegetables eaten raw in Iran, including radish, parsley, basil, coriander (cilantro), Allium porrum (leek), and peppermint were studied. The raw vegetables were subjected to a triple wash treatment of washing in tap water for mud removal, washing in water containing a detergent (dishwashing liquid) or disinfectant individually, and rinsing in tap water. The population of total mesophilic microbes on the surface of untreated vegetables ranged from 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g. Washing in tap water or treatment with detergent (333 ppm for 10 min) or benzalkonium chloride (92 ppm for 15 min) reduced the total microbial count, most probable number (MPN) of coliforms, MPN of fecal coliforms, and MPN of fecal streptococci by about 1.2 to 2.3 log. No significant differences in microbial populations were found on vegetables after decontamination with tap water, detergent, or benzalkonium chloride (P > 0.05). Treatments with peracetic acid (100 ppm for 15 min) and hydrogen peroxide (133 ppm for 30 min) reduced the total mesophilic microbial counts by about 2.8 log. The microbial reductions with calcium hypochlorite (300 ppm for 15 min) and combined hydrogen peroxide and silver ion (133 ppm for 30 min) were significantly higher than those obtained after rinsing in tap water or after detergent or benzalkonium chloride wash (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with detergent slightly enhanced the efficacy of all decontamination treatments, but results were not significantly different from those obtained after individual application of disinfectants. PMID:19681275

  13. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  14. Specific effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cholesterol-poor membrane domain in a model membrane.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Chihiro; Sugibayashi, Ko; Takayama, Kozo

    2008-08-01

    To understand more fully the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on lipid bilayers, we investigated the effects of treatment with fatty acids on the properties of a model membrane. Three kinds of liposomes comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (Ch) were used as the model membrane, and the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and detergent insolubility were determined. Characterization of the liposomes clarified that DPPC, DPPC/Ch, and DPPC/DOPC/Ch existed as solid-ordered phase (L beta), liquid-ordered phase (l o), and a mixture of l o and liquid-disordered phase (L alpha) membranes at room temperature. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) markedly decreased the fluorescence anisotropy value and detergent insolubility. PUFAs and OA had different effects on the model membranes. In DPPC liposomes, the most prominent change was induced by PUFAs, whereas, in DPPC/Ch and DPPC/DOPC/Ch liposomes, OA had a stronger effect than PUFAs. The effect of PUFAs was strongly affected by the amount of Ch in the membrane, which confirmed a specific effect of PUFAs on the Ch-poor membrane domain. We further explored the effect of fatty acids dispersed in a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion and found that unsaturated fatty acids acted on the membranes even when incorporated in emulsion form. These findings suggest that treatment with PUFAs increases the segregation of ordered and disordered phase domains in membranes. PMID:18670110

  15. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  16. Isotopic composition of hydrogen in insoluble organic matter from cherts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Robert (1989) reported the presence of unusually enriched hydrogen in the insoluble HF-HCl residue extracted from two chert samples of Eocene and Pliocene ages. Since the presence of heavy hydrogen might be due to the incorporation of extraterrestrial materials, we desired to reexamine the same samples to isolate the D-rich components. Our experiments did not reveal any D-rich components, but the hydrogen isotope composition of the insoluble residue of the two chert samples was well within the range expected for terrestrial organic matter. We also describe a protocol that needs to be followed in the hydrogen isotope analysis of any insoluble organic matter.

  17. Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Pawolski, Damian; Milentyev, Alexander; Shevchenko, Anna; Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kröger, Nils

    2016-03-01

    The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis. PMID:26710847

  18. Insoluble layer deposition and dilatational rheology at a microscale spherical cap interface.

    PubMed

    Kotula, Anthony P; Anna, Shelley L

    2016-08-17

    The dilatational properties of insoluble monolayers are important for understanding the mechanics of biological systems and consumer products, but isolating the dilatational response of an interface is challenging due to the difficulties in separating dilatation from shear and other deformation modes. Oscillations of a microscale bubble radius are useful for generating purely dilatational flows, but the current deposition methods for insoluble layers onto fluid interfaces are not easily scaled down. In this paper, we describe a miscible solvent exchange procedure for generating insoluble layers at an air-water interface pinned at the tip of a capillary tens of micrometers in diameter. We show that the amount of surfactant adsorbed at the interface can be controlled by the initial concentration dissolved in isopropanol (the starting solvent) and the volumetric flow rate of solvent exchange. Surface pressure-area isotherms and dilatational moduli are measured concurrently for three insoluble surfactants: palmitic acid (PA), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The isotherms measured on the microscale interface compare well with previous experiments performed on a Langmuir trough. However, the magnitudes of the dilatational moduli differ from those measured on either Langmuir trough or pendant drop apparatuses. Several possible reasons for the observed differences are discussed. A comparison of the dilatational modulus with the Gibbs elasticity is used to determine the presence of dilatational extra stresses at the interface. The isotherm and dilatational modulus of the insoluble component of the industrial surfactant Tween 80 are measured using this approach. The methods developed here also open the possibility for future study of the important role of finite size effects on microstructure formation and the resulting interfacial mechanics. PMID:27478885

  19. The Use of Detergents to Purify Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Arnold, Thomas; Linke, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of membrane proteins from biological membranes is usually accomplished with the help of detergents. This unit describes the use of detergents to solubilize and purify membrane proteins. The chemical and physical properties of the different classes of detergents typically used with biological samples are discussed. A separate section addresses the compatibility of detergents with applications downstream of the membrane protein purification process, such as optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, biomolecular NMR, or electron microscopy. A brief summary of alternative membrane protein solubilizing and stabilizing systems is also included. Protocols in this unit include the isolation and solubilization of biological membranes and phase separation; support protocols for detergent removal, detergent exchange, and the determination of critical micelle concentration using different methods are also included. PMID:27038269

  20. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  1. Detergents profoundly affect inhibitor potencies against both cyclo-oxygenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Marc; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Percival, M David

    2004-02-01

    The sensitivity of Coxs (cyclo-oxygenases) to inhibition is known to be highly dependent on assay conditions. In the present study, the inhibitor sensitivities of purified Cox-1 and -2 were determined in a colorimetric assay using the reducing agent N, N, N ', N '-tetramethyl- p -phenylenediamine. With the detergent genapol X-100 (2 mM) present, the potencies of nimesulide, ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, niflumic acid and naproxen were increased over 100-fold against Cox-2 and titration curve shapes changed, so that maximal inhibition now approached 100%. Indomethacin, diclofenac and flosulide were not changed in potency. Similar effects of genapol were observed with inhibitors of Cox-1. DuP-697 and two analogues became more than 10-fold less potent against Cox-2 with genapol present. Tween-20, Triton X-100 and phosphatidylcholine, but not octylglucoside, gave qualitatively similar effects as genapol. Similar detergent-dependent changes in inhibitor potency were also observed using a [(14)C]arachidonic acid HPLC assay. The increases in potency of ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, isoxicam and niflumic acid towards Cox-2 and ibuprofen towards Cox-1 were accompanied by a change from time-independent to time-dependent inhibition. The interactions of Cox inhibitors has been described in terms of multiple binding step mechanisms. The genapol-dependent increase in inhibitor potency for ketoprofen was associated with an increase in the rate constant for the conversion of the initial enzyme-inhibitor complex to a second, more tightly bound form. The loss of potency for some inhibitors is probably due to inhibitor partitioning into detergent micelles. The present study identifies detergents as another factor that must be considered when determining inhibitor potencies against both Cox isoforms. PMID:14510637

  2. Pulmonary oedema due to inhalation of detergent aerosol.

    PubMed

    Rao, J; Das, P K

    1994-12-01

    Healthy adult male albino rats were subjected to inhalation of increasing doses of detergent (dioctyl sodium sulfo-succinate) aerosol ranging from 100 mg to 500 mg. Administration of 500 mg of detergent aerosol resulted in peribronchial and focal alveolar oedema in 3 out of 5 animals. The lungs of control animals which were subjected to inhalation of vehicle aerosol (ethanol and saline) did not show any abnormality. It is possible that pulmonary oedema observed in detergent aerosol inhalation may be due to the action of detergents on the surfactant system of the lung. PMID:9053567

  3. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

    PubMed Central

    Chuan-qing, Zhong; Guang-xiang, Cao; Wei-yi, Huang; Xing-she, Luan; Yi-fei, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. PMID:25477929

  4. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chuan-qing; Cao, Guang-xiang; Huang, Wei-yi; Luan, Xing-she; Yang, Yi-fei

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. PMID:25477929

  5. Structural and physico-chemical properties of insoluble rice bran fiber: effect of acid–base induced modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural modifications of insoluble rice bran fiber (IRBF) by sequential regimes of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and their effects on the physicochemical attributes were studied. The increment of H2SO4 concentration resulted in decreased water holding capacity that ultimately enhanced the oil bindin...

  6. The membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    PubMed

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1)-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1)-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1)-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25549363

  7. Use of quaternary ammonium salts of nitrogen containing polymers for improved carburetor detergency

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-01-15

    A quaternary ammonium salt is described of a copolymer, said copolymer being the olefin polymerization product of: (A) a nitrogen amine free ester of a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ olefinically unsaturated aliphatic mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acid having a tertiary nitrogen atom; and (B) an olefinically unsaturated co-monomer containing a basic nitrogen atom in a side chain; a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such quaternary ammonium salt of such copolymer as a detergent.

  8. Concentrating membrane proteins using ultrafiltration without concentrating detergents.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Hasin; Vandervelden, Craig; Ikwuagwu, Bon; Ferlez, Bryan; Baker, Carol S; Lugar, Daniel J; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Golbeck, John H; Zydney, Andrew L; Kumar, Manish

    2016-10-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) are of rapidly growing interest in the design of pharmaceutical products, novel sensors, and synthetic membranes. Ultrafiltration (UF) using commercially available centrifugal concentrators is typically employed for laboratory-scale concentration of low-yield MPs, but its use is accompanied by a concomitant increase in concentration of detergent micelles. We present a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic processes that control detergent passage during ultrafiltration of MPs and propose methods to optimize detergent passage during protein concentration in larger-scale membrane processes. Experiments were conducted using nonionic detergents, octyl-β-D glucoside (OG), and decyl-β-D maltoside (DM) with the bacterial water channel protein, Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) and the light driven chloride pump, halorhodopsin (HR), respectively. The observed sieving coefficient (So ), a measure of detergent passage, was evaluated in both stirred cell and centrifugal systems. So for DM and OG increased with increasing filtrate flux and decreasing shear rates in the stirred cell, that is, with increasing concentration polarization (CP). Similar effects were observed during filtration of MP-detergent (MPD) micelles. However, lower transmission was observed in the centrifugal system for both detergent and MPD systems. This is attributed to free convection-induced shear and hence reduced CP along the membrane surface during centrifugal UF. Thus to concentrate MPs without retention of detergent, design of UF systems that promote CP is required. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2122-2130. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27563851

  9. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  10. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  11. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  12. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  13. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  14. Detergent formulations for wool domestic washings containing immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Silva, Carla J S M; Schroeder, Marc; Guebitz, Georg M; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2006-05-01

    The stability of immobilized and native Esperase, a commercial serine protease, was studied by incubating the enzymes in four formulations containing the same amount of anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The results show that the activity of the immobilized enzyme is not affected by the presence of detergents while the native enzyme lost 50% of activity after 20 min of incubation in these four formulations. The washing performance of the detergents prepared with the immobilized Esperase was studied on cotton and wool fabric samples stained with human blood and egg yolk, using as control the detergent containing native Esperase. The best stain removal for cotton samples stained with human blood was achieved using the detergent with immobilized Esperase. Several physical tests confirmed that wool keratin was not degraded by the immobilized Esperase, validating the ability to use formulated detergents containing this immobilized enzyme for safe wool domestic washing. PMID:16791727

  15. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  16. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form. PMID:26627559

  17. Lipid-Detergent Phase Transitions During Detergent-Mediated Liposome Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Hanieh; Venkatesan, Guru A; Sarles, Stephen A; Mukherjee, Dibyendu; Khomami, Bamin

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the phase transition stages for detergent-mediated liposome solubilization of bio-mimetic membranes with the motivation of integrating membrane-bound Photosystem I into bio-hybrid opto-electronic devices. To this end, the interaction of two non-ionic detergents n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) and Triton X-100 (TX-100) with two types of phospholipids, namely DPhPC (1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and DPPG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol)), are examined. Specifically, solubilization processes for large unilamellar liposomes are studied with the aid of turbidity measurements, dynamic light scattering, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy imaging. Our results indicate that the solubilization process is well depicted by a three-stage model, wherein the lamellar-to-micellar transitions for DPhPC liposomes are dictated by the critical detergent/phospholipid ratios. The solubilization of DPhPC by DDM is devoid of formation of a "gel-like" phase. Furthermore, our results indicate that DDM is a stable candidate for DPhPC solubilization and proteoliposome formation. Finally, although the solubilization of DPPG with DDM indicated the familiar three-stage process, the same process with TX-100 indicate structural deformation of vesicles into complex network of kinetically trapped micro- and nanostructured arrangements of lipid bilayers. PMID:27072138

  18. Interactions of myelin basic protein with mixed dodecylphosphocholine/palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Mendz, G.L. ); Brown, L.R. ); Martenson, R.E. )

    1990-03-06

    The interactions of myelin basic protein and peptides derived from it with detergent micelles of lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylserine, palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate, and with mixed micelles of the neutral detergent dodecylphosphocholine and the negatively charged detergent palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroic spectropolarimetry. The results with single detergents suggested that there are discrete interaction sites in the protein molecule for neutral and anionic detergent micelles and that at least some of these sites are different for each type of detergent. The data on the binding of the protein and peptides to mixed detergent micelles suggested that intramolecular interactions in the intact protein and in one of the longer peptides limited the formation of helices and also that a balance between hydrophobic and ionic forces is achieved in the interactions of the peptides with the detergents. At high detergent/protein molar ratios, hydrophobic interactions appeared to be favored.

  19. The potency-insolubility conundrum in pharmaceuticals: Mechanism and solution for hepatitis C protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Patrick R; Snyder, Phillip W; Zhang, Yuegang; McClain, Brian; Quinn, Brian P; Johnston, Steve; Medek, Ales; Tanoury, Jerry; Griffith, James; Patrick Walters, W; Dokou, Eleni; Knezic, Dragutin; Bransford, Philip

    2015-01-01

    As compounds are optimized for greater potency during pharmaceutical discovery, their aqueous solubility often decreases, making them less viable as orally-administered drugs. To investigate whether potency and insolubility share a common origin, we examined the structural and thermodynamic properties of telaprevir, a sparingly soluble inhibitor of hepatitis C virus protease. Comparison of the hydrogen bond motifs in crystalline telaprevir with those present in the protease-telaprevir complex revealed striking similarities. Additionally, the thermodynamics of telaprevir dissolution closely resembles those of protein-ligand dissociation. Together, these findings point to a common origin of potency and insolubility rooted in particular amide-amide hydrogen bond patterns. The insolubility of telaprevir is shown by computational analysis to be caused by interactions in the crystal, not unfavorable hydrophobic hydration. Accordingly, competing out the particular amide-amide hydrogen bond motifs in crystalline telaprevir with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid yielded a co-crystalline solid with excellent aqueous dissolution and oral absorption. The analysis suggests a generalizable approach for identifying drug candidate compounds that either can or cannot be rendered orally bioavailable by alteration of their crystalline solid phases, in an approach that provides a pragmatic way to attain substantial enhancements in the success rate of drug discovery and development. PMID:25451684

  20. Improvement of thermostability and activity of Trichoderma reesei endo-xylanase Xyn III on insoluble substrates.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Satoshi; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma reesei Xyn III, an endo-β-1,4-xylanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10), is vital for the saccharification of xylans in plant biomass. However, its enzymatic thermostability and hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates are low. To overcome these difficulties, the thermostability of Xyn III was improved using random mutagenesis and directed evolution, and its hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates was improved by creating a chimeric protein. In the screening of thermostable Xyn III mutants from a random mutagenesis library, we identified two amino acid residues, Gln286 and Asn340, which are important for the thermostability of Xyn III. The Xyn III Gln286Ala/Asn340Tyr mutant showed xylanase activity even after heat treatment at 60 °C for 30 min or 50 °C for 96 h, indicating a dramatic enhancement in thermostability. In addition, we found that the addition of a xylan-binding domain (XBD) to the C-terminal of Xyn III improved its hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan. PMID:27138202

  1. Distribution of insoluble cAMP-dependent kinase type RI and RII in the lizard and turtle central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Caretta, Antonio

    2007-06-18

    cAMP is a universal second messenger. In eucaryotes it acts mainly via protein kinases composed of regulatory (R) and catalytic subunits; their subcellular distribution may differ according to the cell type. In rodent brain, peculiar detergent-insoluble RIalpha aggregates were previously described in neurons of areas related to the limbic system, while RIIbeta is more evenly distributed also in non-nervous cells. It is unclear whether the regional distribution of regulatory subunits is typical of mammalian brain. Western blots and immunohistochemistry showed that in lizard brains a large fraction of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory isoforms is insoluble, as in mammals. Insoluble RIalpha and RII regulatory isoforms were not evenly distributed but organized in clearly separated aggregates. Numerous RII aggregates were present in almost all brain regions and were found also in non-nervous cells. As shown by immunohistochemistry and equilibrium binding of fluorescently tagged cAMP, RIalpha aggregates were restricted to neurons of some brain regions: telencephalon, particularly medial cortical areas, dorsal ventricular ridge, olfactory pathways, medial hypothalamus and cerebellar granular layer were intensely labelled. A very weak RIalpha labelling was detected in the brainstem reticular formation, in the periaqueductal gray and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. A similar distribution of RIalpha aggregates was also found in turtle brains. Their distribution is reminiscent of that observed in mammals, although with some differences in relative intensity and persistence. The supramolecular organization of the RIalpha isoform may help in establishing homologies and differences between brain areas involved in visceroemotional control. PMID:17482583

  2. Proteins of insoluble matrix of avian (gallus gallus) eggshell.

    PubMed

    Miksík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulikova, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    The protein composition of the insoluble avian eggshell matrix was studied. The determination of these proteins insoluble in water (EDTA-insoluble) was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The influence of various enzymes on the protein splitting also was studied. The distribution of proteins depends on the type of layer (localization within the eggshell): ovocalyxin-32 was found mainly in the outer layer (the cuticle); ovocleidin-116 and 17 and ovocalyxin-36 were found throughout the whole eggshell, whereas ovalbumin was only found in the inner layer, the mammillary. The pigment (protoporphyrin IX) was mainly found in the cuticle and is incorporated into the protein network. PMID:17364661

  3. Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

    1986-12-01

    Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

  4. Dual enzymatic detergents: a safer way to decontaminate.

    PubMed

    Dernbach, C M

    1989-09-01

    1. Although the technology of mechanical equipment has advanced, manual cleaning of contaminated items has not been eliminated in the initial decontamination phase. 2. Proteolytic enzymes dissolve and lift the protein contaminate while detergents remove the dissolved organic particulate from the surface of the item. 3. A dual proteolytic enzyme detergent can be used over a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. 4. Dual enzymatic detergents reduce employee exposure through manual cleaning and assure the complete removal of gross organic debris during the initial decontamination phase. PMID:2675392

  5. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays.

    PubMed

    de Lange, N; Tran, T M; Abate, A R

    2016-03-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assays by measuring the catalysis of β-glucosidase, an important cellulase used in the conversion of biomass to biofuel. Our method enables assays in microfluidic droplets that are incompatible with detergents. PMID:27051471

  6. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T. M.; Abate, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assays by measuring the catalysis of β-glucosidase, an important cellulase used in the conversion of biomass to biofuel. Our method enables assays in microfluidic droplets that are incompatible with detergents. PMID:27051471

  7. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  8. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  9. Investigation of insoluble endogenous fractions of gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunova, V. A.; Zvereva, V. V.

    2005-05-01

    For the determination of the elemental composition of insoluble endogenous fractions from gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF (XRF experimental beam line, VEPP-3, INP SU RAS, Novosibirsk), an analytical method was developed for producing epithelial tissue in vivo. The metrological characteristics were determined using a number of international biological standards.

  10. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  11. Mixing and Matching Detergents for Membrane Protein NMR Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Columbus, Linda; Lipfert, Jan; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Fox, Daniel A.; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Doniach, Sebastian; Lesley, Scott A.

    2009-10-21

    One major obstacle to membrane protein structure determination is the selection of a detergent micelle that mimics the native lipid bilayer. Currently, detergents are selected by exhaustive screening because the effects of protein-detergent interactions on protein structure are poorly understood. In this study, the structure and dynamics of an integral membrane protein in different detergents is investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results suggest that matching of the micelle dimensions to the protein's hydrophobic surface avoids exchange processes that reduce the completeness of the NMR observations. Based on these dimensions, several mixed micelles were designed that improved the completeness of NMR observations. These findings provide a basis for the rational design of mixed micelles that may advance membrane protein structure determination by NMR.

  12. Development of a tactile sensor for evaluation of detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mami

    2007-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a receptor of the sensor to evaluate a detergent. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight. When the dish which washed cleanly is rubbed with a finger of human, good tactile sense and sound (vibration signal) like "Kyu-kyu" are obtained. From this tactile sense and sound, we judge that a dish becomes squeaky-clean. This tactile sense and sound are evaluation parameters when consumer selects a detergent. In this study, a tactile sensor using PVDF film as the receptor is fabricated. Sensory test of detergents was conducted. Measurement experiment by the sensor is carried out. Experiment results show that sensor output have good correlation with the result of human sensory test of detergent.

  13. Differential effects of detergents on keratinocyte gene expression.

    PubMed

    van Ruissen, F; Le, M; Carroll, J M; van der Valk, P G; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-04-01

    We have studied the effect of various detergents on keratinocyte gene expression in vitro, using an anionic detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), and two nonionic detergents, Nonidet P-40 and Tween-20. We measured the effect of these detergents on direct cellular toxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release), on the expression of markers for normal differentiation (cytokeratin 1 and involucrin expression), and on disturbed keratinocyte differentiation (SKALP) by northern blot analysis. As reported in other studies, large differences were noted in direct cellular toxicity. In a culture model that mimics normal epidermal differentiation we found that low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate could induce the expression of SKALP, a proteinase inhibitor that is not normally expressed in human epidermis but is found in hyperproliferative skin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate caused upregulation of involucrin and downregulation of cytokeratin 1 expression, which is associated with the hyperproliferative/inflammatory epidermal phenotype found in psoriasis, wound healing, and skin irritation. These changes were not induced after treatment of cultures with CTAB, Triton X-100, and Nonidet-P40. This effect appeared to be specific for the class of anionic detergents because sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium laurate also induced SKALP expression. These in vitro findings showed only a partial correlation with the potential of different detergents to induce clinical, biophysical, and cell biologic changes in vivo in human skin. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate and CTAB were found to cause induction and upregulation of SKALP and involucrin at low doses following a 24 h patch test, whereas high concentrations of Triton X-100 did not. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced higher rates of transepidermal water loss, whereas CTAB treated skin showed more signs of cellular toxicity. We conclude that the action of anionic detergents on

  14. Detergent induces the formation of IgG aggregates: a multi-methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Amani, Samreen; Nasim, Faisal; Khan, Taqi Ahmed; Fazili, Naveed Ahmad; Furkan, Mohammad; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Khan, Javed Masood; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2014-01-01

    Role of micellar environment created by Triton X-100 (TX-100) and CHAPSO on protein conformation using IgG as a model system has been studied in this paper. A substantial amount of secondary structure with the reduction in constant tertiary contacts was obtained in both bovine and human IgG in the presence of 0.12 mM TX-100 where as 6 and 8 mM CHAPSO concentration was required for this type of secondary structure. Further addition of either of the detergents result in the induction of α-helix in both the IgGs as evident by helix specific peaks in the amide I region of FTIR and circular dichroism spectra. Tryptophan and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulphonic acid (ANS) fluorescence confirmed changes in protein conformation upon addition of detergents. Maximum ANS binding at 0.12 mM TX-100 in both while 6 and 8 mM CHAPSO in bovine and human IgG respectively, indicate a compact ''molten-globule''-like conformation. An increase addition of these detergents results in the burial of hydrophobic patches of both IgG owing to aggregation. Presence of aggregates at 0.2 and 0.16 mM TX-100 and 8 and 9 mM CHAPSO, for bovine and human IgG respectively, was further confirmed by reduction in ANS fluorescence, dynamic light scattering study, thioflavin T fluorescence and congo red absorbance. PMID:24184618

  15. Effects of Detergents on the Redistribution of Gangliosides and GPI-anchored Proteins in Brain Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Heffer-Lauc, Marija; Viljetiæ, Barbara; Vajn, Katarina; Schnaar, Ronald L.; Lauc, Gordan

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Gangliosides and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins contain lipid tails that tether them to the outer side of the cell membrane. This mode of association with the cell membrane enables them to take part in the organization of lipid rafts, but it also permits gangliosides and GPI-anchored proteins to be actively released from one cell and inserted into the membrane of another cell. Recently, we reported that under conditions of lipid raft isolation, Triton X-100 causes significant redistribution of both gangliosides and GPI-anchored proteins. Aiming to find a less disruptive detergent, we evaluated the effects of CHAPS, Saponin, deoxycholic acid, Trappsol, Tween 20, Triton X-100, Brij 96V, Brij 98, and SDS on brain tissue sections. At room temperature, all detergents (1% concentration) extracted significant amounts of both gangliosides and Thy-1. At 4C, the extraction was weaker, but Triton X-100, CHAPS, and deoxycholic acid caused significant redistribution of GD1a and Thy-1 from gray matter into the white matter. Both redistribution and extraction were significantly augmented when sections were incubated with detergents in the presence of primary antibodies. Of the nine tested detergents, none is the ideal choice. However, Brij 96V appears to be able to sufficiently reveal myelin epitopes while causing the least amount of artifacts. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. PMID:17409378

  16. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  17. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  18. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  19. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  20. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  1. Isolation of Proteinase K-Sensitive Prions Using Pronase E and Phosphotungstic Acid

    PubMed Central

    D'Castro, Laura; Wenborn, Adam; Gros, Nathalie; Joiner, Susan; Cronier, Sabrina; Collinge, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein, PrPSc, is classically distinguished from its normal cellular precursor, PrPC, by its detergent insolubility and partial resistance to proteolysis. Molecular diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon detection of protease-resistant fragments of PrPSc using proteinase K, however it is now apparent that the majority of disease-related PrP and indeed prion infectivity may be destroyed by this treatment. Here we report that digestion of RML prion-infected mouse brain with pronase E, followed by precipitation with sodium phosphotungstic acid, eliminates the large majority of brain proteins, including PrPC, while preserving >70% of infectious prion titre. This procedure now allows characterization of proteinase K-sensitive prions and investigation of their clinical relevance in human and animal prion disease without being confounded by contaminating PrPC. PMID:21187933

  2. Laundry detergent compatibility of the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Banik, Rathindra Mohan; Prakash, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous protease activity in various commercially available laundry detergents of international companies was studied. The maximum protease activity was found at 50 degrees C in pH range 10.5-11.0 in all the tested laundry detergents. The endogenous protease activity in the tested detergents retained up to 70% on incubation at 40 degrees C for 1 h, whereas less than 30% activity was only found on incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h. The alkaline protease from an alkalophilic strain of Bacillus cereus was studied for its compatibility in commercial detergents. The cell free fermented broth from shake flask culture of the organism showed maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C. The protease from B. cereus showed much higher residual activity (more than 80%) on incubation with laundry detergents at 50 degrees C for 1 h or longer. The protease enzyme from B. cereus was found to be superior over the endogenous proteases present in the tested commercial laundry detergents in comparison to the enzyme stability during the washing at higher temperature, e.g., 40-50 degrees C. PMID:15293947

  3. Detergent-induced epidermal barrier dysfunction and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Minehiro; Yoshiike, Takashi; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2002-12-01

    Various detergents are used as skin cleansing products. In some cases, skin cleanser removes not only dirt but also valuable skin lipids. Therefore, detergents may disrupt epidermal barrier function despite that using of detergents are required for good skin hygiene. Lipid supplements can reverse detergent-induced dysfunction of the skin barrier. Elevated transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and riboflavin penetration in 5% SLS-treated rat and human skin were reversed by supplementation of monoglyceride (MG), squalene (SQ), cholesterol ester (CE) and pseudo-ceramide (Cer2). MG and Cer2 achieved the best results. MG appears to inhibit elution of intercellular ceramides, since more ceramides remained when the detergent was supplemented with MG. Topical application of Cer2 is not effective for recovery from artificially induced barrier disruption, but supplemented Cer2 into skin cleanser has a beneficial effect for prevention of detergent-induced barrier disruption. In conclusion, the prevention of barrier disruption is most important matter for maintaining skin health and barrier function. Therefore, we think that Cer2-supplemented skin cleanser is useful for conservation of skin barrier function. PMID:12443839

  4. Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    Wastewater sludge reduced the heat required to inactivate rotavirus SA-11, and ionic detergents were identified as the sludge components responsible for this effect. A similar result was found previously with reovirus. The quantitative effects of individual ionic detergents on rotavirus and reovirus were very different, and rotavirus was found to be extremely sensitive to several of these detergents. However, neither virus was destabilized by nonionic detergents. On the contrary, rotavirus was stabilized by a nonionic detergent against the potent destabilizing effects of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. The destabilizing effects of both cationic and anionic detergents on rotavirus were greatly altered by changes in the pH of the medium.

  5. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axson, J. L.; Creamean, J.; Bondy, A. L.; Warner, K. Y.; Ault, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) play an important role in the climate effects of clouds. Wet deposition of these particles via rainout, washout, or cloud seeding is an important removal mechanism for aerosols in the atmosphere. Many of these particles, especially those that serve as IN, are insoluble and remain suspended after uptake within precipitating droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While studies have measured the dissolved ions or mass of species within collected precipitation, no studies to date have quantified the number and size of insoluble residues. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time an in situ method for determining the number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues < 1 μm in diameter in samples of melted snow and rain. This work evaluates the use of nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), a new and novel technique for determining particle size distributions in a liquid medium, to determine in situ size distributions of insoluble residue particles in precipitation and evaluate this technique versus other analytical methods, including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Number size distribution modes ranged from 80-150 nm and were strongly sample dependent. Surface area distribution modes ranged from 150-400 nm. Differences were observed between concentrations and size distributions for snow collected at different locations and elevations and between rain and melted snow. These differences can indicate changes in the insoluble residues that vary with ambient aerosol concentration, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. This method has great potential for improving our understanding of the properties of the particles nucleating droplets and crystals, the surface area available for reactions to occur, and the number of particles removed by scavenging. Additionally, the snow samples were further evaluated

  6. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Clunes, Lucy A.; Davies, Catrin M.; Coakley, Raymond D.; Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Zeman, Kirby L.; Worthington, Erin N.; Gentzsch, Martina; Kreda, Silvia M.; Cholon, Deborah; Bennett, William D.; Riordan, John R.; Boucher, Richard C.; Tarran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces mucus obstruction and the development of chronic bronchitis (CB). While many of these responses are determined genetically, little is known about the effects CS can exert on pulmonary epithelia at the protein level. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that CS exerts direct effects on the CFTR protein, which could impair airway hydration, leading to the mucus stasis characteristic of both cystic fibrosis and CB. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that CS rapidly decreased CFTR activity, leading to airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion (i.e., dehydration). Further studies revealed that CS induced internalization of CFTR. Surprisingly, CS-internalized CFTR did not colocalize with lysosomal proteins. Instead, the bulk of CFTR shifted to a detergent-resistant fraction within the cell and colocalized with the intermediate filament vimentin, suggesting that CS induced CFTR movement into an aggresome-like, perinuclear compartment. To test whether airway dehydration could be reversed, we used hypertonic saline (HS) as an osmolyte to rehydrate ASL. HS restored ASL height in CS-exposed, dehydrated airway cultures. Similarly, inhaled HS restored mucus transport and increased clearance in patients with CB. Thus, we propose that CS exposure rapidly impairs CFTR function by internalizing CFTR, leading to ASL dehydration, which promotes mucus stasis and a failure of mucus clearance, leaving smokers at risk for developing CB. Furthermore, our data suggest that strategies to rehydrate airway surfaces may provide a novel form of therapy for patients with CB.—Clunes, L. A., Davies, C. M., Coakley, R. D., Aleksandrov, A. A., Henderson, A. G., Zeman, K. L., Worthington, E. N., Gentzsch, M., Kreda, S. M., Cholon, D., Bennett, W. D., Riordan, J. R., Boucher, R. C., Tarran, R. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration. PMID:21990373

  7. Characterization of insoluble nanoparticles in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A.; Edwards, R.; Van Riessen, A.; Saunders, M.; Smith, A. M.; Curran, M. A.; Goodwin, I. D.; Feiteng, W.

    2013-12-01

    Insoluble nanoparticles in the form of aerosols have significant effects on climate and biogeochemical cycles. Records of these aerosols are essential for understanding paleoclimate forcing and future climate change. These particles and their precursors are emitted to the atmosphere from a variety of primary and secondary sources including biomass burning as well as biogenic, anthropogenic, volcanic, extraterrestrial, and terrestrial mineral emissions. While a large body of research exists with respect to mineral dust particles (on the micrometer scale) derived from ice and sediment cores, very little is known with regards to the history of insoluble particles on the nano scale. Ice core records are the only reliable way to study the past history of these particles. Here, we will present new data regarding the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles found in ice cores from East Antarctica.

  8. Insoluble polyelectrolyte and ion-exchange hollow fiber impregnated therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The number of quaternary sites and ion exchange capacity of a polyquaternary, cross linked, insoluble copolymer of a vinyl pyridine and a dihalo organic compound is increased by about 15-35% by reaction of the polymer with an amine followed by quaternization, if required. The polymer forms spontaneously in the presence of a substrate such as within the pores of a hollow fiber. The improved resin impregnated fiber may be utilized to remove ions from waste or process steams.

  9. Water-insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q.; Hu, X; Wang, X; Kluge, J; Lu, S; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the {beta}-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and {alpha}-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 C, without crystallization above the T{sub g}, but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low {beta}-sheet content.

  10. Water-Insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Lu, Shenzhou; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally achieved by increasing β-sheet content (silk II). In the present study, water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling very slow drying of B. mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with dominating silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared through slow drying had a globule-like structure in the core with nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, and these regions are surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random, turns, and α-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. DSC results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250°C, without crystallization above the Tg, but degraded in lower temperature than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films, the films prepared through slow drying achieved better mechanical ductility and more rapid enzymatic degradation, reflective of the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated in the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode to generate new types of silk biomaterials, where mechanical properties can be enhanced, and degradation rates increased, yet water insolubility is maintained along with low beta sheet content. PMID:19874919

  11. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.; Hiller, J.M.

    1998-02-24

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration. 1 fig.

  12. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.; Hiller, John M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration.

  13. Studies on the solubilization of the water-insoluble fraction from human lens and cataract.

    PubMed

    Ortwerth, B J; Olesen, P R

    1992-12-01

    Studies were carried out comparing the ability of urea extraction and sonication to solubilize the water-insoluble (WI) protein fraction from human lens tissue. Sonication and urea extraction were able to solubilize greater than 80% of the insoluble protein whether whole lenses or lens nuclei were used. This was true for normal lens and +1 cataracts; however, only 60% solubilization was obtained with the WI fraction from more advanced cataracts. Equal aliquots of a WI fraction from both pooled normal and pooled cataract lens nuclei were solubilized with and without reducing agents. The addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) had no significant effect on solubilization of the normal lens WI fraction. DTT did increase the protein solubilized from the cataract WI fraction by 30% with urea extraction; however, no increase was seen with sonication. When sodium borohydride was used as the reducing agent, essentially the same results were obtained. The solubilized protein populations were identical by SDS-PAGE and amino acid analysis. The addition of reducing agents had no effect on the amino acid content of the solubilized proteins with the single exception of lysine. This amino acid was markedly decreased in the proteins extracted in the presence of 40 mM sodium borohydride, but not with DTT. These data suggest that the borohydride not only increased the amount of protein solubilized, but likely also stabilized glycated lysine residues during the acid hydrolysis. Therefore, sonication readily provides a soluble preparation of the WI proteins from normal and cataract lens nuclei without the need for denaturing agents, however, disulfide-linked and lysine modified crystallins were best solubilized with urea. PMID:1486936

  14. Suitability of the isolated chicken eye test for classification of extreme pH detergents and cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Cazelle, Elodie; Eskes, Chantra; Hermann, Martina; Jones, Penny; McNamee, Pauline; Prinsen, Menk; Taylor, Hannah; Wijnands, Marcel V W

    2015-04-01

    A.I.S.E. investigated the suitability of the regulatory adopted ICE in vitro test method (OECD TG 438) with or without histopathology to identify detergent and cleaning formulations having extreme pH that require classification as EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1. To this aim, 18 extreme pH detergent and cleaning formulations were tested covering both alkaline and acidic extreme pHs. The ICE standard test method following OECD Test Guideline 438 showed good concordance with in vivo classification (83%) and good and balanced specificity and sensitivity values (83%) which are in line with the performances of currently adopted in vitro test guidelines, confirming its suitability to identify Category 1 extreme pH detergent and cleaning products. In contrast to previous findings obtained with non-extreme pH formulations, the use of histopathology did not improve the sensitivity of the assay whilst it strongly decreased its specificity for the extreme pH formulations. Furthermore, use of non-testing prediction rules for classification showed poor concordance values (33% for the extreme pH rule and 61% for the EU CLP additivity approach) with high rates of over-prediction (100% for the extreme pH rule and 50% for the additivity approach), indicating that these non-testing prediction rules are not suitable to predict Category 1 hazards of extreme pH detergent and cleaning formulations. PMID:25614451

  15. Detergent solubilization of phospholipid vesicle. Effect of electric charge.

    PubMed Central

    Urbaneja, M A; Alonso, A; Gonzalez-Mañas, J M; Goñi, F M; Partearroyo, M A; Tribout, M; Paredes, S

    1990-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of electric charge on detergent solubilization of phospholipid bilayers, the interaction of nine electrically charged surfactants with neutral or electrically charged liposomes has been examined. The detergents belonged to the alkyl pyridinium, alkyl trimethylammonium or alkyl sulphate families. Large unilamellar liposomes formed by egg phosphatidylcholine plus or minus stearylamine or dicetyl phosphate were used. Solubilization was assessed as a decrease in light-scattering of the liposome suspensions. The results suggest that electrostatic forces do not play a significant role in the formation of mixed micelles and that hydrophobic interactions are by far the main forces involved in solubilization. In addition, from the study of thirty different liposome-surfactant systems, we have derived a series of empirical rules that may be useful in predicting the behaviour of untested surfactants: (i) the detergent concentration producing the onset of solubilization (Don) decreases as the alkyl chain length increases; the decrease follows a semi-logarithmic pattern in the case of alkyl pyridinium compounds; (ii) for surfactants with critical micellar concentrations (cmc) less than 6 x 10(-3) M, Don. is independent of the nature of the detergent and the bilayer composition; for detergents having cmc greater than 6 x 10(-3) M, Don. increases linearly with the cmc; and (iii) Don. varies linearly with the surfactant concentration that produces maximum solubilization. PMID:2400390

  16. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment. PMID:26320877

  17. An examination of the effects of detergents on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Kojo Arthur; Forster, Christopher F

    2003-11-01

    An anaerobic filter was used to examine the treatability of wastewater formulated to simulate that from the manufacture of detergents. The detergent element was a mixture (1:1:1 v/v) of concentrated washing up liquid, a non-biological hand washing detergent and a fabric softener and, thus contained a combination of cationic surfactants, anionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants and amphoteric surfactants. A concentration of 2 ml/l caused a deterioration in the performance of the digester which was pronounced after 7 days. When the packing of the filter was modified to include two layers of granular activated carbon, 320 g in total, the reactor was capable of treating a feed containing 10 ml/l. The amount of detergent removed during this second trial was greater than the Langmuir monolayer capacity of the carbon, indicating that both adsorption and degradation were occurring. The results also showed that, at detergent concentrations greater than 1 ml/l, the theoretical COD removal was lower than the actual COD removal. This was compatible with there being an element of adsorption by the activated carbon. PMID:12895555

  18. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1400 Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for packaging food in accordance with the following...

  3. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  4. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  5. [Control of the effects and side-effects of detergents].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W

    1977-08-01

    An examination of detergents on the skin has to take into account the facultative sensibilisation and the wear and tear. In this connection the effect of summation between soapbody and perfume is pointed out as well as the different results of skin tests. To control the obligate effects, first of all a reliable technical reference has to be established; this is the washing activity, to which the side-effects then are related. To measure the hydratation, the resonance-frequency method of Tronnier and Wagener is used, where especially the syndets react very differently: partly similar to water and partly similar to soft soap. Further methods of examination are the measurement of the roughness and the quantitative determination of the fat of the skin. Concerning certain hand wash detergents and industrial cleaners the grade of rubbing is also of interest. Finally the relatively good compatibility of the bioactive detergents and the rinsing agents is discussed. PMID:588219

  6. Improving activity and stability of cutinase towards the anionic detergent AOT by complete saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Brissos, V; Eggert, T; Cabral, J M S; Jaeger, K-E

    2008-06-01

    Cutinase is an enzyme suitable for detergent applications as well as for organic synthesis in non-aqueous solvents. However, its inactivation in the presence of anionic surfactants is a problem which we have addressed by creating a complete saturation library. For this, the cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi was mutated to incorporate all 19 possible amino acid exchanges at each of the 214 amino acid positions. The resulting library was screened for active variants with improved stability in the presence of the anionic surfactant dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Twenty-four sites in cutinase were discovered where amino acid replacements resulted in a 2-11-fold stability increase as compared to the wild-type enzyme. PMID:18424821

  7. Nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos; Szadkowska, Halina; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2006-07-01

    A detailed understanding of the mixing properties of membranes to which detergents are added is mandatory for improving the application and interpretation of detergent based protein or lipid extraction assays. For Triton X-100 (TX-100), a nonionic detergent frequently used in the process of solubilizing and purifying membrane proteins and lipids, we present here a detailed study of the mixing properties of binary and ternary lipid mixtures by means of high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). To this end the partitioning thermodynamics of TX-100 molecules from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of various mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), egg-sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (cho) are characterized. Composition-dependent partition coefficients K are analysed within the frame of a thermodynamic model developed to describe nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems. The results imply that POPC, fluid SM, and TX-100 mix almost ideally (nonideality parameters |ρα/β|detergent interactions are crucial governing the abundance and composition of detergent-resistant membrane patches.

  8. Insoluble calcium content and rheological properties of Colby cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-R; Johnson, M E; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Lucey, J A

    2010-05-01

    Colby cheese was made using different manufacturing conditions (i.e., varying the lactose content of milk and pH values at critical steps in the cheesemaking process) to alter the extent of acid development and the insoluble and total Ca contents of cheese. Milk was concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to increase the lactose content. Extent of acid development was modified by using high (HPM) and low (LPM) pH values at coagulant addition, whey drainage, and curd milling. Total Ca content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the insoluble (INSOL) Ca content of cheese was measured by the cheese juice method. The rheological and melting properties of cheese were measured by small amplitude oscillatory rheometry and UW-Melt Profiler, respectively. There was very little change in pH during ripening even in cheese made from milk with high lactose content. The initial (d 1) cheese pH was in the range of 4.9 to 5.1. The INSOL Ca content of cheese decreased during the first 4 wk of ripening. Cheeses made with the LPM had lower INSOL Ca content during ripening compared with cheese made with HPM. There was an increase in melt and maximum loss tangent values during ripening except for LPM cheeses made with RO-concentrated milk, as this cheese had pH <4.9 and exhibited limited melt. Curd washing reduced the levels of lactic acid produced during ripening and resulted in significantly higher INSOL Ca content. The use of curd washing for cheeses made from high lactose milk prevented a large pH decrease during ripening; high rennet and draining pH values also retained more buffering constituents (i.e., INSOL Ca phosphate), which helped prevent a large pH decrease. PMID:20412897

  9. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    SciTech Connect

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  10. Insoluble and soluble roasted walnut proteins retain antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Downs, Melanie L; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Bartra, Joan; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-03-01

    Thermal processing techniques commonly used during food production have the potential to impact food allergens by inducing physical and/or chemical changes to the proteins. English walnuts (Juglans regia) are among the most commonly allergenic tree nuts, but little information is available regarding how walnut allergens respond to thermal processing. This study evaluated the effects of dry roasting (132 or 180°C for 5, 10, or 20min) on the solubility and immunoreactivity of walnut proteins. A dramatic decrease in walnut protein solubility was observed following dry roasting at 180°C for 20min. However, both the soluble and insoluble protein fractions from roasted walnuts maintained substantial amounts of IgG immunoreactivity (using anti-raw and anti-roasted walnut antisera), with similar patterns of reactivity observed for human IgE from walnut-allergic individuals. Thus, walnut proteins are relatively stable under certain thermal processing conditions, and IgE reactivity remains present even when insoluble aggregates are formed. PMID:26471647

  11. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  12. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure. PMID:25896363

  13. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  14. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  15. Membrane Protein Solubilization and Composition of Protein Detergent Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duquesne, Katia; Prima, Valérie; Sturgis, James N

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are typically expressed in heterologous systems with a view to in vitro characterization. A critical step in the preparation of membrane proteins after expression in any system is the solubilization of the protein in aqueous solution, typically using detergents and lipids, to obtain the protein in a form suitable for purification, structural or functional analysis. This process is particularly difficult as the objective is to prepare the protein in an unnatural environment, a protein detergent complex, separating it from its natural lipid partners while causing the minimum destabilization or modification of the structure. Although the process is difficult, and relatively hard to master, an increasing number of membrane proteins have been successfully isolated after expression in a wide variety of systems. In this chapter we give a general protocol for preparing protein detergent complexes that is aimed at guiding the reader through the different critical steps. In the second part of the chapter we illustrate how to analyze the composition of protein detergent complexes; this analysis is important as it has been found that compositional variation often causes irreproducible results. PMID:27485340

  16. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  17. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... documents with such claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  18. A Lab Experience to Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Nunez, M.; Moreno, C.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lab experience to study detergency from a physicochemical point of view intended for undergraduate students. By means of a simple experimental device, we analyze the influence of the surfactant concentration in both distilled water and tap water. Our method is based on the measurement of diffuse reflectances of polyester…

  19. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  20. Arsenic in detergents: Possible danger and pollution hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angino, E.E.; Magnuson, L.M.; Waugh, T.C.; Galle, O.K.; Bredfeldt, J.

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic at a concentration of 10 to 70 parts per million has been detected in several common presoaks and household detergents. Arsenic values of 2 to 8 parts per billion have been measured in the Kansas River. These concentrations are close to the amount (10 parts per billion) recommended by the United States Public Health Service as a drinking-water standard.

  1. 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent Suffer Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160006.html 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent ... percent of the time, the findings showed. Nearly three-quarters of children exposed to detergent from laundry ...

  2. In Situ Ruminal Nitrogen and Neutral-Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen Disappearance from Bermudagrass Fertilized with Different Nitrogen Rates and Harvested on Two Dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizing bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) with N can produce large quantities of forage and increase plant N concentrations. Bermudagrass growing on a caged-layer manure-amended site was fertilized with ammonium nitrate at four rates (0, 56, 112, and 168 kg N/ha) approximately one month ...

  3. In Situ Disappearance Kinetics of Nitrogen and Neutral Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen for Common Crabgrass Sampled on Seven Dates in Northern Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern crabgrass [Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel.] is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between ...

  4. Polyol and Amino Acid-Based Biosurfactants, Builders, and Hydrogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews different detergent materials which have been synthesized from natural agricultural commodities. Background information, which gives reasons why the use of biobased materials may be advantageous, is presented. Detergent builders from L-aspartic acid, citric acid and D-sorbitol...

  5. Light- and guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate-sensitive localization of a G protein and its effector on detergent-resistant membrane rafts in rod photoreceptor outer segments.

    PubMed

    Seno, K; Kishimoto, M; Abe, M; Higuchi, Y; Mieda, M; Owada, Y; Yoshiyama, W; Liu, H; Hayashi, F

    2001-06-15

    Detergent-resistant membrane microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, have been implicated in various cellular processes. We report here that a low-density Triton X-100-insoluble membrane (detergent-resistant membrane; DRM) fraction is present in bovine rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS). In dark-adapted ROS, transducin and most of cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) were detergent-soluble. When ROS membranes were exposed to light, however, a large portion of transducin localized in the DRM fraction. Furthermore, on addition of guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) to light-bleached ROS, transducin became detergent-soluble again. PDE was not recruited to the DRM fraction after light stimulus alone, but simultaneous stimulation by light and GTPgammaS induced a massive translocation of all PDE subunits to the DRM. A cholesterol-removing reagent, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, selectively but partially solubilized PDE from the DRM, suggesting that cholesterol contributes, at least in part, to the association of PDE with the DRM. By contrast, transducin was not extracted by the depletion of cholesterol. These data suggest that transducin and PDE are likely to perform their functions in phototransduction by changing their localization between two distinct lipid phases, rafts and surrounding fluid membrane, on disc membranes in an activation-dependent manner. PMID:11319214

  6. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, G; Silbert, J E

    1988-04-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent. These results indicate that the intact microsomal system was not accessible to the larger

  7. Determination of the aggregate size in detergent solution of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex from chloroplast membranes

    PubMed Central

    Butler, P. J. G.; Kühlbrandt, W.

    1988-01-01

    The molecular mass of an oligomeric integral membrane protein, the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex from the photosynthetic membranes of chloroplasts, has been determined in detergent solution by analytical ultracentrifugation and measurement of the density increment at constant chemical potential of all diffusible solutes. The technique used eliminates any problems resulting from detergent binding to the protein, is independent of the particular detergent used (in this case the nonionic n-octyl β-D-glucopyranoside), and gives the apparent weight-average molecular mass at different protein concentrations, allowing extrapolation to zero concentration. It means that the solutions of the complex must be brought to dialysis equilibrium with the solvent detergent solution and also requires a reliable method for measuring the protein concentration, for which amino acid analysis was used. The detergent-solubilized complex was a trimer that dissociated into monomers and dimers at low protein concentration. The accurate concentration determinations also allowed the molar chlorophyll-to-protein ratio to be measured as 15, corresponding to 8 chlorophyll a and 7 chlorophyll b molecules. PMID:16593931

  8. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  9. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  10. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  11. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  12. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  13. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  14. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  15. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  16. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  17. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  18. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  19. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  1. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  3. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150 Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150 Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. Detergent-free domain isolated from Xenopus egg plasma membrane with properties similar to those of detergent-resistant membranes.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Vegelyte-Avery, Vaida; Stith, Brad; Tsvetkova, Nelly M; Wolkers, Willem F; Crowe, John H; Tablin, Fern; Nuccitelli, Richard

    2002-11-01

    Microdomains known as "rafts" have been isolated from many cell types as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, there has been considerable controversy over whether such domains are found in native membranes or are artificially generated by the purification procedure. This controversy is based at least in part on the fact that raft membranes were first detected following detergent extraction in the cold. We isolated two plasma membrane fractions, without detergent treatment, using a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. One fraction was designated "light" and the other "heavy." These fractions were compared with DRMs, which were isolated in the presence of 1% Triton X-100. We found that Xenopus DRMs are enriched with sphingomyelin and cholesterol and exhibit a phase state similar to the liquid-ordered phase. Comparison of DRM complexes with the light and heavy plasma membrane fractions revealed some physical and biochemical similarities between the light fraction of the plasma membrane and the DRM complexes, based on (1) the phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio and (2) the protein composition visualized on a two-dimensional gel. These two fractions are also quite similar in their thermotropic phase behavior, and their high levels of ganglioside GM1. We conclude that the light membrane fraction isolated in a detergent-free environment has many of the characteristics normally associated with DRMs. PMID:12403620

  1. A modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay adapted for immunodetection of low amounts of water-insoluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Godfrin, Dominique; Sénéchal, Hélène; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Desvaux, François-Xavier; Peltre, Gabriel

    2007-09-30

    A mixture of thiourea, urea and CHAPS (TUC) is an excellent solvent compatible with isoelectrofocusing (IEF) separation of water-insoluble protein extracts, and their subsequent two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is an important step in proteomic studies. The main aim of this work was to quantify extremely low amounts of water-insoluble proteins contained, for instance, in samples collected in bio-aerosol samplers. High CHAPS concentrations solubilize many proteins. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which is the most popular immunodetection method of quantifying antigens, is unfortunately not compatible with these high CHAPS concentrations and with the low protein concentrations of TUC extracts. The most common mixture used to solubilize these proteins contains 2 mol l(-1) thiourea, 7 mol l(-1) urea and 5% w/v CHAPS. This paper shows that these components inhibit the adsorption and/or recognition of proteins on microtitration plates, preventing antigen quantification under classic ELISA conditions. We have tried several solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile and trichloroacetic acid) to make the TUC-soluble proteins stick to the ELISA plates, and ethanol was shown to be the most appropriate. In this study, we have defined a new ELISA protocol allowing rapid and sensitive detection of low concentrations (60-500 ng ml(-1)) of water-insoluble proteins extracted with high concentrations of TUC. PMID:17706662

  2. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  3. CLAY MINERALOGY OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUES IN MARINE EVAPORITES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Insoluble residues from three sequences of Paleozoic marine evaporites (Retsof salt bed in western New York, Salado Formation in south-eastern New Mexico, and Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation in southeastern Utah) are rich in trioctahedral clays. Chlorite (clinochlore), corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite-trioctahedral smectite), talc, and illite (the only dioctahedral clay) are the dominant clay minerals; serpentine, discrete trioctahedral smectite (saponite), and interstratified talc-trioctahedral smectite are sporadically abundant. These clay-mineral assemblages differ chemically and mineralogically from those observed in most continental and normal marine rocks, which commonly contain kaolinite, dioctahedral smectite (beidellite-montmorillonite), illite, mixed-layer illite-dioctahedral smectite, and, in most cases, no more than minor quantities of trioctahedral clay minerals. The distinctive clay mineralogy in these evaporite sequences suggests a largely authigenic origin. These clay minerals are thought to have formed during deposition and early diagenesis through interaction between argillaceous detritus and Mg-rich marine evaporite brines.

  4. Insoluble starch composite foams produced through microwave expansion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuzhi; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2014-10-13

    An insoluble biocomposite composed of potato starch and chitosan was prepared by microwave treatment. The effect of pH on swelling (liquid absorption) behavior of the composites was investigated at pH 2, pH 6.8 and pH 12. Analysis revealed that the solution uptake ratio of composites depends both on the aqueous pH value and the content of the chitosan. Composites exhibited a relatively high swelling ratio at pH environments lower than the pK(a) of amine groups on chitosan (about 6.3). Glucose analysis by ion exchange chromatography showed that there was little hydrolysis of such composites at low pH. When immersed in the same pH solution, composites with higher chitosan content exhibited higher swelling ratios. The microstructure of composites produced was also investigated by FE-SEM. PMID:25037426

  5. New insights into the characterization of 'insoluble black HCN polymers'.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; de la Fuente, José L; Rogero, Celia; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José A

    2012-01-01

    The data presented here provide a novel contribution to the understanding of the structural features of HCN polymers and could be useful in further development of models for prebiotic chemistry. The interpretation of spectroscopic and analytical data, along with previous results reported by other authors, allowed us to propose a mechanism for the aqueous polymerization of HCN from its primary and simplest isolated oligomer, the diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) tetramer. We suggest that 'insoluble black HCN polymers' are formed by an unsaturated complex matrix, which retains a significant amount of H(2) O and important bioorganic compounds or their precursors. This polymeric matrix can be formed by various motifs of imidazoles and cyclic amides, among others. The robust formation of HCN polymers assayed under several conditions seems to explain the plausible ubiquity of these complex substances in space. PMID:22253100

  6. Microencapsulation of human fibroblasts in a water-insoluble polyacrylate.

    PubMed

    Boag, A H; Sefton, M V

    1987-12-01

    Viable human diploid fibroblasts have been micro-encapsulated in EUDRAGIT RL, a commercially available water-insoluble polyacrylate, by an interfacial precipitation technique. Cells in medium and polymer solution (in diethyl phthalate) were coextruded and formed into droplets by a coaxial air stream. The droplets fell into a corn-oil/mineral-oil mixture to extract the solvent to precipitate the polymer around the cells. Capsules were ca. 500 mum in diameter depending on the air flowrate with a ca. 10-mum thick wall. When collagen (1 mg/mL) was added to the cell suspension prior to encapsulation and base-washed corn oil was used, cell growth occurred with one doubling achieved after five to six days as the collagen gel contracted inside the capsule. In the absence of collagen, cells spread on the inner wall of the capsule but did not grow, presumably because the surface charge on the capsule was inadequate. In similar fashion fibroblasts spread but did not grow on films of EUDRAGIT RL but did grow on blends of EUDRAGIT RL and EUDRAGIT E containing 10-30% of the latter more highly aminated polyacrylate. Although not suitable for anchorage-dependent cell growth by itself, EUDRAGIT RL has been suitable as a model polymer to demonstrate the feasibility of using water insoluble polyacrylates and organic solvents and nonsolvents for the micro-encapsulation of fibroblasts. Such microcapsules are of potential interest as a mode of large scale tissue culture for the production of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:18581534

  7. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    PubMed

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation. PMID:21254775

  8. Vectorially oriented monolayers of detergent-solubilized Ca(2+) -ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, L A; Stongin, R M; Smith, A B; Blasie, J K; Peticolas, L J; Bean, J C

    1996-01-01

    A method for tethering proteins to solid surfaces has been utilized to form vectorially oriented monolayers of the detergent-solubilized integral membrane protein Ca(2+) -ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Bifunctional, organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) possessing "headgroup" binding specificity for the substrate and "endgroup" binding specificity for the enzyme were utilized to tether the enzyme to the substrate. Specifically, an amine-terminated 11-siloxyundecaneamine SAM was found to bind the Ca(2+)-ATPase primarily electrostatically. The Ca(2+)-ATPase was labeled with the fluorescent probe 5-(2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid before monolayer formation. Consequently, fluorescence measurements performed on amine-terminated SAM/enzyme monolayers formed on quartz substrates served to establish the nature of protein binding. Formation of the monolayers on inorganic multilayer substrates fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy made it possible to use x-ray interferometry to determine the profile structure for the system, which was proved correct by x-ray holography. The profile structures established the vectorial orientation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase within these monolayers, to a spatial resolution of approximately 12 A. Such vectorially oriented monolayers of detergent-solubilized Ca(2+)-ATPase from SR make possible a wide variety of correlative structure/function studies, which would serve to elucidate the mechanism of Ca(2+) transport by this enzyme. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:9172737

  9. A method for detergent-free isolation of membrane proteins in their local lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah C; Knowles, Tim J; Postis, Vincent L G; Jamshad, Mohammed; Parslow, Rosemary A; Lin, Yu-Pin; Goldman, Adrian; Sridhar, Pooja; Overduin, Michael; Muench, Stephen P; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the great importance of membrane proteins, structural and functional studies of these proteins present major challenges. A significant hurdle is the extraction of the functional protein from its natural lipid membrane. Traditionally achieved with detergents, purification procedures can be costly and time consuming. A critical flaw with detergent approaches is the removal of the protein from the native lipid environment required to maintain functionally stable protein. This protocol describes the preparation of styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to extract membrane proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. Successful isolation of membrane proteins into SMA lipid particles (SMALPs) allows the proteins to remain with native lipid, surrounded by SMA. We detail procedures for obtaining 25 g of SMA (4 d); explain the preparation of protein-containing SMALPs using membranes isolated from Escherichia coli (2 d) and control protein-free SMALPS using E. coli polar lipid extract (1-2 h); investigate SMALP protein purity by SDS-PAGE analysis and estimate protein concentration (4 h); and detail biophysical methods such as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (svAUC) to undertake initial structural studies to characterize SMALPs (∼2 d). Together, these methods provide a practical tool kit for those wanting to use SMALPs to study membrane proteins. PMID:27254461

  10. Coupling detergent lysis/clean-up methodology with intact protein fractionation for enhanced proteome characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ritin; Dill, Brian; Chourey, Karuna; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    The expanding use of surfactants for proteome sample preparations has prompted the need to systematically optimize the application and removal of these MS-deleterious agents prior to proteome measurements. Here we compare four different detergent clean-up methods (Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Chloroform/Methanol/Water (CMW) extraction, commercial detergent removal spin column method (DRS) and filter-aided sample preparation(FASP)) with respect to varying amounts of protein biomass in the samples, and provide efficiency benchmarks with respect to protein, peptide, and spectral identifications for each method. Our results show that for protein limited samples, FASP outperforms the other three clean-up methods, while at high protein amount all the methods are comparable. This information was used in a dual strategy of comparing molecular weight based fractionated and unfractionated lysates from three increasingly complex samples (Escherichia coli, a five microbial isolate mixture, and a natural microbial community groundwater sample), which were all lysed with SDS and cleaned up using FASP. The two approaches complemented each other by enhancing the number of protein identifications by 8%-25% across the three samples and provided broad pathway coverage.

  11. The rationale for a ban on detergent phosphate in the Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G R

    Immediate reduction of phosphorus loadings to the Great Lakes is essential to slow accelerated eutrophication. The Great Lakes National Program Office of the US Environmental Protection Agency now advocates adoption of bans on detergent phosphates as the most practical and feasible means of immediately reducing the phosphorus loadings to the Great Lakes. This change in policy from previous reliance on removal by sewage treatment has been adopted for the following reasons: (1) Bans on phosphates will reduce capital and operating costs of treatment and, were adopted, have met with consumer acceptance. (2) In practice, treatment plants have not met design expectations for phosphate removal. (3) Neither nitrilotriacetic acid nor other substitutes for phosphates have proved to be a public health problem. (4) Reduction of phosphorus loadings to treatment plants avoids increasing levels of chlorides and total dissolved solids in effluents. (5) Water quality has improved in small lakes with phosphorus reduction. In summary, detergent phosphate bans alone will not reduce phosphorus loadings to the Great Lakes sufficiently for the long term but the Environmental Protection Agency has concluded that such action is necessary in addition to continued efforts to control non-point sources. PMID:249680

  12. Rates of dissolution and biodegradation of water-insoluble organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J M; Yordy, J R; Amador, J A; Alexander, M

    1986-01-01

    We conducted a study of the relationship between the dissolution rates of organic compounds that are sparingly soluble in water and the biodegradation of these compounds by mixed cultures of bacteria. The rates of dissolution of naphthalene and 4-chlorobiphenyl were directly related to their surface areas. The bacteria caused a decline in the concentration of the soluble substrate. The rate of bacterial growth fell abruptly when 4-chlorobiphenyl or naphthalene was no longer detectable in solution. The population continued to increase in media with different surface areas of insoluble 4-chlorobiphenyl, but the final counts were higher in media in which the surface areas of the substrate were larger. The rates of dissolution of palmitic acid, octadecane, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate were determined in the absence of microorganisms. A mixed culture of microorganisms mineralized palmitic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and Sevin (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) at a logarithmic rate, but octadecane mineralization was linear. The rates of mineralization at the end of the active phase of the biodegradation were lower than the rate of dissolution of palmitic acid but higher than the rate of dissolution of octadecane in the uninoculated medium. We suggest that spontaneous dissolution rates are only one of the factors that govern the rates of biodegradation. PMID:3092736

  13. Surface-functionalized diatom microcapsules for drug delivery of water-insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Aw, Moom Sinn; Bariana, Manpreet; Yu, Yang; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

    2013-08-01

    Naturally available and biocompatible materials are potential substitutes for synthetic mesoporous materials as suitable drug carriers for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems. This work investigates the application of a porous silica material derived from diatoms, also known as diatomaceous earth. The aim is to explore the surface functionalization of diatom microcapsules and their impact on the drug loading and release characteristics of water-insoluble drugs. Indomethacin was used as the model for poorly soluble drug. The surface modification on diatoms was performed with two organosilanes; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine and phosphonic acids (2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid and 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid) providing organic surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Extensive characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry was performed to confirm covalent grafting of monolayer aminosilane and phosphonic acid on the diatom surfaces. Differences in loading capacity of diatoms (15-24%) and release time (6-15 days) were observed which is due to the presence of different functional groups on the surface. It was found that 2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine render diatom surfaces hydrophilic, due to polar carboxyl functional group (COOH) and active amine species (NH and NH2) that favor drug adsorption; better encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release of drugs, over the hydrophobic surface created by 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid. This work demonstrates diatom porous silica as a promising drug carrier, with possibility to further improve their performances by tailoring their surface functionalities to achieve the required drug loading and release characteristics for different therapeutic conditions. PMID:22457043

  14. Residual Detergent Detection Method for Nondestructive Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Decellularized Whole Lung Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zvarova, Barbora; Uhl, Franziska E; Uriarte, Juan J; Borg, Zachary D; Coffey, Amy L; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Weiss, Daniel J; Wagner, Darcy E

    2016-05-01

    The development of reliable tissue engineering methods using decellularized cadaveric or donor lungs could potentially provide a new source of lung tissue. The vast majority of current lung decellularization protocols are detergent based and incompletely removed residual detergents may have a deleterious impact on subsequent scaffold recellularization. Detergent removal and quality control measures that rigorously and reliably confirm removal, ideally utilizing nondestructive methods, are thus critical for generating optimal acellular scaffolds suitable for potential clinical translation. Using a modified and optimized version of a methylene blue-based detergent assay, we developed a straightforward, noninvasive method for easily and reliably detecting two of the most commonly utilized anionic detergents, sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), in lung decellularization effluents. In parallel studies, we sought to determine the threshold of detergent concentration that was cytotoxic using four different representative human cell types utilized in the study of lung recellularization: human bronchial epithelial cells, human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (CBF12), human lung fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells. Notably, different cells have varying thresholds for either SDC or SDS-based detergent-induced cytotoxicity. These studies demonstrate the importance of reliably removing residual detergents and argue that multiple cell lines should be tested in cytocompatibility-based assessments of acellular scaffolds. The detergent detection assay presented here is a useful nondestructive tool for assessing detergent removal in potential decellularization schemes or for use as a potential endpoint in future clinical schemes, generating acellular lungs using anionic detergent-based decellularization protocols. PMID:26905643

  15. Detergent Stabilized Nanopore Formation Kinetics of an Anthrax Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kelby

    2015-03-01

    This summer research project funded through the Society of Physics Students Internship Program and The National Institute of Standards and Technology focused on optimization of pore formation of Protective Antigen protein secreted by Bacillus Anthraces. This experiment analyzes the use of N-tetradecylphosphocholine (FOS-14 Detergent) to stabilize the water soluble protein, protective antigen protein (PA63) to regulate the kinetics of pore formation in a model bilayer lipid membrane. The FOS-14 Detergent was tested under various conditions to understand its impact on the protein pore formation. The optimization of this channel insertion is critical in preparing samples of oriented for neutron reflectometry that provide new data to increase the understanding of the protein's structure.

  16. Direct Image-Based Enumeration of Clostridium phytofermentans Cells on Insoluble Plant Biomass Growth Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alvelo-Maurosa, Jesús G.; Lee, Scott J.; Hazen, Samuel P.

    2015-01-01

    A dual-fluorescent-dye protocol to visualize and quantify Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg (ATCC 700394) cells growing on insoluble cellulosic substrates was developed by combining calcofluor white staining of the growth substrate with cell staining using the nucleic acid dye Syto 9. Cell growth, cell substrate attachment, and fermentation product formation were investigated in cultures containing either Whatman no. 1 filter paper, wild-type Sorghum bicolor, or a reduced-lignin S. bicolor double mutant (bmr-6 bmr-12 double mutant) as the growth substrate. After 3 days of growth, cell numbers in cultures grown on filter paper as the substrate were 6.0- and 2.2-fold higher than cell numbers in cultures with wild-type sorghum and double mutant sorghum, respectively. However, cells produced more ethanol per cell when grown with either sorghum substrate than with filter paper as the substrate. Ethanol yields of cultures were significantly higher with double mutant sorghum than with wild-type sorghum or filter paper as the substrate. Moreover, ethanol production correlated with cell attachment in sorghum cultures: 90% of cells were directly attached to the double mutant sorghum substrate, while only 76% of cells were attached to wild-type sorghum substrate. With filter paper as the growth substrate, ethanol production was correlated with cell number; however, with either wild-type or mutant sorghum, ethanol production did not correlate with cell number, suggesting that only a portion of the microbial cell population was active during growth on sorghum. The dual-staining procedure described here may be used to visualize and enumerate cells directly on insoluble cellulosic substrates, enabling in-depth studies of interactions of microbes with plant biomass. PMID:26637592

  17. Direct Image-Based Enumeration of Clostridium phytofermentans Cells on Insoluble Plant Biomass Growth Substrates.

    PubMed

    Alvelo-Maurosa, Jesús G; Lee, Scott J; Hazen, Samuel P; Leschine, Susan B

    2016-02-01

    A dual-fluorescent-dye protocol to visualize and quantify Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg (ATCC 700394) cells growing on insoluble cellulosic substrates was developed by combining calcofluor white staining of the growth substrate with cell staining using the nucleic acid dye Syto 9. Cell growth, cell substrate attachment, and fermentation product formation were investigated in cultures containing either Whatman no. 1 filter paper, wild-type Sorghum bicolor, or a reduced-lignin S. bicolor double mutant (bmr-6 bmr-12 double mutant) as the growth substrate. After 3 days of growth, cell numbers in cultures grown on filter paper as the substrate were 6.0- and 2.2-fold higher than cell numbers in cultures with wild-type sorghum and double mutant sorghum, respectively. However, cells produced more ethanol per cell when grown with either sorghum substrate than with filter paper as the substrate. Ethanol yields of cultures were significantly higher with double mutant sorghum than with wild-type sorghum or filter paper as the substrate. Moreover, ethanol production correlated with cell attachment in sorghum cultures: 90% of cells were directly attached to the double mutant sorghum substrate, while only 76% of cells were attached to wild-type sorghum substrate. With filter paper as the growth substrate, ethanol production was correlated with cell number; however, with either wild-type or mutant sorghum, ethanol production did not correlate with cell number, suggesting that only a portion of the microbial cell population was active during growth on sorghum. The dual-staining procedure described here may be used to visualize and enumerate cells directly on insoluble cellulosic substrates, enabling in-depth studies of interactions of microbes with plant biomass. PMID:26637592

  18. Statistical analysis of anionic detergent-induced changes in the goblet mucous cells of opercular epidermis and gill epithelium of Rita rita (Ham.) (Bagridae: Pisces).

    PubMed

    Roy, D

    1988-06-01

    Rita rita exposed to 96-hr LC50 (6.9 mg/liter) of an anionic detergent, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, show significant changes in the number and size of goblet mucous cells in the opercular epidermis as well as in the lining epithelium of the gill arch and the gill filament at different time intervals of treatment. A shift in the staining nature of these cells from acidic glycoprotein to neutral glycoprotein, acidic glycosaminoglycans in the opercular epidermis and acidic glycoprotein to neutral glycoprotein and then again to acidic glycoprotein + acidic glycosaminoglycans in the gill filament epithelium reflects a change in the physiological status of fish. PMID:3168874

  19. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  20. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  1. Oxidation of nonionic detergents by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hosea, N A; Guengerich, F P

    1998-05-15

    Nonionic phenolic detergents are commonly used in the purification of membrane-associated proteins. Triton N-101 was shown to be oxidized by NADPH-fortified human liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochromes P450 (P450). Oxidation was monitored using HPLC and the fluorescence properties of Triton N-101 and other alkylphenol ethoxylate detergents, which are similar to those of anisole. Human liver microsomes and recombinantly expressed reconstituted P450 3A4-oxidized Triton N-101 in a concentration-dependent manner which could be inhibited by ketoconazole, a P450 3A4-selective inhibitor. Triton N-101 inhibition of testosterone oxidation by human liver microsomes was of a mixed nature but mainly non-competitive. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry indicated that the major product formed was hydroxylated on the alkyl moiety. Human liver microsomes also oxidized other Tritons (X-100 and X-114), Emulgens 911 and 913, and Tergitol NP-10 to a similar extent. P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 2C9 also oxidized Triton N-101 but to a lesser extent than P450 3A4. We conclude that Triton N-101 and similar nonionic detergents are oxidized by P450 3A4 and some other P450s. PMID:9606971

  2. Effect of Detergents on Galactoside Binding by Melibiose Permeases.

    PubMed

    Amin, Anowarul; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Chae, Pil Seok; Guan, Lan

    2015-09-29

    The effect of various detergents on the stability and function of the melibiose permeases of Escherichia coli (MelBEc) and Salmonella typhimurium (MelBSt) was studied. In n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) or n-undecyl-β-d-maltoside (UDM), WT MelBSt binds melibiose with an affinity similar to that in the membrane. However, with WT MelBEc or MelBSt mutants (Arg141 → Cys, Arg295 → Cys, or Arg363 → Cys), galactoside binding is not detected in these detergents, but binding to the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Glc) is maintained. In the amphiphiles lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG-3) or glyco-diosgenin (GDN), galactoside binding with all of the MelB proteins is observed, with slightly reduced affinities. MelBSt is more thermostable than MelBEc, and the thermostability of either MelB is largely increased in MNG-3 or GDN. Therefore, the functional defect with DDM or UDM likely results from the relative instability of the sensitive MelB proteins, and stability, as well as galactoside binding, is retained in MNG-3 or GDN. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry of melibiose binding with MelBSt shows that the favorable entropic contribution to the binding free energy is decreased in MNG-3, indicating that the conformational dynamics of MelB is restricted in this detergent. PMID:26352464

  3. Effect of detergents on galactoside binding by melibiose permeases

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Anowarul; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Chae, Pil Seok; Guan, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various detergents on the stability and function of melibiose permeases of Escherichia coli (MelBEc) or Salmonella typhimurium (MelBSt) were studied. In n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) or n-undecyl-β-d-maltoside (UDM), WT MelBSt binds melibiose with an affinity similar to that in the membrane. However, with WT MelBEc or MelBSt mutants (Arg141→Cys, Arg295→Cys or Arg363→Cys), galactoside binding is not detected in these detergents, but binding to the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc is maintained. In the amphiphiles lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG-3) or glyco-diosgenin (GDN), galactoside binding with all the MelB proteins is observed, with slightly reduced affinities. MelBSt is more thermostable than MelBEc, and the thermostability of either MelB is largely increased in MNG-3 or GDN. Therefore, the functional defect with DDM or UDM likely results from relative instability of the sensitive MelB proteins, and stability, as well as galactoside binding, is retained in MNG-3 or GDN. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry of melibiose binding with MelBSt shows that the favorable entropic contribution to the binding free energy is decreased in MNG-3, indicating that the conformational dynamics of MelB is restricted in this detergent. PMID:26352464

  4. Presence of detergent-resistant microdomains in lysosomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Taute, Antje; Wätzig, Kristin; Simons, Brigitte; Lohaus, Christiane; Meyer, Helmut; Hasilik, Andrej

    2002-10-18

    We examined the association of acetyl-CoA:alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase, a lysosomal enzyme participating in the degradation of heparan sulfate with other components of the lysosomal membrane. We prepared lysosomal membranes from human placenta and treated them with zwitterionic and non-ionic detergents. Membrane proteins were solubilized either in the presence of CHAPS at room temperature or of Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C. The CHAPS-containing extract was subjected to gel filtration in a column with the nominal size exclusion of 0.6 MDa. Under these conditions the enzyme fractionated near the void volume. To examine the association of the enzyme with detergent-resistant lipid microdomains, the extract that had been prepared with Triton X-100 was subjected to flotation in a density gradient medium. After centrifugation, a major portion of the activity of the acetyltransferase was found at the top of the gradient along with the bulk of alkaline phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein; possibly a contaminant in the lysosomal fraction originating from the plasma membrane and adventitiously an internal control for the flotation in the gradient. In contrast, acetyltransferase is a genuine lysosomal protein that obligatorily spans the membrane since it transfers acetyl residues from acetyl-CoA in cytosol to glucosaminyl residues in heparan sulfate fragments in the lysosomal matrix. To our knowledge this is the first report on association of a lysosomal membrane protein with detergent-resistant membrane microdomains or rafts. PMID:12379211

  5. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes. PMID:17630120

  6. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans’ main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen. PMID:26657939

  7. Detergent-free isolation, characterization, and functional reconstitution of a tetrameric K+ channel: The power of native nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Dörr, Jonas M.; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Schäfer, Marre; Prokofyev, Alexander V.; Scheidelaar, Stefan; van der Cruijsen, Elwin A. W.; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Baldus, Marc; Killian, J. Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    A major obstacle in the study of membrane proteins is their solubilization in a stable and active conformation when using detergents. Here, we explored a detergent-free approach to isolating the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA directly from the membrane of Escherichia coli, using a styrene-maleic acid copolymer. This polymer self-inserts into membranes and is capable of extracting membrane patches in the form of nanosize discoidal proteolipid particles or “native nanodiscs.” Using circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that the conformation of KcsA in native nanodiscs is very similar to that in detergent micelles, but that the thermal stability of the protein is higher in the nanodiscs. Furthermore, as a promising new application, we show that quantitative analysis of the co-isolated lipids in purified KcsA-containing nanodiscs allows determination of preferential lipid–protein interactions. Thin-layer chromatography experiments revealed an enrichment of the anionic lipids cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol, indicating their close proximity to the channel in biological membranes and supporting their functional relevance. Finally, we demonstrate that KcsA can be reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers directly from native nanodiscs, which enables functional characterization of the channel by electrophysiology without first depriving the protein of its native environment. Together, these findings highlight the potential of the use of native nanodiscs as a tool in the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins in general. PMID:25512535

  8. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  9. Soluble and insoluble signals sculpt osteogenesis in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2010-05-26

    The basic tissue engineering paradigm is tissue induction and morphogenesis by combinatorial molecular protocols whereby soluble molecular signals are combined with insoluble signals or substrata. The insoluble signal acts as a three-dimensional scaffold for the initiation of de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. The osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, the bone morphogenetic/osteogenic proteins (BMPs/OPs) and, uniquely in the non-human primate Papio ursinus (P. ursinus), the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce bone formation as a recapitulation of embryonic development. In this paper, I discuss the pleiotropic activity of the BMPs/OPs in the non-human primate P. ursinus, the induction of bone by transitional uroepithelium, and the apparent redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation by induction including the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms. Amongst all mammals tested so far, the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce endochondral bone formation in the non-human primate P. ursinus only. Bone tissue engineering starts by erecting scaffolds of biomimetic biomaterial matrices that mimic the supramolecular assembly of the extracellular matrix of bone. The molecular scaffolding lies at the hearth of all tissue engineering strategies including the induction of bone formation. The novel concept of tissue engineering is the generation of newly formed bone by the implantation of "smart" intelligent biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the ripple-like cascade of bone differentiation by induction without exogenously applied BMPs/OPs of the TGF-β supergene family. A comprehensive digital iconographic material presents the modified tissue engineering paradigm whereby the induction of bone formation is initiated by intelligent smart biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the induction of bone formation without the exogenous application of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals. The

  10. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  11. Insoluble surface carbon on steel sheet annealed in hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, H. E.; Takacs, R. C.; Dickey, A. E.

    1983-09-01

    The way in which heating in hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere affects the pyrolysis of the residual lubricant on cold-reduced steel sheet was studied to discover the factors responsible for the formation of carbonaceous films on the steel surface. These films, referred to as insoluble surface carbon, cannot be removed with the usual solvents or water-base cleaners and adversely affect the paintability of the steel. A surprising result was the observation that the full-hard steel surface has a significant amount of insoluble surface carbon; amounts in excess of 0.010 gm/m2 (1 mg/ft2) were observed. The origin of this “initial” insoluble carbon can be traced to the pickling operation after hot rolling. During annealing much of the residual rolling lubricant on the surface is driven off by evaporation, but concurrently insoluble pyrolysis products are formed. The amount of insoluble pyrolysis product formed is directly related to the amount of “initial” insoluble carbon on the surface before annealing. The results show that at some point during annealing the total amount of insoluble carbon on the surface is more than double the amount of “initial” insoluble carbon. These insoluble pyrolysis products can also be driven from the surface at higher temperatures than are required for evaporation of the oil. The results suggest that removal of the “initial” insoluble carbon prior to cold reduction might be very beneficial with respect to decreasing the amount of insoluble carbon on the surface of steel sheet after annealing.

  12. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  13. Immunogenicity of recombinant class 1 protein from Neisseria meningitidis refolded into phospholipid vesicles and detergent.

    PubMed

    Niebla, O; Alvarez, A; Martín, A; Rodríguez, A; Delgado, M; Falcón, V; Guillén, G

    2001-05-14

    The possibility of eliciting bactericidal antibodies against a recombinant class 1 protein (P1) from Neisseria meningitidis, joined to the first 45 amino acids of the neisserial LpdA protein (PM82), was examined. P1 was produced in Escherichia coli as intracellular inclusion bodies, from which it was purified and reconstituted by (a) inclusion into phospholipid vesicles and detergent and (b) refolding in 0.1% SDS. When Balb/c mice were immunised, high titres of subtype-specific bactericidal antibodies against P1 were obtained in both cases. These results suggest that in spite of being a denaturing agent, it is possible to use SDS to reconstitute the P1 protein in a conformation that exposes the immunodominat regions. PMID:11348724

  14. Submit and disulfide structure of monomeric and dimeric forms of detergent-soluble HLA antigens.

    PubMed

    Springer, T A; Robb, R J; Terhorst, C; Strominger, J L

    1977-07-10

    The structure of monomeric and disulfide-bonded dimeric forms of HLA antigens has been studied. Detergent-soluble HLA antigen heavy chains contain one or two easily reduced sulfhydryl groups not found in papain-solubilized HLA antigens, as demonstrated by amino acid analysis (Springer, T. A., and Strominger, J.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 2481-2485, and Terhorst, C., Parham, P., Mann, D.L., and Strominger, J.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 910-914) and by labeling with iodo[3H]acetate. Dimer formation occurred during purification, since it was prevented by pretreatment of membranes containing HLA antigen with iodoacetamide. Cross-linking studies showed that the non-disulfide-bonded form of HLA antigens contains one subunit each of the Mr = 44,000 heavy chain and the Mr = 12,000 light chain (beta2-microglobulin). PMID:873911

  15. Toward an experimental synthesis of the chondritic insoluble organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Kasia; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, FrançOis; Rouzaud, Jean-NoëL.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the statistical model proposed for the molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from the Murchison meteorite, it was recently proposed that, in the solar T-Tauri disk regions where (photo)dissociation of gaseous molecules takes place, aromatics result from the cyclization/aromatization of short aliphatics. This hypothesis is tested in this study, with n-alkanes being submitted to high-frequency discharge at low pressure. The contamination issue was eliminated using deuterated precursor. IOM was formed and studied using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, RuO4 oxidation, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It exhibits numerous similarities at the molecular level with the hydrocarbon backbone of the natural IOM, reinforcing the idea that the initial precursors of the IOM were originally chains in the gas. Moreover, a fine comparison between the chemical structure of several meteorite IOM suggests either that (i) the meteorite IOMs share a common precursor standing for the synthetic IOM or that (ii) the slight differences between the meteorite IOMs reflect differences in their environment at the time of their formation i.e., related to plasma temperature that, in turn, dictates the dissociation-recombination rates of organic fragments.

  16. Vibrational instabilities of a nonisothermal liquid layer with insoluble surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikishev, Alexander; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We consider an infinite horizontal layer of an incompressible liquid, the deformable upper free surface is covered by insoluble surfactant. The layer is subjected to vertical harmonic oscillations with fixed amplitude and frequency, as well as to a transverse gradient of temperature. We suppose that the surface tension of upper boundary linearly depends on temperature and surfactant concentration. Two types of waves on the surface are possible. The first one is capillary-gravity waves (transverse waves) excited by the usual Faraday instability mechanism, under the influence of the surfactant elasticity. The second type of waves is Marangoni waves (longitudinal waves) related to compressions - dilations of the surface. In this work we study the excitation of Marangoni waves by vibration and determine the existence conditions for each type of waves. The results are connected with our previous research on parametric excitation of Marangoni instability when the gradient of temperature is harmonically changed. The instability thresholds are calculated numerically using the Floquet method for disturbances with arbitrary wave numbers.

  17. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans.

    PubMed

    Skory, Christopher D; Côté, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose using a nisin-controlled gene expression system in Lactococcus lactis. These polymers have potential for production of biodegradable gels, fibers, and films. We optimized production of DsrI using several different background vectors, signal peptides, strains, induction conditions, and bioreactor parameters to increase extracellular accumulation. Optimal production of the enzyme utilized a high-copy plasmid, pMSP3535H3, which contains a nisin immunity gene, L. lactis LM0230, and bioreactors maintained at pH 6.0 to stabilize the enzyme. We were able to significantly improve growth using the lactic acid inhibitor heme and by continuous removal of lactic acid with anion exchange resins, but enzyme production was less than the controls. The recombinant enzyme under optimized conditions accumulated in the culture medium to approximately 380 mg/L, which was over 150-fold higher compared to the native L. mesenteroides strain. Methods are also included for purification of DsrI utilizing the glucan-binding domain of the enzyme. PMID:26239071

  18. Detergent Properties Influence the Stability of the Glycophorin A Transmembrane Helix Dimer in Lysophosphatidylcholine Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Stangl, Michael; Veerappan, Anbazhagan; Kroeger, Anja; Vogel, Peter; Schneider, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Detergents might affect membrane protein structures by promoting intramolecular interactions that are different from those found in native membrane bilayers, and fine-tuning detergent properties can be crucial for obtaining structural information of intact and functional transmembrane proteins. To systematically investigate the influence of the detergent concentration and acyl-chain length on the stability of a transmembrane protein structure, the stability of the human glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer has been analyzed in lyso-phosphatidylcholine micelles of different acyl-chain length. While our results indicate that the transmembrane protein is destabilized in detergents with increasing chain-length, the diameter of the hydrophobic micelle core was found to be less crucial. Thus, hydrophobic mismatch appears to be less important in detergent micelles than in lipid bilayers and individual detergent molecules appear to be able to stretch within a micelle to match the hydrophobic thickness of the peptide. However, the stability of the GpA TM helix dimer linearly depends on the aggregation number of the lyso-PC detergents, indicating that not only is the chemistry of the detergent headgroup and acyl-chain region central for classifying a detergent as harsh or mild, but the detergent aggregation number might also be important. PMID:23260047

  19. Detergent compatible alkaline lipase produced by marine Bacillus smithii BTMS 11.

    PubMed

    Lailaja, V P; Chandrasekaran, M

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus smithii BTMS 11, isolated from marine sediment, produced alkaline and thermostable lipase. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography which resulted in 0.51 % final yield and a 4.33 fold of purification. The purified enzyme was found to have a specific activity of 360 IU/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analyses, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, yielded a single band of 45 kDa indicating the single polypeptide nature of the enzyme and zymogram analysis using methylumbelliferyl butyrate as substrate confirmed the lipolytic activity of the protein band. The enzyme was found to have 50 °C and pH 8.0 as optimum conditions for maximal activity. However, the enzyme was active over wide range of temperatures (30-80 °C) and pH (7.0-10.0). Effect of a number of metal salts, solvents, surfactants, and other typical enzyme inhibitors on lipase activity was studied to determine the novel characteristics of the enzyme. More than 90 % of the enzyme activity was observed even after 3 h of incubation in the presence of commercial detergents Surf, Sunlight, Ariel, Henko, Tide and Ujala indicating the detergent compatibility of B. smithii lipase. The enzyme was also found to be efficient in stain removal from cotton cloths. Further it was observed that the enzyme could catalyse ester synthesis between fatty acids of varying carbon chain lengths and methanol with high preference for medium to long chain fatty acids showing 70 % of esterification. Results of the study indicated scope for application of this marine bacterial lipase in various industries. PMID:23443894

  20. Conquering the control of insoluble and soluble starch with novel applications of amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new knowledge that there is markedly more insoluble starch than previously considered in products across both the sugarcane factory and refinery has processing implications. This includes the application of a-amylases in the factory to control not only soluble but insoluble starch. Studies wer...

  1. A method for the determination of soluble arabinoxylan released from insoluble substrates by xylanases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The propensity for xylanase to convert insoluble arabinoxylan to soluble oligosaccharides is an important parameter in many applications. Current methods for determining xylanase activity on insoluble substrates are labor intensive, non-specific, or utilize artificial substrates which may provide mu...

  2. A Simple Method for the Determination of Xylanase Activity on Insoluble Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The propensity for a xylanase to convert insoluble (arabino)xylan into soluble oligosaccharides is an important parameter in the baking, pulp and paper, prebiotics, and biofuel industries. Current methods for determining xylanase activity on insoluble substrates are labor intensive, non-specific, or...

  3. Proteomic characterization of a triton-insoluble fraction from chloroplasts defines a novel group of proteins associated with macromolecular structures.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Brett S; Thelen, Jay J

    2005-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of a Triton X-100 insoluble, 30,000 x g pellet from purified pea chloroplasts resulted in the identification of 179 nonredundant proteins. This chloroplast fraction was mostly depleted of chloroplast membranes since only 23% and 9% of the identified proteins were also observed in envelope and thylakoid membranes, respectively. One of the most abundant proteins in this fraction was sulfite reductase, a dual function protein previously shown to act as a plastid DNA condensing protein. Approximately 35 other proteins known (or predicted) to be associated with high-density protein-nucleic acid particles (nucleoids) were also identified including a family of DNA gyrases, as well as proteins involved in plastid transcription and translation. Although nucleoids appeared to be the predominant component of 30k x g Triton-insoluble chloroplast preparations, multi-enzyme protein complexes were also present including each subunit to the pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase multi-enzyme complexes, as well as a proposed assembly of the first three enzymes of the Calvin cycle. Approximately 18% of the proteins identified were annonated as unknown or hypothetical proteins and another 20% contained "putative" or "like" in the identifier tag. This is the first proteomic characterization of a membrane-depleted, high-density fraction from plastids and demonstrates the utility of this simple procedure to isolate intact macromolecular structures from purified organelles for analysis of protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. PMID:15822927

  4. Evaporation of Sessile Droplets Laden with Particles and Insoluble Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Karapetsas, George; Chandra Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar K

    2016-07-12

    We consider the flow dynamics of a thin evaporating droplet in the presence of an insoluble surfactant and noninteracting particles in the bulk. On the basis of lubrication theory, we derive a set of evolution equations for the film height, the interfacial surfactant, and bulk particle concentrations, taking into account the dependence of liquid viscosity on the local particle concentration. An important ingredient of our model is that it takes into account the fact that the surfactant adsorbed at the interface hinders evaporation. We perform a parametric study to investigate how the presence of surfactants affects the evaporation process as well as the flow dynamics with and without the presence of particles in the bulk. Our numerical calculations show that the droplet lifetime is affected significantly by the balance between the ability of the surfactant to enhance spreading, suppressing the effect of thermal Marangoni stresses-induced motion, and to hinder the evaporation flux through the reduction of the effective interfacial area of evaporation, which tend to accelerate and decelerate the evaporation process, respectively. For particle-laden droplets and in the case of dilute solutions, the droplet lifetime is found to be weakly dependent on the initial particle concentration. We also show that the particle deposition patterns are influenced strongly by the direct effect of the surfactant on the evaporative flux; in certain cases, the "coffee-stain" effect is enhanced significantly. A discussion of the delicate interplay between the effects of capillary pressure and solutal and thermal Marangoni stresses, which drive the liquid flow inside of the evaporating droplet giving rise to the observed results, is provided herein. PMID:27300638

  5. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  6. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  7. Insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides in diets for weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    To examine the effect of inclusion insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (iNSP) in weaned diets on postweaning piglet performance, intestinal activity, and microbial composition 2 experiments were designed. In Exp. 1, 180 piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and divided over 3 treatments: positive control (PC; highly digestible protein), negative control (NC; standard cereal-based diet), and an experimental diet {iNSP; standard + 15% iNSP [wheat straw and oat (Avena sativa) hull]}. Diets were fed during 14 d after weaning. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined. The inclusion of iNSP increased (P < 0.001) ADFI and G:F during days 0 to 14 after weaning and increased the ADG (P = 0.008) during days 0 to 7 after weaning compared with the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 36 piglets were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. On days 5 and 14 after weaning, 18 piglets were euthanized to determine enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in the ileum and colon and organ weight. The iNSP diet reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the ileum (P = 0.021) and in the colon (P = 0.002) digesta and tended to increase (P = 0.060) the amylase activity. The iNSP diet stimulated the physical adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract because stomach weight as percentage of BW was heavier (P = 0.004) than for the NC diet. In conclusion, the consumption of diets with higher iNSP content in the early weaning period affects the microbial colonization without reducing enzyme activity or animal performance compared with a standard weaned pig diet. PMID:23365366

  8. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  9. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Leticia; Casteel, Michael; Verostko, chuck; Pickering, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  10. Selective detergent-extraction from mixed detergent/lipid/protein micelles, using cyclodextrin inclusion compounds: a novel generic approach for the preparation of proteoliposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Degrip, W J; Vanoostrum, J; Bovee-Geurts, P H

    1998-01-01

    A novel generic approach is described for the selective extraction of detergents from mixed detergent/lipid/protein micelles for the preparation of proteoliposomes of defined lipid-protein ratio. The approach is based on the much higher affinity of inclusion compounds of the cyclodextrin type for detergents in comparison with bilayer-forming lipids. This approach has distinct advantages over other procedures currently in use. It produces good results with all detergents tested, independent of type and critical micelle concentration, and appears to be generally applicable. It yields nearly quantitative recovery of membrane protein in the proteoliposome fraction. Finally, no large excess of lipid is required; a molar ratio of lipid to protein of 100 to 1 already produces proteoliposomes with functional membrane protein, but higher ratios are well tolerated. The size of the vesicles thus obtained depends on the detergent used. Separation of the resulting proteoliposomes from the detergent-cyclodextrin complexes was most easily achieved by centrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. A variety of detergents was tested in this procedure on the bovine rod visual pigment rhodopsin in combination with retina lipids. In all cases good yields of proteoliposomes were obtained, which contained fully functional rhodopsin. PMID:9480873

  11. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  12. Evaluation of a New Lipase from Staphylococcus sp. for Detergent Additive Capability

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Mamta; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Garlapati, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In the present study, a partially purified bacterial lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae JPBW-1 isolated from the rock salt mine has been assessed for its triglyceride removing ability by developing a presoak solution so as to use lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. The effects of selected surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents on lipase stability were studied in a preliminary evaluation for its further usage in the industrial environment. Partially purified lipase has shown good stability in presence of surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents. Washing efficiency has been found to be enhanced while using lipase with 0.5% nonionic detergent than the anioinic detergent. The wash performance using 0.5% wheel with 40 U lipase at 40°C in 45 min results in maximum oil removal (62%) from the soiled cotton fabric. Hence, the present study opens the new era in enzyme-based detergent sector for formulation of chemical-free detergent using alkaline bacterial lipase. PMID:24106703

  13. Proteomics analysis of the nacre soluble and insoluble proteins from the oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel; Péduzzi, Jean; Duplat, Denis; Berland, Sophie; Puisségur, Marion; Boulzaguet, Hélène; Rousseau, Marthe; Milet, Christian; Lopez, Evelyne

    2007-01-01

    Shell nacre is laid upon an organic cell-free matrix, part of which, paradoxically, is water soluble and displays biological activities. Proteins in the native shell also constitute an insoluble network and offer a model for studying supramolecular organization as a means of self-ordering. Consequently, difficulties are encountered in extraction and purification strategies for protein characterization. In this work, water-soluble proteins and the insoluble conhiolin residue of the nacre of Pinctada margaritifera matrix were analyzed via a proteomics approach. Two sequences homologous to nacre matrix proteins of other Pinctada species were identified in the water-soluble extract. One of them is known as a fundamental component of the insoluble organic matrix of nacre. In the conchiolin, the insoluble residue, four homologs of Pinctada nacre matrix proteins were found. Two of them were the same as the molecules characterized in the water-soluble extract. Results established that soluble and insoluble proteins of the nacre organic matrix share constitutive material. Surprisingly, a peptide in the conchiolin residue was found homologous to a prismatic matrix protein of Pinctada fucata, suggesting that prismatic and nacre matrices may share common proteins. The insoluble properties of shell matrix proteins appear to arise from structural organization via multimerization. The oxidative activity, found in the water-soluble fraction of the nacre matrix, is proposed as a leading process in the transformation of transient soluble proteins into the insoluble network of conchiolin during nacre growth. PMID:17641930

  14. Crystal structure of a self-assembling lipopeptide detergent at 1.20 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Dona N.; Pomroy, Neil C.; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Prive, Gilbert G.

    2008-10-21

    Lipopeptide detergents (LPDs) are a new class of amphiphile designed specifically for the structural study of integral membrane proteins. The LPD monomer consists of a 25-residue peptide with fatty acyl chains linked to side chains located at positions 2 and 24 of the peptide. LPDs are designed to form {alpha}-helices that self-assemble into cylindrical micelles, providing a more natural interior acyl chain packing environment relative to traditional detergents. We have determined the crystal structure of LPD-12, an LPD coupled to two dodecanoic acids, to a resolution of 1.20 {angstrom}. The LPD-12 monomers adopt the target conformation and associate into cylindrical octamers as expected. Pairs of helices are strongly associated as Alacoil-type antiparallel dimers, and four of these dimers interact through much looser contacts into assemblies with approximate D{sub 2} symmetry. The aligned helices form a cylindrical shell with a hydrophilic exterior that protects an interior hydrophobic cavity containing the 16 LPD acyl chains. Over 90% of the methylene/methyl groups from the acylated side chains are visible in the micelle interiors, and {approx}90% of these adopt trans dihedral angle conformations. Dodecylmaltoside (DDM) was required for the crystallization of LPD-12, and we find 10-24 ordered DDM molecules associated with each LPD assembly, resulting in an overall micelle molecular weight of {approx}30 kDa. The structures confirm the major design objectives of the LPD framework, and reveal unexpected features that will be helpful in the engineering additional versions of lipopeptide amphiphiles.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Lipid Raft-Like Detergent-Resistant Membranes of Lens Fiber Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Plasma membranes of lens fiber cells have high levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids—key components of lipid rafts. Thus, lipid rafts are expected to constitute a significant portion of fiber cell membranes and play important roles in lens biology. The purpose of this study was to characterize the lens lipid raft proteome. Methods Quantitative proteomics, both label-free and iTRAQ methods, were used to characterize lens fiber cell lipid raft proteins. Detergent-resistant, lipid raft membrane (DRM) fractions were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. To confirm protein localization to lipid rafts, protein sensitivity to cholesterol removal by methyl-β-cyclodextrin was quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Results A total of 506 proteins were identified in raft-like detergent-resistant membranes. Proteins identified support important functions of raft domains in fiber cells, including trafficking, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal organization. In cholesterol-sensitivity studies, 200 proteins were quantified and 71 proteins were strongly affected by cholesterol removal. Lipid raft markers flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 and a significant fraction of AQP0, MP20, and AQP5 were found in the DRM fraction and were highly sensitive to cholesterol removal. Connexins 46 and 50 were more abundant in nonraft fractions, but a small fraction of each was found in the DRM fraction and was strongly affected by cholesterol removal. Quantification of modified AQP0 confirmed that fatty acylation targeted this protein to membrane raft domains. Conclusions These data represent the first comprehensive profile of the lipid raft proteome of lens fiber cells and provide information on membrane protein organization in these cells. PMID:26747763

  16. Transfer specificity of detergent-solubilized fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mary E; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J; Reid, J S Grant

    2002-07-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of ((14)C)Gal from UDP-((14)C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1-->6)-alpha, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  17. Transfer Specificity of Detergent-Solubilized Fenugreek Galactomannan Galactosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mary E.; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J.; Reid, J.S. Grant

    2002-01-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of (14C)Gal from UDP-(14C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1→6)-α, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  18. Protein and lipid analysis of detergent-resistant membranes isolated from bovine kidney.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Stéphanie; El Kirat, Karim; Becchi, Michel; Dubois, Madeleine; Grangeasse, Christophe; Giraud, Claire; Prigent, Annie-France; Lagarde, Michel; Roux, Bernard; Besson, Françoise

    2003-12-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) were prepared from bovine kidney cortex. The criterion used to test their purification was the increase in the activity of a GPI membrane-anchored protein, the alkaline phosphatase. Its association with specific proteins and lipids was tested. Two successive Triton X-100 treatments followed by purification on sucrose gradient at 4 degrees C were necessary to obtain DRM with a maximum of alkaline phosphatase activity and a typical protein pattern. A third Triton treatment did not alter this DRM composition. Among the enriched protein, we identified, by mass spectrometry, a microsomal dipeptidase, which was GPI membrane-anchored. Protein-kinase activities, mainly serine-kinase, were enriched during the DRM purification. Using the typical FTIR olefinic =C-H bands of the acyl chains, a global decrease in the unsaturation level of DRM lipids was observed as compared with total membranes. Three main phospholipids were identified in DRM. Their fatty acid compositions were determined by gas chromatography and compared with those of total membranes. The most enriched saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (+44% for phosphatidylethanolamine, +52% for phosphatidylcholine and +49% for sphingomyelin), agreeing with a selection of specific phospholipids among the saturated ones during the DRM purification. PMID:14739076

  19. Molecular organization of a water-insoluble iridium(III) complex in mixed monolayers.

    PubMed

    Giner-Casares, Juan J; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Bolink, Henk J; Muñoz, Eulogia; de Miguel, Gustavo; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2007-11-01

    In this work, organized mixed monolayers containing a cationic water-insoluble iridium(III) complex, Ir-dye, [Ir(ppy)(2)(tmphen)]PF(6), (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), and an anionic lipid matrix, DMPA, dimyristoyl-phosphatidic acid, with different molar proportions, were formed by the co-spreading method at the air-water interface. The presence of the dye at the interface, as well as the molecular organization of the mixed films, is deduced from surface techniques such as pi-A isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and reflection spectroscopy. The results obtained remark the formation of an equimolar mixed film, Ir-dye/DMPA = 1:1. BAM images reveal a whole homogeneous monolayer, with gradually increasing reflectivity along the compression process up to reaching the collapse of this equimolecular monolayer at pi approximately equal to 37 mNm(-1). Increasing the molar ratio of DMPA in the mixture, the excess of lipid molecules organizes themselves forming dark flower-like domains of pure DMPA at high surface pressures, coexisting with the mixed Ir-dye/DMPA = 1:1 monolayer. On the other hand, unstable mixed monolayers are obtained by using an initial dye surface concentration higher than the equimolecular one. These mixed Langmuir monolayers have been successfully transferred onto solid substrates by the LB (Langmuir-Blodgett) technique. PMID:17618641

  20. Folding and Purification of Insoluble (Inclusion Body) Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T; Palmer, Ira; Liang, Shu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli often results in the formation of insoluble and inactive protein aggregates, commonly referred to as inclusion bodies. To obtain the native (i.e., correctly folded) and hence active form of the protein from such aggregates, four steps are usually followed: (1) the cells are lysed, (2) the cell wall and outer membrane components are removed, (3) the aggregates are solubilized (or extracted) with strong protein denaturants, and (4) the solubilized, denatured proteins are folded with concomitant oxidation of reduced cysteine residues into the correct disulfide bonds to obtain the native protein. This unit features three different approaches to the final step of protein folding and purification. In the first, guanidine·HCl is used as the denaturant, after which the solubilized protein is folded (before purification) in an "oxido-shuffling" buffer system to increase the rate of protein oxidation. In the second, acetic acid is used to solubilize the protein, which is then partially purified by gel filtration before folding; the protein is then folded and oxidized by simple dialysis against water. Thirdly, folding and purification of a fusion protein using metal-chelate affinity chromatography are described. PMID:25367010

  1. Mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary insoluble fibres: relationships with intestinal and hepatic cholesterol parameters.

    PubMed

    van Bennekum, Ariëtte M; Nguyen, David V; Schulthess, Georg; Hauser, Helmut; Phillips, Michael C

    2005-09-01

    Fibres with a range of abilities to perturb cholesterol homeostasis were used to investigate how the serum cholesterol-lowering effects of insoluble dietary fibres are related to parameters of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Cholestyramine, chitosan and cellulose were used as examples of fibres with high, intermediate and low bile acid-binding capacities, respectively. The serum cholesterol levels in a control group of mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 3 weeks increased about 2-fold to 4.3 mm and inclusion of any of these fibres at 7.5 % of the diet prevented this increase from occurring. In addition, the amount of cholesterol accumulated in hepatic stores due to the HFHC diet was reduced by treatment with these fibres. The three kinds of fibres showed similar hypocholesterolaemic activity; however, cholesterol depletion of liver tissue was greatest with cholestyramine. The mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of cholestyramine were (1) decreased cholesterol (food) intake, (2) decreased cholesterol absorption efficiency, and (3) increased faecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. The latter effects can be attributed to the high bile acid-binding capacity of cholestyramine. In contrast, incorporation of chitosan or cellulose in the diet reduced cholesterol (food) intake, but did not affect either intestinal cholesterol absorption or faecal sterol output. The present study provides strong evidence that above all satiation and satiety effects underlie the cholesterol-lowering properties of insoluble dietary fibres with moderate or low bile acid-binding capabilities. PMID:16176602

  2. Efficacy of adding detergents to sanitizer solutions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine lettuce.

    PubMed

    Keskinen, Lindsey A; Annous, Bassam A

    2011-06-30

    Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sanitizer solutions for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine lettuce. Freshly-cut leaves of Romaine lettuce were dip-inoculated to achieve a final cell concentration of 7.8±0.2 log CFU/g, air-dried for 2h, and stored overnight at 4 °C. Leaves were then washed for 2 min in an experimental short chain fatty acid formulation (SCFA) or in one of the following solutions with or without 0.2% dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid or 0.2% sodium 2-ethyl hexyl sulfate: 1) deionized water; 2) 100 ppm chlorine dioxide; 3) 100 ppm chlorine; and 4) 200 ppm chlorine. Following wash treatment, samples were blended in neutralizing buffer (1:3) and surface plated on the selective media CT-SMAC. The efficacy of wash treatments, with or without the detergents, in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 cells on lettuce leaves were not significantly different. The most effective wash solution was SCFA, which was capable of reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations by more than 5 log CFU/g. The rest of the wash treatments resulted in a population reduction of less than 1 log CFU/g. The effectiveness of SCFA surpasses that of other sanitizer treatments tested in this study and requires further research to optimize treatments to preserve lettuce quality. Conventional detergents did not enhance the efficacy of any of the wash treatments tested during this study. PMID:21529976

  3. Deuterated detergents for structural and functional studies of membrane proteins: Properties, chemical synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Hiruma-Shimizu, Kazumi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Thompson, Gary S; Kalverda, Arnout P; Patching, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Detergents are amphiphilic compounds that have crucial roles in the extraction, purification and stabilization of integral membrane proteins and in experimental studies of their structure and function. One technique that is highly dependent on detergents for solubilization of membrane proteins is solution-state NMR spectroscopy, where detergent micelles often serve as the best membrane mimetic for achieving particle sizes that tumble fast enough to produce high-resolution and high-sensitivity spectra, although not necessarily the best mimetic for a biomembrane. For achieving the best quality NMR spectra, detergents with partial or complete deuteration can be used, which eliminate interfering proton signals coming from the detergent itself and also eliminate potential proton relaxation pathways and strong dipole-dipole interactions that contribute line broadening effects. Deuterated detergents have also been used to solubilize membrane proteins for other experimental techniques including small angle neutron scattering and single-crystal neutron diffraction and for studying membrane proteins immobilized on gold electrodes. This is a review of the properties, chemical synthesis and applications of detergents that are currently commercially available and/or that have been synthesized with partial or complete deuteration. Specifically, the detergents are sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), lauryldimethylamine-oxide (LDAO), n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG), n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) and fos-cholines including dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). The review also considers effects of deuteration, detergent screening and guidelines for detergent selection. Although deuterated detergents are relatively expensive and not always commercially available due to challenges associated with their chemical synthesis, they will continue to play important roles in structural and functional studies of membrane proteins, especially using solution-state NMR. PMID:26906947

  4. Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Kappes, John C; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Riordan, John R; Urbatsch, Ina L; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2014-01-01

    Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification. PMID:24652590

  5. Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Kappes, John C; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Riordan, John R; Urbatsch, Ina L; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2014-06-01

    Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification. PMID:24652590

  6. On the future development of optimally-sized lipid-insoluble systemic therapies for CNS solid tumors and other neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Hemant

    2010-11-01

    It remains a challenge to deliver effective concentrations of therapeutics into CNS pathologies, which is primarily due to the fact that current and investigational CNS therapeutics are suboptimally-sized to accumulate to effective concentrations in individual diseased CNS tissue cells. The blood-CNS barrier of blood capillary microvasculature within neuropathologic tissues is known to be permeable to lipid-insoluble macromolecules in a wide-spectrum of neuropathologies. In the case of CNS solid tumor tissue blood capillaries, the physiological upper limit of pore size to the transcapillary passage of spherical lipid-insoluble macromolecules is approximately 12 nanometers, and systemically administered imageable dendrimer nanoparticles within the 7 to 10 nanometer size range accumulate to therapeutic concentrations in solid tumors since this size range of particles maintain peak blood concentrations for several hours. In preliminary pre-clinical studies, it has recently been shown that one intravenous dose of small molecule chemotherapy-conjugated imageable dendrimer nanoparticles within the 7 to 10 nanometer size range, with doxorubicin bound to the particle exterior via acid-labile covalent linkages, is effective at regressing orthotopic rodent malignant gliomas. Although it is foreseeable that such drug-conjugated imageable nanoparticles within the 7 to 10 nanometer size range will be effective theranostic agents for the concurrent treatment (i.e. neutron capture therapy) and imaging (i.e. magnetic resonance) of solid tumor disease, the issue of maintaining a neutralized particle exterior following the attachment of cationic drugs will need to be addressed to eliminate cationic charge-mediated nanoparticle toxicity to blood capillary walls. In this review, the ultrastructural basis for blood capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble macromolecules is discussed, and the importance of delineating the precise physiologic upper limits of pore size in

  7. Critical evaluation of changes in the ratio of insoluble bound to soluble phenolics on antioxidant activity of lentils during germination.

    PubMed

    Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-21

    A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25560637

  8. Natural sedimentation of insoluble particles during directional solidification of upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C. H.; Xiong, H. P.; Fang, M.; Qiu, S.; Xing, P. F.; Luo, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon is used to cast an ingot by directional solidification. Black shadows are randomly distributed in the ingot, and the shadows are caused by natural sedimentation of insoluble particles. The insoluble particles mainly consist of SiC and Si3N4. SiC and Si3N4 exist as foreign particles and mainly sedimentate at the bottom of the ingot, not generating during directional solidification. Melt convection performs an important role in the sedimentation, resulting in the insoluble particles in the ingot center more than the nearby. Interestingly, since SiC and Si3N4 will not be the recombination center of the minority carrier, the insoluble particles do not have a significant influence on the minority carrier lifetime. In particular, the sedimentation is discussed according to the thermodynamics and kinetics in detail.

  9. Detergent-soluble HLA antigens contain a hydrophilic region at the COOH-terminus and a penultimate hydrophobic region.

    PubMed Central

    Springer, T A; Strominger, J L

    1976-01-01

    Purified, detergent-soluble HLA antigens (p44,12) are composed of a glycoprotein of molecular weight 44,000 (p44) and a peptide of molecular weight 12,000 (p12), beta2-microglobulin. Upon digestion with papain, p44,12 is converted to p39,12, then to p34,12, which retains antigenic activity. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of p34 and p44 are identical. p44, p39, and p34 were purified, and comparison of their amino acid compositions showed that the COOH-terminal peptide removed by the first papain cleavage is hydrophilic and contains cysteine that can be alkylated after mild reduction. The penultimate COOH-terminal peptide removed by the second papain cleavage is hydrophobic, and presumably anchors HLA antigens to the membrane. This correlates with the observation that p44,12 and p39,12 bind detergent, while p34,12 does not. The orientation and integration of HLA antigens in the lymphocyte membrane were thus defined, and the structure suggests that HLA antigens span the plasma membrane. Images PMID:781677

  10. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  11. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  12. Proteolytic Enzymes in Detergents: Evidence of Their Presence through Activity Measurements Based on Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperas, Nuria; Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise uses a problem-based approach to expose students to some basic concepts relating to proteins and enzymes. One of the main applications of enzymes at the industrial level is their use in the detergent market. The students examine a detergent sample to ascertain whether proteolytic enzymes are a component and, if so, which…

  13. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of...

  14. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of...

  15. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  16. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  17. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  18. Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Alison L.; Lindquist, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce students to the myriad properties of zeolites using the sodium form of zeolite A (Na-A) from laundry detergent. Experiments include extracting Na-A from detergent, water softening properties, desiccant properties, ion-exchange properties, and Zeolite HA as a dehydration catalyst. (JRH)

  19. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    SciTech Connect

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  20. A rapid paper chromatographic method for detection of anionic detergent in milk.

    PubMed

    Barui, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Singh, Smita

    2013-08-01

    A paper chromatographic method for the detection of adulteration of anionic detergent in milk is described. The method is based on the complexing of anionic detergent with methylene blue dye and separation of complex from free dye using simple paper chromatographic method. Since complexing of detergent is with dye, visualization is direct without involvement of subsequent detection of complex. The method is simple and results are available in 10 min. The method is sensitive to detect 0.1 % (w/v) labolene (laboratory grade detergent) or 0.01 % (w/v) sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (pure anionic detergent) in milk. The method can be adopted at quality control laboratories in dairies for ascertaining the quality of milk. PMID:24425989

  1. Structure formation in binary mixtures of lipids and detergents: Self-assembly and vesicle division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly dynamics in binary surfactant mixtures and structure changes of lipid vesicles induced by detergent solution are studied using coarse-grained molecular simulations. Disk-shaped micelles, the bicelles, are stabilized by detergents surrounding the rim of a bilayer disk of lipids. The self-assembled bicelles are considerably smaller than bicelles formed from vesicle rupture, and their size is determined by the concentrations of lipids and detergents and the interactions between the two species. The detergent-adsorption induces spontaneous curvature of the vesicle bilayer and results in vesicle division into two vesicles or vesicle rupture into worm-like micelles. The division occurs mainly via the inverse pathway of the modified stalk model. For large spontaneous curvature of the monolayers of the detergents, a pore is often opened, thereby leading to vesicle division or worm-like micelle formation.

  2. Structure formation in binary mixtures of lipids and detergents: self-assembly and vesicle division.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-14

    Self-assembly dynamics in binary surfactant mixtures and structure changes of lipid vesicles induced by detergent solution are studied using coarse-grained molecular simulations. Disk-shaped micelles, the bicelles, are stabilized by detergents surrounding the rim of a bilayer disk of lipids. The self-assembled bicelles are considerably smaller than bicelles formed from vesicle rupture, and their size is determined by the concentrations of lipids and detergents and the interactions between the two species. The detergent-adsorption induces spontaneous curvature of the vesicle bilayer and results in vesicle division into two vesicles or vesicle rupture into worm-like micelles. The division occurs mainly via the inverse pathway of the modified stalk model. For large spontaneous curvature of the monolayers of the detergents, a pore is often opened, thereby leading to vesicle division or worm-like micelle formation. PMID:23320721

  3. Methanococcus vannielii: ultrastructure and sensitivity to detergents and antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J B; Bowers, B; Stadtman, T C

    1977-01-01

    Methanococcus vannielii is a strictly anaerobic motile coccus that possesses a tuft of flagellae. The cells are markedly sensitive to mechanical stress and are readily lysed by detergents, but the organism grows normally in media of low ionic strength. The absence of a typical cell wall, further suggested by resistance of M. vannielii to penicillin, cycloserine, and vancomycin, was confirmed by ultrastructural studies. Electron micrographs showed that the cell envelope lacks a peptidoglycan layer. On the outer surface there is a regular array of subunits similar to those of the glycoprotein envelopes of the halobacteria. However, the M. vannielii cell envelope, unlike those of the holobacteria, is unable to maintain a definite shape, and a high salt concentration is not required for its integrity. Images PMID:863858

  4. Investigating a lotic microbial community following a severe detergent spill.

    PubMed

    Or, Amitai; Gophna, Uri

    2014-02-01

    A large non-ionic detergent spill affected the Yarqon stream, where water sampling was performed prior to the spill as a part of the stream's routine sampling and during and after the event. Following the spill, a large foam layer was observed for about 3-4 days accompanied by death of all fauna in the stream. Despite a large quantity of freshwater that was introduced to the stream as an emergency measure, a drastic decrease in dissolved oxygen was also observed. A rapid reduction in bacterial diversity and richness, as measured by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, was also evident, as microbial assemblages changes accompanied pollutant exposure. However, this analysis showed that the microbial assemblages of the stream were quick to recover and became similar to pre-spill communities as early as a week after the spill. These findings suggest that bacterial assemblages are much more robust to large anthropogenic disturbances than expected. PMID:24379053

  5. Detergent-free Isolation of Functional G Protein-Coupled Receptors into Nanometric Lipid Particles.

    PubMed

    Logez, Christel; Damian, Marjorie; Legros, Céline; Dupré, Clémence; Guéry, Mélody; Mary, Sophie; Wagner, Renaud; M'Kadmi, Céline; Nosjean, Olivier; Fould, Benjamin; Marie, Jacky; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Ferry, Gilles; Boutin, Jean A; Banères, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-12

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that play a pivotal role in signal transduction. Understanding their dynamics is absolutely required to get a clear picture of how signaling proceeds. Molecular characterization of GPCRs isolated in detergents nevertheless stumbles over the deleterious effect of these compounds on receptor function and stability. We explored here the potential of a styrene-maleic acid polymer to solubilize receptors directly from their lipid environment. To this end, we used two GPCRs, the melatonin and ghrelin receptors, embedded in two membrane systems of increasing complexity, liposomes and membranes from Pichia pastoris. The styrene-maleic acid polymer was able, in both cases, to extract membrane patches of a well-defined size. GPCRs in SMA-stabilized lipid discs not only recognized their ligand but also transmitted a signal, as evidenced by their ability to activate their cognate G proteins and recruit arrestins in an agonist-dependent manner. Besides, the purified receptor in lipid discs undergoes all specific changes in conformation associated with ligand-mediated activation, as demonstrated in the case of the ghrelin receptor with fluorescent conformational reporters and compounds from distinct pharmacological classes. Altogether, these data highlight the potential of styrene-maleic stabilized lipid discs for analyzing the molecular bases of GPCR-mediated signaling in a well-controlled membrane-like environment. PMID:26701065

  6. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Forage Protein Fractions and In Situ Disappearance Kinetics of Crude Protein for Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Hays Packaged in Large-Round Bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of crude protein (CP), neutral-detergent insoluble CP (NDICP), acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), and in situ disappearance kinetics of CP and NDICP for large-r...

  7. Effects of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents on the development of pasture bloat in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Wang, Y; Berg, B P; Majak, W; McCartney, D H; Baron, V; McAllister, T A

    2001-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to determine the efficacy and possible modes of action of a water-soluble mixture of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents (AEPD; Blocare 4511, ANCARE, Auckland, NZ) in preventing pasture bloat in ruminants grazing or fed freshly harvested alfalfa. Ten cannulated Suffolk wethers were offered freshly harvested alfalfa; five were given a daily intraruminal dose of 40 ml of 50% AEPD (vol/vol) 1 h before feeding, and five (controls) were dosed with water. Viscosity of ruminal fluid was reduced (P < 0.001) in AEPD-treated wethers, relative to the controls, for the first 2 h after feeding but not at 4 h after feeding and beyond. Treatment with AEPD did not affect dry matter (DM) intake, digestibility of DM, acid detergent fiber, or neutral detergent fiber, or N digestion and retention, implying that AEPD likely would not affect milk production. In a crossover grazing study, five of the wethers were given AEPD in drinking water (0.1%, vol/vol); treatment with AEPD was 100% effective for preventing bloat in sheep grazing early-bloom alfalfa for 4 h daily. Replicate grazing studies were conducted with cattle in Lethbridge, AB; Lacombe, AB; and Kamloops, BC. Treated animals received AEPD in the water (0.06%, vol/vol) and grazed vegetative alfalfa for 6 h daily. As it did with sheep, AEPD treatment effectively precluded the bloat observed in control animals. Consequently, AEPD may be a valuable tool for alfalfa pasture-based dairy production although further study is required to develop an integrated model for optimal administration under a variety of climatic conditions. PMID:11210030

  8. Influence of group composition of sulfonic acids on properties of sulfonate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Katrenko, T.I.; Bessonova, R.N.; Kuznetsova, M.G.; Potolovskii, L.A.

    1983-05-01

    Three types of sulfonic acids are formed in sulfonation of petroleum oils-- oil-soluble, oil-insoluble, and water-soluble. This study investigates the influence of the different acids on neutral calcium sulfonates. Samples are recovered from As-14 oil. Oil-insoluble synthesis failed. Water-soluble acid did synthesize with a mix of oil- and water-soluble sulfonates. Neutral calcium sulfonates synthesized from oil-soluble had good properties, from oil-insoluble, bad properties. Oil-insoluble sulfonate also has an inverse effect on cleanup, and it interferes with carbonation. These findings will help with improvements in the sulfonate additive manufacturing process.

  9. Response of an environment-sensitive intramolecular charge transfer probe towards solubilization of liposome membranes by a non-ionic detergent: Association and dissociation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2012-10-01

    The present report describes an endeavor to follow the solubilization of DMPC and DMPG liposome membranes by a non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 on the lexicon of environment-sensitive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) photophysics of an extrinsic molecular probe 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2, 4-dienoic acid methyl ester (DPDAME). The prospective applicability of the probe to function as a reporter for detergent-sequestered solubilization of liposome membranes is argued on the basis of comparison of the spectral properties of the probe in various environments. Fluorescence anisotropy study delineates the degree of motional restriction imposed on the probe in different microheterogeneous assemblies. The kinetics of association of the probe with the liposome membranes and the dissociation kinetics of TX-100-sequestered solubilization process of the liposomes have been monitored by the stopped-flow fluorescence technique and the results are rationalized in relevance to fluorescence anisotropy study.

  10. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. PMID:26256094

  11. A high-throughput differential filtration assay to screen and select detergents for membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vergis, James M.; Purdy, Michael D.; Wiener, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Structural studies on integral membrane proteins are routinely performed on protein–detergent complexes (PDCs) consisting of purified protein solubilized in a particular detergent. Of all the membrane protein crystal structures solved to date, a subset of only four detergents has been used in more than half of these structures. Unfortunately, many membrane proteins are not well behaved in these four detergents and/or fail to yield well-diffracting crystals. Identification of detergents that maintain the solubility and stability of a membrane protein is a critical step and can be a lengthy and “protein-expensive” process. We have developed an assay that characterizes the stability and size of membrane proteins exchanged into a panel of 94 commercially available and chemically diverse detergents. This differential filtration assay (DFA), using a set of filtered microplates, requires sub-milligram quantities of purified protein and small quantities of detergents and other reagents and is performed in its entirety in several hours. PMID:20667442

  12. Effect of Detergents on the Thermal Behavior of Elastin-like Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Arjun; Han, Wei; Simons, Robin H.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Chi, Eva Y.; López, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-01

    Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fusions have been designed to allow large scale, non-chromatographic purification of many soluble proteins using the inverse transition cycling (ITC) method; however, the sensitivity of the aqueous lower critical solubility phase transition temperature (Tt) of ELPs to the addition of cosolutes, including detergents, may be a potential hindrance in purification of proteins with surface hydrophobicity in such a manner. To identify detergents that are known to solubilize such proteins (e.g., membrane proteins) and that have little effect on the Tt of the ELP, we screened a number of detergents with respect to their effects on the Tt and secondary structures of a model ELP (denoted here as ELP180). We found that mild detergents (e.g., DDM, Triton-X100, and CHAPS) do not alter the phase transition behavior or structure (as probed by circular dichroism) of ELP180. This result is in contrast to previous studies that showed a strong effect of other detergents (e.g., SDS) on the Ttof ELPs. Our results clearly indicate that mild detergents do not preclude ITC-based separation of ELPs, and thus that ELP fusions may prove to be useful in the purification of detergent-solubilized recombinant hydrophobic proteins, including membrane proteins, which are otherwise notoriously difficult to extract and purify by conventional separation methods (e.g., chromatography). PMID:23097230

  13. A study of cleansing property of detergents on cotton, polyester and their blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vaishali P.

    Proper cleaning of clothes is one of the important aspects to be considered for increasing their life. Soil gets accumulated on textiles which needs to be cleaned for reusability. There are a variety of textile materials available and a variety brands of detergents for laundry purpose, to select the right brand is of much importance as it is based on detergent performance and money spent. The present study is an effort to determine which are the various popular brands of detergents, and to study the ability of cleaning property of a few of them. Eight brand of detergents namely: Ariel Microshine, Surf Excel, Surf, Super Nirma, Super Wheel with lemon, Hipolin, Rin were studied by artificially soiling of cotton, polyester and cotton/polyester blend fabrics, at four different concentration of soiling of washing with four different concentration of detergents. Both hand washing and machine washing technique was followed. All the detergent showed batter cleaning in hand washing technique in comparison with machine washing amongst all the various brands of detergents studied, Ariel Microshine show the best cleaning property, the poorest were Wheel and Rin. Ariel Microshine was the costliest of all. The best bargain in terms of cleansing property and price was Hipolin.

  14. Classification and morphometric quantitation of insoluble materials from the lungs of patients with alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. B.; Talley, F. A.; Hook, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Insoluble materials isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage from the lungs of four patients with alveolar proteinosis were examined under the electron microscope, categorized according to ultrastructural criteria, and quantitated using morphometric procedures. The major component of the insoluble accumulations was the tubular myelinlike multilamellated structure that accounted for 42.6 +/- 12.4% of the total volume of insoluble material. These structures resembled tubular myelin as found in normal human lungs, consisting of lipid bilayer membranes separated by amorphous proteinaceous material; however, tubular myelinlike multilamellated structures lacked the intersecting membranes of normal tubular myelin. The distance between membranes varied from 150 to 300 A and this was similar to that found in tubular myelin from normal human lungs. Fused-membrane structures that were multilamellated but were without intervening amorphous lamellae accounted for 2.7 +/- 0.6% of the total volume of insoluble material. Crystals, identified by the presence of adhering materials, were present only in small amounts, accounting for only 0.07 +/- 0.03% of the volume of insoluble material. Neither fused-membrane structures nor crystals are present in lavage effluents from the lungs of normal humans. Membranous vesicles and electron-dense bodies, which resembled cell debris, together accounted for 21.2 +/- 10.1% of the total volume of insoluble material. Constituents of the pulmonary extracellular lining of normal human lungs such as secreted lamellar bodies and tubular myelin were minor components, together accounting for only 2.2 +/- 3.2% of the total volume of insoluble material. Amorphous material and miscellaneous structures accounted for 31.4 +/- 5.0% of the volume of insoluble material. Cellular disintegration and extracellular formation of unusual tubular myelinlike multilamellated structures appear to be major processes leading to the accumulation of insoluble materials in the

  15. Production and Cytotoxicity of Extracellular Insoluble and Droplets of Soluble Melanin by Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, D. N.; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Dastager, Syed G.

    2014-01-01

    A Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 strain with potential to synthesize both insoluble and soluble melanins was detected. Melanins are quite distinguished based on their solubility for varied biotechnological applications. The present investigation reveals the enhanced production of insoluble and soluble melanins in tyrosine medium by a single culture. Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An enhanced production of 5.29 g/L insoluble melanin was achieved in a submerged bioprocess following response surface methodology. Combined interactive effect of temperature (50°C), pH (8.5), tyrosine (2.0 g/L), and beef extract (0.5 g/L) were found to be critical variables for enhanced production in central composite design analysis. An optimized indigenous slant culture system was an innovative approach for the successful production (264 mg/L) of pure soluble melanin from the droplets formed on the surface of the culture. Both insoluble and soluble melanins were confirmed and characterized by Chemical, reactions, UV, FTIR, and TLC analysis. First time, cytotoxic study of melanin using brine shrimps was reported. Maximum cytotoxic activity of soluble melanin was Lc50-0.40 µg/mL and insoluble melanin was Lc50-0.80 µg/mL. PMID:24839603

  16. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis. PMID:26056991

  17. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  18. Ingestion of insoluble dietary fibre increased zinc and iron absorption and restored growth rate and zinc absorption suppressed by dietary phytate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hara, H; Asvarujanon, P; Aoyama, Y; Luangpituksa, P

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of ingestion of five types of insoluble fibre on growth and Zn absorption in rats fed a marginally Zn-deficient diet (6.75 mg (0.103 mmol) Zn/kg diet) with or without added sodium phytate (12.6 mmol/kg diet). The types of insoluble fibre tested were corn husks, watermelon skin, yam-bean root (Pachyrhizus erosus) and pineapple core, and cellulose was used as a control (100 g/kg diet). Body-weight gain in the cellulose groups was suppressed by 57 % by feeding phytate. Body-weight gain in phytate-fed rats was 80 % greater in the watermelon skin fibre and yam-bean root fibre group than that in the cellulose group. Zn absorption ratio in the cellulose groups was lowered by 46 and 70 % in the first (days 7-10) and second (days 16-19) measurement periods with feeding phytate. In the rats fed the phytate-containing diets, Zn absorption ratio in the watermelon skin, yam-bean root and pineapple core fibre groups was 140, 80 and 54 % higher respectively than that in the cellulose group, in the second period. Fe absorption was not suppressed by phytate, however, feeding of these three types of fibre promoted Fe absorption in rats fed phytate-free diets. The concentration of soluble Zn in the caecal contents in the watermelon skin fibre or yam-bean root fibre groups was identical to that in the control group in spite of a higher short-chain fatty acid concentration and lower pH in the caecum. These findings indicate that ingestion of these types of insoluble fibre recovered the growth and Zn absorption suppressed by feeding a high level of phytate, and factors other than caecal fermentation may also be involved in this effect of insoluble fibre. PMID:11591231

  19. Functional Characterization of Detergent-Decellularized Equine Tendon Extracellular Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Barrett, Jennifer G.; Jose, Rod R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Natural extracellular matrix provides a number of distinct advantages for engineering replacement orthopedic tissue due to its intrinsic functional properties. The goal of this study was to optimize a biologically derived scaffold for tendon tissue engineering using equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. We investigated changes in scaffold composition and ultrastructure in response to several mechanical, detergent and enzymatic decellularization protocols using microscopic techniques and a panel of biochemical assays to evaluate total protein, collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and deoxyribonucleic acid content. Biocompatibility was also assessed with static mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture. Implementation of a combination of freeze/thaw cycles, incubation in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), trypsinization, treatment with DNase-I, and ethanol sterilization produced a non-cytotoxic biomaterial free of appreciable residual cellular debris with no significant modification of biomechanical properties. These decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS) are suitable for complex tissue engineering applications, as they provide a clean slate for cell culture while maintaining native three-dimensional architecture. PMID:23724028

  20. Functional characterization of detergent-decellularized equine tendon extracellular matrix for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Youngstrom, Daniel W; Barrett, Jennifer G; Jose, Rod R; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Natural extracellular matrix provides a number of distinct advantages for engineering replacement orthopedic tissue due to its intrinsic functional properties. The goal of this study was to optimize a biologically derived scaffold for tendon tissue engineering using equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. We investigated changes in scaffold composition and ultrastructure in response to several mechanical, detergent and enzymatic decellularization protocols using microscopic techniques and a panel of biochemical assays to evaluate total protein, collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and deoxyribonucleic acid content. Biocompatibility was also assessed with static mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture. Implementation of a combination of freeze/thaw cycles, incubation in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), trypsinization, treatment with DNase-I, and ethanol sterilization produced a non-cytotoxic biomaterial free of appreciable residual cellular debris with no significant modification of biomechanical properties. These decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS) are suitable for complex tissue engineering applications, as they provide a clean slate for cell culture while maintaining native three-dimensional architecture. PMID:23724028

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R

    2008-05-23

    The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt dissolution tests is probably precipitated from sodium aluminate due to the low hydroxide content of the saltcake. (3) In-situ generation of aluminum hydroxide (by use of aluminate as the Al source) appears to trap additional salts in the simulant in a manner similar to that expected for actual waste samples. (4) Alternative compositions are possible with higher oxalate levels and lower carbonate levels. (5) The maximum oxalate level is limited by the required Na content of the insoluble solids. (6) Periodic mixing may help to limit crystal growth in this type of salt simulant. (7) Long term storage of an insoluble salt simulant is likely to produce a material that can not be easily removed from the storage container. Production of a relatively fresh simulant is best if pumping the simulant is necessary for testing purposes. The insoluble

  2. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation and Other Aqueous Samples

    PubMed Central

    Axson, Jessica L.; Creamean, Jessie M.; Bondy, Amy L.; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Warner, Katy Y.; Ault, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Particles are frequently incorporated into clouds or precipitation, influencing climate by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, taking up coatings during cloud processing, and removing species through wet deposition. Many of these particles, particularly ice nuclei, can remain suspended within cloud droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While previous studies have measured the soluble or bulk mass of species within clouds and precipitation, no studies to date have determined the number concentration and size distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation or cloud water using in situ methods. Herein, for the first time we demonstrate that Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is a powerful in situ method for determining the total number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation, both of rain and melted snow. The method uses 500 μL or less of liquid sample and does not require sample modification. Number concentrations for the insoluble residues in aqueous precipitation samples ranged from 2.0–3.0(±0.3)×108 particles cm−3, while surface area ranged from 1.8(±0.7)–3.2(±1.0)×107 μm2 cm−3. Number size distributions peaked between 133–150 nm, with both single and multi-modal character, while surface area distributions peaked between 173–270 nm. Comparison with electron microscopy of particles up to 10 μm show that, by number, > 97% residues are <1 μm in diameter, the upper limit of the NTA. The range of concentration and distribution properties indicates that insoluble residue properties vary with ambient aerosol concentrations, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. NTA has great potential for studying the role that insoluble residues play in critical atmospheric processes. PMID:25705069

  3. REMOVAL OF COLOR, DETERGENTS, AND OTHER REFRACTORY SUBSTANCES FROM TEXTILE WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory and pilot scale research to determine the effectiveness and economic feasibility of various physicochemical tertiary treatments in removing color, detergents, and other refractory pollutants from textile wastewater that has been previously t...

  4. Virulence, biochemistry, morphology and host-interacting properties of detergent-free cultured mycobacteria: An update.

    PubMed

    Leisching, G; Pietersen, R-D; Wiid, I; Baker, B

    2016-09-01

    The culturing of mycobacteria is a standard procedure that is consistent world-wide, with little variation in the growth media constituents, particularly those found in liquid and solid media. Before the 1940s however, the aggregating nature of mycobacteria as well as the characteristic slow growth-rate saw mycobacterial research delay considerably. Dubos and colleagues addressed both these issues and observed that a very small volume of Tween detergent was sufficient to greatly improve the culturing of mycobacteria. Over the years however, evidence of the unfavourable effects of this detergent on a number of morphological, biochemical, pathogenic and host-interacting properties of mycobacteria surfaced. For the first time we bring together literature, past and present to comprehensively review the mycobacterial properties which are, and are not affected by the use of this detergent. We also address other detergents and methods which may circumvent the need to include Tween compounds in mycobacterial culture media. PMID:27553410

  5. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using A Detergent-Free Laundry System

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, S. P.; Ahn, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Shon, J. S.; Chung, H.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Lee, W. S.

    2003-02-25

    In this study, we describe a new laundry system to wash clothes, including those contaminated with radionuclides, without using detergent. The main part of this system is electrolytic cell that consists of a cathode with a special coating of nickel, an anode of nickel, and a cation exchange membrane between the two electrodes. The electrolyte is supplied to the anode and the tap-water to the cathode. When an electricity of 5 volts and 25 amperes is applied to the electrodes, the processed water is produced from the cathode. This processed water containing no detergent was investigated experimentally with regard to its decontamination efficiency of radionuclides and detergency of soil as compared to the conventional washing using detergent. It was found that the processed water from this system has an ability to simultaneously remove radionuclides and soil from the cloth with good efficiency.

  6. Thermal destruction of erythrocyte spectrin: Rheology, deformability, and stability with respect to detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, M. V.; Mansurov, V. A.; Ivashkevich, É. V.

    1996-05-01

    By means of blood heating in the region of the thermal denaturation transition of spectrin (50°C) the relationship between the stability of erythrocytes with respect to detergents and their deformability and rheological parameters of blood was studied.

  7. Insight into the Structure of Light Harvesting Complex II and its Stabilization in Detergent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2009-01-01

    The structure of spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in a solution of the detergent n-octyl-{beta}-d-glucoside (BOG), was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Physicochemical characterization of the isolated complex indicated that it was pure (>95%) and also in its native trimeric state. SANS with contrast variation was used to investigate the properties of the protein-detergent complex at three different H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast match points, enabling the scattering properties of the protein and detergent to be investigated independently. The topological shape of LHC II, determined using ab initio shape restoration methods from the SANS data at the contrast match point of BOG, was consistent with the X-ray crystallographic structure of LHC II (Liu et al. Nature 2004 428, 287-292). The interactions of the protein and detergent were investigated at the contrast match point for the protein and also in 100% D{sub 2}O. The data suggested that BOG micelle structure was altered by its interaction with LHC II, but large aggregate structures were not formed. Indirect Fourier transform analysis of the LHC II/BOG scattering curves showed that the increase in the maximum dimension of the protein-detergent complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer of detergent surrounding the protein. A model of the LHC II/BOG complex was generated to interpret the measurements made in 100% D{sub 2}O. This model adequately reproduced the overall size of the LHC II/BOG complex, but demonstrated that the detergent does not have a highly regular shape that surrounds the hydrophobic periphery of LHC II. In addition to demonstrating that natively structured LHC II can be produced for functional characterization and for use in artificial solar energy applications, the analysis and modeling approaches described here can be used for characterizing detergent-associated {alpha}-helical transmembrane proteins.

  8. (An)aerobic breakdown of chelating agents used in household detergents.

    PubMed

    Egli, T

    1988-02-01

    One of the main causes of the world-wide eutrophication of rivers and lakes is the extensive use of phosphate in both detergents and agricultural fertilizers. Partial or total substitution of phosphates in household detergents by other compounds exhibiting chelating properties has been introduced in several countries to ameliorate such problems. Various microbiological aspects of the biodegradation of the complexing agents most frequently used such as aminopolycarboxylates, phosphonates, hydroxycarboxylates and polymeric polycarboxylates, as well as tripolyphosphates, are reviewed. PMID:3079216

  9. Cytotoxicity of corrosion products of degradable Fe-based stents: relevance of pH and insoluble products.

    PubMed

    Fagali, Natalia S; Grillo, Claudia A; Puntarulo, Susana; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2015-04-01

    Fe-based biodegradable metallic materials (Fe-BMMs) have been proposed for cardiovascular applications and are expected to disappear via corrosion after an appropriate period. However, in vivo studies showed that Fe ions release leads to accumulation of orange and brownish insoluble products at the biomaterial/cell interface. As an additional consequence, sharp changes in pH may affect the biocompatibility of these materials. In the present work, the experimental protocols were designed with the aim of evaluating the relative importance that these factors have on biocompatibility evaluation of BMMs. Mitochondrial activity (MTT assay) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay on mammalian cells, exposed to 1-5 mM of added Fe3+ salt, were assessed and compared with results linked exclusively to pH effects. Soluble Fe concentration in culture medium and intracellular Fe content were also determined. The results showed that: (i) mitochondrial activity was affected by pH changes over the entire range of concentrations of added Fe3+ assayed, (ii) at the highest added Fe3+ concentrations (≥3 mM), precipitation was detected and the cells were able to incorporate the precipitate, that seems to be linked to cell damage, (iii) the extent of precipitation depends on the Fe/protein concentration ratio; and (iv) lipid peroxidation products were detected over the entire range of concentrations of added Fe3+. Hence, a new approach opens in the biocompatibility evaluation of Fe-based BMMs, since the cytotoxicity would not be solely a function of released (and soluble) ions but of the insoluble degradation product amount and the pH falling at the biomaterial/cell interface. The concentration of Fe-containing products at the interface depends on diffusional conditions in a very complex way that should be carefully analyzed in the future. PMID:25797480

  10. Development of novel mesoporous nanomatrix-supported lipid bilayers for oral sustained delivery of the water-insoluble drug, lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhang, Heran; Che, Erxi; Zhang, Lihua; Han, Jin; Yang, Yihua; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Miao; Gao, Cunqiang

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a core/shell structured nanocomposite, mesoporous nanomatrix-supported lipid bilayer (MN-SLB), as an oral drug nanocarrier, on the dissolution behavior and in vivo absorption of a water-insoluble drug, lovastatin (LOV). The formulation strategy was based on the use of drug-loaded mesoporous silica as the core for the fusion of liposomes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and nitrogen adsorption were used to systematically characterize the drug carrier and drug-loaded MN-SLB formulation, confirming the successful inclusion of LOV into the nano-pores of MN-SLB. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that the incorporated drug in the carrier was in an amorphous state. An in vitro dissolution study showed that LOV-loaded MN-SLB exhibited a sustained drug release behavior. Compared with the LOV-loaded mesoporous silica particles, LOV-loaded MN-SLB markedly suppressed the burst release. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of the LOV-loaded MN-SLB formulation was studied in beagle dogs after oral administration and using a commercially available immediate release formulation (Sandoz Lovastatin®) as a reference. It was found that the relative bioavailability of LOV and LOV β-hydroxy acid (LOVA) for the LOV-loaded MN-SLB formulation was 207.2% and 192.1%, respectively. In addition, MN-SLB exhibited negligible toxicity against Caco-2 and HT-29 cells in cytotoxicity assays. The results of this study indicate that the MN-SLB nanocomposite is a promising candidate as a novel oral drug delivery nanovehicle for controlling the dissolution rate and improving the oral absorption of water-insoluble drugs. PMID:25731096

  11. Uptake and Intracellular Transport of Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor: Evidence for Free and Cytoskeleton-anchored Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Citores, Lucía; Wesche, Jørgen; Kolpakova, Elona; Olsnes, Sjur

    1999-01-01

    Endocytic uptake and intracellular transport of acidic FGF was studied in cells transfected with FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4). Acidification of the cytosol to block endocytic uptake from coated pits did not inhibit endocytosis of the growth factor in COS cells transfected with FGFR4, indicating that it is to a large extent taken up by an alternative endocytic pathway. Fractionation of the cells demonstrated that part of the growth factor receptor was present in a low-density, caveolin-containing fraction, but we were unable to demonstrate binding to caveolin in immunoprecipitation studies. Upon treatment of the cells with acidic FGF, the activated receptor, together with the growth factor, moved to a juxtanuclear compartment, which was identified as the recycling endosome compartment. When the cells were lysed with Triton X-100, 3-([3-chloramidopropyl]dimethylammonio)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate, or 2-octyl glucoside, almost all surface-exposed and endocytosed FGFR4 was solubilized, but only a minor fraction of the total FGFR4 in the cells was found in the soluble fraction. The data indicate that the major part of FGFR4 is anchored to detergent-insoluble structures, presumably cytoskeletal elements associated with the recycling endosome compartment. PMID:10564275

  12. A robust method to screen detergents for membrane protein stabilization, revisited.

    PubMed

    Champeil, Philippe; Orlowski, Stéphane; Babin, Simon; Lund, Sten; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper; Lenoir, Guillaume; Montigny, Cédric

    2016-10-15

    This report is a follow up of our previous paper (Lund, Orlowski, de Foresta, Champeil, le Maire and Møller (1989), J Biol Chem 264:4907-4915) showing that solubilization in detergent of a membrane protein may interfere with its long-term stability, and proposing a protocol to reveal the kinetics of such irreversible inactivation. We here clarify the fact that when various detergents are tested for their effects, special attention has of course to be paid to their critical micelle concentration. We also investigate the effects of a few more detergents, some of which have been recently advertised in the literature, and emphasize the role of lipids together with detergents. Among these detergents, lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) exerts a remarkable ability, even higher than that of β-dodecylmaltoside (DDM), to protect our test enzyme, the paradigmatic P-type ATPase SERCA1a from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Performing such experiments for one's favourite protein probably remains useful in pre-screening assays testing various detergents. PMID:27443956

  13. Death following the ingestion of detergent: an autopsy case with special regard to the histochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Kuramoto, Yuko; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    We report an autopsy case of death due to accidental ingestion of a liquid laundry detergent with special regard to the histochemical findings. A female inpatient suffering from schizophrenia in a psychiatric institution, was found unconscious lying on the floor of her room, with a container of detergent nearby, and died despite intensive life-support measures. At autopsy, the stomach and duodenum contained whitish translucent foamy viscous fluid, and the mucous membranes, from the esophagus to the duodenum, had diffuse erosions with congestion and edema. There was otherwise no significant pathology other than signs of acute death and hemolysis. Toxicological investigations detected 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene (detergent additive) in the gastric contents using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a nonionic surfactant by a color identification test. Although these substances could not be detected in the blood, body fluid or viscera, histochemical examination using Oil red O demonstrated droplet-like staining in the pulmonary alveoli, suggesting aspiration of detergent, and similar staining in the vasculature of the lung, Kupffer cells of the liver, Bowman capsules of the kidney, and capillaries of the brain, suggesting the systemic effect of ingested/aspirated detergent. These findings were in keeping with death from ingestion of detergent and demonstrated the importance of preventing accidents such as this in healthcare facilities for elderly people. PMID:23212210

  14. Detergent-associated Solution Conformations of Helical and Beta-barrel Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Yiming; Lee, Byung-Kwon; Ankner, John Francis; Becker, Jeffrey Marvin; Heller, William T

    2008-01-01

    Membrane proteins present major challenges for structural biology. In particular, the production of suitable crystals for high-resolution structural determination continues to be a significant roadblock for developing an atomic-level understanding of these vital cellular systems. The use of detergents for extracting membrane proteins from the native membrane for either crystallization or reconstitution into model lipid membranes for further study is assumed to leave the protein with the proper fold with a belt of detergent encompassing the membrane-spanning segments of the structure. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe the detergent-associated solution conformations of three membrane proteins, namely bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the Ste2p G-protein coupled receptor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the Escherichia coli porin OmpF. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the traditional model of a detergent-associated membrane protein, the helical proteins BR and Ste2p are not in the expected, compact conformation and associated with detergent micelles, while the ?-barrel OmpF is indeed embedded in a disk-like micelle in a properly folded state. The comparison provided by the BR and Ste2p, both members of the 7TM family of helical membrane proteins, further suggests that the interhelical interactions between the transmembrane helices of the two proteins differ, such that BR, like other rhodopsins, can properly refold to crystallize, while Ste2p continues to prove resistant to crystallization from an initially detergent-associated state.

  15. Identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Jeudy, Jérémy; Rougemont, Blandine; Bordes, Claire; Lemoine, Jérôme; Casabianca, Hervé; Salvador, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    In a stricter legislative context, greener detergent formulations are developed. In this way, synthetic surfactants are frequently replaced by bio-sourced surfactants and/or used at lower concentrations in combination with enzymes. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents. Prior to the LC-MS/MS analyses, a specific sample preparation protocol was developed due to matrix complexity (high surfactant percentages). Then for each enzyme family mainly used in detergent formulations (protease, amylase, cellulase, and lipase), specific peptides were identified on a high resolution platform. A LC-MS/MS method was then developed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS mode for the light and corresponding heavy peptides. The method was linear on the peptide concentration ranges 25-1000 ng/mL for protease, lipase, and cellulase; 50-1000 ng/mL for amylase; and 5-1000 ng/mL for cellulase in both water and laundry detergent matrices. The application of the developed analytical strategy to real commercial laundry detergents enabled enzyme identification and absolute quantification. For the first time, identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergent was realized by LC-MS/MS in a single run. Graphical Abstract Identification and quantification of enzymes by LC-MS/MS. PMID:27098933

  16. Risk characterization of detergent surfactants in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Feijtel, T.; Plassche, E. van de

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch Soap Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Environmental Ministry (VROM) developed in 1991 an aquatic hazard priority list of all detergent ingredients. The agreed priority list consisted of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylates (AE), alcohol ethoxylated sulfates (AES), and soap. A stepwise or tiered risk assessment approach was adopted as the recommended approach to evaluate the risk of these surfactants. This implies that depending on the risk (or PEC/PNEC) ratio, the sequential test program or assessment would proceed further, to ensure adequate protection of the ecosystem. The agreed calculation scheme for the aquatic compartment is based on the comparison of the 90th percentile of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) in the Netherlands -- at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall -- to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for ecosystems. The 90th percentile surfactant concentrations at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall can be calculated using information or data on (1) release, (2) in-sewer removal, (3) treatment efficiency, (4) dilution and (5) instream-removal and/or measured in representative sites in The Netherlands. In addition, all toxicological data was critically reviewed by company experts and experts of RIVM and VROM to present a rationale for a sound database for the derivation of a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). It was concluded that the risk of LAS, AE and AES and soap for the aquatic environment is low. Also taking the estimated uncertainty into account, the predicted environmental concentrations are always considerably lower that the predicted no effect concentrations.

  17. Purification and properties of glucosyltransferase responsible for water-insoluble glucan synthesis from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, K; Moriyama, T; Miyake, Y; Mizutani, K; Tanaka, O

    1982-01-01

    A glucosyltransferase responsible for water-insoluble glucan synthesis was purified from the culture fluids of Streptococcus mutans 6715-15 strain by column chromatography on Toyopearl HW-60 and subsequently on hydroxyapatite. The enzyme preparation gave a single band on analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The pH dependency of the activity showed two optimal peaks at 5.8 and 7.3 and the Km values for sucrose were 1.4 and 3.3 mM at the respective optimal pHs. The molecular weight determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis was 180,000. Although the enzyme scarcely synthesized water-insoluble and water-soluble glucans from sucrose, water-insoluble glucan formed from sucrose in the presence of dextran T10 consisted of over 93% alpha-1, 3-glucosidic linkage. Analysis of the structure of water-insoluble glucan indicated that the enzyme catalyzed the formation of branch points in alpha-1,6-glucan (dextran) and transferred the glucosyl moiety of sucrose to the C-3 position of the branching glucose residue of dextran. Since this enzyme has not yet been registered, we named it mutansynthetase (EC 2.4.1.?). Images PMID:6179873

  18. Turning a Water And Oil Insoluble Cisplatin Derivative into a Nanoparticle Formulation for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shutao; Wang, Yuhua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Zhenghong; Lin, C. Michael; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    The formulation of water insoluble organic compounds into nanoparticles has become a widely established method for enhancing the delivery and efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Therefore, a comparable approach when applied to water insoluble inorganic compounds should also promote similar advantages. Herein, we have successfully formulated insoluble iodinated cisplatin (CDDP-I) into a LPI NPs (lipid-coated iodinated CDDP nanoparticles). Two separate microemulsions were combined, each containing a precursor for the synthesis of CDDP-I. The resulting CDDP-I precipitate was then coated with an anionic lipid and dispersed in water with the help of an additional lipid. This method allows us to effectively encapsulate CDDP-I and was able to achieve a considerable drug loading of 82 wt%. Administered LPI NPs demonstrated high level accumulation in tumor tissues and exhibited an anti-cancer activity comparable to free CDDP in two melanoma xenograft models without inducing nephrotoxocity. The benefits offered through this delivery formulation are not unique to CDDP-I, as this versatile platform may be extended to the formulation of other inorganic compounds that are both water and oil insoluble into nanoparticles for superior anticancer efficacy. PMID:24920436

  19. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose in Lactococcus lactis using a nisin-controlled gene expression system. Production of DsrI was optimized using several different background vectors, signal peptides, str...

  20. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF RODENT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE: SOLVENT TOXICITY AND WATER INSOLUBLE COMPOUND DELIVERY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to study the in vitro embryotoxicity and dysmorphogenesis of water insoluble compounds, solvents or chemical delivery systems of low toxicity and teratogenicity to the developing embryo must be found. Therefore, day 10.5 rat embryos were cultured for 2 days in whole rat ...

  1. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING INSOLUBLE STARCH XANTHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northern Regional Research Center developed an effective process to remove heavy metals from wastewaters of two nonferrous metal industries and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX). The study included bench-scale evaluation of wastewaters from two lead battery and one brass mill w...

  2. Characterization of water insoluble solids isolated from various biomass fast pyrolysis oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A solid water insoluble material, commonly called pyrolytic lignin, can be isolated from biomass fast pyrolysis oils. Such material was isolated from the bio-oils produced from barley straw, barley hulls, switchgrass, soystraw and oak and then fully characterized. Analytical techniques employed in...

  3. Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones. PMID:22413038

  4. Plasticity of Glomeruli and Olfactory-Mediated Behavior in Zebrafish Following Detergent Lesioning of the Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Evan J.; Kounelis, Savannah K.; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish olfactory system is a valuable model for examining neural regeneration after damage due to the remarkable plasticity of this sensory system and of fish species. We applied detergent to the olfactory organ and examined the effects on both morphology and function of the olfactory system in adult zebrafish. Olfactory organs were treated once with Triton X-100 unilaterally to study glomerular innervation patterns or bilaterally to study odor detection. Fish were allowed to recover for 4–10 days and were compared to untreated control fish. Axonal projections were analyzed using whole mount immunocytochemistry with anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, a marker of olfactory axons in teleosts. Chemical lesioning of the olfactory organ with a single dose of Triton X-100 had profound effects on glomerular distribution in the olfactory bulb at 4 days after treatment, with the most significant effects in the medial region of the bulb. Glomeruli had returned by 7 days post-treatment. Analysis of the ability of the fish to detect cocktails of amino acids or bile salts consisted of counting the number of turns the fish made before and after odorant delivery. Control fish turned more after exposure to both odorants. Fish tested 4 and 7 days after chemical lesioning made more turns in response to amino acids but did not respond to bile salts. At 10 days post-lesion, these fish had regained the ability to detect bile salts. Thus, the changes seen in bulbar innervation patterns correlated to odorant-mediated behavior. We show that the adult zebrafish brain has the capacity to recover rapidly from detergent damage of the olfactory epithelium, with both glomerular distribution and odorant-mediated behavior returning in 10 days. PMID:25450960

  5. Plasticity of glomeruli and olfactory-mediated behavior in zebrafish following detergent lesioning of the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    White, E J; Kounelis, S K; Byrd-Jacobs, C A

    2015-01-22

    The zebrafish olfactory system is a valuable model for examining neural regeneration after damage due to the remarkable plasticity of this sensory system and of fish species. We applied detergent to the olfactory organ and examined the effects on both morphology and function of the olfactory system in adult zebrafish. Olfactory organs were treated once with Triton X-100 unilaterally to study glomerular innervation patterns or bilaterally to study odor detection. Fish were allowed to recover for 4-10 days and were compared to untreated control fish. Axonal projections were analyzed using whole mount immunocytochemistry with anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, a marker of olfactory axons in teleosts. Chemical lesioning of the olfactory organ with a single dose of Triton X-100 had profound effects on glomerular distribution in the olfactory bulb at 4 days after treatment, with the most significant effects in the medial region of the bulb. Glomeruli had returned by 7 days post-treatment. Analysis of the ability of the fish to detect cocktails of amino acids or bile salts consisted of counting the number of turns the fish made before and after odorant delivery. Control fish turned more after exposure to both odorants. Fish tested 4 and 7 days after chemical lesioning made more turns in response to amino acids but did not respond to bile salts. At 10 days post-lesion, these fish had regained the ability to detect bile salts. Thus, the changes seen in bulbar innervation patterns correlated to odorant-mediated behavior. We show that the adult zebrafish brain has the capacity to recover rapidly from detergent damage of the olfactory epithelium, with both glomerular distribution and odorant-mediated behavior returning in 10 days. PMID:25450960

  6. [Analysis of volcanic-ash-based insoluble ingredients of facial cleansers].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    The substance termed "Shirasu balloons", produced by the heat treatment of volcanic silicates, is in the form of hollow glass microspheres. Recently, this substance has gained popularity as an ingredient of facial cleansers currently available in the market, because it lends a refreshing and smooth feeling after use. However, reports of eye injury after use of a facial cleanser containing a substance made from volcanic ashes are on the rise. We presumed that the shape and size of these volcanic-ash-based ingredients would be the cause of such injuries. Therefore, in this study, we first developed a method for extracting water-insoluble ingredients such as "Shirasu balloons" from the facial cleansers, and then, we examined their shapes and sizes. The insoluble ingredients extracted from the cleansers were mainly those derived from volcanic silicates. A part of the ingredients remained in the form of glass microspheres, but for the most part, the ingredients were present in various forms, such as fragments of broken glass. Some of the fragments were larger than 75 microm in length. Foreign objects having a certain hardness, shape, and size (e.g., size greater than 75 microm) can possibly cause eye injury. We further examined insoluble ingredients of facial scrubs, such as artificial mineral complexes, mud, charcoal, and polymers, except for volcanic-silicate-based ingredients. The amounts of insoluble ingredients extracted from these scrubs were small and did not have a sharp edge. Some scrubs had ingredients with particles larger than 75 microm in size, but their specific gravities were small and their hardness values were much lower than those of glass microspheres of ingredients such as "Shirasu balloons". Because the fragments of glass microspheres can possibly cause eye injury, the facial cleansers containing large insoluble ingredients derived from volcanic ashes should be avoided to use around eyes. PMID:22259848

  7. Tau in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome is insoluble and abnormally phosphorylated.

    PubMed Central

    Hanger, D P; Brion, J P; Gallo, J M; Cairns, N J; Luthert, P J; Anderton, B H

    1991-01-01

    Some investigators have described the presence in Alzheimer's disease brain extracts of several abnormal forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau, based on their unusual mobility in SDS/PAGE. It has been proposed that these abnormal forms of tau may be the result of aberrant tau phosphorylation. In this study we show that tau in extracts of Alzheimer's disease brain can be separated into two fractions based upon its solubility (100,000 g x 1 h supernatant) in non-denaturing conditions (100 mM-Mes, pH 6.5, 0.5 mM-MgCl2, 1 mM-EGTA and 1 M-NaCl). The tau isoforms with decreased mobility in SDS/PAGE are predominantly in an insoluble fraction, whereas the soluble tau is indistinguishable by its mobility in SDS/PAGE from tau in soluble extracts of control brain. Insoluble tau displaying abnormal mobility on SDS/PAGE was only found in Alzheimer and adult Down's syndrome brains and was absent from the brains of age-matched controls and from foetal and infant Down's syndrome brains. There was a good correlation between the presence of insoluble tau in brain extracts and the abundance of neurofibrillary tangles and senile neuritic plaques. The monoclonal antibody Tau. 1 stained insoluble tau on Western blots only after treatment of the nitrocellulose transfers with alkaline phosphatase, implying that this insoluble tau is in a particular state of phosphorylation. We conclude that, in Alzheimer's disease, a fraction of tau has a modified phosphorylation state and a decreased solubility; these modifications may precede formation of the neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome in adults. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1826835

  8. Cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of soluble and insoluble compounds containing hexavalent and trivalent chromium.

    PubMed Central

    Levis, A. G.; Majone, F.

    1981-01-01

    Cr(III) and Cr(VI) compounds of varying solubilities have been tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit cell growth and nucleic acid and protein syntheses in BHK cells, to induce alterations in the mitotic cycle in HEp cells, and to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in CHO cells. All Cr(VI) compounds, and particularly those containing soluble Cr(VI), such as potassium dichromate and zinc yellow, differentially inhibit macromolecular syntheses in BKH cells, that of DNA being always the most affected. Among Cr(III) compounds, which generally have very low cytotoxicity, chromite is particularly active, and inhibits cell growth and DNA synthesis even more than the poorly soluble Cr(VI) compounds. Preincubation in growth medium, with or without metabolizing cell cultures, solubilizes considerable amounts of Cr(VI) from zinc yellow and chromite, but significant amounts are also obtained from the most insoluble Cr(VI) pigments. When BHK cells are treated with such preincubated solutions, reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by cell metabolites is seen with all Cr(VI) compounds, accompanied by decreased cytotoxicity. The same differences between Cr(VI) and Cr(III) compounds apply to the cytotoxic effects on mitosis of HEp cells and the clastogenic effects on CHO cells. The activity of chromite, the only Cr(III) pigment capable of significantly increasing the frequency of SCE, is due to contamination with soluble Cr(VI). In contrast to the very low cytotoxicity of Cr(III), much higher chromium levels are detected in the cells incubated with soluble Cr(III) than with the same concentrations of soluble Cr(VI). 50% and 75% of chromium accumulated in the cells during treatments with Cr(VI) and Cr(III) respectively remains firmly bound to the cells, even when they are incubated for up to 48 h in normal growth medium. Chromium accumulated in the cells after treatment with Cr(III) is most probably bound to the cell

  9. Increased mutagenicity of chromium compounds by nitrilotriacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Loprieno, N.; Boncristiani, G.; Venier, P.; Montaldi, A.; Majone, F.; Bianchi, V.; Paglialunga, S.; Levis, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt (NTA), which is a substitute for polyphosphates in household laundry detergents, and N-nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), a derivative of NTA produced by metabolism of soil microorganisms, were tested for in vitro mutagenicity in bacteria and yeasts. No gene reversions in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100), no forward gene mutations in Schizosaccharomyces pombe P1, and no mitotic gene conversions at two loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4 were induced by NTA and NIDA independently of the presence of rat liver metabolic activation. The influence of NTA on the mutagenic and clastogenic activity of several chromium compounds was examined in the Salmonella/microsome assay and in the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in mammalian cell cultures (Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) line). NTA does not affect the genetic inactivity of water-soluble Cr(III) (Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/) and the direct mutagenicity of soluble Cr(VI) (Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) compounds. The very insoluble Cr(VI) compounds PbCrO/sub 4/ and PbCrO/sub 4/ x PbO are instead clearly mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay (TA100 strain) only in the presence of NTA or NaOH. The chromosome-damaging activity of PbCrO/sub 4/ is significantly increased by NTA but not by NaOH.

  10. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. PMID:25053519

  11. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  12. Stability of thermostable alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis RP1 in commercial solid laundry detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Haddar, Anissa; Ali, Nedra El-Hadj; Ghorbel-Frikha, Basma; Kanoun, Safia; Nasri, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    The stability of crude extracellular protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis RP1, isolated from polluted water, in various solid laundry detergents was investigated. The enzyme had an optimum pH and temperature at pH 10.0-11.0 and 65-70 degrees C. Enzyme activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting that the preparation contains a serine-protease. The alkaline protease showed extreme stability towards non-ionic (5% Tween 20% and 5% Triton X-100) and anionic (0.5% SDS) surfactants, which retained 100% and above 73%, respectively, of its initial activity after preincubation 60 min at 40 degrees C. The RP1 protease showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial solid detergents at temperatures from 40 to 50 degrees C, suggesting its further application in detergent industry. The enzyme retained 95% of its initial activity with Ariel followed by Axion (94%) then Dixan (93.5%) after preincubation 60 min at 40 degrees C in the presence of 7 mg/ml of detergents. In the presence of Nadhif and New Det, the enzyme retained about 83.5% of the original activity. The effects of additives such as maltodextrin, sucrose and PEG 4000 on the stability of the enzyme during spray-drying and during subsequent storage in New Det detergent were also examined. All additives tested enhanced stability of the enzyme. PMID:16872818

  13. Toxicity assessment of a common laundry detergent using the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Synthetic detergents are among the commonly used chemicals in everyday life. Detergents, reaching aquatic environments through domestic and municipal wastewater, can cause many different effects in aquatic organisms. The present study was aimed at the toxicity evaluation of a commonly used laundry detergent, Ariel, using the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis as a biotest organism. Different parameters of the flagellate like motility, swimming velocity, cell shape, gravitactic orientation, photosynthesis and concentration of light harvesting pigments were used as end points for the toxicity assessment. No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) and EC(50) values were calculated for the end point parameters at four different incubation times, i.e. 0, 6, 24 and 72 h. After 72 h incubation, swimming velocity of the cells was found to be the most sensitive parameter giving NOEC and EC(50) values of 10.8 and 34 mg L(-1), respectively. After 72 h exposure to the detergent, chlorophyll a and total carotenoids were significantly decreased in cultures treated with Ariel at concentrations of 50 mg L(-1) and above while chlorophyll b significantly decreased at concentrations above 750 mg L(-1). The maximum inhibitory effect on the quantum yield of photosystem II was observed after 24 h exposure and thereafter a recovery trend was observed. Motility, gravitaxis and cell shape were strongly impaired immediately upon exposure to the detergent, but with increasing exposure time these parameters showed acclimatization to the stress and thus the NOEC values obtained after 72 h were higher than those immediately after exposure. PMID:21601907

  14. Additive and Synergistic Membrane Permeabilization by Antimicrobial (Lipo)Peptides and Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiren; Huynh, Quang; Bärlehner, Dominik; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Certain antibiotic peptides are thought to permeabilize membranes of pathogens by effects that are also observed for simple detergents, such as membrane thinning and disordering, asymmetric bilayer expansion, toroidal pore formation, and micellization. Here we test the hypothesis that such peptides act additively with detergents when applied in parallel. Additivity is defined analogously to a fractional inhibitory concentration index of unity, and the extent and mechanism of leakage is measured by the fluorescence lifetime-based vesicle leakage assay using calcein-loaded vesicles. Good additivity was found for the concerted action of magainin 2, the fungicidal lipopeptide class of surfactins from Bacillus subtilis QST713, and the detergent octyl glucoside, respectively, with the detergent C12EO8. Synergistic or superadditive action was observed for fengycins from B. subtilis, as well as the detergent CHAPS, when combined with C12EO8. The results illustrate two mechanisms of synergistic action: First, maximal leakage requires an optimum degree of heterogeneity in the system that may be achieved by mixing a graded with an all-or-none permeabilizer. (The optimal perturbation should be focused to certain defect structures, yet not to the extent that some vesicles are not affected at all.) Second, a cosurfactant may enhance the bioavailability of a poorly soluble peptide. The results are important for understanding the concerted action of membrane-permeabilizing compounds in biology as well as for optimizing formulations of such antimicrobials for medical applications or crop protection. PMID:24853740

  15. Detergent-Assisted Glycoprotein Capture: A Versatile Tool for In-Depth N-Glycoproteome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zou, Hanfa; Figeys, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale N-glycoproteome studies have been hindered by poor solubility of hydrophobic membrane proteins and the complexity of proteome samples. Herein, we developed a detergent-assisted glycoprotein capture method to reduce these issues by conducting hydrazide chemistry-based glycoprotein capture in the presence of strong detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. The strong detergents helped to solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins and then increased the access of hydrazide groups to oxidized glycoproteins, thus increasing the coverage of the N-glycoproteome. Compared with the conventional glycopeptide capture method, the detergent-assisted glycoprotein capture approach nearly doubled the number of N-glycosylation sites identified from HEK 293T cells with improved specificity. Application of this approach in the larger scale N-glycoproteomics analysis of the HEK 293T cell membrane led to the identification of 2253 unique N-glycosites from 953 proteins. Furthermore, the application of this approach to human serum resulted in the identification of 850 N-glycosylation sites without any immunodepletion or fractionation. Overall, the detergent-assisted glycoprotein capture method simplified the capture process, and it increased the number of sites observed on both hydrophobic membrane proteins and hydrophilic secreted proteins. PMID:27147131

  16. Development of USEtox characterisation factors for dishwasher detergents using data made available under REACH.

    PubMed

    Igos, Elorri; Moeller, Ruth; Benetto, Enrico; Biwer, Arno; Guiton, Mélanie; Dieumegard, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Because of the more and more stringent regulations and customer demand, dishwasher detergent manufacturers are constantly improving the composition of the products towards better environmental performances. In order to quantify the pros and cons of these changes on the lifecycle of detergents, as compared to conventional products, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a meaningful opportunity. However, the application of the methodology is hampered by the lack of Characterisation Factors (CFs) relative to the specific chemical substances included in the detergents composition, which cannot be included in the impact assessment of the effluent discharge. In this study we have tackled this problem, taking advantage of the specific case of three dishwasher detergents produced by the Chemolux/McBride group: phosphate-based, eco-labelled and phosphate-free formulations. Nine CFs for freshwater ecotoxicity and seven CFs for human toxicity have been developed, using the USEtox methodology and data made available under the REACH regulation. As a result, the dishwasher effluent composition could be characterised by more than 95% for freshwater ecotoxicity whereas for human toxicity the percentage was less than 36%, due to the lack of adequate and reliable repeated dose toxicity studies. The main contributing substances to freshwater ecotoxicity were found to be sodium percarbonate and sodium triphosphate, the latter confirming the pertinence of phosphates banning in the detergent industry. Regarding human toxicity, zinc shows the highest contribution. Further comparison to previous studies and sensitivity analysis substantiated the robustness of these conclusions. PMID:24321331

  17. The evaluation of possible false positives with detergents when performing amylase serological testing on clothing.

    PubMed

    Feia, Andrea; Novroski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    For almost 40 years, detergent companies have been adding enzymes such as amylases to their products as an effective method of breaking down tough stains created by polysaccharides and proteins. The possibility that α-amylases present in common household laundry detergents may contribute to the positive detection of α-amylase on evidentiary samples during forensic presumptive screening procedures is a potential problem that has not yet been investigated. To determine whether α-amylase detection is possible following routine laundering, five different fabrics were laundered in a variety of detergents, and presumptive testing using RSID(™)-Saliva and Phadebas(®) Amylase Test was conducted. Our results demonstrate that clothing laundered in detergents known to contain enzymes does not retain any detectable levels of α-amylase following a typical wash cycle. We also show that, unlike laundered clothing, undiluted detergents do contain detectable levels of α-amylase; however, these findings were only observed using the Phadebas(®) Amylase Test. PMID:22946767

  18. Evaluation of metal contents of household detergent samples from Turkey by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, copper, chromium, cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in detergent samples from Kayseri, Turkey were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. HClO₄ (10 mL)/HNO₃ (10 mL) mixture was used for the digestion of household detergent samples. The correctness of the analytical procedures was checked with standard addition-recovery tests in different detergent samples for the investigated metal ions. The concentration ranges of the elements in the detergent samples were found as 17.2-60.1, 11.1-40.1, 2.5-32.3, 8.1-10.5, 7.2-21.6, 9.8-17.9, 1.7-3.8, 12.5-22.5, and 2.0-5.8 μg/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and chromium, respectively. The values found in this work were compared with some other studies around the world conducted on detergent samples. PMID:23722641

  19. Differential viability of phosphoglucose isomerase allozyme genotypes of marine snails in nonionic detergent and crude oil-surfactant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lavie, B.; Nevo, E.; Zoller, U.

    1984-10-01

    The effects of a nonionic detergent and of crude oil-detergent mixtures in aqueous solutions on the allozyme frequencies of phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) genotypes were tested in the Mediterranean marine gastropods Monodonta turbinata and M. turbiformis. Our results indicate differential survivorship of electrophoretical Pgi allozyme genotypes for both detergent alone and for crude oil-detergent mixtures. These results reflect the adaptive nature of some Pgi genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that allozyme variants demonstrate a differential tolerance to these organic pollutants and can, therefore, be used as detectors of organic pollutants in the sea.

  20. The association of different detergents with the photosynthetic reaction center protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 and the effects on its photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gast, P; Hemelrijk, P W; Van Gorkom, H J; Hoff, A J

    1996-08-01

    Detergent-free reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 were used to study the solubilization of reaction centers in various detergents and their effects on reaction center photochemistry. 500 +/- 100 n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside or 51 +/- 5 Triton X-100 molecules were associated with one reaction center. For N.N-alkylamine N-oxide detergents with chain lengths in the range from 8-13 carbon atoms, the number of detergent molecules associated with the reaction centers increased with decreasing chain length. The amount of detergent molecules associated with the reaction centers decreased almost tenfold if the pH was increased from pH 6 to pH 10. The addition of 5% 1,2,3-heptanetriol to various detergents lowered the detergent/reaction center ratio by a factor of two compared to that for the pure detergent. The detergent concentration at which solubilization of the reaction center occurs was close to the critical micelle concentration for all detergents studied. The absorption band at 865 nm of the primary donor in the reaction center shifts to 846 nm when detergent was removed from the reaction center; upon resolubilization with various detergents, this band shifts back to 865 nm. In 80-90% of the detergent-free reaction centers, the secondary electron transfer from QA to QB was inhibited: this electron transfer was restored after re-addition of detergent. PMID:8774729

  1. A Pd8 Tetrafacial Molecular Barrel as Carrier for Water Insoluble Fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bijan; Ghosh, Aloke Kumar; Srivastava, Shubhi; D'Silva, Patrick; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-09-23

    A new carbazole-based tetraimidazole ligand 1,3,6,8-tetra(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-9-methyl-9H-carbazole (L) has been synthesized. The unsymmetrical nature of L as well as the rotational freedom of imidazole donor moieties around C-N bond make it a special building unit, which upon treatment with cis-(tmeda)Pd(NO3)2 produced an unprecedented single linkage-isomeric Pd8 tetrafacial molecular nanobarrel (PSMBR-1) [tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethane-1,2-diamine]. Unlike closed architectures, open barrel architecture of water-soluble PSMBR-1 makes it an ideal host for some water insoluble polyaromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous medium; one such inclusion complex coronene⊂PSMBR-1 was characterized by X-ray diffraction study. Moreover, the potential application of PSMBR-1 as carrier in aqueous medium for the transportation of water insoluble fluorophore (perylene) for live cell imaging is explored. PMID:26340646

  2. 13C NMR spectroscopy of the insoluble carbon of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Frye, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectra have been obtained of the insoluble carbon residues resulting from HF-digestion of three carbonaceous chondrites, Orgueil (C1), Murchison (CM2), and Allende (CV3). Spectra obtained using the cross polarization magic-angle spinning technique show two major features attributable respectively to carbon in aliphatic/olefinic structures. The spectrum obtained from the Allende sample was weak, presumably as a consequence of its low hydrogen content. Single pulse excitation spectra, which do not depend on 1H-13C polarization transfer for signal enhancement were also obtained. These spectra, which may be more representative of the total carbon in the meteorite samples, indicate a greater content of carbon in aromatic/olefinic structures. These results suggest that extensive polycyclic aromatic sheets are important structural features of the insoluble carbon of all three meteorites. The Orgueil and Murchison materials contain additional hydrogenated aromatic/olefinic and aliphatic groups.

  3. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers. PMID:26616944

  4. Removal of metals and water-insoluble materials from desalter emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, S.K.; Mosby, J.F.; Treadman, J.E. II.

    1993-06-15

    A process for removing metals and insoluble materials from crude oil is described comprising the steps of: blending crude oil with water and desalting chemicals; charging the oil blend to a desalting chamber and passing it through an electrical field whereby agglomeration of suspended insoluble materials occurs and layers of clean oil, brine and oil-brine interface emulsion are formed; withdrawing the oil and brine; measuring the volume of the emulsion layer; withdrawing a portion of the emulsion layer; blending the withdrawn emulsion with up to 2 volumes of aromatic-rich hydrocarbon containing at least 20% aromatics by volume; maintaining the blend at a temperature of 100 to 300 F and a positive pressure; and subjecting the blend to a force of at least about 500 g, whereby oil free of at least 90% of suspended particulates and water results.

  5. Nfasc155H and MAG are specifically susceptible to detergent extraction in the absence of the myelin sphingolipid sulfatide

    PubMed Central

    Pomicter, AD; DeLoyht, JM; Hackett, AR; Purdie, N; Sato-Bigbee, C; Henderson, SC; Dupree, JL

    2015-01-01

    Mice incapable of synthesizing the myelin lipid sulfatide form paranodes that deteriorate with age. Similar instability also occurs in mice that lack contactin, contactin-associated protein or neurofascin155 (Nfasc155), the proteins that cluster in the paranode and form the junctional complex that mediates myelin-axon adhesion. In contrast to these proteins, sulfatide has not been shown to be enriched in the paranode nor has a sulfatide paranodal binding partner been identified; thus, it remains unclear how the absence of sulfatide results in compromised paranode integrity., Using an in situ extraction procedure, it has been reported that the absence of the myelin sphingolipids, galactocerebroside and sulfatide, increased the susceptibility of Nfasc155 to detergent extraction. Here, employing a similar approach, we demonstrate that in the presence of galactocerebroside but in the absence of sulfatide Nfasc155 is susceptible to detergent extraction. Furthermore, we use this in situ approach to show that stable association of myelin-associate glycoprotein (MAG) with the myelin membrane is sulfatide dependent while the membrane associations of myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin basic protein and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase are sulfatide independent. These findings indicate that myelin proteins maintain their membrane associations by different mechanisms. Moreover, the myelin proteins that cluster in the paranode and require sulfatide mediate myelin-axon adhesion. Additionally, the apparent dependency on sulfatide for maintaining Nfasc155 and MAG associations is intriguing since the fatty acid composition of sulfatide is altered and paranodal ultrastructure is compromised in multiple sclerosis. Thus, our findings present a potential link between sulfatide perturbation and myelin deterioration in multiple sclerosis. PMID:24081651

  6. Purification and biochemical characterization of two detergent-stable serine alkaline proteases from Streptomyces sp. strain AH4.

    PubMed

    Touioui, Souraya Boulkour; Jaouadi, Nadia Zaraî; Boudjella, Hadjira; Ferradji, Fatma Zohra; Belhoul, Mouna; Rekik, Hatem; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-07-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain AH4 exhibited a high ability to produce two extracellular proteases when cultured on a yeast malt-extract (ISP2)-casein-based medium. Pure proteins were obtained after heat treatment (30 min at 70 °C) and ammonium sulphate fractionation (30-60 %), followed by size exclusion HPLC column. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the purified enzymes (named SAPS-P1 and SAPS-P2) were monomers with molecular masses of 36,417.13 and 21,099.10 Da, respectively. Their identified N-terminal amino acid displayed high homologies with those of Streptomyces proteases. While SAPS-P1 was optimally active at pH 12.0 and 70 °C, SAPS-P2 showed optimum activity at pH 10.0 and 60 °C. Both enzymes were completely stable within a wide range of temperature (45-75 °C) and pH (8.0-11.5). They were noted to be completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphates, which confirmed their belonging to the serine proteases family. Compared to SAPS-P2, SAPS-P1 showed high thermostability and excellent stability towards bleaching, denaturing, and oxidizing agents. Both enzymes displayed marked stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial laundry detergents and significant catalytic efficiencies compared to Subtilisin Carlsberg and Protease SG-XIV. Overall, the results indicated that SAPS-P1 and SAPS-P2 can be considered as potential promising candidates for future application as bioadditives in detergent formulations. PMID:26002109

  7. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  8. Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study.

    PubMed

    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S; Griep, Linda M Oude; Griep, Linda M O; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S

    2015-11-14

    Prospective cohort studies have shown inverse associations between fibre intake and CVD, possibly mediated by blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of types of fibre on BP. We examined cross-sectional associations with BP of total, insoluble and soluble fibre intakes. Data were used from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study, including 2195 men and women aged between 40 and 59 years from the USA. During four visits, eight BP, four 24 h dietary recalls and two 24 h urine samples were collected. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary confounders to estimate BP differences per 2 sd higher intakes of total and individual types of fibre were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6·8 g/4184 kJ (6·8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95% CI -2·97, -0·41) and attenuated to -1·01 mmHg (95% CI -2·35, 0·34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4·6 g/4184 kJ (4·6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·81 mmHg lower SBP (95% CI -3·65, 0·04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods. PMID:26328746

  9. Carbon nanotube self-assembly with lipids and detergent: a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, E. Jayne; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous media is of potential importance in a number of biomedical applications. CNT solubilization has been achieved via the non-covalent adsorption of lipids and detergent onto the tube surface. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics to study the self-assembly of CNTs with various amphiphiles, namely a bilayer-forming lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and two species of detergent, dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). We find that for a low amphiphile/CNT ratio, DPPC, DHPC and LPC all wrap around the CNT. Upon increasing the number of amphiphiles, a transition in adsorption is observed: DPPC encapsulates the CNT within a cylindrical micelle, whilst both DHPC and LPC adsorb onto CNTs in hemimicelles. This study highlights differences in adsorption mechanism of bilayer-forming lipids and detergents on CNTs which may in the future be exploitable to enable enhancement of CNT solubilization whilst minimizing perturbation of cell membrane integrity.

  10. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome from acute inhalation of a dishwasher detergent powder.

    PubMed

    Hannu, Timo J; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution. PMID:22679618

  11. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome from acute inhalation of dishwasher detergent powder

    PubMed Central

    Hannu, Timo J; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution. PMID:22679618

  12. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, M.; Le Mogne, Th.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Rauwel, G.; Criquelion, J.; De Barros, M. I.; Cêtre, J. C.; Martin, J. M.

    2005-02-01

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed.

  13. An oral controlled release system for ambroxol hydrochloride containing a wax and a water insoluble polymer.

    PubMed

    Chi, Na; Guo, Ju Hong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xing

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop and optimize oral sustained-release formulations for Ambroxol hydrochloride matrix pellets using a combination of wax and water-insoluble polymer, glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) and Ethylcellulose (EC(7 FP)). It involved three factors: the content of Compritol 888 ATO (X(1)), EC(7 FP) (X(2)), and the matrix formation methods (X(3)), as independent variables. The drug release percentages at 1, 2 and 4 h were the target responses and were restricted to 15-45% (Y(1)), 45-80% (Y(2)) and 80-100% (Y(3)), respectively. The final blend formulation prepared by extrusion spheronization, was achieved with 27.00% (w/w) Ambroxol hydrochloride, 48.70% (w/w) Compritol 888 ATO, and 24.30% (w/w) EC(7 Fp) with 40 degrees C for 12 h. Comparing the single matrix materials consisting of just the wax or water-insoluble in the complex matrix system containing wax and water-insoluble polymer, the release of the drug can be far more retarded, when the formulations have undergone the process of heat treatment. Furthermore, the combination of the two polymers, with flexible matrix formation methods, will offer a very promising way of producing matrix pellets instead of coated controlled-release pellets to meet various demands of drug release. PMID:19671037

  14. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects

    PubMed Central

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects. PMID:26579474

  15. Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ran; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Liu, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    Wheat bran is rich in dietary fibre and its annual output is abundant, but underutilized. Insoluble dietary fibre often influences food quality negatively; therefore, how to improve the physical and chemical properties of insoluble dietary fibre of wheat bran for post processing is a challenge. Insoluble dietary fibre was obtained from wheat bran and micronized using high-pressure homogenization, high-intensity sonication, and a combination of these two methods. The high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication treatments significantly (p<0.05) improved the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, and cation exchange capacities. The improvement of the above properties by high-intensity sonication alone was marginal. In most cases, the high-pressure homogenization process was as good as the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process in improving the above-mentioned properties; hence, the contribution of high-`intensity sonication in the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process was minimal. The best results show that the minimum particle size of wheat bran can reach 9 μm, and the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, cation exchange capacities change significantly.

  16. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects.

    PubMed

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-09-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects. PMID:26579474

  17. Knockdown of versican 1 blocks cigarette-induced loss of insoluble elastin in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu-lu; Lu, Yun-tao; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Lian; Merrilees, Mervyn J; Qu, Jie-ming

    2015-08-15

    COPD lung is characterized by loss of alveolar elastic fibers and an increase in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) matrix proteoglycan versican V1 (V1). V1 is a known inhibitor of elastic fiber deposition and this study investigates the effects of knockdown of V1, and add-back of CS, on CCL-210 lung fibroblasts treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) as a model for COPD. CSE inhibited fibroblast proliferation, viability, tropoelastin synthesis, and elastin deposition, and increased V1 synthesis and secretion. V1 siRNA decreased V1 and constituent CS, did not affect tropoelastin production, but blocked the CSE-induced loss in insoluble elastin. Exogenous CS reduced insoluble elastin, even in the presence of V1 siRNA. These findings confirm that V1 and CS impair the assembly of tropoelastin monomers into insoluble fibers, and further demonstrate that specific knockdown of V1 alleviates the impaired assembly of elastin seen in cultures of pulmonary fibroblasts exposed to CSE, indicating a regulatory role for this protein in the pathophysiology of COPD. PMID:25999281

  18. Effect of insoluble extracellular matrix molecules on Fas expression in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fine, A; Miranda, K; Farmer, S R; Anderson, N L

    1998-03-01

    Fas, which functions to initiate a signal causing apoptosis, is expressed in epithelia, thus, suggesting a role in controlling cell number during states of cell and matrix turnover. In view of this, we hypothesized that cell-matrix interactions may be an important determinant of Fas expression in epithelial cells. To investigate this, we examined the effect of insoluble extracellular matrix molecules on Fas expression in murine lung epithelial (MLE) cells, a transformed mouse lung epithelial cell line. We report that 1) insoluble extracellular matrices increased Fas mRNA in a time and concentration-dependent manner; 2) induced increases in Fas mRNA were associated with concomitantly increased Fas protein; and 3) nonspecific adherence to a polylysine substrate did not induce Fas mRNA. Consistent with these findings, Fas-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced in cultures plated on type IV collagen. Employing rat hepatocytes, we confirmed that the insoluble extracellular matrix also increases Fas expression in primary epithelial cells. By amplifying Fas-mediated apoptosis, these data suggest a mechanism whereby the extracellular matrix regulates the fate of specific epithelial cell populations. PMID:9462690

  19. Significant formation of water-insoluble secondary organic aerosols in semi-arid urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Olivier; Sciare, Jean; Cachier, Hélène; Alfaro, Stéphane C.; Abdelwahab, Magdy M.

    2008-08-01

    Diurnal variations of submicron elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) were investigated at an urban background site in Cairo (Egypt) from 23 March to 14 April 2005. Well-marked diurnal patterns, with minima during the traffic-influenced morning period (6:00-9:00) and maxima during the intense photochemical period (12:00-15:00), were observed for the WSOC/EC ratio and, more surprisingly, for the WIOC/EC ratio. Such diurnal variations suggest significant formation of both water-soluble and water-insoluble secondary organic aerosols during the afternoon. Applying the EC-tracer method, freshly-formed secondary organic carbon (fresh SOC) was found to possibly account for more than 50% of OC concentrations measured during the 12:00-15:00 period, and this fresh SOC was calculated to be mainly (~60%) composed of water-insoluble species. The latter (unexpected) result could be due to low ambient relative humidity as well as to the importance of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in Cairo.

  20. The interaction of quinone and detergent with reaction centers of purple bacteria. I. Slow quinone exchange between reaction center micelles and pure detergent micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Shinkarev, V P; Wraight, C A

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of light-induced electron transfer in reaction centers (RCs) from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides were studied in the presence of the detergent lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide (LDAO). After the light-induced electron transfer from the primary donor (P) to the acceptor quinone complex, the dark re-reduction of P+ reflects recombination from the reduced acceptor quinones, QA- or QB-. The secondary quinone, QB, which is loosely bound to the RC, determines the rate of this process. Electron transfer to QB slows down the return of the electron to P+, giving rise to a slow phase of the recovery kinetics with time tau P approximately 1 s, whereas charge recombination in RCs lacking QB generates a fast phase with time tau AP approximately 0.1 s. The amount of quinone bound to RC micelles can be reduced by increasing the detergent concentration. The characteristic time of the slow component of P+ dark relaxation, observed at low quinone content per RC micelle (at high detergent concentration), is about 1.2-1.5 s, in sharp contrast to expectations from previous models, according to which the time of the slow component should approach the time of the fast component (about 0.1 s) when the quinone concentration approaches zero. To account for this large discrepancy, a new quantitative approach has been developed to analyze the kinetics of electron transfer in isolated RCs with the following key features: 1) The exchange of quinone between different micelles (RC and detergent micelles) occurs more slowly than electron transfer from QB- to P+; 2) The exchange of quinone between the detergent "phase" and the QB binding site within the same RC micelle is much faster than electron transfer between QA- and P+; 3) The time of the slow component of P+ dark relaxation is determined by (n) > or = 1, the average number of quinones in RC micelles, calculated only for those RC micelles that have at least one quinone per RC (in excess of QA). An

  1. Protein-detergent interactions in single crystals of membrane proteins studied by neutron crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Timmins, P.A.; Pebay-Peyroula, E.

    1994-12-31

    The detergent micelles surrounding membrane protein molecules in single crystals can be investigated using neutron crystallography combined with H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast variation. If the protein structure is known then the contrast variation method allows phases to be determined at a contrast where the detergent dominates the scattering. The application of various constraints allows the resulting scattering length density map to be realistically modeled. The method has been applied to two different forms of the membrane protein porin. In one case both hydrogenated and partially deuterated protein were used, allowing the head group and tail to be distinguished.

  2. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma. PMID:25695198

  3. Solution structure of detergent micelles at conditions relevant to membrane protein crystallization.

    SciTech Connect

    Littrell, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Tiede, D.; Urban, V.

    1999-07-02

    In this study small angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the formation of micelles in aqueous solutions of the detergents DMG and SPC as a function of detergent concentration and ionic strength of the solvent. The effects on the micelle structure of the additives glycerol and PEG, alone as well as in combination typical for actual membrane protein crystallization, were also explored. This research suggests that the micelles are cigar-like in form at the concentrations studied. The size of the micelles was observed to increase with increasing ionic strength but decrease with the addition of glycerol or PEG.

  4. Detergent-Mediated Formation of β-Hematin: Heme Crystallization Promoted by Detergents Implicates Nanostructure Formation for Use as a Biological Mimic

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hemozoin is a unique biomineral that results from the sequestration of toxic free heme liberated as a consequence of hemoglobin degradation in the malaria parasite. Synthetic neutral lipid droplets (SNLDs) and phospholipids were previously shown to support the rapid formation of β-hematin, abiological hemozoin, under physiologically relevant pH and temperature, though the mechanism by which heme crystallization occurs remains unclear. Detergents are particularly interesting as a template because they are amphiphilic molecules that spontaneously organize into nanostructures and have been previously shown to mediate β-hematin formation. Here, 11 detergents were investigated to elucidate the physicochemical properties that best recapitulate crystal formation in the parasite. A strong correlation between the detergent’s molecular structure and the corresponding kinetics of β-hematin formation was observed, where higher molecular weight polar chains promoted faster reactions. The larger hydrophilic chains correlated to the detergent’s ability to rapidly sequester heme into the lipophilic core, allowing for crystal nucleation to occur. The data presented here suggest that detergent nanostructures promote β-hematin formation in a similar manner to SNLDs and phospholipids. Through understanding mediator properties that promote optimal crystal formation, we are able to establish an in vitro assay to probe this drug target pathway. PMID:27175104

  5. Synthesis and characterization of an insoluble polymer based on polyamidoamine: applications for the decontamination of metals in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Oscar; Vergara, Claudia E; Camarada, Maria B; Carrasco-Sánchez, Veronica; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Tapia, Jaime; Fischer, Rainer; González-Nilo, F D; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel, insoluble, low-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-based polymer. The monomer and polymer were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric measurement, revealing that G0 acryloyl-terminated PAMAM were synthesized and polymerized using ammonium persulfate as an initiator, producing a high-density PAMAM derivative (PAMAM-HD). PAMAM-HD was tested for its ability to remove Na(I), K(I), Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from acidic, neutral and basic aqueous solutions. PAMAM-HD efficiently removed metals ions from all three solutions. The greatest absorption efficiency at neutral pH was observed against Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), and the experimental data were supported by the calculated Kd values. Our data could have a significant impact on water purification by providing an inexpensive and efficient polymer for the removal of metal ions. PMID:25304521

  6. The Insoluble Carbonaceous Material of CM Chondrites as Possible Source of Discrete Organics During the Asteroidal Aqueous Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yabuta, H.; Williams, L.; Cody, G.; Pizzarello, S.

    2005-01-01

    The larger portion of the organic carbon in carbonaceous chondrites (CC) is present as a complex and heterogeneous macromolecular material that is insoluble in acids and most solvents (IOM). So far, it has been analyzed only as a whole by microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy (IR, NMR, EPR), which have offered and overview of its chemical nature, bonding, and functional group composition. Chemical or pyrolytic decomposition has also been used in combination with GC-MS to identify individual compounds released by these processes. Their value in the recognition of the original IOM structure resides in the ability to properly interpret the decomposition pathways for any given process. We report here a preliminary study of IOM from the Murray meteorite that combines both the analytical approaches described above, under conditions that would realistically model the IOM hydrothermal exposure in the meteorite parent body. The aim is to document the possible release of water and solvent soluble organics, determine possible changes in NMR spectral features, and ascertain, by extension, the effect of this loss on the frame of the IOM residue. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap....

  8. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap....

  9. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap....

  10. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap....

  11. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap....

  12. Effect of some detergents, humate, and composition of seedbed on crop of tomato plants in a hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guminka, A. Z.; Gracz-Nalepka, M.; Lukasiewicz, B.; Sobolewicz, E.; Turkiewicz, I. T.

    1978-01-01

    It is established that single detergent doses distinctly stimulate vegetative development of plants in the initial stage when humates are available. When detergents are applied every four weeks in a hydroponic culture, in which the seedbed does not contain active humates, the crop is reduced by 50%. This adverse effect does not occur when the seedbed is a mixture of brown coal and peat.

  13. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method. PMID:24053862

  14. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  15. Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D.

    2006-01-01

    Recrystallization of benzoic acid is an excellent way to remove insoluble impurities. In a traditional organic laboratory experiment, insoluble impurities are removed through the recrystallization of benzoic acid utilizing water as the recrystallization solvent. It was our goal to develop a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise…

  16. New pyrolytic and spectroscopic data on Orgueil and Murchison insoluble organic matter: A different origin than soluble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François; Knicker, Heike

    2005-08-01

    Pyrolysis with and without tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), vacuum pyrolysis, and solid state 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. Conventional pyrolysis reveals a set of poorly functionalized aromatic compounds, ranging from one to four rings and with random methyl substitutions. These compounds are in agreement with spectroscopic and pyrolytic results previously reported. For the first time, TMAH thermochemolysis was used to study extraterrestrial material. The detection of aromatics bearing methyl esters and methoxy groups reveals the occurrence of ester and ether bridges between aromatic units in the macromolecular network. No nitrogen-containing compounds were detected with TMAH thermochemolysis, although they are a common feature in terrestrial samples. Along with vacuum pyrolysis results, thermochemolysis shows that nitrogen is probably sequestered in condensed structures like heterocyclic aromatic rings, unlike oxygen, which is mainly located within linkages between aromatic units. This is confirmed by solid state 15N NMR performed on IOM from Orgueil, showing that nitrogen is present in pyrrole, indole, and carbazole moieties. These data show that amino acids are neither derived from the hydrolysis of IOM nor from a common precursor. In order to reconcile the literature isotopic data and the present molecular results, it is proposed that aldehydes and ketones (1) originated during irradiation of ice in space and (2) were then mobilized during the planetesimal hydrothermalism, yielding the formation of amino acids. If correct, prebiotic molecules are the products of the subsurface chemistry of planetesimals and are thus undetectable through astronomical probes.

  17. Comparison of alternative methods, sample grinds, and fermentation times for determining indigestible neutral detergent fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of sample grind, fermentation method, and time on the determination of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF). Samples of: 1) alfalfa hay and silage, 2) corn stalks and silage, and 3) ryegrass and mixed grass hays were ground through 2-m...

  18. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: Analytical variability and sample ranking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  19. Detergent disruption of bacterial inner membranes and recovery of protein translocation activity

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, K.; Wickner, W.T. )

    1989-11-01

    Isolation of the integral membrane components of protein translocation requires methods for fractionation and functional reconstitution. The authors treated inner-membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli with mixtures of octyl {beta}-D-glucoside, phospholipids, and an integral membrane carrier protein under conditions that extract most of the membrane proteins into micellar solution. Upon dialysis, proteoliposomes were reconstituted that supported translocation of radiochemically pure ({sup 35}S)pro-OmpA (the precursor of outer membrane protein A). Translocation into these proteoliposomes required ATP hydrolysis and membrane proteins, indicating that the reaction is that of the inner membrane. The suspension of membranes in detergent was separated into supernatant and pellet fractions by ultracentrifugation. After reconstitution, translocation activity was observed in both fractions, but processing by leader peptidase of translocated pro-OmpA to OmpA was not detectable in the reconstituted pellet fraction. Processing activity was restored by addition of pure leader peptidase as long as this enzyme was added before detergent removal, indicating that the translocation activity is not associated with detergent-resistant membrane vesicles. These results show that protein translocation activity can be recovered from detergent-disrupted membrane vesicles, providing a first step towards the goal of isolating the solubilized components.

  20. Development and reduction of hypertension and oxidative stress among detergent industry workers.

    PubMed

    Boojar, Massod M A; Goodarzi, Faranak; Boojar, Manochehr M A

    2004-12-01

    Hypertension status and oxidative stress parameters were assessed in 291 workers (hypertensive workers were divided into three grades, non-equivalently) at two detergent production plants, one of which included enzymes in the detergent (n=138) and another which did not (n=153), and 45 control workers in another industry three times (at the time of employment, 7 yrs later at the time of installation of a filter system, and about 3 yrs later). Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, antioxidant enzymes and lipid status by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, trace elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and blood pressure using an oscilometric device. Prior to filter system installation, enzyme-exposed workers had significantly higher MDA, antioxidant enzyme activities, and prevalence of hypertension, compared with controls. The filter system reduced airborne detergent and enzyme dusts, resulting in a decreased prevalence of hypertension and a significant improvement in workers' oxidative stress indicators. Alterations in antioxidant status may result from the cumulative effect of high levels of detergent and enzyme in airborne dust in the workplace. PMID:16789480

  1. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  2. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  3. Effective lipid-detergent system for study of membrane active peptides in fluid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sychev, Sergei V; Sukhanov, Stanislav V; Telezhinskaya, Irina N; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V

    2016-02-01

    The structure of peptide antibiotic gramicidin A (gA) was studied in phosphatidylcholin liposomes modified by nonionic detergent Triton X-100. First, the detergent : lipid ratio at which the saturation of lipid membrane by Triton X-100 occurs (Re (sat)), was determined by light scattering. Measurements of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene at sublytic concentrations of detergent showed that after saturation of the membrane by Triton X-100 microviscosity of lipid bilayer is reduced by 20%. The equilibrium conformational state of gA in phosphatidylcholine liposomes at Re (sat) was studied by CD spectroscopy. It was found that the conformational state of this channel-forming peptide changed crucially when Triton X-100 induced transition to more fluid membranes. The gA single-channel measurements were made with Triton X-100 containing bilayers. Tentative assignment of the channel type and gA structures was made by correlation of CD data with conductance histograms. Lipid-detergent system with variable viscosity developed in this work can be used to study the structure and folding of other membrane-active peptides. PMID:26751806

  4. Sanitizer Solutions Containing Detergents for Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sa...

  5. 75 FR 71123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... organizations engaged in formulating, producing, purchasing, or distributing surfactants or products containing surfactants. Title: Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program. ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 2261.02... involved in the transition to safer surfactants. Surfactants are a major ingredient in cleaning...

  6. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. PMID:21151446

  7. Characterization of Murine Brain Membrane Glycoproteins by Detergent Assisted Lectin Affinity Chromatography (DALAC)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Dulberger, Charles; Li, Lingjun

    2010-01-01

    Membrane glycoproteins play vital roles in many fundamental physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system and represent important targets for pharmaceuticals and biomarker discovery. However, their isolation and characterization has been greatly limited. Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) has evolved as a powerful method to enrich glycoproteins in biofluid and cell/tissue lysate. However, its use in the hydrophobic fraction of the samples has rarely been explored. In this study, we have conducted a systematic investigation on the lectin binding efficiency in the presence of four commonly used detergents. We have found that under certain concentrations, detergents can minimize the nonspecific bindings and facilitate the elution of hydrophobic glycoproteins. With the Detergent Assisted Lectin Affinity Chromatography (DALAC), a total of 1491 proteins were identified with low numbers of false positives from two lectins. 699 proteins were identified with at least two unique peptides, of which 219 are membrane glycoproteins. Compared to the traditional methods, the DALAC approach significantly increased the recovery of plasma membrane and glycoproteins. NP-40 is recommended as a well rounded detergent for DALAC, but the conditions for enriching certain target proteins need to be empirically determined. This study represents the first global identification of the murine brain glycoproteome. PMID:20700909

  8. A Guide to Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Membrane and Soluble Proteins in Detergents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengrong; Brouillette, Christie G

    2016-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) detects protein thermal unfolding by directly measuring the heat absorbed. Simple DSC experiments that require relatively small amounts of pure material can provide a wealth of information related to structure, especially with respect to domain architecture, without the need for a complete thermodynamic analysis. Thus, DSC is an ideal additional tool for membrane protein characterization and also offers several advantages over indirect thermal unfolding methods. Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) that comprise both large multitopic transmembrane domains (TMDs) and extramembranous domains (EMDs) are differentially affected by detergent interactions with both domains. In fact, in some cases, destabilization of the EMD by detergent may dominate overall IMP stability. This chapter will (1) provide a perspective on the advantages of DSC for membrane protein characterization and stability measurements, including numerous examples spanning decades of research; (2) introduce models for the interaction and destabilization of IMPs by detergents; (3) discuss two case studies from the authors' lab; and (4) offer practical advice for performing DSC in the presence of detergents. PMID:26794360

  9. Sanitizer solutions containing detergents for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sanitizer solutions for i...

  10. Detergent Isolation Stabilizes and Activates the Shigella Type III Secretion System Translocator Protein IpaC.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Abram R; Duarte, Shari M; Kumar, Prashant; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-07-01

    Shigella rely on a type III secretion system as the primary virulence factor for invasion and colonization of human hosts. Although there are an estimated 90 million Shigella infections, annually responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide, challenges isolating and stabilizing many type III secretion system proteins have prevented a full understanding of the Shigella invasion mechanism and additionally slowed progress toward a much needed Shigella vaccine. Here, we show that the non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent N, N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) and non-ionic detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene efficiently isolated the hydrophobic Shigella translocator protein IpaC from the co-purified IpaC/IpgC chaperone-bound complex. Both detergents resulted in monomeric IpaC that exhibits strong membrane binding and lysis characteristics while the chaperone-bound complex does not, suggesting that the stabilizing detergents provide a means of following IpaC "activation" in vitro. Additionally, biophysical characterization found that LDAO provides significant thermal and temporal stability to IpaC, protecting it for several days at room temperature and brief exposure to temperatures reaching 90°C. In summary, this work identified and characterized conditions that provide stable, membrane active IpaC, providing insight into key interactions with membranes and laying a strong foundation for future vaccine formulation studies taking advantage of the native immunogenicity of IpaC and the stability provided by LDAO. PMID:27297397

  11. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  12. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: analytical variability and sample ranking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  13. EFFECTS OF LIQUID DETERGENT PLANT EFFLUENT ON THE ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on the treatment of wastewaters from a liquid detergent manufacturing plant by a rotating biological contactor and presents the findings of an analytical effort to determine the presence or absence of metals and organic compounds which were among those...

  14. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in question, showing that its measured viscosity, density, and basic nitrogen content, or any other... equals or exceeds the number of gallons (DA) derived from the following equation: Additional Detergent... exceeds the number of gallons (DA) derived from the following equation, which is a simplified version...

  15. A newly high alkaline lipase: an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function in extreme environments (pH, temperature...). Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results A newly soil-isolated Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW secretes an induced lipase in the culture medium. The effects of temperature, pH and various components in a detergent on the activity and stability of Staphylococcus sp. lipase (SL1) were studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 12.0. The relative activity at pH 13.0 was about 60% of that obtained at pH 12.0. It exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. This novel lipase, showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and relative stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the crude enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial solid and liquid detergents. Conclusions These properties added to the high activity in high alkaline pH make this novel lipase an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations. PMID:22123072

  16. High-Melting Lipid Mixtures and the Origin of Detergent-Resistant Membranes Studied with Temperature-Solubilization Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Sot, Jesús; Manni, Marco M.; Viguera, Ana R.; Castañeda, Verónica; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Gil, David; Valle, Mikel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of resistance to detergent solubilization in certain membranes, or membrane components, is not clearly understood. We have studied the solubilization by Triton X-100 of binary mixtures composed of egg sphingomyelin (SM) and either ceramide, diacylglycerol, or cholesterol. Solubilization has been assayed in the 4–50°C range, and the results are summarized in a novel, to our knowledge, form of plots, that we have called temperature-solubilization diagrams. Despite using a large detergent excess (lipid/detergent 1:20 mol ratio) and extended solubilization times (24–48 h) certain mixtures were not amenable to Triton X-100 solubilization at one or more temperatures. DSC of all the lipid mixtures, and of all the lipid + detergent mixtures revealed that detergent resistance was associated with the presence of gel domains at the assay temperature. Once the system melted down, solubilization could occur. In general adding high-melting lipids limited the solubilization, whereas the addition of low-melting lipids promoted it. Lipidomic analysis of Madin-Darby canine kidney cell membranes and of the corresponding detergent-resistant fraction indicated a large enrichment of the nonsolubilized components in saturated diacylglycerol and ceramide. SM-cholesterol mixtures were special in that detergent solubilization was accompanied, for certain temperatures and compositions, by an independent phenomenon of reassembly of the partially solubilized lipid bilayers. The temperature at which lysis and reassembly prevailed was ∼25°C, thus for some SM-cholesterol mixtures solubilization occurred both above and below 25°C, but not at that temperature. These observations can be at the origin of the detergent resistance effects observed with cell membranes, and they also mean that cholesterol-containing detergent-resistant membrane remnants cannot correspond to structures existing in the native membrane before detergent addition. PMID:25517149

  17. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigments in the flagellate Euglena gracilis - as sensitive endpoints for toxicity evaluation of liquid detergents.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-04-01

    The present study was designed to validate the applicability of photosynthetic performance using a PAM fluorometer and photosynthetic pigments in Euglena gracilis as endpoint parameters in toxicity assessment of liquid detergents using a dish washing liquid detergent during short- (0-72h) and long-term (7days) exposure. In short-term experiments, the detergent affected the photosynthetic efficiency with EC50 values (calculated for Fv/Fm) of 22.07%, 7.27%, 1.4% and 2.34%, after 0, 1, 24 and 72h, respectively. The relative electron transport rate (rETR) and quantum yield measured with increasing irradiances were also inhibited by the detergent. The most severe effect of the detergent on the light-harvesting pigments (μgmL(-1)) was observed after 72h where chlorophyll a and total carotenoids were decreased at concentrations above 0.1% and chlorophyll b was decreased at concentrations above 0.5%. In long-term experiments, the detergent reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of cultures giving an EC50 value of 0.867% for Fv/Fm. rETR and quantum yield with increasing irradiance were shown to be adversely affected at concentrations of 0.1% or above. A decrease in chlorophyll a and total carotenoids (μgmL(-1)) was observed at concentrations of 0.05% detergent or above. Chlorophyll b was shown to be comparatively less affected by detergent stress, and a significant decrease was observed at concentrations of 0.5% or above. However, there was no prominent decrease in per cell (Euglena) concentration of any pigment. It can be concluded that photosynthesis and light-harvesting pigments in E. gracilis were sensitive to detergent stress and can be used as sensitive parameters in toxicity assessment of detergents in aquatic environments. PMID:24658006

  18. [Determination of four fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Luo, Haiying; Wu, Yuluan; Chen, Yiguang; Luo, Donghui; Wu, Wenhai

    2013-02-01

    A new method was established to determine three stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWA351, FWA85, FWA28 and FWA71) in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD). The fluorescent whitening agents were extracted from laundry detergents with 2% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol, and purified by WAX SPE column, and analyzed by UPLC-DAD on a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP column (150 mm x 2.0 mm), employing acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The fluorescent whitening agents were qualitatively determined by retention time, and confirmed by the ultraviolet spectrum. The results indicated that the target analytes were in the range of 0.05-180 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0. 999 3, and the method limits of quantification (MLOQ) of target analytes were ranged from 1.5 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg (S/N = 10). The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the determination of FWAs in samples with spiked recoveries. The recoveries were in the range between 84.9% and 105%, and the precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) ranged from 3.2% to 6.1% (n = 6). Among the 15 samples analyzed, the rate of positive samples was 53.3%, over 1 000 mg/kg of FWA351 and FWA71 were detected. The method is simple, precise and has high recoveries for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergent samples. PMID:23697183

  19. An Unique On-line Method to Infer Black Carbonaceous contributions to Water-Insoluble Aerosol Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asa-Awuku, A. A.; Short, D.

    2013-12-01

    Particle number, size, and composition information is important for constraining aerosol effects on air quality, climate, and health. The composition of particles, especially from vehicular sources, may contain insoluble material that may modify particle nucleating properties. Changes in fuel properties are known to modify criteria pollutants and particulate matter mass, size, and number. In this work we summarize findings as they pertain to the water-soluble and insoluble composition of particles. In field measuremnts and controlled laboratory studies, a water-based condensation particle counter (CPC) and a butanol-based CPC measure particle number concentration. Both instruments were coupled with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and particle number and size data were recorded. Real time particle insoluble mass fractions are estimated with the SMPS data sets; theoretical soluble fractions are calculated from ideal hygroscopicty single parameter values. This is the first time that this experimental method has been employed and used to infer online insoluble fractions. The results show that near-roadway emissions contain water insoluble and black carbon components. We will discuss the contributions of the organic component to the water-insoluble nature. Time permitting, the emissions of different ethanol and butanol gasoline blends are also explored for light-duty vehicles on a light-duty dynaometer chassis. Laboratory results indicate that soluble vehicular components are strongly correlated with vehicle driving conditions.

  20. Size And Shape of Detergent Micelles Determined By Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, Jan; Columbus, Linda; Chu, Vincent B.; Lesley, Scott A.; Doniach, Sebastian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Pasteur Inst., Paris /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

    2009-04-29

    We present a systematic analysis of the aggregation number and shape of micelles formed by nine detergents commonly used in the study of membrane proteins. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are reported for glucosides with 8 and 9 alkyl carbons (OG/NG), maltosides and phosphocholines with 10 and 12 alkyl carbons (DM/DDM and FC-10/FC-12), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG), and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS). The SAXS intensities are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with a dense outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core. These models provide an intermediate resolution view of micelle size and shape. In addition, we show that Guinier analysis of the forward scattering intensity can be used to obtain an independent and model-free measurement of the micelle aggregation number and radius of gyration. This approach has the advantage of being easily generalizable to protein-detergent complexes, where simple geometric models are inapplicable. Furthermore, we have discovered that the position of the second maximum in the scattering intensity provides a direct measurement of the characteristic head group-head group spacing across the micelle core. Our results for the micellar aggregation numbers and dimensions agree favorably with literature values as far as they are available. We de novo determine the shape of FC-10, FC-12, DM, LPPG, and CHAPS micelles and the aggregation numbers of FC-10 and OG to be ca. 50 and 250, respectively. Combined, these data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle formation and serve as a starting point to correlate detergent properties with detergent-protein interactions.

  1. Detergents Destabilize the Cubic Phase of Monoolein: Implications for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Misquitta, Y.; Caffrey, M.

    2003-01-01

    The in meso method for membrane protein crystallization uses a lipidic cubic phase as the hosting medium. The cubic phase provides a lipid bilayer into which the protein presumably reconstitutes and from which protein crystals nucleate and grow. The solutions used to spontaneously form the protein-enriched cubic phase often contain significant amounts of detergents that were employed initially to purify and to solubilize the membrane protein. By virtue of their surface activity, detergents have the potential to impact on the phase properties of the in meso system and, by extension, the outcome of the crystallization process. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects that a popular series of nonionic detergents, the n-alkyl-β-d-glucopyranosides, have on the phase behavior of hydrated monoolein, the lipid upon which the in meso method is based. Phase identity and phase microstructure were characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction on samples prepared to mimic in meso crystallization conditions. Measurements were made in the 0–40°C range. Samples prepared in the cooling direction allow for the expression of metastability, a feature of liquid crystalline phases that might be exploited in low-temperature crystallization. The results show that the cubic phase is relatively insensitive to small amounts of alkyl glucosides. However, at higher levels the detergents trigger a transition to the lamellar phase in a temperature- and salt concentration-dependent manner. These effects have important implications for in meso crystallization. A diffraction-based method for assaying detergents is presented. PMID:14581209

  2. Thermostable, alkaline and detergent-tolerant lipase from a newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Moubayed, Nadine M S; Abid, Islam

    2015-04-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries, owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric, which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In this study, a novel thermo-alkaline lipase-producing strain identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from the soil samples of olive oil mill. Enhanced lipase production was observed at 55 degrees C, pH 11 and after 48 h of incubation. Among the substrates tested, xylose (a carbon source), peptone (a nitrogen source) and olive oil at a concentration of 1% were suitable substrates for enhancing lipase production. MgSO4 and Tween-80 were suitable substrates for maximizing lipase production. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a single CM-Sephadex column chromatography and revealed molecular mass of 67 kDa. The enzyme (BL1) was active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 11.0, exhibited maximal activity at 55 degreesC and retained more than 70% of its activity after incubation at 70 degrees C or pH 13 for 0.5 h or 24 h, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed both short and long-chain triacylglycerols at comparable rates. BL1 was studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. This novel lipase showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40 degrees C, and good stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial detergents, suggesting its potential as an additive in detergent formulations. PMID:26118130

  3. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type. PMID:21526451

  4. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  5. Hollow mesoporous silica as a high drug loading carrier for regulation insoluble drug release.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongjian; Zhao, Yating; Liu, Jia; Cui, Yu; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Siling

    2016-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a high drug loading hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMS) and apply for regulation insoluble drug release. HMS was synthesized using hard template phenolic resin nanoparticles with the aid of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which was simple and inexpensive. To compare the difference between normal mesoporous silica (NMS) and hollow mesoporous silica in drug loading efficiency, drug release behavior and solid state, NMS was also prepared by soft template method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis, FT-IR and zeta potential were employed to characterize the morphology structure and physicochemical property of these carriers. The insoluble drugs, carvedilol and fenofibrate(Car and Fen), were chosen as the model drug to be loaded into HMS and NMS. We also chose methylene blue (MB) as a basic dye to estimate the adsorption ability of these carriers from macroscopic and microscopic view, and the drug-loaded carriers were systematically studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. What' more, the in vivo process of HMS was also study by confocal microscopy and in vivo fluorescence imaging. In order to confirm the gastrointestinal safety of HMS, the pathological examination of stomach and intestine also be evaluated. HMS allowed a higher drug loading than NMS and exhibited a relative sustained release curve, while NMS was immediate-release. And the effect of preventing drugs crystallization was weaker than NMS. As for in vivo process, HMS was cleared relatively rapidly from the mouse gastrointestinal and barely uptake by intestinal epithelial cell in this study due to its large particle size. And the damage of HMS to gastrointestinal could be ignored. This study provided a simple method to obtain high drug loading and regulation insoluble drug release, expanded the application of inorganic carriers in drug delivery system

  6. Two new insoluble polymer composites for the treatment of LLW: 1. polypyrrole doped by UO22+ complexing polyanions 2. UO22+ complexing sol-gel based composites. Stability constants. Leaching tests, alpha and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, D.; Martinot, L.; Mignonsin, P.; Caprasse, F.; Jérôme, C.; Jérôme, R.

    2000-07-01

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated that polyanions like polyacrylamidoglycolic acid (PAAG) and polyacrylamidomethylpropanesulfonic acid (PAMPS) are capable to complex UO22+ ions. Unless they are crosslinked, these polyanions/UO22+ complexes are soluble when submitted to dynamic leaching tests in a Soxhlet extractor. Considering the feasibility of a new process for the storage or for the concentration of low level activity liquid wastes (LLW), we had to strongly enhance the insolubility of these complexes. We have developed two original insolubilization ways, as compared to the crosslinking of the polymer.

  7. Nucleation and growth of intragranular defect and insoluble atom clusters in nuclear oxide fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P.; Martin, G.; Sabathier, C.; Carlot, G.; Michel, A.; Martin, P.; Dorado, B.; Freyss, M.; Bertolus, M.; Skorek, R.; Noirot, J.; Noirot, L.; Kaitasov, O.; Maillard, S.

    2012-04-01

    Uranium and plutonium oxides are subjected to high levels of radiation damage due to the slowing of fission fragments. In addition the composition of the material evolves over time as a result of fission events. Rare gases which constitute an abundant class of fission products are particularly insoluble and therefore tend either to be released from the fuel or form small nanometre size clusters. Bubbles are liable to grow and become trapping sites for migrating defects or other insoluble atoms. Interactions between migrating atoms, defects and existing clusters will determine the rate and extent to which clusters grow. Because the transfer of gas from within the grain to the grain boundaries is thought of as being the rate limiting process for fission gas release, a review of phenomena occurring on the sub-grain scale is carried out. The microstructural modifications induced by neutron irradiations of UO2 fuels are discussed with an emphasis on their relation to fission gas release. Based mainly on TEM studies, the phenomena which are usually taken into account in fission gas behaviour models are looked at and the limitations of these models outlined. More recent experimental and modelling approaches involving ion-irradiation experiments and atomic scale modelling are presented. It is shown that combining these approaches may lead, despite the complexity inherent to the system, to a better understanding of basic radiation induced microstructural changes, clustering events, and rare gas behaviour.

  8. Differential retention of 212Pb ions and insoluble particles in nasal mucosa of the rat.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, J R; Birchall, A; James, A C; Smith, H; Hodgson, A

    1982-06-01

    The time course of retention of 212Pb ions in ciliated nasal epithelium and of tagged insoluble particles, which served both as a deposition vector and marker for mucus, was measured in 13 rats by counting the head externally at 2 min intervals up to 100 min after deposition. On average, 70-75% of insoluble particles introduced onto ciliated epithelium in 3 microliters of distilled water were cleared to the gut with a half-time of approximately 15 min (range 6-35 min). A smaller fraction of lead ions (averaging about 60%) introduced in the same water sample was cleared to the gut with a half-time in each rat similar to that of particle clearance. Rapid uptake of about 8% of deposited 212Pb into blood was also observed. A compartment model consistent with the observed nasal retention and appearance of 212Pb in blood showed that, on average, 8% of deposited lead ions were transferred to the blood with a half-time of 15 min. For about 35% of the deposited lead ions and 25% of the particles, no clearance was detected up to 60-100 min after deposition. It is probable that a fraction of the lead ions are retained by epithelial tissue. PMID:7111392

  9. A minichaperone-based fusion system for producing insoluble proteins in soluble stable forms.

    PubMed

    Sharapova, Olga A; Yurkova, Maria S; Fedorov, Alexey N

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a fusion system for reliable production of insoluble hydrophobic proteins in soluble stable forms. A carrier is thermophilic minichaperone, GroEL apical domain (GrAD), a 15 kDa monomer able to bind diverse protein substrates. The Met-less variant of GrAD has been made for further convenient use of Met-specific CNBr chemical cleavage, if desired. The Met-less GrAD retained stability and solubility of the original protein. Target polypeptides can be fused to either C-terminus or N-terminus of GrAD. The system has been tested with two unrelated insoluble proteins fused to the C-terminus of GrAD. One of the proteins was also fused to GrAD N-terminus. The fusions formed inclusion bodies at 25°C and above and were partly soluble only at lower expression temperatures. Most importantly, however, after denaturation in urea, all fusions without exception were completely renatured in soluble stable forms that safely survived freezing-thawing as well as lyophilization. All fusions for both tested target proteins retained solubility at high concentrations for days. Functional analysis revealed that a target protein may retain functionality in the fusion. Convenience features include potential thermostability of GrAD fusions, capacity for chemical and enzymatic cleavage of a target and His6 tag for purification. PMID:26612097

  10. An automatic collector to monitor insoluble atmospheric deposition: application for mineral dust deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, B.; Losno, R.; Chevaillier, S.; Vincent, J.; Roullet, P.; Bon Nguyen, E.; Ouboulmane, N.; Triquet, S.; Fornier, M.; Raimbault, P.; Bergametti, G.

    2015-07-01

    Deposition is one of the key terms of the mineral dust cycle. However, dust deposition remains poorly constrained in transport models simulating the atmospheric dust cycle. This is mainly due to the limited number of relevant deposition measurements. This paper aims to present an automatic collector (CARAGA), specially developed to sample the total (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition of insoluble dust in remote areas. The autonomy of the CARAGA can range from 25 days to almost 1 year depending on the programmed sampling frequency (from 1 day to 2 weeks respectively). This collector is used to sample atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust on the Frioul islands in the Gulf of Lions in the Western Mediterranean. To quantify the mineral dust mass in deposition samples, a weighing and ignition protocol is applied. Almost 2 years of continuous deposition measurements performed on a weekly sampling basis on Frioul Island are presented and discussed with air mass trajectories and satellite observations of dust. Insoluble mineral deposition measured on Frioul Island was 2.45 g m-2 for February to December 2011 and 3.16 g m-2 for January to October 2012. Nine major mineral deposition events, measured during periods with significant MODIS aerosol optical depths, were associated with air masses coming from the southern Mediterranean Basin and North Africa.

  11. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus. PMID:27138171

  12. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  13. Long-wave Marangoni convection in a heated liquid layer with insoluble surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Matvey; Oron, Alex; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Recently, long-wave Marangoni convection in a heated binary-liquid layer was considered by Podolny et al. (Phys. Fluids 18, 054104, 2006) revealing rich dynamics stemming from oscillatory instability. These results were obtained in the absence of surfactants. In the present work we investigate an opposite limit: a liquid layer with insoluble surfactant. We consider a liquid layer lying on a solid horizontal substrate with insoluble surfactant adsorbed at the deformable free surface. Convection is triggered by a given transverse temperature gradient. Long-wave linear stability analysis of the quiescent state of the layer reveals a competition between monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. We derive nonlinear evolution equations governing the large-scale dynamics of the layer. Linear stability analysis of these equations indicates their applicability only in the case of oscillatory instability. We then carry out weakly nonlinear analysis in the vicinity of the oscillatory-instability threshold for the case of a 2D layer, and study corresponding pattern selection. Finally, we compare the analytical results with the numerical solutions of our nonlinear evolution equations. This work is supported by the European Union via FP7 Marie Curie scheme Grant PITN-GA-2008-214919 (MULTIFLOW).

  14. Gastrointestinal effects associated with soluble and insoluble copper in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Araya, M; Gidi, V; Uauy, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether total copper or soluble copper concentration is associated with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Forty-five healthy adult women (18-55 years of age), living in Santiago, Chile, ingested tap water with 5 mg/L of copper containing different ratios of soluble copper (copper sulfate) and insoluble copper (copper oxide) over a 9-week period. Three randomized sequences of the different copper ratios (0:5, 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, and 5:0 mg/L) were followed. Subjects recorded their water consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms daily on a special form. Mean water consumption was similar among groups. Serum copper levels, ceruloplasmin, and activities of liver enzymes were within normal limits. No differences were detected between the means of biochemical parameters at the beginning and at the end of the study. Twenty subjects presented gastrointestinal disturbances at least once during the study, 9 suffered diarrhea (with or without abdominal pain and vomiting), and the other 11 subjects reported abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. No differences were found in incidence of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea regardless of the ratio of copper sulfate to copper oxide. In conclusion, both copper sulfate (a soluble compound) and copper oxide (an insoluble compound) have comparable effects on the induction of gastrointestinal manifestations, implying that similar levels of ionic copper were present in the stomach. PMID:11673125

  15. Neuromelanins of Human Brain Have Soluble and Insoluble Components with Dolichols Attached to the Melanic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Mireille; Vanna, Renzo; Bellei, Chiara; Zucca, Fabio A.; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Monzani, Enrico; Ito, Shosuke; Casella, Luigi; Zecca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Neuromelanins (NMs) are neuronal pigments of melanic-lipidic type which accumulate during aging. They are involved in protective and degenerative mechanisms depending on the cellular context, however their structures are still poorly understood. NMs from nine human brain areas were analyzed in detail. Elemental analysis led to identification of three types of NM, while infrared spectroscopy showed that NMs from neurons of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which selectively degenerate in Parkinson’s disease, have similar structure but different from NMs from brain regions not targeted by the disease. Synthetic melanins containing Fe and bovine serum albumin were prepared to model the natural product and help clarifying the structure of NMs. Extensive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies showed the presence of dolichols both in the soluble and insoluble parts of NM. Diffusion measurements demonstrated that the dimethyl sulfoxide soluble components consist of oligomeric precursors with MWs in the range 1.4–52 kDa, while the insoluble part contains polymers of larger size but with a similar composition. These data suggest that the selective vulnerability of neurons of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus in Parkinson’s disease might depend on the structure of the pigment. Moreover, they allow to propose a pathway for NM biosynthesis in human brain. PMID:23139786

  16. Catalytic Efficiency of Chitinase-D on Insoluble Chitinous Substrates Was Improved by Fusing Auxiliary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Madhuprakash, Jogi; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Podile, Appa Rao

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is an abundant renewable polysaccharide, next only to cellulose. Chitinases are important for effective utilization of this biopolymer. Chitinase D from Serratia proteamaculans (SpChiD) is a single domain chitinase with both hydrolytic and transglycosylation (TG) activities. SpChiD had less of hydrolytic activity on insoluble polymeric chitin substrates due to the absence of auxiliary binding domains. We improved catalytic efficiency of SpChiD in degradation of insoluble chitin substrates by fusing with auxiliary domains like polycystic kidney disease (PKD) domain and chitin binding protein 21 (CBP21). Of the six different SpChiD fusion chimeras, two C-terminal fusions viz. ChiD+PKD and ChiD+CBP resulted in improved hydrolytic activity on α- and β-chitin, respectively. Time-course degradation of colloidal chitin also confirmed that these two C-terminal SpChiD fusion chimeras were more active than other chimeras. More TG products were produced for a longer duration by the fusion chimeras ChiD+PKD and PKD+ChiD+CBP. PMID:25615694

  17. Sulfated modification, characterization and property of a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Yuan-Xing; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Sulfated modification was carried out to modify a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum (AGAP). The effects of sulfation on structure, physicochemical and functional properties of AGAP were investigated. Three sulfated derivatives were prepared, designated as S-1, S-2 and S-3 with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.35, 0.74 and 1.14, respectively. AGAP was elucidated as an α-(1→3)-glucan with few branches terminated by single mannose or xylose residues. The molecular weight (Mw) and radius of gyration (Rg) were estimated to be 1665 kDa and 65.49 nm, respectively. After sulfated modification, non-selective sulfation occurred preferably at O-6, partially at O-2 and O-4 positions of the glucosyl residues. The water-solubility of the derivatives was significantly improved in a DS-dependent manner. Mw of the derivatives showed a sharp decrease, and the chain conformation was estimated to be expanded stiff in phosphate buffer. In vitro tests showed that sulfated modification improved its antioxidant activities and anti-proliferative ability against S-180 tumor cells. This study suggested that sulfated modification was an effective approach to improve the water-solubility and functional properties of insoluble polysaccharides. PMID:25957721

  18. Rescue from tau-induced neuronal dysfunction produces insoluble tau oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Quraishe, Shmma; Hands, Sarah; Sealey, Megan; Mahajan, Sumeet; Allan, Douglas W.; Mudher, Amritpal

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of highly phosphorylated tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. Nevertheless, animal models demonstrate that tau-mediated dysfunction/toxicity may not require large tau aggregates but instead may be caused by soluble hyper-phosphorylated tau or by small tau oligomers. Challenging this widely held view, we use multiple techniques to show that insoluble tau oligomers form in conditions where tau-mediated dysfunction is rescued in vivo. This shows that tau oligomers are not necessarily always toxic. Furthermore, their formation correlates with increased tau levels, caused intriguingly, by either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of tau kinase glycogen-synthase-kinase-3beta (GSK-3β). Moreover, contrary to common belief, these tau oligomers were neither highly phosphorylated, and nor did they contain beta-pleated sheet structure. This may explain their lack of toxicity. Our study makes the novel observation that tau also forms non-toxic insoluble oligomers in vivo in addition to toxic oligomers, which have been reported by others. Whether these are inert or actively protective remains to be established. Nevertheless, this has wide implications for emerging therapeutic strategies such as those that target dissolution of tau oligomers as they may be ineffective or even counterproductive unless they act on the relevant toxic oligomeric tau species. PMID:26608845

  19. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus. PMID:27138171

  20. Catalysis at the toulene/water interface: Octadecyl immobilized H-ZSM-5 catalyst promoted hydrolysis of water-insoluble esters

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Haruo; Koh, Tensai ); Taya, Kazuo ); Chihara, Teiji , Wako )

    1994-08-01

    Octadecyltrichorosilane-treated H-ZSM-5, abbreviated as H-ZSM-5-C[sub 18] resulted in an effective catalyst for the hydrolysis of water-insoluble esters in toluene-water solvent system. These floated at the interface of the two liquids. The H-ZSM-5-C[sub 18] catalyst showed ca. 60 times the activity of H-ZSM-5 for the hydrolysis of dodecyl acetate. Acid strength of H-ZSM-5 in water (-5.6 < Ho [<=] -3.0) was maintained even after the treatment with octadecyltrichlorosilane. The treatment renders H-ZSM-5 lipophylicity and provides a quasi-lipid phase on the surface. The shape-selective properties of H-ZSM-5-C[sub 18] catalyst were observed for the hydrolysis of aliphatic esters with straight chains. 17 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Lessons from an α-Helical Membrane Enzyme: Expression, Purification, and Detergent Optimization for Biophysical and Structural Characterization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Kalyoncu, Sibel; Lieberman, Raquel L

    2016-01-01

    This chapter outlines the protocol developed in our lab to produce a multipass α-helical membrane protein. We present our work flow, from ortholog selection to protein purification, including molecular biology for plasmid construction, protein expression in E. coli, membrane isolation and detergent solubilization, protein purification and tag removal, biophysical assessment of protein stability in different detergents, and detergent concentration determination using thin-layer chromatography. We focus on results from our ongoing work with intramembrane aspartyl proteases from archaeal organisms. PMID:27485343

  2. Detergent-induced changes in the protein constituents of various cell types of opercular epidermis of Rita rita.

    PubMed

    Roy, D

    1990-09-01

    Fish (Rita rita) were exposed to an anionic detergent, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, at a concentration of 6.9 mg/liter (96-hr LC50 of the detergent). A series of histochemical techniques, used in this study for the demonstration of various protein constituents, indicated a gradual decrease in the intensity of staining reactions of the cytoplasmic material, suggesting a loss of protein moieties from the club cells and the epithelial cells of the opercular epidermis as a result of detergent exposure. PMID:2252548

  3. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  4. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism. PMID:24660269

  5. Detergent-dependent separation of postsynaptic density, membrane rafts and other subsynaptic structures from the synaptic plasma membrane of rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, LiYing; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2014-10-01

    We systematically investigated the purification process of post-synaptic density (PSD) and post-synaptic membrane rafts (PSRs) from the rat forebrain synaptic plasma membranes by examining the components and the structures of the materials obtained after the treatment of synaptic plasma membranes with TX-100, n-octyl β-d-glucoside (OG) or 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO). These three detergents exhibited distinct separation profiles for the synaptic subdomains. Type I and type II PSD proteins displayed mutually exclusive distribution. After TX-100 treatment, type I PSD was recovered in two fractions: a pellet and an insoluble fraction 8, which contained partially broken PSD-PSR complexes. Conventional PSD was suggested to be a mixture of these two PSD pools and did not contain type II PSD. An association of type I PSD with PSRs was identified in the TX-100 treatment, and those with type II PSD in the OG and CHAPSO treatments. An association of GABA receptors with gephyrin was easily dissociated. OG at a high concentration solubilized the type I PSD proteins. CHAPSO treatment resulted in a variety of distinct fractions, which contained certain novel structures. Two different pools of GluA, either PSD or possibly raft-associated, were identified in the OG and CHAPSO treatments. These results are useful in advancing our understanding of the structural organization of synapses at the molecular level. We systematically investigated the purification process of post-synaptic density (PSD) and synaptic membrane rafts by examining the structures obtained after treatment of the SPMs with TX-100, n-octyl β-d-glucoside or CHAPSO. Differential distribution of type I and type II PSD, synaptic membrane rafts, and other novel subdomains in the SPM give clues to understand the structural organization of synapses at the molecular level. PMID:24985044

  6. Aspen SP1, an exceptional thermal, protease and detergent-resistant self-assembled nano-particle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Dgany, Or; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Levy, Ilan; Algom, Rachel; Pouny, Yehonathan; Wolf, Amnon; Marton, Ira; Altman, Arie; Shoseyov, Oded

    2006-09-01

    Stable protein 1 (SP1) is a homo-oligomeric protein isolated from aspen (Populus tremula aspen) plants which forms a ring-shape dodecameric particle with a central cavity. The oligomeric form of SP1 is an exceptionally stable structure that is resistant to proteases (e.g., trypsin, V8, and proteinase K), high temperatures, organic solvents, and high levels of ionic detergent. Analytical ultra-centrifugation, chemical cross-linking, matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and transmission electron microscopy were used to further characterize the SP1 dodecamer. Introduction of a single cysteine at the N-terminus of SP1 enabled the formation of disulfide bridges within the SP1 dodecamer, concurrent with increased melting point. A six-histidine tag was introduced at the N-terminus of SP1 to generate 6HSP1, and the DeltaNSP1 mutant was generated by a deletion of amino acids 2-6 at the N-terminus. Both 6HSP1 and DeltaNSP1 maintained their ability to assemble a stable dodecamer. Remarkably, these SP1 homo-dodecamers were able to re-assemble into stable hetero-dodecamers following co-electro-elution from SDS-PAGE. The exceptional stability of the SP1-nano ring and its ability to self-assemble hetero-complexes paves the way to further research in utilizing this unique protein in nano-biotechnology. PMID:16732592

  7. Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, T; Sugita, O; Naminohira, S; Kitagawa, H

    1978-12-01

    A reconstituted lipid peroxidation system containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase isolated from detergent-solubilized rat liver microsomes was used to determine the effects of several compounds, including drugs, on the lipid peroxidation activity. EDTA and ferrous ion were essential requirements for reconstitution of the activity. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to the system containing both EDTA and ferrous ion further enhanced the activity. Pyrocatecol, thymol, p-aminophenol, imipramine, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited strong inhibition, aniline, N-monomethylaniline, aminopyrine, benzphetamine, SKF 525-A and NADP exhibited moderate inhibition, and phenol, benzoic acid, acetanilide and nicotinamide exhibited less or no inhibition at the concentrations lower than 1000 micron M. Metal ions such as Hg+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and U6+ inhibited lipid peroxidation strongly. In addition, Cd2+, St2+ and Ca2+ exhibited less potent to moderate inhibition, and Ba2+ and Mg2+ were without effects on the activity. Among sulfhydryl compounds tested, dithiothreitol inhibited lipid peroxidation to a greater extent than did the other three compounds, glutathione, cysteine and mercaptoethanol. PMID:106178

  8. DOPC-Detergent Conjugates: Fusogenic Carriers for Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Casset, Anne; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Pons, Françoise; Lebeau, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Phospholipid-detergent conjugates are proposed as fusogenic carriers for gene delivery. Eleven compounds are prepared and their properties are investigated. The ability of the conjugates to promote fusion with a negatively charged model membrane is determined. Their DNA delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity are assessed in vitro. Lipoplexes are administered in the mouse lung, and transgene expression Indeterminate inflammatory activity are measured. The results show that conjugation of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) with C12 E4 produces a carrier that can efficiently deliver DNA to cells, with negligible -associated toxicity. Fusogenicity of the conjugates shows good correlation with in vitro transfection efficiency and crucially depends on the length of the polyether moiety of the detergent. Finally, DOPC-C12 E4 reveals highly potent for in vivo DNA delivery and favorably compares to GL67A, the current golden standard for gene delivery to the airway, opening the way for further promising developments. PMID:26990218

  9. Isolation of nano-meso scale detergent resistant membrane that has properties expected of lipid 'rafts'.

    PubMed

    Morris, Roger J; Jen, Angela; Warley, Alice

    2011-03-01

    This review assesses problems that confound attempts to isolate 'raft' domains from cell membranes, focusing in particular upon the isolation of detergent resistant membrane (DRM). Despite its widespread use, this technique is rightly viewed with skepticism by many membrane biochemists and biophysics for reasons that include the inability to isolate DRMs at 37°C, the temperature at which their lipids are supposed to be ordered and so exclude detergents. If solubilization is done in an ionic buffer that preserves the lamellar phase of the metastable inner leaflet lipids, DRMs can readily be isolated at 37°C, and these have many properties expected of lipid rafts. However, to date these DRMs have remained somewhat larger than current concepts of rafts. We describe an adaptation of this method that purifies nano-meso scale DRMs, and could be a significant step towards purifying the membrane of individual 'rafts'. PMID:21214574

  10. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using detergent-soluble Plasmodium vivax antigen for seroepidemiological surveys.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to Plasmodium vivax parasites in human sera was developed using P. vivax-infected erythrocytes from local malarious patients in southern Mexico. Infected cells were concentrated using a discontinuous Percoll gradient and detergent-soluble antigens obtained using Triton X100. The use of detergent and the addition of protease inhibitors to the antigen preparation ensured high sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay. No cross reactions were observed in sera immune to other protozoan, helmintic and bacterial infections, although some cross reactivity was seen in P. falciparum immune sera. A strong correlation between antibody titre values obtained by the ELISA and those obtained using an IFAT was observed. In a small field trial, carried out in a village where malaria transmission occurs, both ELISA and IFAT produced similar seroepidemiological profiles with regard to frequency of positive antibody titres and their distribution among the different age groups of the population. PMID:1949138

  11. Characterization of the detergent solubilized receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, D.; Naldini, L.; Moody, T.W.; Comoglio, P.; Schlessinger, J.; Kris, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Properties of detergent solubilized gastrin-releasing peptide receptor were investigated. Swiss 3T3 membranes were covalently labeled with ({sup 125}I)GRP and homobifunctional cross-linkers. A major labeled protein of 75 kDa was resolved using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the same preparation was solubilized with zwitterionic detergent and analyzed under nondenaturing conditions the protein bound radioactivity was resolved in two different peaks, a major one of apparent molecular weight 220,000 (peak 1) and a minor one of 80,000 (peak 2) both containing the 75 kDa protein. Specific ligand binding activity also eluted with peak 1. These results indicate that the active form of bombesin/GRP receptor is a large complex containing the 75 kDa ligand binding domain.

  12. Shape-tailoring of goldnanostructures: can a detergent act as the reducing or protecting agent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, Thathan; Kyungjae Lee, Affa; Geckeler, Kurt E.

    2011-04-01

    A commercially available detergent was found to be an effective reducing as well as stabilizing agent for the synthesis of differently shaped gold nanoparticles in an aqueous solution at an ambient condition and the as-prepared gold nanoparticles behave as an efficient catalyst for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature.A commercially available detergent was found to be an effective reducing as well as stabilizing agent for the synthesis of differently shaped gold nanoparticles in an aqueous solution at an ambient condition and the as-prepared gold nanoparticles behave as an efficient catalyst for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and TEM images of PdNPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00853b

  13. Anomalous Interaction of the Acetylcholine Receptor Protein with the Nonionic Detergent Triton X-114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Pamela A.; Singer, S. J.

    1985-02-01

    Integral membrane proteins that form water-filled channels through membranes often exist as aggregates of similar or identical subunits spanning the membrane. It has been suggested that the insertion into the membrane of the channel-forming domains of the subunits may impart unusual structural features to the membrane-intercalated portions of the protein. To test this proposal, we have investigated the interaction of a multisubunit channel-forming integral membrane protein, the acetylcholine receptor protein, with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. Whereas non-channel-forming integral membrane proteins that have heretofore been studied from mixed micelles with the detergent, the acetylcholine receptor was excluded from the Triton X-114 micelles. The structural implications of this result are discussed.

  14. Crystallization of the oxygen-evolving reaction centre of photosystem II in nine different detergent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Adir, N

    1999-04-01

    Oxygen-evolving photosystem II reaction centres (RCII) isolated from both spinach and pea have been crystallized. A single crystal form grew from RCII monomers in the presence of nine different three-component mixtures of non-ionic detergents and heptane-1,2, 3-triol. The crystals grew as hexagonal rods with dimensions of up to 1 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm. The crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 6.5 A and belong to a hexagonal space group with unit-cell parameters a = 495, b = 495, c = 115 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees. The growth of a single crystal form in the presence of such a large variety of detergents suggests a very limited range of crystal lattice formation sites in the RCII complex. PMID:10089326

  15. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  16. Improving thermal and detergent stability of Bacillus stearothermophilus neopullulanase by rational enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Ece, Selin; Evran, Serap; Janda, Jan-Oliver; Merkl, Rainer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Neopullulanase, a glycosyl hydrolase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (bsNpl), is a potentially valuable enzyme for starch and detergent industries. However, as the protein is not active at elevated temperatures and high surfactant concentrations, we aimed to increase its stability by rational enzyme design. Nine potentially destabilizing cavities were identified in the crystal structure of the enzyme. Based on computational predictions, these cavities were filled by residues with bulkier side chains. The five Asp46Glu, Val239Leu, Val404Leu, Ser407Thr and Ala566Leu exchanges resulted in a drastic stabilization of bsNpl against inactivation by heat and detergents. The catalytic activity of the variants was identical to the wild-type enzyme. PMID:25680359

  17. Fast and accurate determination of the detergent efficiency by optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsa, Maria; Pfeiffer, Helge; Wevers, Martine

    2011-06-01

    An optical fiber sensor was developed to control the cleaning efficiency of surfactants. Prior to the measurements, the sensing part of the probe is covered with a uniform standardized soil layer (lipid multilayer), and a gold mirror is deposited at the end of the optical fiber. For the lipid multilayer deposition on the fiber, Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used and the progress of deposition was followed online by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The invention provides a miniaturized Surface Plasmon Resonance dip-sensor for automated on-line testing that can replace the cost and time consuming existing methods and develop a breakthrough in detergent testing in combining optical sensing, surface chemistry and automated data acquisition. The sensor is to be used to evaluate detergency of different cleaning products and also indicate how formulation, concentration, lipid nature and temperature affect the cleaning behavior of a surfactant.

  18. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Kundari, Noor Anis Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  19. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  20. Detergent Optimized Membrane Protein Reconstitution in Liposomes for Solid State NMR

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For small helical membrane proteins, their structures are highly sensitive to their environment, and solid state NMR is a structural technique that can characterize these membrane proteins in native-like lipid bilayers and proteoliposomes. To date, a systematic method by which to evaluate the effect of the solubilizing detergent on proteoliposome preparations for solid state NMR of membrane proteins has not been presented in the literature. A set of experiments are presented aimed at determining the conditions most amenable to dialysis mediated reconstitution sample preparation. A membrane protein from M. tuberculosis is used to illustrate the method. The results show that a detergent that stabilizes the most protein is not always ideal and sometimes cannot be removed by dialysis. By focusing on the lipid and protein binding properties of the detergent, proteoliposome preparations can be readily produced, which provide double the signal-to-noise ratios for both the oriented sample and magic angle spinning solid state NMR. The method will allow more membrane protein drug targets to be structurally characterized in lipid bilayer environments. PMID:24665863